University of Vermont

Gund Institute for Ecological Economics

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2016
Doughty, C. E.; Roman, J.; Faurby, S.; Wolf, A.; Haque, A.; Bakker, E. S.; Malhi, Y.; Dunning, J. B.; Svenning, J. C.. (2016) Global nutrient transport in a world of giants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113(4) 868-873
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The past was a world of giants, with abundant whales in the sea and large animals roaming the land. However, that world came to an end following massive late-Quaternary megafauna extinctions on land and widespread population reductions in great whale populations over the past few centuries. These losses are likely to have had important consequences for broad-scale nutrient cycling, because recent literature suggests that large animals disproportionately drive nutrient movement. We estimate that the capacity of animals to move nutrients away from concentration patches has decreased to about 8% of the preextinction value on land and about 5% of historic values in oceans. For phosphorus (P), a key nutrient, upward movement in the ocean by marine mammals is about 23% of its former capacity (previously about 340 million kg of P per year). Movements by seabirds and anadromous fish provide important transfer of nutrients from the sea to land, totalling similar to 150 million kg of P per year globally in the past, a transfer that has declined to less than 4% of this value as a result of the decimation of seabird colonies and anadromous fish populations. We propose that in the past, marine mammals, seabirds, anadromous fish, and terrestrial animals likely formed an interlinked system recycling nutrients from the ocean depths to the continental interiors, with marine mammals moving nutrients from the deep sea to surface waters, seabirds and anadromous fish moving nutrients from the ocean to land, and large animals moving nutrients away from hotspots into the continental interior.
Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin. (2016) The Geography of Gender Inequality. PloS One; Public Library of Science, Cheltenham, U.K.. 11(3) e0145778
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Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe.

Koh, I.; Lonsdorf, E. V.; Williams, N. M.; Brittain, C.; Isaacs, R.; Gibbs, J.; Ricketts, T. H.. (2016) Modeling the status, trends, and impacts of wild bee abundance in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113(1) 140-145
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Wild bees are highly valuable pollinators. Along with managed honey bees, they provide a critical ecosystem service by ensuring stable pollination to agriculture and wild plant communities. Increasing concern about the welfare of both wild and managed pollinators, however, has prompted recent calls for national evaluation and action. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we assess the status and trends of wild bees and their potential impacts on pollination services across the coterminous United States. We use a spatial habitat model, national land-cover data, and carefully quantified expert knowledge to estimate wild bee abundance and associated uncertainty. Between 2008 and 2013, modeled bee abundance declined across 23% of US land area. This decline was generally associated with conversion of natural habitats to row crops. We identify 139 counties where low bee abundances correspond to large areas of pollinator-dependent crops. These areas of mismatch between supply (wild bee abundance) and demand (cultivated area) for pollination comprise 39% of the pollinator-dependent crop area in the United States. Further, we find that the crops most highly dependent on pollinators tend to experience more severe mismatches between declining supply and increasing demand. These trends, should they continue, may increase costs for US farmers and may even destabilize crop production over time. National assessments such as this can help focus both scientific and political efforts to understand and sustain wild bees. As new information becomes available, repeated assessments can update findings, revise priorities, and track progress toward sustainable management of our nation's pollinators.
Posner, S. M.; McKenzie, E.; Ricketts, T. H.. (2016) Policy impacts of ecosystem services knowledge. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113(7) 1760-1765
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Research about ecosystem services (ES) often aims to generate knowledge that influences policies and institutions for conservation and human development. However, we have limited understanding of how decision-makers use ES knowledge or what factors facilitate use. Here we address this gap and report on, to our knowledge, the first quantitative analysis of the factors and conditions that explain the policy impact of ES knowledge. We analyze a global sample of cases where similar ES knowledge was generated and applied to decision-making. We first test whether attributes of ES knowledge themselves predict different measures of impact on decisions. We find that legitimacy of knowledge is more often associated with impact than either the credibility or salience of the knowledge. We also examine whether predictor variables related to the science-to-policy process and the contextual conditions of a case are significant in predicting impact. Our findings indicate that, although many factors are important, attributes of the knowledge and aspects of the science-to-policy process that enhance legitimacy best explain the impact of ES science on decision-making. Our results are consistent with both theory and previous qualitative assessments in suggesting that the attributes and perceptions of scientific knowledge and process within which knowledge is coproduced are important determinants of whether that knowledge leads to action.
Posner, S.; Verutes, G.; Koh, I.; Denu, D.; Ricketts, T.. (2016) Global use of ecosystem service models. Ecosystem Services 17 131-141
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Spatial models of ecosystem services inform land use and development decisions. Understanding who uses these models and conditions associated with use is critical for increasing their impact. We tracked use of The Natural Capital Project's InVEST models and observed 19 different models were run 43,363 times in 104 countries over a 25-month period. Models for regulating services were most commonly used. We analyzed relationships between country-level variables and use of models and found capacity (population, GDP, Internet and computer access, and InVEST trainings), governance, biodiversity, and conservation spending are positively correlated with use. Civic involvement in conservation, carbon project funding, and forest cover are not correlated with use. Using multivariate statistical models, we analyzed which combinations of country-level variables best explain use of InVEST and found further evidence that variables related to capacity are the strongest predictors. Finally, we examined InVEST trainings in detail and found a significant effect of trainings on subsequent use of InVEST models. Our results indicate the general capacity of a country may limit uptake and use of decision support tools such as InVEST. Model-specific trainings are only one form of capacity building likely required for models to have desired levels of use and policy impact. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Roman, J., Kraska, J.. (2016) Reboot Gitmo for U.S.-Cuba research diplomacy. Science 351(6279) 1258-1260
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What to do with Gitmo after it closes? “Reboot it,” says Joe Roman, an oceans expert in UVM’s Gund Institute — “for research diplomacy.” In Science magazine, Roman and a U.S. Naval War College scholar make the case for Guantanamo 2.0 as a way to improve conservation in the Caribbean — and build cooperation between the U.S. and Cuba. (Photo: Corbis)
2015
Aburto-Oropeza, O.; Ezcurra, E.; Moxley, J.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, A.; Mascarenas-Osorio, I.; Sanchez-Ortiz, C.; Erisman, B.; Ricketts, T.. (2015) A framework to assess the health of rocky reefs linking geomorphology, community assemblage, and fish biomass. Ecological Indicators 52 353-361
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The recovery of historic community assemblages on reefs is a primary objective for the management of marine ecosystems. Working under the overall hypothesis that, as fishing pressure increases, the abundance in upper trophic levels decreases followed by intermediate levels, we develop an index that characterizes the comparative health of rocky reefs. Using underwater visual transects to sample rocky reefs in the Gulf of California, Mexico, we sampled 147 reefs across 1200 km to test this reef health index (IRH). Five-indicators described 88% of the variation among the reefs along this fishing-intensity gradient: the biomass of piscivores and carnivores were positively associated with reef health; while the relative abundances of zooplanktivores, sea stars, and sea urchins, were negatively correlated with degraded reefs health. The average size of commercial macro-invertebrates and the absolute fish biomass increased significantly with increasing values of the IRE. Higher total fish biomass was found on reefs with complex geomorphology compared to reefs with simple geomorphology (r(2) = 0.14, F = 44.05, P<0.0001) and the trophic biomass pyramid also changed, which supports the evidence of the inversion of biomass pyramids along the gradient of reefs' health. Our findings introduce a novel approach to classify the health of rocky reefs under different fishing regimes and therefore resultant community structures. Additionally, our IRH provides insight regarding the potential gains in total fish biomass that may result from the conservation and protection of reefs with more complex geomorphology. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
Alarcon, G. G.; Ayanu, Y.; Fantini, A. C.; Farley, J.; Schmitt, A.; Koellner, T.. (2015) Weakening the Brazilian legislation for forest conservation has severe impacts for ecosystem services in the Atlantic Southern Forest. Land Use Policy 47 1-11
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The Atlantic Forest is a global hotspot of biodiversity that may be on the verge of ecological collapse. Current changes in forest legislation have increased the debate concerning policy impacts on land-use and the consequences for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision. This paper evaluates the impact of three environmental policy options (National Forest Act from 1965-NFA65, Business as Usual-BAU, National Forest Act from 2012-NFA12) on land-use patterns and ecosystem services in the southern Atlantic Forest. InVEST (the Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs tool) was used to model ecosystem services. Synergies and tradeoffs between commodities, erosion regulation, carbon storage and habitat for biodiversity were assessed with the Spearman Correlation Test. The NFA65 produced the largest gains for forest ecosystem services, while BAU favored commodities expansion. The NFA12 approaches the baseline, contributing less to the provision of ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ali, S. H.. (2015) Rare The High-Stakes Race to Satisfy Our Need for the Scarcest Metals on Earth. Science 347(6227) 1209-1209
Armsworth, P. R.; Larson, E. R.; Jackson, S. T.; Sax, D. F.; Simonin, P.; Blossey, B.; Green, N.; Klein, M. L.; Lester, L.; Ricketts, T. H.; Runge, M. C.; Shaw, M. R.. (2015) Are conservation organizations configured for effective adaptation to global change?. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13(3) 163-169
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Conservation organizations must adapt to respond to the ecological impacts of global change. Numerous changes to conservation actions (eg facilitated ecological transitions, managed relocations, or increased corridor development) have been recommended, but some institutional restructuring within organizations may also be needed. Here we discuss the capacity of conservation organizations to adapt to changing environmental conditions, focusing primarily on public agencies and nonprofits active in land protection and management in the US. After first reviewing how these organizations anticipate and detect impacts affecting target species and ecosystems, we then discuss whether they are sufficiently flexible to prepare and respond by reallocating funding, staff, or other resources. We raise new hypotheses about how the configuration of different organizations enables them to protect particular conservation targets and manage for particular biophysical changes that require coordinated management actions over different spatial and temporal scales. Finally, we provide a discussion resource to help conservation organizations assess their capacity to adapt.
Barki, E.; Comini, G.; Cunliffe, A.; Hart, S.; Rai, S.. (2015) SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIAL BUSINESS: RETROSPECTIVE AND PROSPECTIVE RESEARCH. Rae-Revista De Administracao De Empresas; RAE-Rev. Adm. Empres. 55(4) 380-384
Bateman, I. J.; Coombes, E.; Fitzherbert, E.; Binner, A.; Bad'ura, T.; Carbone, C.; Fisher, B.; Naidoo, R.; Watkinson, A. R.. (2015) Conserving tropical biodiversity via market forces and spatial targeting. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112(24) 7408-7413
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The recent report from the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity [(2010) Global Biodiversity Outlook 3] acknowledges that ongoing biodiversity loss necessitates swift, radical action. Protecting undisturbed lands, although vital, is clearly insufficient, and the key role of unprotected, private land owned is being increasingly recognized. Seeking to avoid common assumptions of a social planner backed by government interventions, the present work focuses on the incentives of the individual landowner. We use detailed data to show that successful conservation on private land depends on three factors: conservation effectiveness (impact on target species), private costs (especially reductions in production), and private benefits (the extent to which conservation activities provide compensation, for example, by enhancing the value of remaining production). By examining the high-profile issue of palm-oil production in a major tropical biodiversity hotspot, we show that the levels of both conservation effectiveness and private costs are inherently spatial; varying the location of conservation activities can radically change both their effectiveness and private cost implications. We also use an economic choice experiment to show that consumers' willingness to pay for conservation-grade palm-oil products has the potential to incentivize private producers sufficiently to engage in conservation activities, supporting vulnerable International Union for Conservation of Nature Red Listed species. However, these incentives vary according to the scale and efficiency of production and the extent to which conservation is targeted to optimize its cost-effectiveness. Our integrated, interdisciplinary approach shows how strategies to harness the power of the market can usefully complement existing-and to-date insufficient-approaches to conservation.
Berkman, A. M.; Trentham-Dietz, A.; Dittus, K.; Hart, V.; Vatovec, C. M.; King, J. G.; James, T. A.; Lakoski, S. G.; Sprague, B. L.. (2015) Health behavior change following a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ: An opportunity to improve health outcomes. Preventive Medicine; Prev. Med. 80 53-59
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Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive breast cancer that comprises approximately 20% of new breast cancer diagnoses. DCIS is predominantly detected by screening mammography prior to the development of any clinical symptoms. Prognosis following a DCIS diagnosis is excellent, due to both the availability of effective treatments and the frequently benign nature of the disease. However, a DCIS diagnosis and its treatment have psychological and physical impacts that often lead to adverse changes in health-related behaviors, including changes in physical activity, body weight, alcohol intake, and smoking, which may represent a greater threat to the woman's overall health than the DCIS itself. Depending on age at diagnosis, women diagnosed with DCIS are 3-13 times more likely to die from non-breast cancer related causes, such as cardiovascular disease, than from breast cancer. Thus, the maintenance and improvement of healthy behaviors that influence a variety of outcomes after diagnosis may warrant increased attention during DCIS management. This may also represent an important opportunity to promote the adoption of healthy behaviors, given that DCIS carries the psychological impact of a cancer diagnosis but also a favorable prognosis. Particular focus is needed to address these issues in vulnerable patient subgroups with pre-existing higher rates of unhealthy behaviors and demonstrated health disparities. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blakeslee, A.; Roman, J.. (2015) NORTHWEST ATLANTIC POPULATION STRUCTURE AND GENE FLOW IN THE GREEN CRAB: AN UPDATE ON THE CRAB'S DYNAMIC INVASION FRONT. Journal of Shellfish Research; J. Shellfish Res. 34(2) 703-703
Boumans, R.; Roman, J.; Altman, I.; Kaufman, L.. (2015) The Multiscale Integrated Model of Ecosystem Services (MIMES): Simulating the interactions of coupled human and natural systems. Ecosystem Services 12 30-41
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In coupled human and natural systems ecosystem services form the link between ecosystem function and what humans want and need from their surroundings. Interactions between natural and human components are bidirectional and define the dynamics of the total system. Here we describe the MIMES, an analytical framework designed to assess the dynamics associated with ecosystem service function and human activities. MIMES integrate diverse types of knowledge and elucidate how benefits from ecosystem services are gained and lost. In MIMES, users formalize how materials are transformed between natural, human, built, and social capitals. This information is synthesized within a systems model to forecast ecosystem services and human-use dynamics under alternative scenarios. The MIMES requires that multiple ecological and human dynamics be specified, and that outputs may be understood through different temporal and spatial lenses to assess the effects of different actions in the short and long term and at different spatial scales. Here we describe how MIMES methodologies were developed in association with three case studies: a global application, a watershed model, and a marine application. We discuss the advantages and disadvantage of the MIMES approach and compare it to other broadly used ecosystem service assessment tools. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Dove, N. C.; Keeton, W. S.. (2015) Structural Complexity Enhancement increases fungal species richness in northern hardwood forests. Fungal Ecology; Fungal Ecol. 13 181-192
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Forest management practices directly influence microhabitat characteristics important to the survival of fungi. Because fungal populations perform key ecological processes, there is interest in forestry practices that minimize deleterious effects on their habitats. We investigated the effects on fungal sporocarp diversity of modified uneven-aged forest management practices in northern hardwood ecosystems, including a technique called Structural Complexity Enhancement (SCE). SCE is designed to accelerate late-successional stand development; it was compared against two conventional selection systems (single tree and group) and unmanipulated controls. These were applied in a randomized block design to a mature, multi-aged forest in Vermont, USA. Eight years after treatment, fungal species richness was significantly greater in SCE plots compared to conventional selection harvests and controls (p < 0.001). Seven forest structure variables were tested for their influence on fungal species richness using a Classification and Regression Tree. The results suggested that dead tree and downed log recruitment, as well as maintenance of high levels of aboveground biomass, under SCE had a particularly strong effect on fungal diversity. Our findings show it is possible to increase fungal diversity using forestry practices that enhance stand structural complexity and late-successional forest characteristics. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.
Ellis, A. M.; Myers, S. S.; Ricketts, T. H.. (2015) Do Pollinators Contribute to Nutritional Health?. PloS One 10(1) 17
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Despite suggestions that animal pollinators are crucial for human nutritional health, no studies have actually tested this claim. Here, we combined data on crop pollination requirements, food nutrient densities, and actual human diets to predict the effects of pollinator losses on the risk of nutrient deficiency. In four developing countries and across five nutrients, we found that 0 to 56% of populations would become newly at risk if pollinators were removed. Increases in risk were most pronounced for vitamin A in populations with moderate levels of total nutrient intake. Overall, the effects of pollinator decline varied widely among populations and nutrients. We conclude that the importance of pollinators to human nutrition depends critically on the composition of local diets, and cannot be reliably predicted from global commodity analyses. We identify conditions under which severe health effects of pollinator loss are most likely to occur.
Farley, J.; Schmitt, A.; Burke, M.; Farr, M.. (2015) Extending market allocation to ecosystem services: Moral and practical implications on a full and unequal planet. Ecological Economics 117 244-252
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Both economists and conservationists are calling for expanded use of market-based instruments (MBIs) to address worsening environmental problems, but the lack of MBIs at the scale required to solve major global problems makes it difficult to empirically evaluate their effectiveness. This article indirectly evaluates MBIs for essential ecosystem services by examining market allocation of another essential resource that is allocated by markets and which has experienced dramatic price increases: food. In an unequal world, markets respond to price increases by reducing food allocations to the destitute and malnourished, but not for the affluent. MBIs would increase the prices of ecosystem services and the commodities whose production degrades them, forcing the impoverished to reduce consumption by more than the wealthy. Furthermore, most MBIs would be prone to speculation and price instability, be incompatible with the satisfaction of individual preferences, or would not maximize economic surplus. Most environmental problems can be characterized as prisoner's dilemmas, which are best solved through cooperation, not competition. Society must create economic institutions that promote cooperation and ensure that the burdens of reducing throughput are not borne disproportionately by the poor. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fisher, B.; Ellis, A. M.; Adams, D. K.; Fox, H. E.; Selig, E. R.. (2015) Health, wealth, and education: the socioeconomic backdrop for marine conservation in the developing world. Marine Ecology Progress Series; Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser. 530 233-242
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Interacting drivers and pressures in many parts of the world are greatly undermining the long-term health and wellbeing of coastal human populations and marine ecosystems. However, we do not yet have a well-formed picture of the nature and extent of the human poverty of coastal communities in these areas. In this paper, we begin to fill the gap and present a multidimensional picture of the wellbeing of coastal communities, using nationally representative survey data to examine the health, wealth, and educational status of households in over 38000 communities across 38 developing countries. In general, we found high levels of poverty across the 3 dimensions (health, wealth, and education) analyzed, but each dimension also showed large heterogeneity within and across countries. We found that coastal communities had statistically significant higher levels of wellbeing than non-coastal communities. Coastal children were less stunted, less poor, and more likely to live in a higher educated household when compared to non-coastal households. However, we found that across coastal communities, rural coastal communities had 1.5 times lower height-for-age standard deviation scores (representing high childhood stunting rates), were 4 times more likely to be poor, and were 1.6 times more likely to have low levels of educational attainment. A deeper understanding of human wellbeing along coasts is critical for generating wider social and more long-term economic benefits with respect to coastal marine management.
Galford, G. L.; Soares-Filho, B. S.; Sonter, L. J.; Laporte, N.. (2015) Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?. PloS One 10(6) 19
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Central Africa's tropical forests are among the world's largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection-forest management that is low or nonexistent-ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year(-1) by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year(-1) by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy's influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results suggest that 1) passive protection of the DRC's forest and woodland savanna is insufficient to reduce deforestation; and 2): enactment of a REDD+ plan or similar conservation measure is needed to actively protect Congo forests, their unique ecology, and their important role in the global carbon cycle.
