Listed below are publications by Joseph Schall and his students and colleagues who work in the laboratory. Most are on the malaria parasites of lizards, birds, and one on deer, with a few on other Apicomplexans and tapeworms. Recent studies on a gregarine of earthworms required an understanding of the invasive earthworm hosts, so included are publications on the genetic diversity, identification, and distribution of the worms. For most publications, pdfs are available (clicking the link), and more are added as they become available.

For a list of Schall's publications dealing with other subjects (bird nesting, lizard diets, etc.) click here: Other Publications

Nouri-Aiin, M., S. Connolly, C. Keough, A. J. Smigelsky, Y. Yen, J. Howland, J. J. Schall, and J H. Gorres. 2022. Genetic population structure and reproductive system of two invasive Asian earthworms, Amynthas tokioensis and Amynthas agrestis. PeerJ 10e13622 [PDF]

Schall, J. J. 2021. Stomatocystis goerresti, a new species of gregarine parasite (Apicomplexa, Monocystidae) from the invasive Japanese earthworm Amynthas tokioensis, (Megascolecidae), with a description of the parasite's life cycle. Folia Parasitologia 68:022. [PDF]

Keller, E. L. and J. J. Schall. 2020. A new Monocystis (Apicomplexa, Gregarina: Monocystidae) from the Asian invasive earthworm Amynthas agrestis (Megascolecidae), with an improved standard for Monocystis species descriptions. Journal of Parasitology 106:734-741. [PDF]

Nouri-Aiin, M., J. J. Schall, C. A. Keough, Y. Wen, and J. H. Gorres. 2020. Identifying the unidentifiable: A PCR multiplex protocol for the diagnosis of invasive pheretimoid earthworm species, verified by morphological and barcode identification. Applied Soil Ecology 161: 103822.

Keller, E.L., S. T. Connolly, J. H. Gorres, and J. J. Schall. 2020. Genetic diversity of an invasive earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, at a long-term trading crossroads, the Champlain Valley of Vermont, USA. Biological Invasions 22:1723-1735. [PDF]

Otero, L., J. J. Schall, V. Cruz, K. Aaltonen, and M A. Acevedo. 2018. The drivers and consequences of unstable Plasmodium dynamics: a long-term study of three malaria parasite species infecting a tropical lizard. Parasitology 1-9 [PDF]

Gorres, J. H., S. T. Connolly, C-H Chang, N. R. Carpenter, E.L. Keller, M Nouri-Aiin, and J. J. Schall. 2018. Winter hatching in New England populations of invasive pheretimoid earthworms Amynthas agrestis and Amynthas tokioensis: a limit on population growth, or aid in peripheral expansion? Biological Invasions 20:1651-1655. [PDF]

Keller, E. L., J. H. Gorres, and J. J. Schall 2017. Genetic structure of two invasive earthworms, Amynthas agrestis and Amynthas tokioensis (Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae), and a molecular method for species identification. Megadrilogica 22: 143-148. [PDF]

Neal, A. T., M S. Ross, J. J. Schall, and A. M. Vardo-Zalik. 2016. Genetic differentiation over a small spatial scale of the sand fly Lutzomyia vexator (Diptera: Psychodidae). Parasites and Vectors 9:550, 1-9. [PDF]

Martinsen, E. E., N. McInerney, H. Brightman, K. Ferebee, T. Walsh, W. J. McShea, T. D. Forrester, L. Ware, P. H. Joyner, S. L. Perkins, E. K. Latch, M. J. Yabsley, J. J. Schall, and R. C. Fleischer. 2016. Hidden in plain sight: Cryptic and endemic malaria parasites in North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Science Advances 2: e1501486: 1-7. [PDF]

Neal, A. T. and J. J. Schall. 2014. Testing sex ratio theory with the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum in natural and experimental infections. Evolution 68:1071-1081. [PDF]

Neal, A. T. and P. D. Taylor. 2014. Local mate competition and transmission bottlenecks: A new model for understanding malaria parasite and other sex ratios. Journal of Theoretical Biology 363:381-389. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. 2014. Malaria Parasites. Comparative Genomics, Evolution, and Molecular Biology. M. Carlton, S. L. Perkins, and K. W. Deitsch (eds.) 2014. (Book Review) Journal of Wildlife Diseases 50:423-425. [PDF]

Hicks, N. D. and J. J. Schall. 2013. Establishment efficiency among clones of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, for mixed-clone infections in its natural lizard host. Journal of Parasitology 99:1050-1055. [PDF]

Hicks, N. D. and J. J. Schall. 2013. Dynamics of clonal diversity in natural infections of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum in its free-ranging lizard host. Parasitology Research 113:2059-2067. [PDF]

