It was likely the Winooski River that first drew people to the Jericho area, roughly 6000 years ago. Although groups were most likely scattered throughout the Jericho area, most of the artifacts found within the town's borders have been concentrated close to the river.

Some of these sites were small and probably intended to be temporary. These were used 3000 to 6000 years ago, by small groups who relied on hunting, gathering nuts and berries, and fishing in the rivers. Along the Winooski River, projectile points have been collected as artifacts left from this time period. Since evidence of permanent settlements from this time period are lacking, most groups were likely passing through only temporarily, following food up and down the river as the seasons progressed.

Dating a bit more recently, between 250 and 3000 years ago, are several larger, more permanent sites and several villages along the Winooski River in Jericho. Artifacts found at these sites reflect a much more sedentary lifestyle, including house structures, pottery shards, bone fragments, and stone tools. There is also a trail that hugs the river in this area.