Optional Practical Training (OPT) is an authorization for F-1 students to gain experience in their field of study. This page discusses post-completion OPT, which lasts for 12 months after completing their programs. After post-completion OPT, many of our students may also apply for STEM OPT. In very rare circumstances, students may also apply for pre-completion OPT - if this is appropriate for your case, an OIE advisor can discuss it with you. 

Students must apply to United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) to obtain OPT.  This is done after working with the OIE. Plan ahead - this processing often takes over 90 days to process. 


To be eligible for OPT, you must meet a few requirements:

  • Be in active F-1 status and maintaining all rules of that status.
  • Have been a full-time student maintaining valid status in the US for at least one academic year.
  • Must be completing degree (if undergraduate or non-thesis Master's student) or have completed all degree requirements except for thesis/dissertation (if applicable).
  • Have followed all rules and obligations associated with any past CPT authorizations through UVM (if applicable)
  • Apply for OPT properly and on time

OPT is your benefit of completing a degree as an F-1 student. A job is not needed to apply, though there are requirements to maintaining your status while on OPT.

Preparing to Apply

To apply for OPT, you should first fully read this website, and then join us for an OPT workshop or an individual advising appointment. Check out our calendar for upcoming workshops or schedule an appointment with an advisor.

The earliest you can apply for OPT is 90 days before your program end date, which is usually the date of graduation in your last registered semester. However for graduate students with a thesis, this end date is more flexible and should involve a discussion with an OIE advisor. You should apply as early as you are able to, as processing take a long time. You may also apply as late as 60 days after your program completion date, however this may have negative results for your ability to work. Remember it will take approximately three months for your application to be approved regardless of the date you submit the application or the start date you choose.

Picking an OPT Start Date

As you get ready to apply, one of the first decisions is when you want your OPT to start. This can be as early 1 day after or up to 60 days after your program completion date. Your program completion date depends on your student type: 

Student TypeProgram Completion Date
UndergraduateDate of Commencement or Last day of Final Semester
Graduate without Thesis

Date of Commencement or Last day of Final Semester if you are not funded in final semester


Funding end date for your final semester

Graduate with Thesis

Either of the options in the category above


Any date before these dates once you have finished required coursework and thesis credits, regardless of thesis completion

When you select an OPT start date, you should think about how soon you need or want to start working to pick the OPT start date that will be within the 60-day window after your program completion date.  Here are some questions to think about.

How is your job search going? Since your time on OPT is limited and your unemployment time on OPT is limited, you will want to be toughtful about when you will start working as you pick your OPT start date. If you pick a day that is too early you will gather time of unemployment while on your year of OPT and cannot get that time back. If you pick one that is too late and you get a job offer that starts before then you will have to tell your employer that you need to delay your start. 

What are your economic needs? After your program completion date you cannot work on or off the UVM campus until your OPT begins. If you plan for a longer break in your work eligibility, make sure you have the financial resources you need to cover yourself during that time. 

What are your personal interests? Some students like to have a break after their program of study ends or will be moving across the country. This might be worth considering as you pick your start date. 

Requesting new I-20 with OPT recommendation

Once you have decided on when you want your OPT start date to be, the next step for applying for OPT is to get a new I-20 from the OIE with an OPT recommendation. This request is made through iStart. When you submit this request, your academic advisor will receive a form to complete and confirm that you are finishing your degree. If everything is in order, the OIE will approve your OPT I-20 Request and send you an email asking you to schedule an appointment with an OIE advisor.

Submitting your Application to the USCIS

After your new I-20 is ready (see section above), you will either apply online to USCIS OR mail an OPT application packet to USCIS. After you have put together your application, but before you submit, you should attend an OPT Document Review appointment with an OIE advisor. 

For both online and mail-in applications, you will need the following documents. 