Neal, A. T. and J. J. Schall. 2013. Life history focus on a malaria parasite: linked traits and variation among genetic clones. Evolutionary Ecology 28:89-102. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. and K. M. St. Denis. 2013. Microsatellite loci over a thirty-three year period for a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum): Bottlenecks in effective population size and effect on allele frequencies. Parasitology 140:21-28. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. 2012. Hemoparasites of the Reptilia: Color Atlas and Text. S. R. Telford, Jr. 2009. CRC Press (Book Review). Copeia 2012:761-769. [PDF]

Neal, A. T. and R. Poulin. 2012. Substratum preference of Philophthalmus sp. cercariae for cyst formation under natural and experimental conditions. Journal of Parasitology 98:293-298. [PDF]

Neal, A. T. 2011. Male gametocyte fecundity and sex ratio of a malaria parasite P. mexicanum. Parasitology 138:1203-1210. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. 2011. Virulence of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, for its sand fly vectors, Lutzomyia vexator and L. stewarti (Diptera: Psychodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 48:1183-1188. [PDF]

Ford, A. F. and J. J. Schall. 2011. Relative clonal proportions over time in mixed-genotype infections of the lizard malaria parasite P. mexicanum. International Journal for Parasitology 41:731-738. [PDF]

Ford, A. F., A. M. Vardo-Zalik, and J. J. Schall. 2010. Relative clonal density of malaria parasites in mixed-genotype infections: validation of a technique using microsatellite markers for Plasmodium falciparum and P. mexicanum. Journal of Parasitology 96:908-913. [PDF]

Neal, A. T. and J. J. Schall. 2010. Gametocyte sex ratio in single-clone infections of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum. Parasitology 137:1851-1859. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. and K. M. St. Denis. 2010. Lack of sequence variation of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum. Journal of Parasitology 94:827-829. [PDF]

Fricke, J. M., A. M. Vardo-Zalik, and J. J. Schall. 2010. Geographic genetic differentiation of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and it lizard host, Sceloporus occidentalis. Journal of Parasitology 96:308-313. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. 2009. Do malaria parasites follow the algebra of sex ratio theory? Trends in Parasitology 25:120-123.[PDF]

Vardo-Zalik, A. M. 2009. Clonal diversity of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and its transmission success from its vertebrate-to-insect host. International Journal for Parasitology 39:1573-1579. [PDF]

Vardo-Zalik, A. M., Ford, A. F., and J. J. Schall. 2009. Detecting number of clones, and their relative abundance, of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum) infecting its vertebrate host. Parasitology Research 105:209-215. [PDF]

Vardo-Zalik, A. M. and J. J. Schall. 2009. Clonal diversity alters the infection dynamics of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum) within its vertebrate host. Ecology 90:529-536. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. 2008. Sex ratios writ small. Nature 453:605-606. [PDF]

Vardo-Zalik, A. M. and J. J. Schall. 2008. Clonal diversity within infections and the virulence of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum. Parasitology 135:1363-1372. [PDF]

Martinsen, E. M., B. J. Blumberg, R. J. Eisen, and J. J. Schall. 2008. Avian haemosporidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa) from northern California oak woodland and chaparral habitats. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44:260-268. [PDF]

Martinsen, E. M., S. L. Perkins, and J. J. Schall. 2008. A three-genome phylogeny of malaria parasites (Plasmodium and closely related genera): Evolution of life-history traits and host switches. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47:261-273. [PDF]

Vardo, A. M. and J. J. Schall. 2007. Clonal diversity of a lizard malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, in its vertebrate host, the western fence lizard: role of variation in transmission intensity over time and space. Molecular Ecology 16:2712-2720. [PDF]

Martinsen, E. S. , J. L. Waite, and J. J. Schall. 2007. Morphologically defined subgenera of Plasmodium from avian hosts: test of monophyly by phylogenetic analysis of two mitochondrial genes. Parasitology 134:483-490. [PDF]

Vardo, A. M., K. D. Kaufhold, and J. J. Schall. 2007. Experimental test for premunition in a lizard malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum). Journal of Parasitology 93:280-282. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. and A. M. Vardo. 2007. Identification of microsatellite markers in Plasmodium mexicanum, a lizard malaria parasite that infects nucleated erythrocytes. Molecular Ecology Notes 7:227-229. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. 2007. Book Review: Avian Malaria Parasites and other Haemosporidia by Gediminas Valkiunas. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43:322-324.[PDF]

Martinsen, E. M., I. Paperna, and J. J. Schall. 2006. Morphological versus molecular identification of avian haemosporidia: an exploration of species concepts. Parasitology 133:279-288.[PDF]