Garibaldi, L. A.; Bartomeus, I.; Bommarco, R.; Klein, A. M.; Cunningham, S. A.; Aizen, M. A.; Boreux, V.; Garratt, M. P. D.; Carvalheiro, L. G.; Kremen, C.; Morales, C. L.; Schuepp, C.; Chacoff, N. P.; Freitas, B. M.; Gagic, V.; Holzschuh, A.; Klatt, B. K.; Krewenka, K. M.; Krishnan, S.; Mayfield, M. M.; Motzke, I.; Otieno, M.; Petersen, J.; Potts, S. G.; Ricketts, T. H.; Rundlof, M.; Sciligo, A.; Sinu, P. A.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Taki, H.; Tscharntke, T.; Vergara, C. H.; Viana, B. F.; Woyciechowski, M.. (2015) Trait matching of flower visitors and crops predicts fruit set better than trait diversity. Journal of Applied Ecology 52(6) 1436-1444
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Understanding the relationships between trait diversity, species diversity and ecosystem functioning is essential for sustainable management. For functions comprising two trophic levels, trait matching between interacting partners should also drive functioning. However, the predictive ability of trait diversity and matching is unclear for most functions, particularly for crop pollination, where interacting partners did not necessarily co-evolve. World-wide, we collected data on traits of flower visitors and crops, visitation rates to crop flowers per insect species and fruit set in 469 fields of 33 crop systems. Through hierarchical mixed-effects models, we tested whether flower visitor trait diversity and/or trait matching between flower visitors and crops improve the prediction of crop fruit set (functioning) beyond flower visitor species diversity and abundance. Flower visitor trait diversity was positively related to fruit set, but surprisingly did not explain more variation than flower visitor species diversity. The best prediction of fruit set was obtained by matching traits of flower visitors (body size and mouthpart length) and crops (nectar accessibility of flowers) in addition to flower visitor abundance, species richness and species evenness. Fruit set increased with species richness, and more so in assemblages with high evenness, indicating that additional species of flower visitors contribute more to crop pollination when species abundances are similar.Synthesis and applications. Despite contrasting floral traits for crops world-wide, only the abundance of a few pollinator species is commonly managed for greater yield. Our results suggest that the identification and enhancement of pollinator species with traits matching those of the focal crop, as well as the enhancement of pollinator richness and evenness, will increase crop yield beyond current practices. Furthermore, we show that field practitioners can predict and manage agroecosystems for pollination services based on knowledge of just a few traits that are known for a wide range of flower visitor species. Despite contrasting floral traits for crops world-wide, only the abundance of a few pollinator species is commonly managed for greater yield. Our results suggest that the identification and enhancement of pollinator species with traits matching those of the focal crop, as well as the enhancement of pollinator richness and evenness, will increase crop yield beyond current practices. Furthermore, we show that field practitioners can predict and manage agroecosystems for pollination services based on knowledge of just a few traits that are known for a wide range of flower visitor species. Editor's Choice
Goodall, K. E.; Bacon, C. M.; Mendez, V. E.. (2015) Shade tree diversity, carbon sequestration, and epiphyte presence in coffee agroecosystems: A decade of smallholder management in San Ramon, Nicaragua. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 199 200-206
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Coffee smallholder management practices have received attention for their potential to conserve biodiversity and sequester carbon by maintaining structural complexity, high canopy diversity, and minimal external inputs. We conducted shade tree surveys on 95 1000 m(2) research plots over a 10-year period to identify patterns of shade tree density and diversity, epiphyte presence, and carbon stocks within smallholder shade coffee systems of northern Nicaragua. We also analyzed each of these parameters with respect to management by comparing collectively-and individually-managed farms. Our results indicate that the overall shade tree density has decreased over time (F = 42.597, p < 0.001), but that diversity remained constant. Carbon stocks in coffee systems also showed a decreasing trend over time (F = 2.981, p = 0.056), most likely due to the decreasing tree densities. Epiphytic plant presence increased over time despite decreased host tree densities, suggesting either a change in management or improved habitat conditions for epiphytes. Research plots on individually-managed coffee farms generally had higher shade tree densities than those on collectively managed farms (t = 2.141, p = 0.037), but we found no differences in shade tree species richness or carbon stocks (t = 0.573, p = 0.568). We conclude that smallholder coffee farmers continue to conserve both shade tree diversity and epiphyte communities. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guerry, A. D.; Polasky, S.; Lubchenco, J.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Daily, G. C.; Griffin, R.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Bateman, I. J.; Duraiappah, A.; Elmqvist, T.; Feldman, M. W.; Folke, C.; Hoekstra, J.; Kareiva, P. M.; Keeler, B. L.; Li, S. Z.; McKenzie, E.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Reyers, B.; Ricketts, T. H.; Rockstrom, J.; Tallis, H.; Vira, B.. (2015) Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112(24) 7348-7355
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The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals.
Guilbert, J.; Betts, A. K.; Rizzo, D. M.; Beckage, B.; Bomblies, A.. (2015) Characterization of increased persistence and intensity of precipitation in the northeastern United States. Geophysical Research Letters 42(6) 1888-1893
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We present evidence of increasing persistence in daily precipitation in the northeastern United States that suggests that global circulation changes are affecting regional precipitation patterns. Meteorological data from 222 stations in 10 northeastern states are analyzed using Markov chain parameter estimates to demonstrate that a significant mode of precipitation variability is the persistence of precipitation events. We find that the largest region-wide trend in wet persistence (i.e., the probability of precipitation in 1day and given precipitation in the preceding day) occurs in June (+0.9% probability per decade over all stations). We also find that the study region is experiencing an increase in the magnitude of high-intensity precipitation events. The largest increases in the 95th percentile of daily precipitation occurred in April with a trend of +0.7mm/d/decade. We discuss the implications of the observed precipitation signals for watershed hydrology and flood risk.
Hamed, A. A.; Ayer, A. A.; Clark, E. M.; Irons, E. A.; Taylor, G. T.; Zia, A.. (2015) Measuring climate change on Twitter using Google's algorithm: perception and events. International Journal of Web Information Systems; Int. J. Web Inf. Syst. 11(4) 527-544
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Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis of whether more complex and emergent hashtags can be sufficient pointers to climate change events. Human-induced climate change is one of this century's greatest unbalancing forces to have affected our planet. Capturing the public awareness of climate change on Twitter has proven to be significant. In a previous research, it was demonstrated by the authors that public awareness is prominently expressed in the form of hashtags that uses more than one bigram (i.e. a climate change term). The research finding showed that this awareness is expressed by more complex terms (e.g. "climate change"). It was learned that the awareness was dominantly expressed using the hashtag: #ClimateChange. Design/methodology/approach - The methods demonstrated here use objective computational approaches [i.e. Google's ranking algorithm and Information Retrieval measures (e.g. TFIDF)] to detect and rank the emerging events. Findings - The results shows a clear significant evidence for the events signaled using emergent hashtags and how globally influential they are. The research detected the Earth Day, 2015, which was signaled using the hashtag #EarthDay. Clearly, this is a day that is globally observed by the worldwide population. Originality/value - It was proven that these computational methods eliminate the subjectivity errors associated with humans and provide inexpensive solution for event detection on Twitter. Indeed, the approach used here can also be applicable to other types of event detections, beyond climate change, and surely applicable to other social media platforms that support the use of hashtags (e.g. Facebook). The paper explains, in great detail, the methods and all the numerous events detected.
Hanley, J. P.; Jackson, E.; Morrissey, L. A.; Rizzo, D. M.; Sprague, B. L.; Sarkar, I. N.; Carr, F. E.. (2015) Geospatial and Temporal Analysis of Thyroid Cancer Incidence in a Rural Population. Thyroid; Thyroid 25(7) 812-822
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Background: The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has resulted in the rate tripling over the past 30 years. Reasons for this increase have not been established. Geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) tools have emerged as powerful geospatial technologies to identify disease clusters, map patterns and trends, and assess the impact of ecological and socioeconomic factors (SES) on the spatial distribution of diseases. In this study, these tools were used to analyze thyroid cancer incidence in a rural population. Methods: Thyroid cancer incidence and socio-demographic factors in Vermont (VT), United States, between 1994 and 2007 were analyzed by logistic regression and geospatial and temporal analyses. Results: The thyroid cancer age-adjusted incidence in Vermont (8.0 per 100,000) was comparable to the national level (8.4 per 100,000), as were the ratio of the incidence of females to males (3.1:1) and the mortality rate (0.5 per 100,000). However, the estimated annual percentage change was higher (8.3 VT; 5.7 U.S.). Incidence among females peaked at 30-59 years of age, reflecting a significant rise from 1994 to 2007, while incidence trends for males did not vary significantly by age. For both females and males, the distribution of tumors by size did not vary over time; 1.0cm, 1.1-2.0cm, and >2.0cm represented 38%, 22%, and 40%, respectively. In females, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) accounted for 89% of cases, follicular (FTC) 8%, medullary (MTC) 2%, and anaplastic (ATC) 0.6%, while in males PTC accounted for 77% of cases, FTC 15%, MTC 1%, and ATC 3%. Geospatial analysis revealed locations and spatial patterns that, when combined with multivariate incidence analyses, indicated that factors other than increased surveillance and access to healthcare (physician density or insurance) contributed to the increased thyroid cancer incidence. Nine thyroid cancer incidence hot spots, areas with very high normalized incidence, were identified based on zip code data. Those locations did not correlate with urban areas or healthcare centers. Conclusions: These data provide evidence of increased thyroid cancer incidence in a rural population likely due to environmental drivers and SES. Geospatial modeling can provide an important framework for evaluation of additional associative risk factors.
Herendeen, R. A.. (2015) Connecting net energy with the price of energy and other goods and services. Ecological Economics 109 142-149
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Net energy is intuitively compelling and useful in calculating total impacts (e.g., primary energy, greenhouse gases, land use, and water requirements.) of delivering useful energy to the larger economy. However, it has little policy impact unless connected quantitatively to the price of energy and other goods and services. I present an input-output (IO)-based method to do this. The method is illustrated by a two-sector model fitted to U.S. IO economic data. In an IO-characterized system, the energy returned on energy invested (EROI) and the energy intensity of energy are directly related. However, EROI and prices are not uniquely related because they depend differently on four independent IO coefficients representing internal structure of, and the relationship between, the energy sector and the rest of the economy. If only one of these coefficients varies, then EROI does uniquely determine prices. Uncertainties in the IO coefficients, as well as persistent issues of choosing system boundary and aggregating diverse energy types, further complicate the EROI-price connection. In this context I review two recent empirical comparisons of U.S. oil and gas prices and EROI for 1954-2007. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Horsley, J.; Prout, S.; Tonts, M.; Ali, S. H.. (2015) Sustainable livelihoods and indicators for regional development in mining economies. Extractive Industries and Society-an International Journal; Extr. Ind. Soc. 2(2) 368-380
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In recent years, there has been growing interest in identifying robust indicators which demonstrate the links between mining and development. This builds on an extensive body of work in the broad field of rural development, and aims to capture the extent to which mining is contributing to changes in economic, socio-cultural, health, political and environmental conditions. While these indicators are contested on both conceptual and methodological grounds, we argue in this paper that the sustainable livelihoods (SL) framework might offer a more robust means of understanding the interplay between mining and development. The paper traces the emergence of this framework and considers how it might be situated in the context of existing 'resource studies' literature, before proposing methodological and conceptual alternatives for understanding the links between mining and development. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Huang, G. L.; Ali, S.. (2015) Local Sustainability and Gender Ratio: Evaluating the Impacts of Mining and Tourism on Sustainable Development in Yunnan, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health; Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12(1) 927-939
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This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio-which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data. The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia.
Kerchner, C. D.; Keeton, W. S.. (2015) California's regulatory forest carbon market: Viability for northeast landowners. Forest Policy and Economics 50 70-81
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Carbon markets have the potential to reward landowners for improved forest management and forest conservation. To date, the Over the Counter (OTC) voluntary market represents the greatest opportunity for forest landowners to participate in carbon transactions. However, lack of a consistent carbon price signal and sporadic demand coupled by high transaction costs has prevented widespread participation from family forest landowners. Adoption of a U.S. based cap-and-trade program reduces price risk and may provide incentives for sustainable forest management across large areas. Yet few studies have examined the supply side of carbon offsets and factors affecting project financial viability. To address this gap, we assessed how (1) property characteristics (i.e. stocking level, forest type, size etc.); (2) silvicultural treatments; and (3) protocol and legislative requirements affect the financial viability of compliance forest offset projects, focusing on California's Air Resource Board (ARE) program due to its significance as the world's second largest carbon market. We used forest inventory data from 25 properties in the northeastern United States to examine the viability of the sites as ARE offset projects. We utilized the U.S. Forest Service Forest Vegetation Simulator for our growth and yield simulations. To examine the factors that influence project viability, we used a classification and regression tree analysis performed in S-Plus software. Results indicate C stocking and property size are the most important property characteristics driving return on investment. However, protocol requirements and legislative assumptions impacting long-term monitoring costs are also important factors. While reduced price risk in a compliance carbon market has the potential to improve forest management in North America; high initial project development costs, long-term monitoring obligations, and legislative uncertainty are significant barriers that will limit family forest landowner market participation. The model developed here can be used by U.S. landowners to assess the financial viability of their property as a compliance offset project and can be utilized by policymakers to develop cost-effective climate change policy. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kleijn, D.; Winfree, R.; Bartomeus, I.; Carvalheiro, L. G.; Henry, M.; Isaacs, R.; Klein, A. M.; Kremen, C.; M'Gonigle, L. K.; Rader, R.; Ricketts, T. H.; Williams, N. M.; Adamson, N. L.; Ascher, J. S.; Baldi, A.; Batary, P.; Benjamin, F.; Biesmeijer, J. C.; Blitzer, E. J.; Bommarco, R.; Brand, M. R.; Bretagnolle, V.; Button, L.; Cariveau, D. P.; Chifflet, R.; Colville, J. F.; Danforth, B. N.; Elle, E.; Garratt, M. P. D.; Herzog, F.; Holzschuh, A.; Howlett, B. G.; Jauker, F.; Jha, S.; Knop, E.; Krewenka, K. M.; Le Feon, V.; Mandelik, Y.; May, E. A.; Park, M. G.; Pisanty, G.; Reemer, M.; Riedinger, V.; Rollin, O.; Rundlof, M.; Sardinas, H. S.; Scheper, J.; Sciligo, A. R.; Smith, H. G.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Thorp, R.; Tscharntke, T.; Verhulst, J.; Viana, B. F.; Vaissiere, B. E.; Veldtman, R.; Westphal, C.; Potts, S. G.. (2015) Delivery of crop pollination services is an insufficient argument for wild pollinator conservation. Nature Communications; Nat. Commun. 6 8
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There is compelling evidence that more diverse ecosystems deliver greater benefits to people, and these ecosystem services have become a key argument for biodiversity conservation. However, it is unclear how much biodiversity is needed to deliver ecosystem services in a cost- effective way. Here we show that, while the contribution of wild bees to crop production is significant, service delivery is restricted to a limited subset of all known bee species. Across crops, years and biogeographical regions, crop-visiting wild bee communities are dominated by a small number of common species, and threatened species are rarely observed on crops. Dominant crop pollinators persist under agricultural expansion and many are easily enhanced by simple conservation measures, suggesting that cost- effective management strategies to promote crop pollination should target a different set of species than management strategies to promote threatened bees. Conserving the biological diversity of bees therefore requires more than just ecosystem-service-based arguments.
Lee, J.; Martin, A.; Kristjanson, P.; Wollenberg, E.. (2015) Implications on equity in agricultural carbon market projects: a gendered analysis of access, decision making, and outcomes. Environment and Planning A; Environ. Plan. A 47(10) 2080-2096
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Carbon market projects have focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, often at the expense of achieving sustainable development goals. A central pillar in sustainable development is equity, yet most projects pay little attention to equity implications for underrepresented farmers, especially women. Agricultural carbon market projects that explicitly seek to promote sustainable agricultural land management practices are quickly gaining attention worldwide for their promise to deliver the triple-win': adaptation, food security, and mitigation. Previous experience with other payment for ecosystem services projects indicate that women often are marginalized and their needs ignored. To address this gap, this case study examined the Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project with a focus on gender equity in access, decision making, and outcomes. Results show that women had less access to joining the project than men, because they did not have the same level of influence in decision making at a household level. At the project level, both men and women had little influence in establishing project requirements and potential benefits, as these were decided upon prior to farmer recruitment. Regarding outcomes, women tended to participate in more project activities, and would in return reap more nonmonetary benefits than men. However, the costs involved in achieving these benefits was nontrivial: women's farm labor time increased significantly due to the substantial time and effort required to implement sustainable agricultural land management practices. If agricultural soil carbon market projects are to achieve better outcomes by addressing equity issues, they need to pay special attention to gender and the differing needs of farmersmale, female, young, old, poor, and less poorby involving them at the project design stage. Our findings show the importance of additional project benefits unrelated to carbon income for addressing the requirements of equity perceived by both the implementing agency and women themselves.
Lodh, N.; Rizzo, D. M.; Kerans, B. L.; McGinnis, S.; Fytilis, N.; Stevens, L.. (2015) If you've seen one worm, have you seen them all? Spatial, community, and genetic variability of tubificid communities in Montana. Freshwater Science; Freshw. Sci. 34(3) 909-917
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Genetic studies are recognized increasingly as important for understanding naturally occurring disease dynamics and are used to predict host genetic diversity and coevolutionary processes and to identify species composition in ecological communities. Tubifex tubifex, the definitive host of the whirling disease parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, comprises 6 known lineages that vary widely in parasite susceptibility. We used 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) to identify relationships among genetic variability of 3 oligochaete genera (T. tubifex, Rhyacodrilus spp., and Ilyodrilus spp.; Oligochaeta: Tubificidae), oligochaete assemblage composition, and the presence of whirling disease in 9 locations across 4 watersheds in Montana, USA. We assessed genetic variability among 183 tubificid worms from locations classified as positive or negative for whirling disease based on 5 to 8 y of monitoring by the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks. Within genera, we found 2 groups of T. tubifex (lineages I and III), 2 groups of Rhyacodrilus spp., and 4 groups of Ilyodrilus spp., possibly suggesting cryptic species. The maximum genetic variability within taxa was relatively high (similar to 10% sequence divergence) for all 3 genera, but haplotype diversity within groups with >5% sequence divergence was greater for Ilyodrilus spp. (0.719) than for Tubifex spp. (0.246) and Rhyacodrilus spp. (0.143). The variation was nonrandomly distributed over the landscape. Oligochaete genetic composition was more similar among locations in the same watershed than among locations with or without whirling disease. Thus, oligochaete assemblage composition did not appear to be related to the presence of the disease at this watershed spatial scale.
Makki, M.; Ali, S. H.; Van Vuuren, K.. (2015) 'Religious identity and coal development in Pakistan': Ecology, land rights and the politics of exclusion. Extractive Industries and Society-an International Journal; Extr. Ind. Soc. 2(2) 276-286
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This paper examines the role of religious identity in the context of a coal development project in District Tharparkar, Pakistan. Research was conducted in six rural communities located in the vicinity of the coal project. The results obtained are important for two reasons. First, they provide insights into the heterogeneous composition of communities based on religious identity, which explains contrasting perceptions toward project development. Second, they entail a practical dimension that suggests that in the process of assessment, development and management of coal resources, differences related to religious and community identity must be recognized and taken into account to minimize community conflict. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mills, R. W.; Koliba, C. J.. (2015) The challenge of accountability in complex regulatory networks: The case of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Regulation & Governance; Regul. Gov. 9(1) 77-91
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A puzzle that faces public administrators within regulatory governance networks is how to balance the need for democratic accountability while increasingly facing demands from elected officials to optimize oversight of industry by utilizing the expertise of the private sector in developing risk-based standards for compliance. The shift from traditional command and control oversight to process oriented regulatory regimes has been most pronounced in highly complex industries, such as aviation and deepwater oil drilling, where the intricate and technical nature of operations necessitates risk-based regulatory networks based largely on voluntary compliance with mutually agreed upon standards. The question addressed in this paper is how the shift to process oriented regimes affects the trade-offs between democratic, market, and administrative accountability frames, and what factors determine the dominant accountability frame within the network. Using post-incident document analysis, this paper provides a case study of regulatory oversight of the deepwater oil drilling industry prior to the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon rig in the Gulf of Mexico, to explore how the shift to a more networked risk-based regulatory regime affects the trade-offs and dominant accountability frames within the network. The results of this study indicate that a reliance on market-based accountability mechanisms, along with the lack of a fully implemented process-oriented regulatory regime, led to the largest oil spill in US history.
