|present and past participles (il participio presente e passato)
There are two participles, il participio presente (present participle) and il participio passato (past participle).
Il participio presente is formed by adding -ante to the stem of -are verbs and -ente to the stem of -ere and -ire verbs.
The present participle is used primarily as an adjective, agreeing with the noun it modifies. It is occasionally used as a noun and as a verb.
Il participio passato is formed by adding -ato to the stem of -are verbs, -uto to the stem of -ere verbs, and -ito to the stem of -ire verbs.
The past participle is much more commonly used than the present participle. It is always used with avere or essere to form tenses such as passato prossimo, trapassato prossimo and remoto, congiuntivo passato and trapassato, and so on.