  • Completed original Form I-765
  • Payment for the appropriate amount (For online applications, a credit card will be needed. For mail-in applications, either a check or money order made out to U.S. Department of Homeland Security or Form G-1450 completed with your credit card information.)
  • Two (2) US Passport style photo(s) edited to meet U.S. Department of State guidelines (using this Photo Tool) or taken professionally and printed (2 copies) with your SEVIS ID lightly written on the back.
  • Photocopy or scan of your your electronic Form I-94 or your paper Form I-94, Nonimmigrant Arrival-Departure Record (front and back)
  • Photocopy or scan of your passport
  • Photocopies or scans of any past Employment Authorization Document Cards (if applicable)
  • Photocopy or scan of new OPT I-20 (pages 1 & 2) after it is signed
  • Photocopies or scans of all past I-20s with OPT or CPT recommendations

Option 1: Applying Online

In order to apply for OPT online, you will need to create an account on the USCIS website. All materials related to this application will be saved in this account portal, so it is important to keep your account secure and to make sure you are able to access it into the future. The I-765 online application will allow you to enter your information, upload your documents, and pay online before filing the application directly with USCIS. Read and follow all instructions carefully. Here are some tips for the online application:
  • You MUST have your OPT I-20 from the OIE with a recommendation for OPT on Page 2 before submitting your application online. If you submit your application without this I-20 your application will be denied.
  • The OPT application must be submitted online within 30 days of the date your OPT was recommended by the OIE.
  • Pay attention to requirements for document uploads - both file types and file naming conventions. We recommend that you name your upload files in simple English words that describe what the document is. 
  • Make sure your photo meets U.S. Department of State guidelines for size and composition.
  • Once you enter your information and upload your documents, there will be a review screen before submission. Stop here, review carefully yourself, and meet with an OIE advisor for your Document Review Appointment before submitting.  

Option 2: Mailing Your Application

After you compile your OPT application outlined in step 3, you will mail your materials to the USCIS. Here are some tips for mailing your application:

  • The mailing address depends on your shipment method. Check the USCIS website for the appropriate address. Regardless of the mail service you use, make sure that you get a tracking number so that you have proof that the application was received.
  • The OPT application must be received at the USCIS Service Center within 30 days of the date your OPT was recommended by the OIE. If you waited too long to file to the USCIS and they receive the application more than 30 days after the OIE recommendation, your application will be denied. Pay close attention to your OPT recommended date by the OIE and if you believe you might be filing close to the end of the 30 day window,  contact the OIE to re-recommend your OPT and generate a new I-20.
  • If you are using a friend or family’s address on the Form I-765, be sure that your name is on their mailbox or write the current address as:  c/o [your friend’s name]. Because of security reasons, the US Postal Service will not deliver mail from USCIS to a residential address unless the name on the envelope matches the name on the mailbox.
  • Make a copy of the application for your records before you mail it.


After Applying for OPT

What happens after I apply for OPT?

Three to four weeks after submitting your OPT application, you will receive a receipt notice from USCIS in your myUSCIS online portal account or by mail. The receipt notice will have a case number, which is unique to your OPT application. You can track the status of your case online using this number. Save your receipt notice.

How long does it take for USCIS to review my application?

Prepare to be patient, United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) estimates 90 days for the processing of an OPT application. The OIE will not make inquiries with USCIS before 75 days have passed. Once the application has been approved, you should receive an approval notice in the mail. Save this as well. In about one week after receiving the approval notice you will receive the Employment Authorization Document (EAD). Remember, even if you receive your EAD, you may not begin working until the start date listed on the EAD.

What should I do if I move while my application is being processed?

If you change your address while your application is being processed you should be sure to contact USCIS. You can update your address online or call the National Service Center at 1-800-375-5283. Do this as soon as you know you are going to move to avoid a delay in the receipt of your EAD card.

What should I do if I receive a Request for Evidence (RFE)?

In some cases you may receive a Request for Evidence (RFE) or other notification from USCIS requesting additional information.  Send these to OIE for immediate review!

Can I cancel my OPT request?

It may be possible to cancel your OPT request depending upon the status of your application. Then you could re-apply in the future if you are eligible. However, after the OPT start date has occurred and you have received your EAD card, it is not possible to cancel OPT. The OPT application fee is non-refundable.

What kind of job can I accept?

Your employment must be related to your studies as they are listed on your I-20.  It must also be "commensurate" with your degree level.  To count as employment, you must be working at least 20 hours per week.