Mondal, P.; Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.; Galford, G. L.; Small, C.. (2015) Sensitivity of crop cover to climate variability: Insights from two Indian agro-ecoregions. Journal of Environmental Management 148 21-30
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Crop productivity in India varies greatly with inter-annual climate variability and is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall and temperature. The sensitivity of yields to future climate variability varies with crop type, access to irrigation and other biophysical and socio-economic factors. To better understand sensitivities to future climate, this study focuses on agro-ecological subregions in Central and Western India that span a range of crops, irrigation, biophysical conditions and socioeconomic characteristics. Climate variability is derived from remotely-sensed data products, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM - precipitation) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS temperature). We examined green-leaf phenologies as proxy for crop productivity using the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from 2000 to 2012. Using both monsoon and winter growing seasons, we assessed phenological sensitivity to inter-annual variability in precipitation and temperature patterns. Inter-annual EVI phenology anomalies ranged from -25% to 25%, with some highly anomalous values up to 200%. Monsoon crop phenology in the Central India site is highly sensitive to climate, especially the timing of the start and end of the monsoon and intensity of precipitation. In the Western India site, monsoon crop phenology is less sensitive to precipitation variability, yet shows considerable fluctuations in monsoon crop productivity across the years. Temperature is critically important for winter productivity across a range of crop and management types, such that irrigation might not provide a sufficient buffer against projected temperature increases. Better access to weather information and usage of climate-resilient crop types would play pivotal role in maintaining future productivity. Effective strategies to adapt to projected climate changes in the coming decades would also need to be tailored to regional biophysical and socio-economic conditions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Novak, D. C.; Koliba, C.; Zia, A.; Tucker, M.. (2015) Evaluating the outcomes associated with an innovative change in a state-level transportation project prioritization process: A case study of Vermont. Transport Policy; Transp. Policy 42 130-143
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In this paper we examine the outcomes associated with an innovative change in a state-level transportation project prioritization process within the United States (U.S.). A foundational component of the innovation is the development and implementation of a novel multi-criteria analysis (MCA) tool to aid decision-makers. The pre and post-MCA project prioritization processes are described in detail for the state of Vermont, and we use a mixed methodological approach to empirically evaluate the outcomes associated with the innovative change with respect to three objectives: (1) to make the project prioritization process more transparent, (2) to improve the project prioritization process by incorporating well-defined, objective evaluation criteria into the decision-making process, and (3) to reduce inequality in the allocation of transportation project funds between the local jurisdictions. We demonstrate that the innovative change in the project prioritization process was clearly successful in accomplishing objectives I and 2, but does not appear to be successful with respect to accomplishing objective 3. The findings are discussed in the context of the state of Vermont, and we offer suggestions for how funding inequality might be addressed in the future. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pailler, S.; Naidoo, R.; Burgess, N. D.; Freeman, O. E.; Fisher, B.. (2015) Impacts of Community-Based Natural Resource Management on Wealth, Food Security and Child Health in Tanzania. PloS One 10(7) 22
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Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a major global strategy for enhancing conservation outcomes while also seeking to improve rural livelihoods; however, little evidence of socioeconomic outcomes exists. We present a national-level analysis that empirically estimates socioeconomic impacts of CBNRM across Tanzania, while systematically controlling for potential sources of bias. Specifically, we apply a difference-indifferences model to national-scale, cross-sectional data to estimate the impact of three different CBNRM governance regimes on wealth, food security and child health, considering differential impacts of CBNRM on wealthy and poor populations. We also explore whether or not longer-standing CBNRM efforts provide more benefits than recently-established CBNRM areas. Our results show significant improvements in household food security in CBNRM areas compared with non-CBNRM areas, but household wealth and health outcomes in children are generally not significantly different. No one CBNRM governance regime demonstrates consistently different welfare outcomes than the others. Wealthy households benefit more from CBNRM than poor households and CBNRM benefits appear to increase with longer periods of implementation. Perhaps evidence of CBNRM benefits is limited because CBNRM hasn't been around long enough to yield demonstrable outcomes. Nonetheless, achieving demonstrable benefits to rural populations will be crucial for CBNRM's future success in Tanzania.
Roman, J.; Dunphy-Daly, M. M.; Johnston, D. W.; Read, A. J.. (2015) Lifting baselines to address the consequences of conservation success. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 30(6) 299-302
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Biologists and policymakers are accustomed to managing species in decline, but for the first time in generations they are also encountering recovering populations of ocean predators. Many citizens perceive these species as invaders and conflicts are increasing. It is time to celebrate these hard-earned successes and lift baselines for recovering species.
Ruckelshaus, M.; McKenzie, E.; Tallis, H.; Guerry, A.; Daily, G.; Kareiva, P.; Polasky, S.; Ricketts, T.; Bhagabati, N.; Wood, S. A.; Bernhardt, J.. (2015) Notes from the field: Lessons learned from using ecosystem service approaches to inform real-world decisions. Ecological Economics 115 11-21
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While there have been rapid advances in assessments of biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES), a critical remaining challenge is how to move from scientific knowledge to real-world decision making. We offer 6 lessons from our experiences applying new approaches and tools for quantifying BES in 20 pilot demonstrations: (1) Applying a BES approach is most effective in leading to policy change as part of an iterative science-policy process; (2) simple ecological production function models have been useful in a diverse set of decision contexts, across abroad range of biophysical, social, and governance systems. Key limitations of simple models arise at very small scales, and in predicting specific future BES values; (3) training local experts in the approaches and tools is important for building local capacity, ownership, trust, and long-term success; (4) decision makers and stake-holders prefer to use a variety of BES value metrics, not only monetary values; (5) an important science gap exists in linking changes in BES to changes in livelihoods, health, cultural values, and other metrics of human wellbeing; and (6) communicating uncertainty in useful and transparent ways remains challenging. 2013 The Authors. (C) Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sanders, J. G.; Beichman, A. C.; Roman, J.; Scott, J. J.; Emerson, D.; McCarthy, J. J.; Girguis, P. R.. (2015) Baleen whales host a unique gut microbiome with similarities to both carnivores and herbivores. Nature Communications; Nat. Commun. 6 8
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Mammals host gut microbiomes of immense physiological consequence, but the determinants of diversity in these communities remain poorly understood. Diet appears to be the dominant factor, but host phylogeny also seems to be an important, if unpredictable, correlate. Here we show that baleen whales, which prey on animals (fish and crustaceans), harbor unique gut microbiomes with surprising parallels in functional capacity and higher level taxonomy to those of terrestrial herbivores. These similarities likely reflect a shared role for fermentative metabolisms despite a shift in primary carbon sources from plant-derived to animal-derived polysaccharides, such as chitin. In contrast, protein catabolism and essential amino acid synthesis pathways in baleen whale microbiomes more closely resemble those of terrestrial carnivores. Our results demonstrate that functional attributes of the microbiome can vary independently even given an animal-derived diet, illustrating how diet and evolutionary history combine to shape microbial diversity in the mammalian gut.
Trevisan, A. C. D.; Fantini, A. C.; Schmitt, A. L.; Farley, J.. (2015) Market for Amazonian Acai (Euterpe oleraceae) Stimulates Pulp Production from Atlantic Forest Jucara Berries (Euterpe edulis). Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 39(7) 762-781
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Palm heart from jucara palm (Euterpe edulis) has been one of the most important non-timber forest products (NTFPs) from the Brazilian Atlantic forest since 1960s, but overharvesting, among other factors, drove the species near to extinction. However, the recent conversion from extraction of hearts of palm to berries harvesting for pulp production, a nondestructive use, had a remarkable effect on species conservation and its potential for cash provision and forest landscape restoration. Pulp production from E. edulis in the Atlantic Forest is strongly benefiting from the traditional and expanding market of acai pulp produced from Euterpe oleraceae in the Amazon Basin. In this article, we assess the current status of this new NTFP from E. edulis in the State of Santa Catarina, tracing a parallel with the acai production chain in the Amazon. In addition to a literature review, we surveyed the production chain and interviewed key stakeholders. Production of jucara pulp soared from 5 tons in 2010 to 97.76 tons in 2011, but production is clearly far from fulfilling the fast growing demand. With 115 fruit collectors, management in backyard agroforestry represents 80% of production, with the secondary forests providing the remainder. Two types of producers in Santa Catarinaindustrial and family farmersare distinguished by their form of processing, production scale and sales. Familiarity of farmers with jucara palm as well as the better infrastructure of the region compared to the Amazon gives jucara pulp good condition for the development of the production chain. Nonetheless, it is clearly important to define strategies under public and private policies for research, development, and dissemination of sustainable production models, based on the ecology of the species, landscape structure, and sociocultural values.
Tsai, Y. S.; Zia, A.; Koliba, C.; Bucini, G.; Guilbert, J.; Beckage, B.. (2015) An interactive land use transition agent-based model (ILUTABM): Endogenizing human-environment interactions in the Western Missisquoi Watershed. Land Use Policy 49 161-176
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Forest Transition Theory (FTT) suggests that reforestation may follow deforestation as a result of and interplay between changing social, economic and ecological conditions. We develop a simplistic but empirically data driven land use transition agent-based modeling platform, interactive land use transition agent-based model (ILUTABM), that is able to reproduce the observed land use patterns and link the forest transition to parcel-level heuristic-based land use decisions and ecosystem service (ES). The ILUTABM endogenously links landowners' land use decisions with ecosystem services (ES) provided by the lands by treating both lands and landowners as interacting agents. The ILUTABM simulates both the land use changes resulting from farmers' decision behaviors as well as the recursive effects of changing land uses on farmers' decision behaviors. The ILUTABM is calibrated and validated at 30 m x 30 m spatial resolution using National Land Cover Data (NLCD) 1992, 2001 and 2006 across the western Missisquoi watershed, which is located in the north-eastern US with an estimated area of 283 square kilometers and 312 farmers farming on 16% of the total Missisquoi watershed area. This study hypothesizes that farmers' land use decisions are made primarily based on their summed expected utilities and that impacts of exogenous socio-economic factors, such as natural disasters, public policies and institutional/social reforms, on farmers' expected utilities can significantly influence the land use transitions between agricultural and forested lands. Monte Carlo experiments under six various socio-economic conditions combined with different ES valuation schemes are used to assess the sensitivities of the ILUTABM. Goodness-of-fit measures confirm that the ILUTABM is able to reproduce 62% of the observed land use transitions. However, the spatial patterns of the observed land used transitions are more clustered than the simulated counterparts. We find that, when farmers value food provisioning Ecosystem Services (ES) more than other ES (e.g., soil and water regulation), deforestation is observed. However, when farmers value less food provisioning than other ES or they value food provisioning and other ES equally, the forest transition is observed. The ILUTABM advances the Forest Transition Theory (FTT) framework by endogenizing the interactions of socio-ecological feedbacks and socio-economic factors in a generalizable model that can be calibrated with empirical data. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wamboye, E. F.; Seguino, S.. (2015) GENDER EFFECTS OF TRADE OPENNESS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. Feminist Economics 21(3) 82-113
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More than thirty years into the modern era of globalization, scholars are now in a position to evaluate the distributive effects of the policy shifts that have led to greater economic integration. One region of the world for which little robust empirical evidence exists on gendered employment effects is Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To identify whether there is an impact of economic and trade structure on women's relative access to work, this contribution empirically explores these issues for thirty-eight SSA countries, and for two subgroups. Panel data for the period 1991-2010 is examined using fixed effects, random effects and two-stage least-squares estimation techniques. Findings suggest that trade liberalization has gendered employment effects, with the direction depending on the structure of the economy. However, the more robust finding is that a country's infrastructure has played a determining role in gendered labor market outcomes in SSA since the early 1990s.
Xu, Y. Y.; Schroth, A. W.; Isles, P. D. F.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2015) Quantile regression improves models of lake eutrophication with implications for ecosystem-specific management. Freshwater Biology 60(9) 1841-1853
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Although commonly used by those tasked with lake management, the statistical approach of data averaging (DA) followed by ordinary least-squares regression (OLSR) to generate nutrient limitation models is outdated and may impede the understanding and successful management of lake eutrophication. Using a 21-year data set from Lake Champlain as a case study, the traditional DA-OLSR-coupled approach was re-evaluated and improved to quantify the cause-effect relationships between chlorophyll (Chl) and total nitrogen (TN) or total phosphorus (TP). We confirmed that the commonly used DA-OLSR approach results in misleading cause-effect nutrient limitation inferences by illustrating how the process of DA reduces the range of data distribution considered and masks meaningful temporal variation observed within a given period. Our model comparisons demonstrate that using quantile regression (QR) to fit the upper boundary of the response distribution (99th quantile model) is more robust than the OLSR analysis for generating eutrophication models and developing nutrient management targets, as this method reduces the effects of unmeasured factors that plague the OLSR-derived model. Because our approach is statistically in line with the ecological law of the minimum', it is particularly powerful for inferring resource limitation with broad potential utility to the ecological research community. By integrating percentile selection (PS) with QR-derived model output, we developed a PS-QR-coupled approach to quantify the relative importance of TN and TP reductions in a eutrophic system. Utilising this approach, we determined that the reduction in TP to meet a specific Chl target should be the first priority to mitigate eutrophication in Lake Champlain. The structure of this statistically robust and straightforward approach for developing nutrient reduction targets can be easily adopted as an individual lake-specific tool for the research and management of other lakes and reservoirs with similar water quality data sets. Moreover, the PS-QR-coupled approach developed here is also of theoretical importance to understanding and modelling the interacting effects of multiple limiting factors on ecological processes (e.g. eutrophication) with broad application to aquatic research.
Xu, Y. Y.; Schroth, A. W.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2015) Developing a 21st Century framework for lake-specific eutrophication assessment using quantile regression. Limnology and Oceanography-Methods; Limnol. Oceanogr. Meth. 13(5) 237-249
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Over the past 30+ years, researchers and water resource managers have often relied on a set of regression-based equations to describe the relationships between secchi depth (SD), chlorophyll (Chl) and total phosphorous (TP) and quantitatively assess lake trophic status after Carlson (1977). Here, we develop a revised framework for eutrophication assessment that incorporates recent statistical advances in ecology and leverages the increasing availability of lake-specific datasets in the 21st Century. Long-term (1992-2012) water quality data from Lake Champlain (LC) are used to revisit and revise classic equations of tropic state indices (TSIChl/TP). The upper boundaries of SD-ln(Chl) and ln(Chl)-ln(TP) distributions within this dataset fit well with quantile regression (99th, QR) to generate LC-specific TSIChl/TP equations. Our results illustrate that Carlson (1977)'s original TSIChl/TP equations overestimate the trophic status of LC relative to LC-specific equations, and highlight the power of the QR-derived TSIChl/TP metric. We combine TSISD and TSIChl into one metric to indicate pseudoeutrophication and pseudomesotrophication of oligotrophic waters as well as pseudoeutrophication of mesotrophic waters to identify waters threatened by potential trophic shift. Additionally, TSIChl and TSITP were coupled as a complimentary dual metric to indicate potential risks of excessive phosphorus loading to oligotrophic and mesotrophic waters. With these dual metric schemes, we performed cluster analysis of 15 locations to spatially assess trophic status and phosphorous risks across LC. This study describes a relatively simple and robust approach for lake-specific status assessment, the structure of which can be broadly utilized within monitoring and research communities.
Zia, A.; Koliba, C.; Meek, J.; Schulz, A.. (2015) Scale and intensity of collaboration as determinants of performance management gaps in polycentric governance networks: evidence from a national survey of metropolitan planning organisations. Policy and Politics; Policy Polit. 43(3) 367-390
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Metropolitan planning organisations (MPOs) present a unique opportunity as real-world laboratories to investigate the dynamics of scale and performance management in polycentric governance networks. Using a 2009 Government Accountability Office survey of all 381 MPOs, this study examines whether the scale and intensity of collaboration of an MPO influences performance management; and tests two hypotheses: (1) small-scale MPOs have a significant performance management gap; (2) larger-scale MPOs with higher scale and intensity of collaboration have a smaller performance management gap. Regression models predict performance management gaps across 15 indicators. Theoretical implications concerning scale and collaboration in polycentric governance networks are discussed.
Zia, A.; Wagner, C. H.. (2015) Mainstreaming Early Warning Systems in Development and Planning Processes: Multilevel Implementation of Sendai Framework in Indus and Sahel. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science; Int. J. Disaster Risk Sci. 6(2) 189-199
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The third UN World Congress on Disaster Risk Reduction, held in Sendai, Japan in March 2015, agreed on a new framework to guide disaster risk reduction policy and practice for the next 15 years. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR) leaves important implementation issues unspecified and potentially creates both problems and opportunities for complex, multilevel governance systems in coping with hazards and disastrous events. Early warning systems (EWS), if built into the mainstream of planning for development and disaster relief and recovery, could present a significant opportunity to realize many SFDRR goals. We explore the complexities of using hydrometeorological EWS to prepare for drought and flood disasters in the densely populated communities of Pakistan's Indus River Basin in contrast to the African Sahel's less densely settled grasslands. Multilevel governance systems are often dominated by a top-down, technocentric, centralized management bias and have great difficulty responding to the needs of peripheral and vulnerable populations. People-centered, bottom-up approaches that incorporate disaggregated communities with local knowledge into a balanced, multilevel disaster risk management and governance structure have a dramatically better chance of realizing the SFDRR goals for disaster risk reduction.
2014
Adam, Jennifer C; Stephens, Jennie C; Chung, SerenaH; Brady, MichaelP; Evans, R. David; Kruger, ChadE; Lamb, BrianK; Liu, Mingliang; Stöckle, ClaudioO; Vaughan, JosephK; Rajagopalan, Kirti; Harrison, JohnA; Tague, ChristinaL; Kalyanaraman, Ananth; Chen, Yong; Guenther, Alex; Leung, Fok-Yan; Leung, L. Ruby; Perleberg, AndrewB; Yoder, Jonathan; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, Sarah; Chandrasekharan, Bhagyam; Malek, Keyvan; Mullis, Tristan; Miller, Cody; Nergui, Tsengel; Poinsatte, Justin; Reyes, Julian; Zhu, Jun; Choate, JanetS; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Nelson, Roger; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Yorgey, GeorgineG; Johnson, Kristen; Chinnayakanahalli, KiranJ; Hamlet, AlanF; Nijssen, Bart; Walden, Von. (2014) BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management. Climatic Change; Springer Netherlands Pages 1-17;
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As managers of agricultural and natural resources are confronted with uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region that explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. This paper describes the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.
Agrawal, A.; Wollenberg, E.; Persha, L.. (2014) Governing agriculture-forest landscapes to achieve climate change mitigation. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 29 270-280
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This introduction to the special section on "Governing Agriculture-Forest Landscapes to Achieve Climate Change Mitigation" reviews external interventions to improve forest conditions and reduce deforestation, and by extension, influence carbon storage in agriculture-forest landscapes. The review is based on a careful survey of 123 cases of project-based and policy interventions to influence land use and forest cover outcomes. We propose that outcomes of interventions can be explained in terms of rights, incentives, and technologies related to land use and apply this framework to examine 12 types of interventions in agriculture-forest landscapes. The analysis of the identified 123 cases raises concerns about consistency of data and comparability of cases. Our preliminary evidence suggests limited association between the stated objective of an intervention and its success. This evidence also suggests that smaller scale and effective enforcement may be positively associated with improved forest outcomes. But the effectiveness of interventions across different agriculture-forest landscapes varies and available evidence does not permit easy generalizations. The variable effects of interventions across different agriculture-forest landscapes point to the need to better understand the forms and functions of interventions and to problems associated with assessing their relative efficacy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ali, S. H.. (2014) Magic Metals A supply of clean, affordable energy depends on little-known substances. Scientific American 310(1) 12-12
Ali, Saleem H.; Nawaz, Shuja. (2014) Pakistan’s ecological precipice: An opportunity for redefining security.
Ali, Saleem H.. (2014) Transboundary Conservation Through Hybrid Partnerships: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Projects. Springer Netherlands, New Haven, CT. 3 107-126
Ali, Saleem H. (2014) Social and Environmental Impact of the Rare Earth Industries. Resources 3(1) 123-134
Ali, Saleem H. (2014) The Ethics of Space and Time in Mining Projects: Matching Technical Tools with Social Performance. Journal of Business Ethics; J Bus Ethics; Springer Netherlands, New Haven, CT. Pages 1-7;
Alvez, J. P.; Fo, A. L. S.; Farley, J. C.; Erickson, J. D.; Mendez, V. E.. (2014) Transition from Semi-Confinement to Pasture-Based Dairy in Brazil: Farmers' View of Economic and Environmental Performances. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 38(9) 995-1014
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The production of ecosystem goods and services has increased significantly in the last 100 years, while the capacity of ecosystems to generate supporting and regulating services has decreased. In this context, agriculture and livestock production have become major concerns. At the same time, livestock, particularly dairy cows, play a key role and can serve to improve ecosystems, production, and rural livelihoods. We randomly selected and conducted semistructural interviews with 61 dairy family farmers from four cooperatives in the Encosta da Serra Geral Region of the Atlantic rainforest in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The goal was to analyze their production and viewpoints about environmental variables after adopting management-intensive grazing (MIG). The overall results showed that when farmers changed from semi-confinement and continuous grazing to MIG they perceived improvements in production, livelihoods, and ecosystem services. Moreover, according to farmers' insights, MIG could be a tool to increase water and soil quality, animal health, alleviate poverty, and complement Brazilian conservation efforts.