Schall, J. J. and T. C. Smith. 2006. Detection of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum) in ectoparasites (mites and ticks), and possible significance for transmission. Journal of Parasitology 92:413-415. [PDF]

Vardo, A. M., A. R. Wargo, and J. J. Schall. 2005. PCR detection of lizard malaria parasites: prevalence of Plasmodium infections with low-level parasitemia differs by site and season. Journal of Parasitology 91:1509-1511. [PDF]

Osgood, S. M. and J. J. Schall. 2004. Gametocyte sex ratio of a malaria parasite: response to experimental manipulation of parasite clonal diversity. Parasitology 128:23-29 [PDF]

Charleston, M. A., and S. L. Perkins. 2003. Lizards, malaria, and jungles in the Caribbean. In Tangled Trees: Phylogeny, Cospeciation and Coevolution (Page, R. D. M., ed.) Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Osgood, S. M., A. Wargo, R. J. Eisen, and J. J. Schall. 2003. Manipulation of host's testosterone does not affect gametocyte sex ratio of a malaria parasite. Journal of Parasitology 89:190-192. [PDF]

Perkins, S. L. and J. J. Schall. 2002. A molecular phylogeny of malaria parasites recovered from cytochrome b gene sequences. Journal of Parasitology 88:972-978. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. 2002. Parasite virulence. In E. E. Lewis, J. F. Cambell, and M. V. K. Sukhdeo (eds) The Behavioral Ecology of Parasites, CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK. pp. 283-313.[PDF]

Osgood, S. M., R. J. Eisen, and J. J. Schall. 2002. Gametocyte sex ratio of a malaria parasite: Experimental test of heritability. Journal of Parasitology 88:494-498 [PDF].

Schall, J. J. and C. M. Staats. 2002. The virulence of lizard malaria: Three species of Plasmodium infecting Anolis sabanus, the endemic Caribbean anole of Saba, Netherlands Antilles. Copeia 2002:39-43.[PDF]

Eisen, R. J. 2001. Absence of measurable malaria-induced mortality in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) in nature: a four year study of annual and over-winter mortality. Oecologia, 127: 586-589. [PDF]

Eisen, R. J. and N. M. Wright. 2001. Landscape features associated with infection by a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum) and the importance of multiple scale studies. Parasitology, 122: 507-513. [PDF]

Perkins, S. L., and A. K. Keller. 2001. Phylogeny of nuclear small subunit rRNA genes of hemogregarines amplified with specific primers. Journal of Parasitology 87:870-876.[PDF]

Perkins, S. L. 2001. Phylogeography of Caribbean lizard malaria: tracing the history of vector borne parasites. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 14:34-45.[PDF]

Schall, J. J. 2000. Transmission success of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum into its vector: Role of gametocyte density and sex ratio. Parasitology 121:575-580.[PDF]

Schall, J. J. and A. R. Pearson. 2000. Body condition of a Puerto Rican anole, Anolis gundlachi: Effect of a malaria parasite and weather variation. Journal of Herpetology 34:489-491.[PDF]

Eisen, R. J. and J. J. Schall. 2000. Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum): independent traits and basis for variation. Proceedings of the Royal Society - B 267:793-799.[PDF]

Schall, J. J., A. R. Pearson, and S. L. Perkins. 2000. Prevalence of malaria parasites (Plasmodium floridense and P. azurophilum) infecting a Puerto Rican lizard (Anolis gundlachi): A nine year study. Journal of Parasitology 86:511-515.[PDF]

Schall, J. J., H. R. Prendeville, and K. Hanley. 2000. Prevalence of the tick, Ixodes pacificus, on western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis: Trends by site, gender, size, season, and mite infestation. Journal of Herpetology 34:160-163.[PDF]

Eisen, R. J. 2000. Variation in life-history traits of Plasmodium mexicanum, a malaria parasite infecting western fence lizards: a longitudinal study. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 78: 1230-1237.[PDF]

Eisen, R. J. and D. F. DeNardo. 2000. Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum) in its host, the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis): host testosterone as a source of seasonal and among host variation? Journal of Parasitology, 86: 1041-1045. [PDF]

Perkins, S. L. 2000. Species concepts and malaria parasites: detecting a cryptic species of Plasmodium. Royal Society of London B 267:2345-2350.[PDF]

Perkins, S. L., and J. M. Martin. 1999. Conserved PCR primers fail in diagnosis of parasitic infection. Journal of Parasitology 85:982-984. [PDF]

Perkins, S. L., S. M. Osgood, and J. J. Schall. 1998. Use of PCR for detection of subpatent infections of lizard malaria: implications for epizootiology. Molecular Ecology 7:1587-1590. [PDF]