F-1 students may be employed in any one of the following ways:
  • Paid employment: Students may work part time (no less than 20 hours per week when on post-completion OPT) or full time.
  • Multiple employers: Students may work for more than one employer, but all employment must be related to each individual student’s degree program.
  • Unpaid employment: Students may be volunteers or unpaid interns, where this practice does not violate any labor laws. A student should be able to provide evidence, acquired from your internship supervisor or volunteer organization, to verify that s/he has been employed at least 20 hours per week during the period of employment. 
  • Short-term multiple employers (performing artists): Students, such as musicians and other performing artists, may work for multiple short term employers (gigs). The student should maintain a list of all gigs, the dates and duration.
  • Work for hire: This is also commonly referred to as 1099 employment where an individual performs a service based on a contractual relationship rather than an employment relationship. If requested by DHS, students should be prepared to provide evidence showing the duration of the contract periods and the name and address of the contracting company.
  • Self-employed business owner: Students on OPT may start a business and be self-employed. The student should be able to prove that he or she has the proper business licenses and is actively engaged in a business related to his or her degree program.
  • Employment through an agency or consulting firm: Students on post-completion OPT should be able to provide evidence showing they worked an average of at least 20 hours per week while employed by the agency.

When can I start working?

Once your OPT has been approved you will receive an Employment Authorization Document (EAD).  You cannot work until you have received the EAD and the start date on your EAD card has arrived.

What if I can't find a job right away?

You are given 90 cumulative days of unemployment time, beginning from the date you receive your EAD and it is valid.

Your Responsibilities to the OIE while on OPT

While on OPT, you are still an F-1 student, which means you must report things to the OIE. There are many things that you need to report to the OIE while you are on OPT.  The OIE will send you occasional reminder emails but it is ultimately YOUR responsibility to remember to report to the OIE.  You can report most changes through iStart.  You need to update your information with the OIE within 10 days of a change.  These are the things you need to submit to the OIE.

  • Legal name
  • Living or mailing address
  • Employer name and address
  • Termination or loss of employment if within your OPT period
  • Change of status (i.e. to H-1B)
  • Transfer to another F-1 program or change of educational level

Travel on OPT

F-1 students are allowed to travel after applying for OPT, but the student must show specific documentation upon re-entry to the United States depending upon the status of your OPT application and job situation.

If you want to travel after you apply for OPT but before you receive your EAD card, please talk to an OIE advisor about your individual situation.

After you have received your EAD card, you are only allowed to re-enter the US to resume or continue employment. To re-enter the US after your OPT has been approved, you will need to present the following documentation at the Port of Entry:

  • Your EAD card
  • Proof of employment (Job offer letter, pay stubs, or letter from your employer)
  • A valid F-1 visa stamp (See Travel and Re-Entry to the US for exceptions under automatic visa revalidation)
  • Valid passport (meaning it will not expire within 6 months from your date of re-entry)
  • I-20 with a travel signature on page 2 within the last 6 months of your re-entry

Time spent outside the United States will count as unemployment against the 90-day limit. If a student travels while employed either during a period of leave authorized by an employer or as part of their employment, the time spent outside the United States will not count as unemployment.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

When do I apply for OPT?

We recommend that you apply about 3 months before the date you wish to begin working.  You can submit your application to USCIS up to 90 days before the degree completion date on your I-20.  If you will graduate in May, it is recommended that you apply for OPT no later than March 15.  If you will graduate in December, it is recommended that you apply for OPT no later than October 1.

Processing time for OPT applications can be up to 90 days. Students are encouraged to apply for OPT in advance of the proposed employment date, or the anticipated completion of studies to avoid delays, disappointment and unnecessary stress!

Do I need a job offer before applying for OPT?

No. An offer of employment is not required as part of the OPT application process.  However, once the OPT start date has occurred, the “clock” begins and you cannot accrue more than 90 days of unemployment during your 12 months of the OPT authorization.

If I participate in CPT will I lose my opportunity for OPT?

If you accumulate more than 365 days of full-time CPT, you forfeit your OPT eligibility. However, that situation is very rare. Part-time CPT does not affect your OPT eligibility.

When can I start working?

You can start working after you have received your EAD card and the start date listed on the card has arrived.

How will my employer know I am authorized to work under OPT?

Page 2 of your I-20 indicates the dates you are authorized to work if you have received your Employment Authorization Document (EAD). You will also receive an EAD card, which is the legal document showing your eligibility for employment.

How long can I stay in the US after my OPT end date?

You may stay for up to 60 days.  If you have applied for a STEM extension, are starting a new degree program or are changing to another visa type, different rules apply.  Please contact an OIE advisor for more information.