Bacon, C. M.; Sundstrom, W. A.; Gomez, M. E. F.; Mendez, V. E.; Santos, R.; Goldoftas, B.; Dougherty, I.. (2014) Explaining the 'hungry farmer paradox': Smallholders and fair trade cooperatives navigate seasonality and change in Nicaragua's corn and coffee markets. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 25 133-149
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Latin American smallholder coffee farmers linked with fair trade and organic markets are frequently cited as models for sustainable food systems. Yet many experience seasonal hunger, which is a very common, but understudied, form of food insecurity. Northern Nicaragua's highlands include wellorganized cooperatives, high rural poverty rates, and rain dependent farms, offering a compelling study area to understand what factors are associated with seasonal hunger. This participatory mixed methods study combines data from observations, interviews and focus groups with results from a survey of 244 cooperative members. It finds that seasonal hunger is influenced by multiple factors, including: (1) annual cycles of precipitation and rising maize prices during the lean months; (2) inter annual droughts and periodic storms; and (3) the long-term inability of coffee harvests and prices to provide sufficient income. Sampled households experienced an average of about 3 months of seasonal hunger in 2009. A series of five least squares regression models find the expected significant impacts of corn harvest quantity, farm area, improved grain storage, and household incomes, all inversely correlated with lean months. Unanticipated results include the finding that households with more fruit trees reported fewer lean months, while the predominant environmentally friendly farming practices had no discernable impacts. The presence of hunger among producers challenges sustainable coffee marketing claims. We describe one example of a partnership-based response that integrates agroecological farm management with the use of fair trade cooperative institutions to re-localize the corn distribution system. Increased investments and integrated strategies will be needed to reduce threats to food security, livelihoods, and biodiversity associated with the rapid spread of coffee leaf rust and falling commodity prices. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bagstad, K. J.; Villa, F.; Batker, D.; Harrison-Cox, J.; Voigt, B.; Johnson, G. W.. (2014) From theoretical to actual ecosystem services: mapping beneficiaries and spatial flows in ecosystem service assessments. Ecology and Society 19(2) 14
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Ecosystem services mapping and modeling has focused more on supply than demand, until recently. Whereas the potential provision of economic benefits from ecosystems to people is often quantified through ecological production functions, the use of and demand for ecosystem services has received less attention, as have the spatial flows of services from ecosystems to people. However, new modeling approaches that map and quantify service-specific sources (ecosystem capacity to provide a service), sinks (biophysical or anthropogenic features that deplete or alter service flows), users (user locations and level of demand), and spatial flows can provide a more complete understanding of ecosystem services. Through a case study in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, we quantify and differentiate between the theoretical or in situ provision of services, i.e., ecosystems' capacity to supply services, and their actual provision when accounting for the location of beneficiaries and the spatial connections that mediate service flows between people and ecosystems. Our analysis includes five ecosystem services: carbon sequestration and storage, riverine flood regulation, sediment regulation for reservoirs, open space proximity, and scenic viewsheds. Each ecosystem service is characterized by different beneficiary groups and means of service flow. Using the ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) methodology we map service supply, demand, and flow, extending on simpler approaches used by past studies to map service provision and use. With the exception of the carbon sequestration service, regions that actually provided services to people, i.e., connected to beneficiaries via flow paths, amounted to 16-66% of those theoretically capable of supplying services, i.e., all ecosystems across the landscape. These results offer a more complete understanding of the spatial dynamics of ecosystem services and their effects, and may provide a sounder basis for economic valuation and policy applications than studies that consider only theoretical service provision and/or use.
Bhagabati, N. K.; Ricketts, T.; Sulistyawan, T. B. S.; Conte, M.; Ennaanay, D.; Hadian, O.; McKenzie, E.; Olwero, N.; Rosenthal, A.; Tallis, H.; Wolny, S.. (2014) Ecosystem services reinforce Sumatran tiger conservation in land use plans. Biological Conservation 169 147-156
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Ecosystem services have clear promise to help identify and protect priority areas for biodiversity. To leverage them effectively, practitioners must conduct timely analyses at appropriate scales, often with limited data. Here we use simple spatial analyses on readily available datasets to compare the distribution of five ecosystem services with tiger habitat in central Sumatra. We assessed services and habitat in 2008 and the changes in these variables under two future scenarios: a conservation-friendly Green Vision, and a Spatial Plan developed by the Indonesian government. In 2008, the range of tiger habitat overlapped substantially with areas of high carbon storage and sediment retention, but less with areas of high water yield and nutrient retention. Depending on service, location and spatial grain of analysis, there were both gains and losses from 2008 to each scenario; however, aggregate provision of each ecosystem service (except water yield) and total area of tiger habitat were higher in the Vision than the Plan, likely driven by an increase in forest cover in the Vision. Sub-watersheds with high levels of several ecosystem services contained substantially more tiger habitat than random subsets of sub-watersheds, suggesting that prioritizing ecosystem services could benefit tiger conservation. Our analyses provided input to government-led spatial planning and strategic environmental assessments in the study area, indicating that even under time and data constraints, policy-relevant assessments of multiple ecosystem services are feasible. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bomblies, A.. (2014) Agent-based modeling of malaria vectors: the importance of spatial simulation. Parasites & Vectors; Parasites Vectors 7 10
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Background: The modeling of malaria vector mosquito populations yields great insight into drivers of malaria transmission at the village scale. Simulation of individual mosquitoes as "agents" in a distributed, dynamic model domain may be greatly beneficial for simulation of spatial relationships of vectors and hosts. Methods: In this study, an agent-based model is used to simulate the life cycle and movement of individual malaria vector mosquitoes in a Niger Sahel village, with individual simulated mosquitoes interacting with their physical environment as well as humans. Various processes that are known to be epidemiologically important, such as the dependence of parity on flight distance between developmental habitat and blood meal hosts and therefore spatial relationships of pools and houses, are readily simulated using this modeling paradigm. Impacts of perturbations can be evaluated on the basis of vectorial capacity, because the interactions between individuals that make up the population-scale metric vectorial capacity can be easily tracked for simulated mosquitoes and human blood meal hosts, without the need to estimate vectorial capacity parameters. Results: As expected, model results show pronounced impacts of pool source reduction from larvicide application and draining, but with varying degrees of impact depending on the spatial relationship between pools and human habitation. Results highlight the importance of spatially-explicit simulation that can model individuals such as in an agent-based model. Conclusions: The impacts of perturbations on village scale malaria transmission depend on spatial locations of individual mosquitoes, as well as the tracking of relevant life cycle events and characteristics of individual mosquitoes. This study demonstrates advantages of using an agent-based approach for village-scale mosquito simulation to address questions in which spatial relationships are known to be important.
Buchholz, T.; Friedland, A. J.; Hornig, C. E.; Keeton, W. S.; Zanchi, G.; Nunery, J.. (2014) Mineral soil carbon fluxes in forests and implications for carbon balance assessments. Global Change Biology Bioenergy 6(4) 305-311
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Forest carbon cycles play an important role in efforts to understand and mitigate climate change. Large amounts of carbon (C) are stored in deep mineral forest soils, but are often not considered in accounting for global C fluxes because mineral soil C is commonly thought to be relatively stable. We explore C fluxes associated with forest management practices by examining existing data on forest C fluxes in the northeastern US. Our findings demonstrate that mineral soil C can play an important role in C emissions, especially when considering intensive forest management practices. Such practices are known to cause a high aboveground C flux to the atmosphere, but there is evidence that they can also promote comparably high and long-term belowground C fluxes. If these additional fluxes are widespread in forests, recommendations for increased reliance on forest biomass may need to be reevaluated. Furthermore, existing protocols for the monitoring of forest C often ignore mineral soil C due to lack of data. Forest C analyses will be incomplete until this problem is resolved.
Edwards, D. P.; Magrach, A.; Woodcock, P.; Ji, Y. Q.; Lim, N. T. L.; Edwards, F. A.; Larsen, T. H.; Hsu, W. W.; Benedick, S.; Khen, C. V.; Chung, A. Y. C.; Reynolds, G.; Fisher, B.; Laurance, W. F.; Wilcove, D. S.; Hamer, K. C.; Yu, D. W.. (2014) Selective-logging and oil palm: multitaxon impacts, biodiversity indicators, and trade-offs for conservation planning. Ecological Applications 24(8) 2029-2049
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Strong global demand for tropical timber and agricultural products has driven large-scale logging and subsequent conversion of tropical forests. Given that the majority of tropical landscapes have been or will likely be logged, the protection of biodiversity within tropical forests thus depends on whether species can persist in these economically exploited lands, and if species cannot persist, whether we can protect enough primary forest from logging and conversion. However, our knowledge of the impact of logging and conversion on biodiversity is limited to a few taxa, often sampled in different locations with complex land-use histories, hampering attempts to plan cost-effective conservation strategies and to draw conclusions across taxa. Spanning a land-use gradient of primary forest, once- and twice-logged forests, and oil palm plantations, we used traditional sampling and DNA metabarcoding to compile an extensive data set in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo for nine vertebrate and invertebrate taxa to quantify the biological impacts of logging and oil palm, develop cost-effective methods of protecting biodiversity, and examine whether there is congruence in response among taxa. Logged forests retained high species richness, including, on average, 70% of species found in primary forest. In contrast, conversion to oil palm dramatically reduces species richness, with significantly fewer primary-forest species than found on logged forest transects for seven taxa. Using a systematic conservation planning analysis, we show that efficient protection of primary-forest species is achieved with land portfolios that include a large proportion of logged-forest plots. Protecting logged forests is thus a cost-effective method of protecting an ecologically and taxonomically diverse range of species, particularly when conservation budgets are limited. Six indicator groups (birds, leaf-litter ants, beetles, aerial hymenopterans, flies, and true bugs) proved to be consistently good predictors of the response of the other taxa to logging and oil palm. Our results confidently establish the high conservation value of logged forests and the low value of oil palm. Cross-taxon congruence in responses to disturbance also suggests that the practice of focusing on key indicator taxa yields important information of general biodiversity in studies of logging and oil palm.
Fischlein, M.; Feldpausch-Parker, A. M.; Peterson, T. R.; Stephens, J. C.; Wilson, E. J.. (2014) Which Way Does the Wind Blow? Analysing the State Context for Renewable Energy Deployment in the United States. Environmental Policy and Governance 24(3) 169-187
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Wind power is an important low-carbon technology and the most rapidly growing renewable energy technology in the US, but there is significant state-by-state variation in wind power distribution. This variation cannot be explained solely by wind resource patterns or US state policy and points to the importance of both local and central governance. We outline the national context for wind deployment in the US and then explore the sub-national, state-level factors shaping wind deployment patterns. We probe the socio-political context across four US states by integrating multiple research methods. Through comparative state-level analysis of the energy system, energy policy, public discourse as represented in the media and state-level, energy policy stakeholders' perceptions we examine variation in the context for wind deployment in Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana and Texas. Our results demonstrate that different patterns of wind deployment and different debates about wind power have emerged in each locale. Participants across the different states appear to frame the risks and benefits of wind power in significantly different ways. We discuss the impact of risks and benefit frames on energy policy outcomes. The comparative assessment highlights the complex interplay between central and local governance and explores the significant socio-political variation between states. The study contributes to the understanding of energy technology deployment processes, decision-making and energy policy outcomes. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
Fisher, B.; Edwards, D. P.; Wilcove, D. S.. (2014) Logging and conservation: Economic impacts of the stocking rates and Prices of commercial timber species. Forest Policy and Economics 38 65-71
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Tropical forests vary greatly in their stocking rates of timber and the commercial value of the different tree species they contain. This significantly affects the economics of logging and, consequently, the viability of carbon payments to aid in the conservation or management of the world's forests. In this paper we first develop a conceptual model to investigate how theoretical opportunity costs and the conservation potential of carbon payments vary across forests with stocking rates and species composition. We focus the model on two possible conservation contexts: 1) strict protection of unlogged forests and 2) conservation of selectively logged forests. Results suggest that the type of forest, with regard to both timber volume and species composition, greatly affects the potential of a carbon payment to mitigate forest degradation. Additionally, two complementary insights emerge. First, in forests where timbers of high commercial value represent only a small proportion of total wood volume (and therefore carbon), selective logging may make conservation of the wider landscape more feasible, and cost-effective. Second, in forests where selective logging of highly-prized species has already occurred, engaging in long-term conservation of forest (and hence thwarting conversion to agriculture) may make the conservation of biodiverse landscapes more feasible, and their management more cost-effective. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fisher, B.; Naidoo, R.; Ricketts, T.. (2014) A Field Guide to Economics for Conservationists. W. H. Freeman, Cheltenham, U.K..
Fisher, Brendan; Balmford, Andrew; Ferraro, Paul J.; Glew, Louise; Mascia, Michael; Naidoo, Robin; Ricketts, Taylor H.. (2014) Moving Rio Forward and Avoiding 10 More Years with Little Evidence for Effective Conservation Policy. Conservation Biology 28(3) 880-882
Franks, D. M.; Davis, R.; Bebbington, A. J.; Ali, S. H.; Kemp, D.; Scurrah, M.. (2014) Conflict translates environmental and social risk into business costs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111(21) 7576-7581
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Sustainability science has grown as a field of inquiry, but has said little about the role of large-scale private sector actors in socio-ecological systems change. However, the shaping of global trends and transitions depends greatly on the private sector and its development impact. Market-based and command-and-control policy instruments have, along with corporate citizenship, been the predominant means for bringing sustainable development priorities into private sector decision-making. This research identifies conflict as a further means through which environmental and social risks are translated into business costs and decision making. Through in-depth interviews with finance, legal, and sustainability professionals in the extractive industries, and empirical case analysis of 50 projects worldwide, this research reports on the financial value at stake when conflict erupts with local communities. Over the past decade, high commodity prices have fueled the expansion of mining and hydrocarbon extraction. These developments profoundly transform environments, communities, and economies, and frequently generate social conflict. Our analysis shows that mining and hydrocarbon companies fail to factor in the full scale of the costs of conflict. For example, as a result of conflict, a major, world-class mining project with capital expenditure of between US$3 and US$5 billion was reported to suffer roughly US$20 million per week of delayed production in net present value terms. Clear analysis of the costs of conflict provides sustainability professionals with a strengthened basis to influence corporate decision making, particularly when linked to corporate values. Perverse outcomes of overemphasizing a cost analysis are also discussed.
Gaddis, E. J. B.; Voinov, A.; Seppelt, R.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2014) Spatial Optimization of Best Management Practices to Attain Water Quality Targets. Water Resources Management; Water Resour Manage 28(6) 1485-1499
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Diffuse nutrient loads are a common problem in developed and agricultural watersheds. While there has been substantial investment in best management practices (BMPs) to reduce diffuse pollution, there remains a need to better prioritize controls at the watershed scale as reflected in recent US-EPA guidance for watershed planning and Total Maximum Daily Load development. We implemented spatial optimization techniques among four diffuse source pathways in a mixed-use watershed in Northern Vermont to maximize total reduction of phosphorus loading to streams while minimizing associated costs. We found that within a capital cost range of 138 to 321 USD ha(-1) a phosphorus reduction of 0.29 to 0.38 kg ha(-1) year(-1), is attainable. Optimization results are substantially more cost-effective than most scenarios identified by stakeholders. The maximum diffuse phosphorus load reduction equates to 1.25 t year(-1)using the most cost-effective technologies for each diffuse source at a cost of $3,464,260. However, 1.13 t year(-1) could be reduced at a much lower cost of $976,417. This is the practical upper limit of achievable diffuse phosphorus reduction, above which additional spending would not result in substantially more phosphorus reduction. Watershed managers could use solutions along the resulting Pareto optimal curve to select optimal combinations of BMPs based on a water quality target or available funds. The results demonstrate the power of using spatial optimization methods to arrive at a cost-effective selection of BMPs and their distribution across a landscape.
Golev, A.; Scott, M.; Erskine, P. D.; Ali, S. H.; Ballantyne, G. R.. (2014) Rare earths supply chains: Current status, constraints and opportunities. Resources Policy 41 52-59
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The unique properties of rare earth elements (REEs) and lack of alternatives for their application in modern technologies, especially electronics and fast growing green technologies such as renewable energy generation and storage, energy efficient lights, electric cars, and auto catalysts, as well as specific military and aerospace applications, underpin their strategic status. The absolute domination of China in the production of REEs, aggravated by a significant reduction in export quotas since 2010, raised severe concerns of securing REE supply in the USA, Japan, European Union and other countries. In 2010-2012 it resulted in skyrocketing prices and supply deficit for most REEs, leading to numerous new REE start-up companies around the world, with allocation of large investments in additional geological explorations and technology development. At the same time, the supply difficulties enforced the downstream users of REEs to invest in the development of recycling technologies and reuse options for these elements. The main focus of this paper is to overview existing and emerging REE supply chains outside of China up to date (end of 2013), define their environmental constraints and opportunities, as well as reflect on a broader range of technical, economic, and social challenges for both primary production and recycling of REEs. A better understanding of these factors could help to optimize the supply chain of virgin and recycled rare earths, minimise the environmental impacts arising from their processing, and be used as a prototype for a broader range of critical metals and commodities. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Griffin, Pamela J; Ali, Saleem H. (2014) Managing transboundary wetlands: the Ramsar Convention as a means of ecological diplomacy. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences; J Environ Stud Sci; Springer US, Cheltenham, U.K.. 4(3) 230-239
Gross, L. H.; Erickson, J. D.; Mendez, V. E.. (2014) Supporting Rural Livelihoods and Ecosystem Services Conservation in the Pico Duarte Coffee Region of the Dominican Republic. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 38(9) 1078-1107
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Successful conservation strategies have increasingly looked beyond bounded protected areas and toward integrated landscape approaches that conserve biodiversity while maintaining ecosystem services that benefit human communities and food production. More integrated approaches to conservation are particularly timely in agricultural landscapes, where individual farm-level choices can play a significant role in the management of habitat provisioning, nutrient cycling, recreation amenities, carbon sequestration, and the delivery of clean water. This study presents results of an interdisciplinary analysis with shade coffee farmers in the Pico Duarte region of the Dominican Republic. Findings suggest that small farms, as part of a diversified livelihood strategy, maintain a diverse tree canopy, which supports soil conservation and important watershed services. However, high poverty levels and strong economic pressures to convert to high-input, monoculture crops are threatening native tree species biodiversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services (e.g., delivery of clean water and carbon sequestration) to local beneficiaries, as well as to national and international actors. A coordinated effort to support smallholder shade coffee farmers across the landscape through agricultural extension, capacity building, and other market-and-non-market-based interventions offer the potential to improve rural livelihoods and ecosystem services conservation over the long-term.
Guilbert, J.; Beckage, B.; Winter, J. M.; Horton, R. M.; Perkins, T.; Bomblies, A.. (2014) Impacts of Projected Climate Change over the Lake Champlain Basin in Vermont. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology; J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 53(8) 1861-1875
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The Lake Champlain basin is a critical ecological and socioeconomic resource of the northeastern United States and southern Quebec, Canada. While general circulation models (GCMs) provide an overview of climate change in the region, they lack the spatial and temporal resolution necessary to fully anticipate the effects of rising global temperatures associated with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Observed trends in precipitation and temperature were assessed across the Lake Champlain basin to bridge the gap between global climate change and local impacts. Future shifts in precipitation and temperature were evaluated as well as derived indices, including maple syrup production, days above 32.2 degrees C (90 degrees F), and snowfall, relevant to managing the natural and human environments in the region. Four statistically downscaled, bias-corrected GCM simulations were evaluated from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) forced by two representative concentration pathways (RCPs) to sample the uncertainty in future climate simulations. Precipitation is projected to increase by between 9.1 and 12.8 mm yr(-1) decade(-1) during the twenty-first century while daily temperatures are projected to increase between 0.43 degrees and 0.49 degrees C decade(-1). Annual snowfall at six major ski resorts in the region is projected to decrease between 46.9% and 52.4% by the late twenty-first century. In the month of July, the number of days above 32.2 degrees C in Burlington, Vermont, is projected to increase by over 10 days during the twenty-first century.
