The University of Vermont Board of Trustees has full legal responsibility and authority for the University of Vermont, including the management and control of property and affairs; the setting and approval of policies, budgets and strategic planning; and the appointment of the President.

The Board consist of 25 members. Nine members are elected by the Vermont General Assembly and constitute the Vermont Agricultural College Board established in 1865. Nine self-perpetuating members constitute the University of Vermont Board founded in 1791. Three members are appointed by the Governor of Vermont and two students are elected by the Associated Directors for the Appointment of the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College Student Trustees, Incorporated. The Governor and the President serve as ex-officio members during their terms of office. Each member serves a six-year term, with the exception of the student members who serve two-year terms. All terms begin on March 1.

In odd-numbered years, three members are elected by the Vermont General Assembly. In even-numbered years, three members are elected by a self-perpetuating board. Three trustees are appointed by the Governor of Vermont, one during each odd-numbered year. Each year, one student is appointed.