Yan, G., L. Stevens, C. J. Goodnight, and J. J. Schall. 1998. Effects of a tapeworm parasite on the competition of Tribolium beetles. Ecology 79:1093-1103.[PDF]

Schall, J. J. and C. M. Staats. 1997. Parasites and the evolution of extravagant male characters: Anolis lizards on Caribbean islands as a test of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. Oecologia 111:543-548.[PDF]

Eisen, R. J. and J. J. Schall. 1997. Comparing foraging success in submissive malaria-infected and territorial noninfected fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis). Journal of Herpetology 31:147-149.[PDF]

Schall, J. J. 1996. Malarial parasites of lizards: Diversity and ecology. Advances in Parasitology 37:255-333. [PDF]

Staats, C. M. and J. J. Schall. 1996. Distribution and abundance of two malarial parasites of the endemic Anolis lizard of Saba island, Netherlands Antilles. Journal of Parasitology 82:409-413. [PDF]

Staats, C. M. and J. J. Schall. 1996. Malarial parasites (Plasmodium) of Anolis lizards: Biogeography in the Lesser Antilles. Biotropica 28:388-393.[PDF]

Fialho, R. F. and J. J. Schall. 1995. Thermal ecology of a malarial parasite and its insect vector: Consequences for the parasite’s transmission success. Journal of Animal Ecology 64:553-562.[PDF]

Dunlap, K. D. and J. J. Schall. 1995. Hormonal alterations and reproductive inhibition in male fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) infected with the malarial parasite Plasmodium mexicanum. Physiological Zoology 68:608-621.[PDF]

Schall, J. J. and A. B. Marghoob. 1995. Prevalence of a malarial parasite over time and space: Plasmodium mexicanum in its vertebrate host, the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentaliis. Journal of Animal Ecology 64: 177-185.[PDF]

Schall, J. J. and C. R. Bromwich. 1994. Interspecific interactions tested: Two species of malarial parasite in a west African lizard. Oecologia 97:326-332.[PDF]

Yan, G., L. Stevens, and J. J. Schall. 1994. Behavioral changes in Tribolium beetles infected with a tapeworm: Variation in effects between beetles species and among genetic strains. American Naturalist 143:830-847.[PDF]

Schall, J. J. and S. Vogt. 1993. Distribution of malaria in Anolis lizards of the Luquillo Forest, Puerto Rico: Implications for host community ecology. Biotropica 25:229-235.[PDF]

Dunlap, K. D. and T. Mathies. 1993. Effects of nymphal ticks and their interaction with malaria on the physiology of male fence lizards. Copeia 1993:1045-1048. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. 1992. Parasite-mediated competition in Anolis lizards. Oecologia 92:58-64.[PDF]

Schall, J. J. and P. R. Houle. 1992. Malarial parasitism and home range and social status of male western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis. Journal of Herpetology 26:74-76.[PDF]

Schall, J. J. 1990. Virulence of lizard malaria: The evolutionary ecology of an ancient parasite-host association. Parasitology 100:S35-S52. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. 1990. The ecology of lizard malaria. Parasitology Today 6:264-269. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. 1989. The sex ratio of Plasmodium gametocytes. Parasitology 98:343-350. [PDF]

Ressel, S. and J. J. Schall. 1989. Parasites and showy males: Malarial infection and color variation in fence lizards. Oecologia 78:158-164. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. and M. D. Dearing. 1987. Malarial parasitism and male competition for mates in the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis. Oecologia 73:389-392.[PDF]

Schall, J. J. and G. A. Sarni. 1987. Malarial parasitism and the behavior of the lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis. Copeia 1987:84-93. [PDF]

Bromwich, C. R. and J. J. Schall. 1986. Infection dynamics of Plasmodium mexicanum, a malarial parasite of lizards. Ecology 67:1227-1235.[PDF]

Schall, J. J. 1986. Prevalence and virulence of a haemogregarine parasite of the Aruban whiptail lizard, Cnemidophorus arubensis. Journal of Herpetology 20:318-324. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. 1983. Lizard malaria: Cost to vertebrate host's reproductive success. Parasitology 87:1-6. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. 1982. Lizard malaria: Parasite-host ecology. Pp 84-100 In R. B. Huey, T. W. Schoener, and E. R. Pianka (eds.) Lizard Ecology: Studies on a Model Organism. Harvard University Press, Cambridge. [PDF]

Schall, J. J. , A. F. Bennett, and R. W. Putnam. 1982. Lizards infected with malaria: Physiological and behavioral consequences. Science 217:1057-1059.[PDF]

Ayala, S. C. and J. J. Schall. 1977. Apparent absence of blood parasites in southwestern Texas Cnemidophorus. Southwestern Naturalist 22:134-135. [PDF]