Harvey, Celia A.; Chacon, Mario; Donatti, Camila I.; Garen, Eva; Hannah, Lee; Andrade, Angela; Bede, Lucio; Brown, Douglas; Calle, Alicia; Chara, Julian; Clement, Christopher; Gray, Elizabeth; Minh Ha, Hoang; Minang, Peter; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Seeberg-Elverfeldt, Christina; Semroc, Bambi; Shames, Seth; Smukler, Sean; Somarriba, Eduardo; Torquebiau, Emmanuel; van Etten, Jacob; Wollenberg, Eva. (2014) Climate-Smart Landscapes: Opportunities and Challenges for Integrating Adaptation and Mitigation in Tropical Agriculture. Conservation Letters 7(2) 77-90
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Addressing the global challenges of climate change, food security, and poverty alleviation requires enhancing the adaptive capacity and mitigation potential of agricultural landscapes across the tropics. However, adaptation and mitigation activities tend to be approached separately due to a variety of technical, political, financial, and socioeconomic constraints. Here, we demonstrate that many tropical agricultural systems can provide both mitigation and adaptation benefits if they are designed and managed appropriately and if the larger landscape context is considered. Many of the activities needed for adaptation and mitigation in tropical agricultural landscapes are the same needed for sustainable agriculture more generally, but thinking at the landscape scale opens a new dimension for achieving synergies. Intentional integration of adaptation and mitigation activities in agricultural landscapes offers significant benefits that go beyond the scope of climate change to food security, biodiversity conservation, and poverty alleviation. However, achieving these objectives will require transformative changes in current policies, institutional arrangements, and funding mechanisms to foster broad-scale adoption of climate-smart approaches in agricultural landscapes.
Jha, Shalene; Bacon, Christopher M.; Philpott, Stacy M.; Ernesto Méndez, V.; Läderach, Peter; Rice, Robert A.. (2014) Shade Coffee: Update on a Disappearing Refuge for Biodiversity. Bioscience
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In the past three decades, coffee cultivation has gained widespread attention for its crucial role in supporting local and global biodiversity. In this synthetic Overview, we present newly gathered data that summarize how global patterns in coffee distribution and shade vegetation have changed and discuss implications for biodiversity, ecosystem services, and livelihoods. Although overall cultivated coffee area has decreased by 8% since 1990, coffee production and agricultural intensification have increased in many places and shifted globally, with production expanding in Asia while contracting in Africa. Ecosystem services such as pollination, pest control, climate regulation, and nutrient sequestration are generally greater in shaded coffee farms, but many coffee-growing regions are removing shade trees from their management. Although it is clear that there are ecological and socioeconomic benefits associated with shaded coffee, we expose the many challenges and future research priorities needed to link sustainable coffee management with sustainable livelihoods.
Keir, L. S.; Ali, S. H.. (2014) Conflict Assessment in Energy Infrastructure Siting: Prospects for Consensus Building in the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project. Negotiation Journal 30(2) 169-189
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As energy demand grows rapidly worldwide, power line infrastructure will continue to be a major development planning challenge. This study considers the environmental conflict that has arisen over a transnational transmission line project between Canada and the United States. A qualitative conflict assessment is presented to define the parameters for consensus that could prevent protracted litigation between stakeholders. Proactively designing a process to encourage consensus building during the early development phase remains the most critical determinant of compromise. In this article, we argue that in this case a consensus-building effort could be feasible if certain design requirements were met, including gaining the participation of key stakeholders, paying attention to trust, and focusing on the issues specific to this transmission line rather than to a larger energy discussion. The research shows that despite potential pitfalls, reaching more widely accepted and ecologically sensitive solutions to environmental conflicts through participatory and collaborative approaches is possible and worth the effort.
Koliba, C.; DeMenno, M.; Brune, N.; Zia, A.. (2014) The salience and complexity of building, regulating, and governing the smart grid: Lessons from a statewide public-private partnership. Energy Policy 74 243-252
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Smart grid deployment unfolds within a diverse array of multi-institutional arrangements that may be too fragmented and decentralized to allow for the kind of large-scale and coordinated investments needed to properly deploy the smart grid. This case study provides an account of how one state arranged for and eventually deployed smart grid technology to over 85 percent of its resident. The study asks: does the deployment of the smart grid introduce new socio-political variables into the electricity distribution industry? To make sense of the socio-political variables shaping the industry and regulators, the Salience-Complexity Model is used to assess whether the smart grid raises or lowers the level of public scrutiny caste upon the industry (issue salience) and the level of technical capacity needed to execute and utilize the smart grid (technical complexity). The conclusions to be drawn from this study include: smart grid technology heightens the issue salience and the technical complexity of electricity distribution, but that the smart grid will likely not have a significant impact on the restructuring of electricity regulation. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krupa, J. S.; Rizzo, D. M.; Eppstein, M. J.; Lanute, D. B.; Gaalema, D. E.; Lakkaraju, K.; Warrender, C. E.. (2014) Analysis of a consumer survey on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Transportation Research Part a-Policy and Practice 64 14-31
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Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) show potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, increase fuel efficiency, and offer driving ranges that are not limited by battery capacity. However, these benefits will not be realized if consumers do not adopt this new technology. Several agent-based models have been developed to model potential market penetration of PHEVs, but gaps in the available data limit the usefulness of these models. To address this, we administered a survey to 1000 stated US residents, using Amazon Mechanical Turk, to better understand factors influencing the potential for PHEV market penetration. Our analysis of the survey results reveals quantitative patterns and correlations that extend the existing literature. For example, respondents who felt most strongly about reducing US transportation energy consumption and cutting greenhouse gas emissions had, respectively, 71 and 44 times greater odds of saying they would consider purchasing a compact PHEV than those who felt least strongly about these issues. However, even the most inclined to consider a compact PHEV were not generally willing to pay more than a few thousand US dollars extra for the sticker price. Consistent with prior research, we found that financial and battery-related concerns remain major obstacles to widespread PHEV market penetration. We discuss how our results help to inform agent-based models of PHEV market penetration, governmental policies, and manufacturer pricing and marketing strategies to promote consumer adoption of PHEVs. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Galford, G. L.; Couto, E. G.. (2014) Environmental footprints show China and Europe's evolving resource appropriation for soybean production in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Environmental Research Letters 9(7)
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Mato Grosso has become the center of Brazil's soybean industry, with production located across an agricultural frontier expanding into savanna and rainforest biomes. We present environmental footprints of soybean production in Mato Grosso and resource flows accompanying exports to China and Europe for the 2000s using five indicators: deforestation, land footprint (LF), carbon footprint (CF), water footprint (WF), and nutrient footprints. Soybean production was associated with 65% of the state's deforestation, and 14-17% of total Brazilian land use change carbon emissions. The decade showed two distinct production systems illustrated by resources used in the first and second half of the decade. Deforestation and carbon footprint declined 70% while land, water, and nutrient footprints increased almost 30% between the two periods. These differences coincided with a shift in Mato Grosso's export destination. Between 2006 and 2010, China surpassed Europe in soybean imports when production was associated with 97 m(2) deforestation yr(-1) ton(-1) of soybean, a LF of 0.34 ha yr(-1) ton(-1), a carbon footprint of 4.6 ton CO2-eq yr(-1) ton(-1), a WF of 1908 m(3) yr(-1) ton(-1), and virtual phosphorous and potassium of 5.0 kg P yr(-1) ton(-1) and 0.0042 g K yr(-1) ton(-1). Mato Grosso constructs soil fertility via phosphorous and potassium fertilizer sourced from third party countries and imported into the region. Through the soybean produced, Mato Grosso then exports both water derived from its abundant, seasonal precipitation and nutrients obtained from fertilizer. In 2010, virtual water flows were 10.3 km(3) yr(-1) to China and 4.1 km(3) yr(-1) to Europe. The total embedded nutrient flows to China were 2.12 Mtons yr(-1) and 2.85 Mtons yr(-1) to Europe. As soybean production grows with global demand, the role of Mato Grosso's resource use and production vulnerabilities highlight the challenges with meeting future international food security needs.
Lucero, D. E.; Ribera, W.; Pizarro, J. C.; Plaza, C.; Gordon, L. W.; Pena, R.; Morrissey, L. A.; Rizzo, D. M.; Stevens, L.. (2014) Sources of Blood Meals of Sylvatic Triatoma guasayana near Zurima, Bolivia, Assayed with qPCR and 12S Cloning. Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases; Plos Neglect. Trop. Dis. 8(12) 11
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Background: In this study we compared the utility of two molecular biology techniques, cloning of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and hydrolysis probe-based qPCR, to identify blood meal sources of sylvatic Chagas disease insect vectors collected with live-bait mouse traps (also known as Noireau traps). Fourteen T. guasayana were collected from six georeferenced trap locations in the Andean highlands of the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Methodology/Principal Findings: We detected four blood meals sources with the cloning assay: seven samples were positive for human (Homo sapiens), five for chicken (Gallus gallus) and unicolored blackbird (Agelasticus cyanopus), and one for opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Using the qPCR assay we detected chicken (13 vectors), and human (14 vectors) blood meals as well as an additional blood meal source, Canis sp. (4 vectors). Conclusions/Significance: We show that cloning of 12S PCR products, which avoids bias associated with developing primers based on a priori knowledge, detected blood meal sources not previously considered and that species-specific qPCR is more sensitive. All samples identified as positive for a specific blood meal source by the cloning assay were also positive by qPCR. However, not all samples positive by qPCR were positive by cloning. We show the power of combining the cloning assay with the highly sensitive hydrolysis probe-based qPCR assay provides a more complete picture of blood meal sources for insect disease vectors.
Malek, S.; Januszek, K.; Keeton, W. S.; Barszcz, J.; Kroczek, M.; Blonska, E.; Wanic, T.. (2014) Preliminary Effects of Fertilization on Ecochemical Soil Condition in Mature Spruce Stands Experiencing Dieback in the Beskid Slaski and Zywiecki Mountains, Poland. Water Air and Soil Pollution 225(6)
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In recent years, there has been the phenomena of spruce dieback in Europe. Significant areas of spruce low mortality now cover both sides of the Polish southern border. We evaluated ecochemical parameters influencing the heavy dieback occurring in mature spruce stands in the Polish Carpathian Mountains. Dolomite, magnesite and serpentinite fertilizers were applied to experimental plots located in 100-year-old stands in the autumn of 2008. The experimental plots were located in the mid-elevational forest zone (900-950 m) on two nappes of the flysch Carpathians: Magura (Ujsoly Forest District) and Silesian (Wisla Forest District). The saturation of the studied soils demonstrates moderate resilience of soils in Wisla Forest District in relation to acid load and high flexibility of the Ujsoly soils. After application of the fertilizers, an increase of Mg, Ca and Mb was noted in the soil solution, determined in the overlaying highly acidic organic horizons through the ion-exchange buffering mechanism of highly protonated functional groups with high buffering capacity. Magnesium concentration increased following fertilization, presenting a potential improvement of forest growth capacity without the hazard of adverse side effects of liming. Aluminium stress in old spruce is unlikely, while trees in the control plots in Wisla Forest District may already be sensitive to aluminium stress. Serpentinite fertilization improved the supply of soils in magnesium without causing significant changes in the pH of the soil. Such changes in the pH were found in dolomite and magnesite fertilizer.
Mika, Anna M.; Keeton, William S.. (2014) Net carbon fluxes at stand and landscape scales from wood bioenergy harvests in the US Northeast. GCB Bioenergy Pages n/a-n/a;
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The long-term greenhouse gas emissions implications of wood biomass (‘bioenergy’) harvests are highly uncertain yet of great significance for climate change mitigation and renewable energy policies. Particularly uncertain are the net carbon (C) effects of multiple harvests staggered spatially and temporally across landscapes where bioenergy is only one of many products. We used field data to formulate bioenergy harvest scenarios, applied them to 362 sites from the Forest Inventory and Analysis database, and projected growth and harvests over 160 years using the Forest Vegetation Simulator. We compared the net cumulative C fluxes, relative to a non-bioenergy baseline, between scenarios when various proportions of the landscape are harvested for bioenergy: 0% (non-bioenergy); 25% (BIO25); 50% (BIO50); or 100% (BIO100), with three levels of intensification. We accounted for C stored in aboveground forest pools and wood products, direct and indirect emissions from wood products and bioenergy, and avoided direct and indirect emissions from fossil fuels. At the end of the simulation period, although 82% of stands were projected to maintain net positive C benefit, net flux remained negative (i.e., net emissions) compared to non-bioenergy harvests for the entire 160-year simulation period. BIO25, BIO50, and BIO100 scenarios resulted in average annual emissions of 2.47, 5.02, and 9.83 Mg C ha−1, respectively. Using bioenergy for heating decreased the emissions relative to electricity generation as did removing additional slash from thinnings between regeneration harvests. However, all bioenergy scenarios resulted in increased net emissions compared to the non-bioenergy harvests. Stands with high initial aboveground live biomass may have higher net emissions from bioenergy harvest. Silvicultural practices such as increasing rotation length and structural retention may result in lower C fluxes from bioenergy harvests. Finally, since passive management resulted in the greatest net C storage, we recommend designation of unharvested reserves to offset emissions from harvested stands.
Mondal, P.; Jain, M.; Robertson, A. W.; Galford, G. L.; Small, C.; DeFries, R. S.. (2014) Winter crop sensitivity to inter-annual climate variability in central India. Climatic Change 126(1-2) 61-76
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India is predicted to be one of the most vulnerable agricultural regions to future climate changes. Here, we examined the sensitivity of winter cropping systems to inter-annual climate variability in a local market and subsistence-based agricultural system in central India, a data-rich validation site, in order to identify the climate parameters to which winter crops - mainly wheat and pulses in this region - might be sensitive in the future. We used satellite time-series data to quantify inter-annual variability in multiple climate parameters and in winter crop cover, agricultural census data to quantify irrigation, and field observations to identify locations for specific crop types. We developed three mixed-effect models (250 m to 1 km scale) to identify correlations between crop cover (wheat and pulses) and twenty-two climate and environmental parameters for 2001-2013. We find that winter daytime mean temperature (November-January) is the most significant factor affecting winter crops, irrespective of crop type, and is negatively associated with winter crop cover. With pronounced winter warming projected in the coming decades, effective adaptation by smallholder farmers in similar landscapes would require additional strategies, such as access to fine-scale temperature forecasts and heat-tolerant winter crop varieties.
Morse, C.; Strong, A. M.; Mendez, V. E.; Lovell, S. T.; Troy, A. R.; Morris, W. B.. (2014) Performing a New England landscape: Viewing, engaging, and belonging. Journal of Rural Studies; J. Rural Stud. 36 226-236
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This research considered how rural landscapes and place identity are produced through private landowners' work. The notion of performance is explored from two perspectives: as a research method and as a powerful conceptual tool that affords a multi-scalar tracing of the connections between belonging, aesthetics, and the legacy of tourism narratives in a contemporary rural place. Interviews with rural Vermont landowners reveal that they conduct a diverse array of activities on their properties, but hold remarkably similar perceptions of the key elements in an ideal Vermont landscape. This vision closely matches the pastoral ideal that was manufactured for tourist consumption beginning in the late 19th century. Landowners engage in land-shaping activities that reproduce an ideal, agrarian view, but not necessarily agricultural livelihoods. Researcher engagement in a land-shaping activity afforded insight into the community and public elements of private landowners' land use practices. This mixed-methods approach revealed how landowners' sense of attachment to place and the doing of land-shaping activities contribute to the performance of a regional New England landscape. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Olander, Lydia P.; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Herold, Martin. (2014) Synthesis and Review: Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification. Environmental Research Letters 9(7)
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Reducing emissions of agricultural greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as methane and nitrous oxide, and sequestering carbon in the soil or in living biomass can help reduce the impact of agriculture on climate change while improving productivity and reducing resource use. There is an increasing demand for improved, low cost quantification of GHGs in agriculture, whether for national reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), underpinning and stimulating improved practices, establishing crediting mechanisms, or supporting green products. This ERL focus issue highlights GHG quantification to call attention to our existing knowledge and opportunities for further progress. In this article we synthesize the findings of 21 papers on the current state of global capability for agricultural GHG quantification and visions for its improvement. We conclude that strategic investment in quantification can lead to significant global improvement in agricultural GHG estimation in the near term.
Pechenick, A. M.; Rizzo, D. M.; Morrissey, L. A.; Garvey, K. M.; Underwood, K. L.; Wemple, B. C.. (2014) A multi-scale statistical approach to assess the effects of connectivity of road and stream networks on geomorphic channel condition. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 39(11) 1538-1549
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Roads in rural, upland landscapes are important sources of runoff and sediment to waterways. The downstream effects of these sources should be related to the connectivity of roads to receiving waters. Recent studies have explored this idea, but only simple metrics have been used to characterize connectivity and few studies have quantified the downstream effects of road-stream connectivity on sediment or solute budgets and channel morphology. In this study, we evaluated traditional and newly developed connectivity metrics that utilized features of landscape position and delivery pathway to characterize road-stream connectivity in upland settings. Using data on stream geomorphic conditions developed by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources (Montpelier, VT), we related road connectivity metrics to channel condition on a set of 101 forested, upland streams with minimal development other than predominantly gravel road networks. Logistic regression indicated that measures of road density, proximity and orientation successfully distinguished among categories of stream geomorphic condition at multiple geographic scales. Discriminant function analysis using a set of inherent channel characteristics combined with road connectivity metrics derived at the reach corridor scale successfully distinguished channel condition for over 70% of the channels evaluated. This research contributes to efforts to evaluate the cumulative downstream effects of roads on stream channels and aquatic resources and provides a new means of watershed assessment to derive metrics that can be used to predict channel condition. Copyright (C) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Redford, K. H.; Myers, S. S.; Ricketts, T. H.; Osofsky, S. A.. (2014) Human Health as a Judicious Conservation Opportunity. Conservation Biology 28(3) 627-629
Richards, M. B.; Mendez, V. E.. (2014) Interactions between Carbon Sequestration and Shade Tree Diversity in a Smallholder Coffee Cooperative in El Salvador. Conservation Biology 28(2) 489-497
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Agroforestry systems have substantial potential to conserve native biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. In particular, agroforestry systems have the potential to conserve native tree diversity and sequester carbon for climate change mitigation. However, little research has been conducted on the temporal stability of species diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in these systems or the relation between species diversity and aboveground carbon sequestration. We measured changes in shade-tree diversity and shade-tree carbon stocks in 14 plots of a 35-ha coffee cooperative over 9 years and analyzed relations between species diversity and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration was positively correlated with initial species richness of shade trees. Species diversity of shade trees did not change significantly over the study period, but carbon stocks increased due to tree growth. Our results show a potential for carbon sequestration and long-term biodiversity conservation in smallholder coffee agroforestry systems and illustrate the opportunity for synergies between biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation. Interacciones entre el Secuestro de Carbono y la Diversidad de arboles de Sombra en una Cooperativa de Cafe de Pequenos Agricultores en El Salvador Resumen Los sistemas agroforestales tienen potencial sustancial para conservar la biodiversidad nativa y proporcionar servicios ecosistemicos. En particular tienen el potencial para conservar la diversidad nativa de arboles y secuestrar carbono para la mitigacion del cambio climatico. Sin embargo, se han conducido pocas investigaciones sobre la estabilidad temporal de la diversidad de especies y el capital de carbono superficial en estos sistemas o las relaciones entre la diversidad de especies y el secuestro de carbono superficial. Medimos los cambios en la diversidad de arboles de sombra y el capital de carbono de estos mismos arboles en 14 terrenos de 35 hectareas de una cooperativa de cafe a lo largo de 9 anos y analizamos las relaciones entre la diversidad de especies y el secuestro de carbono. El secuestro de carbono tuvo una correlacion positiva con la riqueza inicial de especies de arboles de sombra. La diversidad de especies de estos arboles no cambio significativamente a lo largo del periodo de estudio, pero el capital de carbono incremento debido al crecimiento de los arboles. Nuestros resultados muestran un potencial de secuestro de carbono y una conservacion de biodiversidad a largo plazo en los sistemas agroforestales de pequenos agricultores de cafe; ilustran tambien la oportunidad de sinergias entre la conservacion de la biodiversidad y la mitigacion del cambio climatico.
Roman, J.; Estes, J. A.; Morissette, L.; Smith, C.; Costa, D.; McCarthy, J.; Nation, J. B.; Nicol, S.; Pershing, A.; Smetacek, V.. (2014) Whales as marine ecosystem engineers. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12(7) 377-385
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Baleen and sperm whales, known collectively as the great whales, include the largest animals in the history of life on Earth. With high metabolic demands and large populations, whales probably had a strong influence on marine ecosystems before the advent of industrial whaling: as consumers of fish and invertebrates; as prey to other large-bodied predators; as reservoirs of and vertical and horizontal vectors for nutrients; and as detrital sources of energy and habitat in the deep sea. The decline in great whale numbers, estimated to be at least 66% and perhaps as high as 90%, has likely altered the structure and function of the oceans, but recovery is possible and in many cases is already underway. Future changes in the structure and function of the world's oceans can be expected with the restoration of great whale populations.
