STRUCTURE

an average of 8 indicator datasets

Latest weighted average score:

3.5/5

Score is trending flat over time
Weighted average score of Structure Indicators

Forest structure is the horizontal and vertical arrangement of trees in a forest, as well as the pattern of forest cover on the landscape. Healthy forests have a diversity of species and sizes at all different stages of growth.

Forest structure can be simple, complex, or somewhere in between. A forest with a simple structure will appear park-like. Trees may be evenly spaced apart and of a similar size and species. Conversely, a forest with a more complex structure will have trees of various sizes and species and unevenly spaced. On a landscape scale, a more desirable structure of forests could span a range of types and successional stages.

-- Expert interpretation for Structure is not avaialable --

Forest structure can provide diversity in many different aspects of the forest and builds resilience to disturbance, whether by pests, extreme weather events, fires, or harvesting. In extreme cases, if one species disappears, another is available to take its place. A forest with greater structural and species diversity can supply more ecosystem services, like providing varied habitat and food to a range of wildlife, and supplying a more robust timber resource as markets change over time.

The Forest Indicators Dashboard includes data from various sources to evaluate structure, including data on tree regeneration, species and size diversity, as well as landscape-level measures, like forest patch size and forest cover.

Indicator Weight
Forest Cover 20%
Hardwood Regeneration 13%
Softwood Regeneration 13%
Stand Complexity 10%
Mean Forest Patch Size 12%
Forest Connectivity 12%
Tree Species Diversity 10%
Stand Age Diversity 10%

Forest Cover

Forest cover is a measure of how much total forest exists in Vermont. A high score means that the amount of total forest cover is remaining stable over time.

Forest Cover contributes to 20% of the overall Structure category score.

Hardwood Regeneration

Hardwood regeneration tells us the future composition of the forests dominated by species such as maple and oak. A high score means that there is a high density of seedlings, measured as the count of seedlings per acre, each year.

Hardwood Regeneration contributes to 13% of the overall Structure category score.

Softwood Regeneration

Softwood regeneration tells us the future composition of the forests dominated by species such as spruce and fir. A high score means that there is a high density of seedlings, measured as the count of seedlings per acre, each year.

Softwood Regeneration contributes to 13% of the overall Structure category score.

Stand Complexity

Stand complexity is the proportion of trees in diameter classes. Forests with greater stand complexity are often more productive and resilient to stress. For a high score, the forest would have to have an equal number of trees in each size class represented.

Stand Complexity contributes to 10% of the overall Structure category score.

Mean Forest Patch Size

Mean forest patch size is a measure of the average size of forest blocks throughout Vermont. As we fragment or divide large areas of forest, we reduce the ecological value they provide. Smaller forest patches limit the flow of seeds, animals, and nutrients and can make forests more vulnerable to damage or infestation by non-native pests or plants. A high score means that mean forest patch size is not changing from year to year.

Mean Forest Patch Size contributes to 12% of the overall Structure category score.

Forest Connectivity

Forest connectivity is an assessment of how connected large areas of forests are on the landscape. Forest blocks that are separated make it harder for animals and plants to move between patches. A high score means that forest connectivity is not changing from year to year.

Forest Connectivity contributes to 12% of the overall Structure category score.

Tree Species Diversity

Tree species diversity represents both the number of different tree species and the relative abundance of each species in the forest. As tree species diversity increases so does the forest’s capacity to support other biodiversity in the form of birds, animals, insects, and fungi. Diverse forests are more resilient to stress, recover more quickly following damage, and can be more productive. A higher score means the forest has a high number of species with a fairly equal abundance of each of those species.

Tree Species Diversity contributes to 10% of the overall Structure category score.

Stand Age Diversity

Stand age diversity represents the presence of a large range of age classes in the forest. Across our forests, we want a diversity of forest stand ages, with some forest stands being young and new, and others being old and in place for a long time. This provides us with a diversity of habitat for a range of wildlife, and resilience to change. A higher score means that the relative amount of forest by age class is remaining stable over time.

Stand Age Diversity contributes to 10% of the overall Structure category score.

STRUCTURE INDICATORS