Russell-Roy, E. T.; Keeton, W. S.; Pontius, J. A.; Kerchner, C. D.. (2014) Rehabilitation forestry and carbon market access on high-graded northern hardwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 44(6) 614-627
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Decades of heavy-cutting and high-grading in the northeastern United States provide an opportunity for rehabilitation and increased carbon stores, yet few studies have examined the feasibility of using carbon markets to restore high-graded forests. We evaluated the effectiveness of rehabilitation on 391 ha of high-graded forest in Vermont, USA. Thirteen silvicultural scenarios were modeled over 100 years using the Forest Vegetation Simulator. Carbon offsets were quantified with the Climate Action Reserve (CAR) and American Carbon Registry (ACR) protocols and evaluated under voluntary and regulatory carbon price assumptions. Results indicate that management scenarios involving no harvest or low-intensity harvest yield the greatest incentives, yet these scenarios include a range of short-term rehabilitation options that provide flexibility for landowners. The choice of protocol also significantly influences results. Although ACR consistently generated more offsets than CAR for the same scenarios (p < 0.05), the protocols yielded similar net present values of US$121-US$256.ha(-1) under high offset price assumptions. These returns are comparable to those generated from timber harvest alone under more intensive management scenarios. While timber will continue to be a primary source of revenue for many landowners, carbon markets may increasingly appeal as a new incentive for restoring high-graded forests.
Saah, D.; Patterson, T.; Buchholz, T.; Ganz, D.; Albert, D.; Rush, K.. (2014) Modeling economic and carbon consequences of a shift to wood-based energy in a rural 'cluster'; a network analysis in southeast Alaska. Ecological Economics 107 287-298
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Integrated ecological and economic solutions are increasingly sought after by communities to provide basic energy needs such as home heating, transport, and electricity, while reducing drivers of and vulnerability to climate change. Small rural communities may require a coordinated approach to overcome the limitations of economies of scale. Low-carbon development strategies present potential for large payoffs at a household and community scale. Southeast Alaskan forests previously harvested for timber are currently re-growing and require thinning to maintain ecosystem service benefits such as wildlife habitat and hunting. Thinned material presents a potential biofuel source. However, without verification among decision alternatives, communities may not have the momentum, vision, or conviction to stimulate a shift to a new energy source. We present a network approach to evaluating multiple energy delivery pathways, and a calculation of carbon, energy, and dollar savings presented by each pathway. We quantify chain of production impacts; from the point of energy extraction and transport (upstream), through consumption and emission accounting (downstream). Our findings suggest substantial greenhouse gas emission savings of over 70% as well as heating cost savings for all bioenergy scenarios compared to fossil fuel scenarios. Outputs can facilitate dialog between land managers, planners, community members and decision-makers. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Seguino, S.; Were, M.. (2014) Gender, Development and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of African Economies 23 I18-I61
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A plethora of scholars have attempted to discern the causes of slow growth in the sub-Saharan Africa region. The effects of global economic integration, corruption, geography and ethnic diversity have been widely explored. Mainstream growth analyses, however, have not yet integrated the body of scholarship that identifies the linkages between gender, economic development and growth. This paper explores the theoretical and empirical macro-growth effects of gender inequality in sub-Saharan Africa. It further identifies two key policy avenues for promoting gender equality and thus growth: public investment to reduce the gender gap in care burdens, and a shift in emphasis of central bank targets to employment.
Sharma, S.; Hart, S. L.. (2014) Beyond "Saddle Bag" Sustainability for Business Education. Organization & Environment; Organ. Environ. 27(1) 10-15
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Revisiting the historical evolution of the corporation helps explain how the challenge of sustainability has been addressed in business education. Business schools emerged toward the end of the 19th century after U.S. Supreme Court judgments absolved corporate directors from the duty of adhering to social missions embodied in their limited liability charters. This coincided with the rise of neoclassical economics that placed shareholdersabove other stakeholders. As evolving societal demands have forced businesses to consider business ethics, corporate social responsibility, and sustainability in their performance, and as AACSB has added these learning objectives, business schools have reactively responded by adding new courses to their existing curricula. However, these "saddle-bag" approaches do not integrate the topics into the core functional areas of business. Only recently have a few business schools boldly overcome organizational inertia to develop curricula that lead practice by embedding sustainability into the core to educate managers who can rise to the demands of the global sustainability challenges facing the world in the 21(st) century.
Stephens, J. C.; Peterson, T. R.; Wilson, E. J.. (2014) Socio-Political Evaluation of Energy Deployment (SPEED): A Framework Applied to Smart Grid. Ucla Law Review 61(6) 1930-1961
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Despite a growing sense of urgency to improve energy systems so as to reduce fossil-fuel dependency, energy system change has been slow, uncertain, and geographically diverse. Interestingly, this regionally heterogeneous evolution of energy system change is not merely a consequence of technological limitations but also and importantly a product of complex socio-political factors influencing the deployment of new energy technologies. The socio-political context for energy deployment differs on national, state, and even local levels, making cross-jurisdictional analysis of energy systems challenging. At the same time, understanding how social, legal, cultural, and political factors influence energy deployment across multiple jurisdictions is critical to developing effective policies for reducing fossil-fuel dependency. In response to such challenges, in 2008 we developed the Socio-Political Evaluation of Energy Deployment (SPEED) framework. SPEED is an interdisciplinary framework for analyzing how technological, social, and political conditions influence the development and deployment of specific energy technologies. SPEED has been applied to compare regional disparities in the deployment of multiple specific technologies. This Article illustrates how an enhanced version of the original SPEED framework can be used to characterize the socio-political factors influencing the development of energy systems across multiple regions. First, we describe the value of SPEED analysis in characterizing interactions among multiple factors-including cultural, political, environmental, legal, technical, and economic influences-that shape energy technology deployment and drive system change. Then, using smart grid development as an example of a system-wide energy initiative, we describe how the application of SPEED analysis could improve policy and regulatory effectiveness.
Stephens, J. C.. (2014) Time to stop investing in carbon capture and storage and reduce government subsidies of fossil-fuels. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews-Climate Change 5(2) 169-173
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Government investment in carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a large and expensive fossil-fuel subsidy with a low probability of eventual societal benefit. Within the tight resource constrained environments that almost all governments are currently operating in, it is irresponsible to sustain this type of subsidy. CCS has been promoted as a bridging' technology to provide CO2 reductions until non-fossil-fuel energy is ramped up. But the past decade of substantial government investment and slow progress suggests that the challenges are many, and it will take longer to build the CCS bridge than to shift away from fossil-fuels. Optimism about the potential of CCS is based primarily on research on technical feasibility, but very little attention has been paid to the societal costs of governments perpetuating fossil-fuels or to the sociopolitical requirements of long-term regulation of CO2 stored underground. Deep systemic change is needed to alter the disastrous global fossil-fuel trajectory. Government investment in CCS and other fossil-fuel technologies must end so that the distraction and complacency of the false sense of security such investments provide are removed. Instead of continuing to invest billions in CCS, governments should invest more aggressively in technologies, policies, and initiatives that will accelerate a smooth transition to non-fossil-fuel-based energy systems. We need to divest from perpetuating a fossil-fuel infrastructure, and invest instead in social and technical changes that will help us prepare to be more resilient in an increasingly unstable and unpredictable future. WIREs Clim Change 2014, 5:169-173. doi: 10.1002/wcc.266 Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the .
Susskind, L.E.; Ali, S.H.; Hamid, Z.A.. (2014) Environmental Diplomacy: Negotiating More Effective Global Agreements. Oxford University Press, Bogor, Indonesia.
Thomas, T. M.; Granatosky, M. C.; Bourque, J. R.; Krysko, K. L.; Moler, P. E.; Gamble, T.; Suarez, E.; Leone, E.; Enge, K. M.; Roman, J.. (2014) Taxonomic assessment of Alligator Snapping Turtles (Chelydridae: Macrochelys), with the description of two new species from the southeastern United States. Zootaxa 3786(2) 141-165
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The Alligator Snapping Turtle, Macrochelys temminckii, is a large, aquatic turtle limited to river systems that drain into the Gulf of Mexico. Previous molecular analyses using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA suggested that Macrochelys exhibits significant genetic variation across its range that includes three distinct genetic assemblages (western, central, and eastern = Suwannee). However, no taxonomic revision or morphological analyses have been conducted previously. In this study, we test previous hypotheses of distinct geographic assemblages by examining morphology, reanalyzing phylogeo-graphic genetic structure, and estimating divergence dating among lineages in a coalescent framework using Bayesian inference. We reviewed the fossil record and discuss phylogeographic and taxonomic implications of the existence of three distinct evolutionary lineages. We measured cranial (n= 145) and post-cranial (n= 104) material on field-captured individuals and museum specimens. We analyzed 420 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA sequence data for 158 Macrochelys. We examined fossil Macrochelys from ca. 15-16 million years ago (Ma) to the present to better assess historical distributions and evaluate named fossil taxa. The morphological and molecular data both indicate significant geographical variation and suggest three species-level breaks among genetic lineages that correspond to previously hypothesized genetic assemblages. The holotype of Macrochelys temminckii is from the western lineage. Therefore, we describe two new species as Macrochelys apalachicolae sp. nov. from the central lineage and Macrochelys suwanniensis sp. nov. from the eastern lineage (Suwannee River drainage). Our estimates of divergence times suggest that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of M. temminckii (western) and M. apalachicolae (central) existed 3.2-8.9 Ma during the late Miocene to late Pliocene, whereas M. temminckii-M. apalachicolae and M. suwanniensis last shared a MRCA 5.5-13.4 Ma during the mid-Miocene to early Pliocene. Examination of fossil material revealed that the fossil taxon M. floridana is actually a large Chelydra. Our taxonomic revision of Macrochelys has conservation and management implications in Florida, Georgia, and Alabama.
Vatovec, C.; Erten, M. Z.; Kolodinsky, J.; Brown, P.; Wood, M.; James, T.; Sprague, B. L.. (2014) Ductal carcinoma in situ: a brief review of treatment variation and impacts on patients and society. 24(4) 281-6
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Nearly 20% of all breast cancer cases are ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), with over 60,000 cases diagnosed each year. Many of these cases would never cause clinical symptoms or threaten the life of the woman; however, it is currently impossible to distinguish which lesions will progress to invasive disease from those that will not. DCIS is generally associated with an excellent prognosis regardless of the treatment pathway, but there is variation in treatment aggressiveness that seems to exceed the medical uncertainty associated with DCIS management. Therefore, it would seem that a significant proportion of women with DCIS receive more extensive treatment than is needed. This overtreatment of DCIS is a growing concern among the breast cancer community and has implications for both the patient (via adverse treatment-related effects, as well as out-of-pocket costs) and society (via economic costs and the public health and environmental harm resulting from health care delivery). This article discusses DCIS treatment pathways and their implications for patients and society and calls for further research to examine the factors that are leading to such wide variation in treatment decisions.
Villa, F.; Bagstad, K. J.; Voigt, B.; Johnson, G. W.; Athanasiadis, I. N.; Balbi, S.. (2014) The misconception of ecosystem disservices: How a catchy term may yield the wrong messages for science and society. Ecosystem Services 10 52-53
Villa, F.; Voigt, B.; Erickson, J. D.. (2014) New perspectives in ecosystem services science as instruments to understand environmental securities. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 369(1639)
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As societal demand for food, water and other life-sustaining resources grows, the science of ecosystem services (ES) is seen as a promising tool to improve our understanding, and ultimately the management, of increasingly uncertain supplies of critical goods provided or supported by natural ecosystems. This promise, however, is tempered by a relatively primitive understanding of the complex systems supporting ES, which as a result are often quantified as static resources rather than as the dynamic expression of human-natural systems. This article attempts to pinpoint the minimum level of detail that ES science needs to achieve in order to usefully inform the debate on environmental securities, and discusses both the state of the art and recent methodological developments in ES in this light. We briefly review the field of ES accounting methods and list some desiderata that we deem necessary, reachable and relevant to address environmental securities through an improved science of ES. We then discuss a methodological innovation that, while only addressing these needs partially, can improve our understanding of ES dynamics in data-scarce situations. The methodology is illustrated and discussed through an application related to water security in the semi-arid landscape of the Great Ruaha river of Tanzania.
Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzak, Miroslav; Batker, David. (2014) A Methodology for Adaptable and Robust Ecosystem Services Assessment. PloS One 9(3)
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Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant "one model fits all" paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.
Zia, A.; Norton, B. G.; Metcalf, S. S.; Hirsch, P. D.; Hannon, B. M.. (2014) Spatial discounting, place attachment, and environmental concern: Toward an ambit-based theory of sense of place. Journal of Environmental Psychology; J. Environ. Psychol. 40 283-295
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Sense of Place (SOP) theory can connect environmental discourse across disciplines, provided it is supported by an adequate suite of conceptual tools. Sense of place encompasses both objectivist notions of spatial discounting, generally advanced by economists and geographers, and the subjectivist, phenomenological and psychometric aspects of place attachment emphasized by environmental psychologists. This paper introduces ambit as an integrative tool for developing theories about sense of place that include both subjective and objective aspects of human activity. Signifying the spatial extent of activity over time, the human ambit anchors spatial dimensions of environmental concern to alternative theories about sense of place. We conceptualize ambit as the focal level of a tri-level hierarchy stratifying mechanisms, behavior, and reflexivity associated with place. After developing the observable ambit as integral to a hierarchical theory of place-based behavior, we explore its use in providing a more empirical understanding of human behavior in space-time. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
2013
Allen, Elizabeth; Kruger, Chad; Leung, Fok-Yan; Stephens, JennieC. (2013) Diverse Perceptions of Stakeholder Engagement within an Environmental Modeling Research Team. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences; J Environ Stud Sci; Springer US, New Haven, CT. 3(3) 343-356
Azaria, D. E.; Troy, A.; Lee, B. H. Y.; Ventriss, C.; Voigt, B.. (2013) Modeling the effects of an urban growth boundary on vehicle travel in a small metropolitan area. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design; Pion Ltd, New Haven, CT. 40(5) 846-864
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An integrated land-use - transportation model was used to simulate the impact that an urban growth boundary would have on vehicle miles of travel in a small metropolitan community over a forty-year modeling horizon. The results of the modeling effort indicate that even in an area with low to moderate population growth, there is the potential to reduce vehicle miles of travel per person by as much as 25% from a business-as-usual scenario over aˇforty-year period. The reduction would result primarily from a shift of driving alone to carpooling or walking for many trips. A scenario in which growth is concentrated in a single urban core would also benefit from shorter average trip lengths; a scenario with multiple village centers would not have shorter trip lengths, but would still have significant improvements in total vehicle miles of travel. Keywords: integrated land-use - transportation model, urban growth boundary, vehicle miles of travel
Bagstad, K. J.; Johnson, G. W.; Voigt, B.; Villa, F.. (2013) Spatial dynamics of ecosystem service flows: A comprehensive approach to quantifying actual services. Ecosystem Services 4 117-125
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Recent ecosystem services research has highlighted the importance of spatial connectivity between ecosystems and their beneficiaries. Despite this need, a systematic approach to ecosystem service flow quantification has not yet emerged. In this article, we present such an approach, which we formalize as a class of agent-based models termed "Service Path Attribution Networks" (SPANs). These models, developed as part of the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) project, expand on ecosystem services classification terminology introduced by other authors. Conceptual elements needed to support flow modeling include a service's rivalness, its flow routing type (e.g., through hydrologic or transportation networks, lines of sight, or other approaches), and whether the benefit is supplied by an ecosystem's provision of a beneficial flow to people or by absorption of a detrimental flow before it reaches them. We describe our implementation of the SPAN framework for five ecosystem services and discuss how to generalize the approach to additional services. SPAN model outputs include maps of ecosystem service provision, use, depletion, and flows under theoretical, possible, actual, inaccessible, and blocked conditions. We highlight how these different ecosystem service flow maps could be used to support various types of decision making for conservation and resource management planning. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Boyd, Amanda D.; Liu, Yue; Stephens, Jennie C.; Wilson, Elizabeth J.; Pollak, Melisa; Peterson, Tarla Rai; Einsiedel, Edna; Meadowcroft, James. (2013) Controversy in technology innovation: Contrasting media and expert risk perceptions of the alleged leakage at the Weyburn carbon dioxide storage demonstration project. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 14 259-269
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On January 11, 2011 a local farm couple from Saskatchewan held a press conference claiming CO2 had leaked from the Weyburn project onto their land. This first public reporting of potential leakage from a carbon capture and storage (CCS) project provides an opportunity to analyze media coverage and expert perspectives to advance understanding of risk perceptions and communication of emerging energy technologies. Risk perceptions of new and emerging technologies play an influential role in innovation processes. The Weybum project has recently been the subject of controversy as local residents alleged that CO2 leaked from the underground storage formation and affected their surface property. The public were presented with conflicting assessments of whether the CO2 was or was not leaking, and communication about the alleged leakage and its risks reflected this uncertainty. We analyze media coverage of the controversy and interviews with CCS professionals to explore differences in media and expert risk perception and framing. This study considers the influence of public controversy on perceptions of emerging technologies and provides insights on responses and influences of both the media and technology experts. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buchholz, T.; Friedland, A. J.; Hornig, C. E.; Keeton, W. S.; Zanchi, G.; Nunery, J. S.. (2013) Mineral soil carbon fluxes in forests and implications for carbon balance assessments. Global Change Biology Bioenergy
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Forest carbon cycles play an important role in efforts to understand and mitigate climate change. Large amounts of carbon (C) are stored in deep mineral forest soils, but are often not considered in accounting for global C fluxes because mineral soil C is commonly thought to be relatively stable. We explore C fluxes associated with forest management practices by examining existing data on forest C fluxes in the northeastern US. Our findings demonstrate that mineral soil C can play an important role in C emissions, especially when considering intensive forest management practices. Such practices are known to cause a high aboveground C flux to the atmosphere, but there is evidence that they can also promote comparably high and long-term belowground C fluxes. If these additional fluxes are widespread in forests, recommendations for increased reliance on forest biomass may need to be reevaluated. Furthermore, existing protocols for the monitoring of forest C often ignore mineral soil C due to lack of data. Forest C analyses will be incomplete until this problem is resolved.
Buchholz, T.; Volk, T.. (2013) Profitability of Willow Biomass Crops Affected by Incentive Programs. Bioenergy Research 6(1) 53-64
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The economics of willow biomass crops are strongly influenced by yield, production, and harvesting costs and the delivered price for biomass. Under current management practices, willow biomass crops with yields of 12 oven-dried metric tons (odt) ha(-1) year(-1) and a delivered price of $60 odt(-1) have an internal rate of return (IRR) of about 5.5 %. Yields below 9 odt ha(-1) year(-1) have an IRR < 0 %. We examined the impact of different incentive programs on the returns from willow biomass crops and the hectares or tons of willow biomass supported across a range of yields. Incentive programs examined included establishment grants (EG), annual payments (AIP), low cost startup loans, and matching payments offered by two existing programs, the Conservation Resource Program (CRP) and more recently the Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP). EGs covering 75 % of the establishment costs provide high returns for growers on medium to high-productivity sites. Stand-alone AIPs with payments of $124 ha(-1) year(-1) paid over 5-15 years had little impact on profitability for growers but were costly for a funding agency. Low-cost loans with an interest rate of 2-4 % are one of the least expensive approaches ($1.3-6.6 odt(-1)) and improve profitability for medium- and high-yielding (8-16 odt ha(-1) year(-1)) sites. A matching payment incentive providing $50 per odt delivered was the only individual incentive approach that made low-yielding sites (6 odt ha(-1) year(-1)) profitable but was costly per odt compared to other incentives. Current CRP incentives made willow profitable across all productivity scenarios. The BCAP program generates higher profits for all productivity scenarios but comes at a higher cost. Effective financial incentives need to be well designed and monitored so that the target audience is reached and the intended policy goals are attained.
Burrascano, S.; Keeton, W. S.; Sabatini, F. M.; Blasi, C.. (2013) Commonality and variability in the structural attributes of moist temperate old-growth forests: A global review. Forest Ecology and Management 291 458-479
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Temperate forests have been fundamentally altered by land use and other stressors globally; these have reduced the abundance of primary and old-growth forests in particular. Despite many regional studies, the literature lacks a global synthesis of temperate old-growth structural characteristics. In this study we compare literature derived data on mature and old-growth moist temperate forests with the aim of: (i) exploring global commonalities; (ii) investigating sources of variability among systems; and (iii) highlighting data gaps and research needs. We compiled a dataset of 147 records from 93 papers, and analyzed a set of structural indicators: basal area, stem density, large living trees, live aboveground biomass, quadratic mean diameter, and coarse woody debris volume. These indicators were contrasted between mature and old-growth age classes at a global level and across continents and broad forest types, testing for significance through Monte-Carlo permutation procedure. We also related structural indicators to age, climatic and geographical descriptors. Our results suggest that all structural indicators vary across systems in relation to geographical, compositional, and climatic influences. However old-growth forests showed global commonalities in structure when compared to mature forests: significantly higher densities of large living trees, higher quadratic mean diameter, and higher amounts of live aboveground biomass and coarse woody debris. Furthermore we found inconsistency in the structural variables reported by different papers; lack of studies on temperate forests in Russia, and Western and Central Asia. The findings improve our understanding of old-growth structure and function, and will help inform sustainable forest management and conservation approaches world-wide. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Butryn, R. S.; Parrish, D. L.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2013) Summer stream temperature metrics for predicting brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution in streams. Hydrobiologia 703(1) 47-57
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We developed a methodology to predict brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution using summer temperature metrics as predictor variables. Our analysis used long-term fish and hourly water temperature data from the Dog River, Vermont (USA). Commonly used metrics (e.g., mean, maximum, maximum 7-day maximum) tend to smooth the data so information on temperature variation is lost. Therefore, we developed a new set of metrics (called event metrics) to capture temperature variation by describing the frequency, area, duration, and magnitude of events that exceeded a user-defined temperature threshold. We used 16, 18, 20, and 22A degrees C. We built linear discriminant models and tested and compared the event metrics against the commonly used metrics. Correct classification of the observations was 66% with event metrics and 87% with commonly used metrics. However, combined event and commonly used metrics correctly classified 92%. Of the four individual temperature thresholds, it was difficult to assess which threshold had the "best" accuracy. The 16A degrees C threshold had slightly fewer misclassifications; however, the 20A degrees C threshold had the fewest extreme misclassifications. Our method leveraged the volumes of existing long-term data and provided a simple, systematic, and adaptable framework for monitoring changes in fish distribution, specifically in the case of irregular, extreme temperature events.
Canham, C. D.; Rogers, N.; Buchholz, T.. (2013) Regional variation in forest harvest regimes in the northeastern United States. Ecological Applications 23(3) 515-522
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Logging is a larger cause of adult tree mortality in northeastern U.S. forests than all other causes of mortality combined. We used Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to develop statistical models to quantify three different aspects of aggregate regional forest harvest regimes: (1) the annual probability that a plot is logged, as a function of total aboveground tree biomass, (2) the fraction of adult tree basal area removed if a plot was logged, and (3) the probability that an individual tree within a plot was removed, as a function of the fraction of basal area removed at the plot level, the species of tree, and its size. Results confirm that relatively frequent partial harvesting dominates the logging regimes, but with significant variation among different parts of the region and different forest types. The harvest regimes have similarities with natural disturbance regimes in imposing spatially and temporally dynamic mortality that varies predictably as a function of stand structure as well as tree species and size.
Chappell, M. J.; Wittman, H.; Bacon, C. M.; Ferguson, B. G.; Barrios, L. G.; Barrios, R. G.; Jaffee, D.; Lima, J.; Mendez, V. E.; Morales, H.; Soto-Pinto, L.; Vandermeer, J.; Perfecto, I.. (2013) Food sovereignty: an alternative paradigm for poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation in Latin America. F1000Res; F1000Research 2 235
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Strong feedback between global biodiversity loss and persistent, extreme rural poverty are major challenges in the face of concurrent food, energy, and environmental crises. This paper examines the role of industrial agricultural intensification and market integration as exogenous socio-ecological drivers of biodiversity loss and poverty traps in Latin America. We then analyze the potential of a food sovereignty framework, based on protecting the viability of a diverse agroecological matrix while supporting rural livelihoods and global food production. We review several successful examples of this approach, including ecological land reform in Brazil, agroforestry, milpa, and the uses of wild varieties in smallholder systems in Mexico and Central America. We highlight emergent research directions that will be necessary to assess the potential of the food sovereignty model to promote both biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction.
Chaudhry, Rumika; Fischlein, Miriam; Larson, Joel; Hall, Damon M.; Peterson, Tarla Rai; Wilson, Elizabeth J.; Stephens, Jennie C.. (2013) Policy Stakeholders' Perceptions of Carbon Capture and Storage: A Comparison of Four US States. Journal of Cleaner Production 52 21-32
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Over the past decade, the United States (US) has demonstrated strong and evolving interest in the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS), an emerging set of technologies with potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants. Given the many technical, economic, and environmental uncertainties about the future of CCS, the political salience of this technology is high. In the US, states make key decisions about deploying energy technology projects, but variation in state-level energy context (both technical and socio-political) is substantial. This research assesses variation in the state-level energy context for CCS development by exploring energy policy stakeholders' perceptions of CCS in four geographically and demographically diverse states. Policy stakeholders have different degrees of familiarity with CCS, and the goal of this research is to understand and compare the perceptions of CCS among stakeholders who shape state-level energy policy. Semi-structured interviews with 84 energy policy stakeholders across government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations active in four different states (Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana and Texas) were analyzed to compare perceptions of CCS risks and benefits. Negative associations of CCS were mentioned more frequently than positive attributes in each state, and technical, political and economic risks are more dominant than environmental or health and safety risks. Content analysis of the interviews provides insight on emerging sub-national discourse regarding CCS, on state-level variation in familiarity with CCS, and on sub-national variation in the socio-political context for energy technologies. The variation in state and stakeholder energy priorities and perceptions revealed in this study highlights challenges in the development and implementation of national-level energy policy and also specific challenges in the deployment of CCS. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
De Groot, R. S.; Blignaut, J.; van der Ploeg, S.; Aronson, J.; Elmqvist, T.; Farley, J.. (2013) Benefits of Investing in Ecosystem Restoration. Conservation Biology 27(6) 1286-1293
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Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments.
Erickson, D. L.; Lovell, S. T.; Mendez, V. E.. (2013) Identifying, quantifying and classifying agricultural opportunities for land use planning. Landscape and Urban Planning 118 29-39
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Worldwide, urbanization is causing a loss of agricultural land as residential and commercial development expands. In many parts of the US, this land use conversion has in some cases resulted in subdivision of farms into large residential parcels. Some of these residential parcels may retain sizeable areas of undeveloped prime agricultural soil. In an uncertain future challenged by population growth, climate change, food insecurity, water shortages, and energy limitations, communities are beginning to explore their ability to feed themselves from local supplies. Addressing this issue will require additional tools for planning land use in a way that could support greater food self-sufficiency at the community level. In this study, a process was developed to identify, quantify and classify agricultural opportunities (AO). AO are simply open lands suitable for some level of agricultural production. The methods outlined here were developed in Chittenden County, Vermont but they can be applied elsewhere. While individual ancillary datasets may be unique to each study area, the general process can be replicated as long as some basic datasets such as classified land cover imagery and prime soils are available. The tools described herein, if employed by planners or geospatial analysts, can generate actionable information. The results of the analyses, as well as the associated participatory community discussions, can aid decision makers when drafting new or revising old policies. Because of their widespread applicability, these tools can serve as decision support aids for policy makers and planners tasked with developing strategies to increase food self-sufficiency. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Farley, J.; Burke, M.; Flomenhoft, G.; Kelly, B.; Murray, D.; Posner, S.; Putnam, M.; Scanlan, A.; Witham, A.. (2013) Monetary and Fiscal Policies for a Finite Planet.. Sustainability 5(6) 2802-2826
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Current macroeconomic policy promotes continuous economic growth. Unemployment, poverty and debt are associated with insufficient growth. Economic activity depends upon the transformation of natural materials, ultimately returning to the environment as waste. Current levels of economic throughput exceed the planet’s carrying capacity. As a result of poorly constructed economic institutions, society faces the unacceptable choice between ecological catastrophe and human misery. A transition to a steady-state economy is required, characterized by a rate of throughput compatible with planetary boundaries. This paper contributes to the development of a steady-state economy by addressing US monetary and fiscal policies. A steady-state monetary policy would support counter-cyclical, debt-free vertical money creation through the public sector, in ways that contribute to sustainable well-being. The implication for a steady-state fiscal policy is that any lending or spending requires a careful balance of recovery of money, not as a means of revenue, but as an economic imperative to meet monetary policy goals. A steady-state fiscal policy would prioritize targeted public goods investments, taxation of ecological “bads” and economic rent and implementation of progressive tax structures. Institutional innovations are considered, including common asset trusts, to regulate throughput, and a public monetary trust, to strictly regulate money supply.
Feldpausch-Parker, Andrea M.; Ragland, Chara J.; Melnick, Leah L.; Chaudhry, Rumika; Hall, Damon M.; Peterson, Tarla R.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Wilson, Elizabeth J.. (2013) Spreading the News on Carbon Capture and Storage: A State-Level Comparison of US Media. Environmental Communication-a Journal of Nature and Culture 7(3) 336-354
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Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has received abundant federal support in the USA as an energy technology to mitigate climate change, yet its position within the energy system remains uncertain. Because media play a significant role in shaping public conversations about science and technology, we analyzed media portrayal of CCS in newspapers from four strategically selected states. We grounded the analysis in Luhmann's theory of social functions, operationalized through the socio-political evaluation of energy deployment (SPEED) framework. Coverage emphasized economic, political/legal, and technical functions and focused on benefits, rather than risks of adoption. Although news coverage connected CCS with climate change, the connection was constrained by political/legal functions. Media responses to this constraint indicate how communication across multiple social functions may influence deployment of energy technologies.
Fernandez, M.; Goodall, K.; Olson, M. B.; Mendez, V. E.. (2013) Agroecology and alternative agrifood movements in the United States: towards a sustainable agrifood system.. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37(1) 115-126
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The concept of agroecology in the United States is born out of a dialectical process of co-production of knowledge whereby the science of agroecology has shaped and been shaped by alternative agri-food movements, policy, and local practice. This article examines the relationship between agroecology and alternative agri-food movements and identifies opportunities for greater engagement. The article concludes with a discussion of the challenges and opportunities to scaling up agroecology and sustainable agri-food systems.
Fischlein, Miriam; Wilson, Elizabeth J.; Peterson, Tarla R.; Stephens, Jennie C.. (2013) States of transmission: Moving towards large-scale wind power. Energy Policy 56 101-113
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Efforts to plan and site transmission for wind power cannot currently keep pace with wind power development. The very nature of wind power, whether distributed or intermittent, challenges traditional models of electricity grid development. Much of the decision authority for transmission is located at the state level, creating tensions between a system-wide need for transmission capacity and the local nature of planning and implementation. This study identifies and discusses barriers for wind power transmission and highlights the critical role of states and state policies in expanding and transforming the electricity grid to accommodate large scale wind power. Drawing on extensive interview data with energy stakeholders, we present a comparative case study of state-level contexts linking wind and transmission in Montana, Minnesota, and Texas. Stakeholders were found to portray transmission challenges and solutions for wind power based on the character of the local transmission grid, their status as power importer, exporter or self-sufficient state, and the role wind already plays in the power supply. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fisher, B.; Edwards, D. P.; Wilcove, D. S.. (2013) Logging and conservation: Economic impacts of the stocking rates and prices of commercial timber species. Forest Policy and Economics
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Tropical forests vary greatly in their stocking rates of timber and the commercial value of the different tree species they contain. This significantly affects the economics of logging and, consequently, the viability of carbon payments to aid in the conservation or management of the world's forests. In this paper we first develop a conceptual model to investigate how theoretical opportunity costs and the conservation potential of carbon payments vary across forests with stocking rates and species composition. We focus the model on two possible conservation contexts: 1) strict protection of unlogged forests and 2) conservation of selectively logged forests. Results suggest that the type of forest, with regard to both timber volume and species composition, greatly affects the potential of a carbon payment to mitigate forest degradation. Additionally, two complementary insights emerge. First, in forests where timbers of high commercial value represent only a small proportion of total wood volume (and therefore carbon), selective logging may make conservation of the wider landscape more feasible, and cost-effective. Second, in forests where selective logging of highly-prized species has already occurred, engaging in long-term conservation of forest (and hence thwarting conversion to agriculture) may make the conservation of biodiverse landscapes more feasible, and their management more cost-effective.
Fontana, V.; Radtke, A.; Fedrigotti, V. B.; Tappeiner, U.; Tasser, E.; Serbe, S.; Buchholz, T.. (2013) Comparing land-use alternatives: Using the ecosystem services concept to define a multi-criteria decision analysis. Ecological Economics 93 128-136
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In landscape planning, land-use types need to be compared including the ecosystem services they provide. With multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), ecological economics offers a useful tool for environmental questions but mostly case-specific criteria are applied. This, however, makes it difficult to compare findings. Therefore, we present a systematic framework that includes the ecosystem services as criteria into MCDA. The ecological quantification of the provided ecosystem services is combined with the assigned importance of the single ecosystem services. In a case study from the central Alps, we compared three land-use alternatives resulting from land-use change caused by socio-economic pressures: traditional larch (Larix decidua) meadow, spruce forest (abandonment) and intensive meadow (intensification). Criteria for the MCDA model were selected by experts, criteria importance was ranked by stakeholders and criteria values were assessed with qualitative and quantitative indicators. Eventually spruce forest was ranked as the best land-use alternative followed by traditional larch meadow and intensive meadow. The combined approach of MCDA using ecosystem services as criteria showed how criteria weightings and criteria indicator values influence land-use alternatives' performance. The MCDA-model visualizes the consequences of land-use change for ecosystem service provision, facilitating landscape planning by structuring environmental problems and providing data for decisions.
Fukuda-Parr, S.; Heintz, J.; Seguino, S.. (2013) Critical Perspectives on Financial and Economic Crises: Heterodox Macroeconomics Meets Feminist Economics. Feminist Economics 19(3) 4-31
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This contribution brings together various strands of analysis about the causes, consequences, and policy ramifications of economic crises, with a specific focus on distributional dynamics. It aims to facilitate a conversation between macroeconomic theorists of crises and instability and feminist economists and scholars of intergroup inequality. Macroeconomic analyses of the Great Recession have centered on the causal role of financial deregulation, capital flow imbalances, and growth of income and wealth inequality. That work tends to be divorced from research that analyzes broader distributional impacts, prior to the crisis and subsequently, transmitted through economic channels and government responses. This study's framework emphasizes the role of stratification along multiple trajectories - race, class, and gender - in contributing to economic crises and in shaping their distributional dynamics. The study underscores the long-run effects of the 2008 crisis on well-being, highlighted in feminist economists' research on social reproduction and often missed in the macroeconomics literature.
Fytilis, N.; Rizzo, D. M.; Lamb, R. D.; Kerans, B. L.; Stevens, L.. (2013) Using real-time PCR and Bayesian analysis to distinguish susceptible tubificid taxa important in the transmission of Myxobolus cerebralis, the cause of salmonid whirling disease. International Journal for Parasitology 43(6) 493-501
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Aquatic oligochaetes have long been appreciated for their value in assessing habitat quality because they are ubiquitous sediment-dwelling filter feeders. Many oligochaete taxa are also important in the transmission of fish diseases. Distinguishing resistant and susceptible taxa is important for managing fish disease, yet challenging in practice. Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) is the definitive host for the complex life-cycle parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of salmonid whirling disease. We developed two hydrolysis probe-based qualitative real-time PCR (qPCR) multiplex assays that distinguish among tubificid taxa collected from the Madison River, Montana, USA. The first assay distinguishes T. tubifex from Rhyacodrilus spp.; while the second classifies T. tubifex identified by the first assay into two genetic lineages (I and III). Specificity and sensitivity were optimized for each assay; the two assays showed specificity of 94.3% and 98.6% for the target oligochaetes, respectively. DNA sequencing verified the results. The development of these assays allowed us to more fully describe tubificid community composition (the taxa and their abundance at a site) and estimate the relative abundances of host taxa. To relate tubificid relative abundance to fish disease risk, we determined M. cerebralis infection prevalence in samples identified as T. tubifex using similar molecular techniques. Given prior information (i.e., morphological identification of sexually mature worms), Bayesian analysis inferred that the first qPCR assay improved taxonomic identification. Bayesian inference of the relative abundance of T. tubifex, combined with infection assay results, identified sites with a high prevalence of infected T. tubifex. To our knowledge, this study represents both the first assessment of oligochaete community composition using a qPCR assay based on fluorescent probes and the first use of Bayesian analysis to fully characterize the dominant infected taxa in streams where whirling disease is observed. (C) 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fytilis, N.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2013) Coupling self-organizing maps with a Naive Bayesian classifier : Stream classification studies using multiple assessment data. Water Resources Research 49(11) 7747-7762
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Organizing or clustering data into natural groups is one of the most fundamental aspects of understanding and mining information. The recent explosion in sensor networks and data storage associated with hydrological monitoring has created a huge potential for automating data analysis and classification of large, high-dimensional data sets. In this work, we develop a new classification tool that couples a Naive Bayesian classifier with a neural network clustering algorithm (i.e., Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM)). The combined Bayesian-SOM algorithm reduces classification error by leveraging the Bayesian's ability to accommodate parameter uncertainty with the SOM's ability to reduce high-dimensional data to lower dimensions. The resulting algorithm is data-driven, nonparametric and is as computationally efficient as a Naive Bayesian classifier due to its parallel architecture. We apply, evaluate and test the Bayesian-SOM network using two real-world hydrological data sets. The first uses genetic data to classify the state of disease in native fish populations in the upper Madison River, MT, USA. The second uses stream geomorphic and water quality data measured at similar to 2500 Vermont stream reaches to predict habitat conditions. The new classification tool has substantial benefits over traditional classification methods due to its ability to dynamically update prior information, assess the uncertainty/confidence of the posterior probability values, and visualize both the input data and resulting probabilistic clusters onto two-dimensional maps to better assess nonlinear mappings between the two.
Galford, Gillian L.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Cerri, Carlos E. P.. (2013) Prospects for land-use sustainability on the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 368(1619)
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The Brazilian Amazon frontier shows how remarkable leadership can work towards increased agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability without new greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to initiatives among various stakeholders, including national and state government and agents, farmers, consumers, funding agencies and non-governmental organizations. Change has come both from bottom-up and top-down actions of these stakeholders, providing leadership, financing and monitoring to foster environmental sustainability and agricultural growth. Goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from land-cover and land-use change in Brazil are being achieved through a multi-tiered approach that includes policies to reduce deforestation and initiatives for forest restoration, as well as increased and diversified agricultural production, intensified ranching and innovations in agricultural management. Here, we address opportunities for the Brazilian Amazon in working towards low-carbon rural development and environmentally sustainable landscapes.
Garibaldi, L. A.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Winfree, R.; Aizen, M. A.; Bommarco, R.; Cunningham, S. A.; Kremen, C.; Carvalheiro, L. G.; Harder, L. D.; Afik, O.; Bartomeus, I.; Benjamin, F.; Boreux, V.; Cariveau, D.; Chacoff, N. P.; Dudenhoffer, J. H.; Freitas, B. M.; Ghazoul, J.; Greenleaf, S.; Hipolito, J.; Holzschuh, A.; Howlett, B.; Isaacs, R.; Javorek, S. K.; Kennedy, C. M.; Krewenka, K. M.; Krishnan, S.; Mandelik, Y.; Mayfield, M. M.; Motzke, I.; Munyuli, T.; Nault, B. A.; Otieno, M.; Petersen, J.; Pisanty, G.; Potts, S. G.; Rader, R.; Ricketts, T. H.; Rundlof, M.; Seymour, C. L.; Schuepp, C.; Szentgyorgyi, H.; Taki, H.; Tscharntke, T.; Vergara, C. H.; Viana, B. F.; Wanger, T. C.; Westphal, C.; Williams, N.; Klein, A. M.. (2013) Wild Pollinators Enhance Fruit Set of Crops Regardless of Honey Bee Abundance. Science 339(6127) 1608-1611
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The diversity and abundance of wild insect pollinators have declined in many agricultural landscapes. Whether such declines reduce crop yields, or are mitigated by managed pollinators such as honey bees, is unclear. We found universally positive associations of fruit set with flower visitation by wild insects in 41 crop systems worldwide. In contrast, fruit set increased significantly with flower visitation by honey bees in only 14% of the systems surveyed. Overall, wild insects pollinated crops more effectively; an increase in wild insect visitation enhanced fruit set by twice as much as an equivalent increase in honey bee visitation. Visitation by wild insects and honey bees promoted fruit set independently, so pollination by managed honey bees supplemented, rather than substituted for, pollination by wild insects. Our results suggest that new practices for integrated management of both honey bees and diverse wild insect assemblages will enhance global crop yields.
Hague, U.; Glass, G. E.; Bomblies, A.; Hashizume, M.; Mitra, D.; Noman, N.; Haque, W.; Kabir, M. M.; Yamamoto, T.; Overgaard, H. J.. (2013) Risk Factors Associated with Clinical Malaria Episodes in Bangladesh: A Longitudinal Study. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 88(4) 727-732
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Malaria is endemic to Bangladesh. In this longitudinal study, we used hydrologic, topographic, and socioeconomic risk factors to explain single and multiple malaria infections at individual and household levels. Malaria incidence was determined for 1,634 households in 54 villages in 2009 and 2010. During the entire study period 21.8% of households accounted for all (n = 497) malaria cases detected; 15.4% of households had 1 case and 6.4% had >= 2 cases. The greatest risk factors for malaria infection were low bed net ratio per household, house construction materials (wall), and high density of houses. Hydrologic and topographic factors were not significantly associated with malaria risk. This study identifies stable malaria hotspots and risk factors that should be considered for cost-effective targeting of malaria interventions that may contribute to potential elimination of malaria in Bangladesh.
Hu, L.; Savidge, C.; Rizzo, D.; Hayden, N.; Hagadorn, J.; Dewoolkar, M.. (2013) Commonly Used Porous Building Materials: Geomorphic Pore Structure and Fluid Transport. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 25(12) 1803-1812
Jain, M.; Mondal, P.; DeFries, R. S.; Small, C.; Galford, G. L.. (2013) Mapping cropping intensity of smallholder farms: A comparison of methods using multiple sensors. Remote Sensing of Environment 134 210-223
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The food security of smallholder farmers is vulnerable to climate change and climate variability. Cropping intensity, the number of crops planted annually, can be used as a measure of food security for smallholder farmers given that it can greatly affect net production. Current techniques for quantifying cropping intensity may not accurately map smallholder farms where the size of one field is typically smaller than the spatial resolution of readily available satellite data. We evaluated four methods that use multi-scalar datasets and are commonly used in the literature to assess cropping intensity of smallholder farms: 1) the Landsat threshold method, which identifies if a Landsat pixel is cropped or uncropped during each growing season, 2) the MODIS peak method, which determines if there is a phenological peak in the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index time series during each growing season, 3) the MODIS temporal mixture analysis, which quantifies the sub-pixel heterogeneity of cropping intensity using phenological MODIS data, and 4) the MODIS hierarchical training method, which quantifies the sub-pixel heterogeneity of cropping intensity using hierarchical training techniques. Each method was assessed using four criteria: 1) data availability, 2) accuracy across different spatial scales (at aggregate scales 250 x 250 m, 1 x 1 km, 5 x 5 km, and 10 x 10 km), 3) ease of implementation, and 4) ability to use the method over large spatial and temporal scales. We applied our methods to two regions in India (Gujarat and southeastern Madhya Pradesh) that represented diversity in crop type, soils, climatology, irrigation access, cropping intensity, and field size. We found that the Landsat threshold method is the most accurate (R-2 >= 0.71 and RMSE <= 0.14), particularly at smaller scales of analysis. Yet given the limited availability of Landsat data, we find that the MODIS hierarchical training method meets multiple criteria for mapping cropping intensity over large spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, the adjusted R-2 between predicted and validation data generally increased and the RMSE decreased with spatial aggregation >= 5 x 5 km (R-2 up to 0.97 and RMSE as low as 0.00). Our model accuracy varied based on the region and season of analysis and was lowest during the summer season in Gujarat when there was high sub-pixel heterogeneity due to sparsely cropped agricultural land-cover. While our results specifically apply to our study regions in India, they most likely also apply to smallholder agriculture in other locations across the globe where the same types of satellite data are readily available. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kennedy, Christina M.; Lonsdorf, Eric; Neel, Maile C.; Williams, Neal M.; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Winfree, Rachael; Bommarco, Riccardo; Brittain, Claire; Burley, Alana L.; Cariveau, Daniel; Carvalheiro, Luísa G.; Chacoff, Natacha P.; Cunningham, Saul A.; Danforth, Bryan N.; Dudenhöffer, Jan-Hendrik; Elle, Elizabeth; Gaines, Hannah R.; Garibaldi, Lucas A.; Gratton, Claudio; Holzschuh, Andrea; Isaacs, Rufus; Javorek, Steven K.; Jha, Shalene; Klein, Alexandra M.; Krewenka, Kristin; Mandelik, Yael; Mayfield, Margaret M.; Morandin, Lora; Neame, Lisa A.; Otieno, Mark; Park, Mia; Potts, Simon G.; Rundlöf, Maj; Saez, Agustin; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Taki, Hisatomo; Viana, Blandina Felipe; Westphal, Catrin; Wilson, Julianna K.; Greenleaf, Sarah S.; Kremen, Claire. (2013) A global quantitative synthesis of local and landscape effects on wild bee pollinators in agroecosystems. Ecology Letters 16(5) 584-599
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Bees provide essential pollination services that are potentially affected both by local farm management and the surrounding landscape. To better understand these different factors, we modelled the relative effects of landscape composition (nesting and floral resources within foraging distances), landscape configuration (patch shape, interpatch connectivity and habitat aggregation) and farm management (organic vs. conventional and local-scale field diversity), and their interactions, on wild bee abundance and richness for 39 crop systems globally. Bee abundance and richness were higher in diversified and organic fields and in landscapes comprising more high-quality habitats; bee richness on conventional fields with low diversity benefited most from high-quality surrounding land cover. Landscape configuration effects were weak. Bee responses varied slightly by biome. Our synthesis reveals that pollinator persistence will depend on both the maintenance of high-quality habitats around farms and on local management practices that may offset impacts of intensive monoculture agriculture.
Koenigs, Clark; Suri, Mudita; Kreiter, Amelia; Elling, Caroline; Eagles, Julia; Peterson, Tarla; Stephens, Jennie; Wilson, Elizabeth. (2013) A Smarter Grid for Renewable Energy: Different States of Action. Challenges 4(2) 217-233
Koliba, C.; Zia, A.. (2013) Complex Systems Modeling in Public Administration and Policy Studies: Challenges and Opportunities for a Meta-Theoretical Research Program.. Emergnent Publications, Litchfield Park, AZ.
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There is an argument that says that research in Public Administration is always about social complexity. This argument is true. There is also an argument that says that Public Administration is actually very little informed by complexity. This is equally true. The differences lie in the different takes on complexity. The latter approach understands that comprehension of complexity requires a specific theoretical framework and associated tools to look into the black box of causality. The authors in this edited volume gathered in Rotterdam (The Netherlands, June 2011) to discuss how the complexity sciences can contribute to pertinent questions in the domains of Public Administration and Public Policy. Their contributions are presented in this edited volume. Each contribution is an attempt to answer the Challenge of Making Public Administration and Complexity Theory work-COMPACT, as the title says. Together, they present an overview of the diverse state of the art in thinking about and research in complex systems in the public domain.
Koliba, C.; Zia, A.. (2013) Governance Informatics: Using Computer Simulation Models to Deepen Situational Awareness and Governance Design Considerations. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Koliba, C.. (2013) Review of 'Cultural Competency for Public Administrators'. Journal of Public Affairs Education 19(2) 377-379
Koppenjan, Joop; Koliba, Christopher. (2013) Editorial introduction to the Symposium TRANSFORMATIONS TOWARDS NEW PUBLIC GOVERNANCE: CAN THE NEW PARADIGM HANDLE COMPLEXITY?. International Review of Public Administration 18(2) 1-8
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New public governance (NPM) has been proclaimed as an alternative governance paradigm, with some suggesting that it replaces classical public administration (CPA) and new public management (NPM). The CPA and NPM approaches are said to be unable to deal with the growing complexities facing a globalizing, networked society (e.g., Osborne 2006, 2010). It is now widely recognized that public policy making and public service delivery develop increasingly within multilevel, cross-border settings, in which former demarcations of policy fields become blurred, with a high level of individualization,pluriformity of values, information density and dynamics, and mediatization (Castells 1996; Bauman 2005, Hjarvard 2008, Sorenson and Torfing 2007). These trends lead to the proliferation of nonlinear dynamics, strategic surprises, and emergent vulnerabilities and risks (Beck, 1992; Taleb, 2006; Longstaff 2005). As a result, society is increasingly dealing with wicked problems that require the expansion of knowledge and a problemsolving capacity that cannot be provided by any single entity operating alone (Rittel and Webber, 1976; Head 2008). Pollitt et al. (2004), and Bouckaert et al. (2010) further argue that during the last decades, classical public administration and new public management have contributed to fragmentation of governance capacity, while greater coordination and collaboration seem to be required.
Lucero, D. E.; Morrissey, L. A.; Rizzo, D. M.; Rodas, A.; Garnica, R.; Stevens, L.; Bustamante, D. M.; Carlota Monroy, M.. (2013) Ecohealth Interventions Limit Triatomine Reinfestation following Insecticide Spraying in La Brea, Guatemala. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 88(4) 630-637
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In this study, we evaluate the effect of participatory Ecohealth interventions on domestic reinfestation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata after village-wide suppression of the vector population using a residual insecticide. The study was conducted in the rural community of La Brea, Guatemala between 2002 and 2009 where vector infestation was analyzed within a spatial data framework based on entomological and socio-economic surveys of homesteads within the village. Participatory interventions focused on community awareness and low-cost home improvements using local materials to limit areas of refuge and alternative blood meals for the vector within the home, and potential shelter for the vector outside the home. As a result, domestic infestation was maintained at <= 3% and peridomestic infestation at <= 2% for 5 years beyond the last insecticide spraying, in sharp contrast to the rapid reinfestation experienced in earlier insecticide only interventions.
Lyman, M. W.; Danks, C.; McDonough, M.. (2013) New England's Community Forests: Comparing a Regional Model to ICCAs. Conservation & Society 11(1) 46-59
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This paper examines the ways in which some forms of community forests in the northeastern United States could be considered Indigenous Peoples' and Community Conserved Territories and Areas (ICCAs), based on the work conducted by the Community Forest Collaborative, a partnership of four non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the US. The Collaborative defined a Community Forest Model for northern New England, conducted research on the economic, social, community, and conservation values of the Community Forest Model and developed case studies on five community forest projects. Five key attributes of ICCAs were selected and used to compare with characteristics of the Collaborative's Community Forest Model. The results conclude that the Community Forest Model is very consistent and compatible with the characteristics of ICCAs, defined by Kothari (2006), and further, that there would be benefits both to community forests in New England as well as to other ICCAs to include the Community Forest Model as an example of an ICCA.
Manukyan, Narine; Eppstein, Margaret J; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Leahy, Kathleen A; Kenny, Michael J; Mukherjee, Shreya; Rizzo, Donna M. (2013) Exploratory Analysis in Time-Varying Data Sets: a Healthcare Network Application. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science 3(7)
Marland, G.; Buchholz, T.; Kowalcyzk, T.. (2013) Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions The Context and Stakeholders Matter. Journal of Industrial Ecology 17(3) 340-342
Masozera, M.; Erickson, J. D.; Clifford, D.; Coppolillo, P.; Sadiki, H. G.; Mazet, J. K.. (2013) Integrating the Management of Ruaha Landscape of Tanzania with Local Needs and Preferences. Environmental Management 52(6) 1533-1546
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Sustainable management of landscapes with multiple competing demands such as the Ruaha Landscape is complex due to the diverse preferences and needs of stakeholder groups involved. This study uses conjoint analysis to assess the preferences of representatives from three stakeholder groups-local communities, district government officials, and non-governmental organizations-toward potential solutions of conservation and development tradeoffs facing local communities in the Ruaha Landscape of Tanzania. Results demonstrate that there is little consensus among stakeholders about the best development strategies for the Ruaha region. This analysis suggests a need for incorporating issues deemed important by these various groups into a development strategy that aims to promote conservation of the Ruaha Landscape and improve the livelihood of local communities.
Mathon, B. R.; Rizzo, D. M.; Kline, M.; Alexander, G.; Fiske, S.; Langdon, R.; Stevens, L.. (2013) Assessing Linkages in Stream Habitat, Geomorphic Condition, and Biological Integrity Using a Generalized Regression Neural Network.. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION 49(2) 415-430
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Watershed managers often use physical geomorphic and habitat assessments in making decisions about the biological integrity of a stream, and to reduce the cost and time for identifying stream stressors and developing mitigation strategies. Such analysis is difficult since the complex linkages between reach-scale geomorphic and habitat conditions, and biological integrity are not fully understood. We evaluate the effectiveness of a generalized regression neural network (GRNN) to predict biological integrity using physical (i.e., geomorphic and habitat) stream-reach assessment data. The method is first tested using geomorphic assessments to predict habitat condition for 1,292 stream reaches from the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources. The GRNN methodology outperforms linear regression (69% vs. 40% classified correctly) and improves slightly (70% correct) with additional data on channel evolution. Analysis of a subset of the reaches where physical assessments are used to predict biological integrity shows no significant linear correlation, however the GRNN predicted 48% of the fish health data and 23% of macroinvertebrate health. Although the GRNN is superior to linear regression, these results show linking physical and biological health remains challenging. Reasons for lack of agreement, including spatial and temporal scale differences, are discussed. We show the GRNN to be a data-driven tool that can assist watershed managers with large quantities of complex, nonlinear data.
McLellan, B. C.; Corder, G. D.; Ali, S. H.. (2013) Sustainability of rare earths-an overview of the state of knowledge. Minerals 3(3) 304-17
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Rare Earths (RE) have been the focus of much attention in recent years as a consequence of a number of converging factors, prominent among which are: centralization of supply (in China), unique applications in high-end technologies particularly in the low-carbon energy industry, and global demand outstripping availability. Despite this focus, RE supply chain sustainability has not been examined in depth or in any systematic manner. This paper provides an initial review of RE sustainability considerations at present, including current initiatives to understand the research and development needs. The analysis highlights a broad range of areas needing consolidation with future research and calls for collaboration between industry and academia to understand the sustainability considerations of these critical elements in more depth.
Mendez, V. E.; Bacon, C. M.; Cohen, R.. (2013) Agroecology as a Transdisciplinary, Participatory, and Action-Oriented Approach. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37(1) 3-18
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This article traces multiple directions in the evolution of agroecology, from its early emphasis on ecological processes in agricultural systems, to its emergence as a multidimensional approach focusing on broader agro-food systems. This review is timely, as agroecology is being increasingly applied within a diversity of scientific-, policy-, and farmer-based initiatives. We contrast different agroecological perspectives or “agroecologies” and discuss the characteristics of an agroecology characterized by a transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented approach. Our final discussion describes the contents of the special issue, and states our goal for this compilation, which is to encourage future work that embraces an agroecological approach grounded in transdisciplinarity, participation, and transformative action.
Mika, A. M.; Keeton, W. S.. (2013) Factors contributing to carbon fluxes from bioenergy harvests in the U.S. Northeast: an analysis using field data. Global Change Biology Bioenergy 5(3) 290-305
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With growing interest in wood bioenergy there is uncertainty over greenhouse gas emissions associated with offsetting fossil fuels. Although quantifying postharvest carbon (C) fluxes will require accurate data, relatively few studies have evaluated these using field data from actual bioenergy harvests. We assessed C reductions and net fluxes immediately postharvest from whole-tree harvests (WTH), bioenergy harvests without WTH, and nonbioenergy harvests at 35 sites across the northeastern United States. We compared the aboveground forest C in harvested with paired unharvested sites, and analyzed the C transferred to wood products and C emissions from energy generation from harvested sites, including indirect emissions from harvesting, transporting, and processing. All harvests reduced live tree C; however, only bioenergy harvests using WTH significantly reduced C stored in snags (P<0.01). On average, WTH sites also decreased downed coarse woody debris C while the other harvest types showed increases, although these results were not statistically significant. Bioenergy harvests using WTH generated fewer wood products and resulted in more emissions released from bioenergy than the other two types of harvests, which resulted in a greater net flux of C (P<0.01). A Classification and Regression Tree analysis determined that it was not the type of harvest or amount of bioenergy generated, but rather the type of skidding machinery and specifics of silvicultural treatment that had the largest impact on net C flux. Although additional research is needed to determine the impact of bioenergy harvesting over multiple rotations and at landscape scales, we conclude that operational factors often associated with WTH may result in an overall intensification of C fluxes. The intensification of bioenergy harvests, and subsequent C emissions, that result from these operational factors could be reduced if operators select smaller equipment and leave a portion of tree tops on site.
Morris, K. S.; Mendez, V. E.; Lovell, S. T.; Olson, M.. (2013) Conventional Food Plot Management in an Organic Coffee Cooperative: Explaining the Paradox. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37(7) 762-787
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This research analyzes farmers' motivations for conventional management of subsistence food crops, in contrast to organic management of coffee destined for export. Semistructured interviews, focus groups, and financial analyses were conducted with farmers from a small organic coffee cooperative in western El Salvador. We sought to identify what factors have motivated peasant farmers to manage subsistence crops, primarily maize and beans, with agrochemicals. We found that a combination of environmental, economic, social and political factors have driven agricultural management decisions. The environmental requirements of coffee are distinct, where coffee in a diverse shaded agroecosystem responds better to low-input management than maize grown on steep slopes in nutrient-poor soil. In addition, there are no direct economic incentives for subsistence farmers to manage food crops organically, while the benefit of a price premium does exist for organic coffee. Finally, institutional support for agriculture encourages organic production for export crops and generally overlooks subsistence farming. Our data show that half of the farmers lost money on their food plots, with agrochemicals representing the largest cost. This research suggests that small-scale farmers need support in transitioning to more economically and environmentally sustainable farming practices.
Morris, Katlyn S.; Mendez, V. Ernesto; Olson, Meryl B.. (2013) "Los meses flacos': seasonal food insecurity in a Salvadoran organic coffee cooperative. Journal of Peasant Studies 40(2) 423-446
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Central American coffee farmers commonly refer to annual periods of food insecurity as los meses flacos' - the thin months - indicating a recurring season in which they are unable to meet household food needs. Although this is a common phenomenon, little empirical research has documented the seasonal food insecurity that many small-scale coffee farmers face. Household surveys and focus groups were conducted with 29 members of an organic coffee cooperative in western El Salvador to determine the causes of, and responses to, seasonal food insecurity. Ninety-seven percent of households faced food shortages during some period of the year. The two most common proximate causes of food shortages were lack of income-generating opportunities to buy food and running out of staple food crops. Families coped with seasonal food shortages by borrowing money and food, seeking work outside of the community, changing diet, and selling livestock. It is clear that small-scale coffee farmers seek to maintain a balance between coffee, which provides income, and food crops, which provide staple food. Livelihood and income diversification are important coping strategies that should be supported; however, we conclude that efforts to address food insecurity in coffee regions require deeper structural changes to support peasant farmers.
Myers, Samuel S.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Golden, Christopher D.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; H. Redford, Kent; H. Ricketts, Taylor; Turner, Will R.; Osofsky, Steven A.. (2013) Human health impacts of ecosystem alteration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(47) 18753-18760
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Human activity is rapidly transforming most of Earth’s natural systems. How this transformation is impacting human health, whose health is at greatest risk, and the magnitude of the associated disease burden are relatively new subjects within the field of environmental health. We discuss what is known about the human health implications of changes in the structure and function of natural systems and propose that these changes are affecting human health in a variety of important ways. We identify several gaps and limitations in the research that has been done to date and propose a more systematic and comprehensive approach to applied research in this field. Such efforts could lead to a more robust understanding of the human health impacts of accelerating environmental change and inform decision making in the land-use planning, environmental conservation, and public health policy realms.
Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin. (2013) Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*. Environmental Research Letters 8(1) 011002
Pearce, A. R.; Rizzo, D. M.; Watzin, M. C.; Druschel, G. K.. (2013) Unraveling associations between cyanobacteria blooms and in-lake environmental conditions in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain, USA, using a modified self-organizing map. 47(24) 14267-74
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Exploratory data analysis on physical, chemical, and biological data from sediments and water in Lake Champlain reveals a strong relationship between cyanobacteria, sediment anoxia, and the ratio of dissolved nitrogen to soluble reactive phosphorus. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters of lake sediment and water were measured between 2007 and 2009. Cluster analysis using a self-organizing artificial neural network, expert opinion, and discriminant analysis separated the data set into no-bloom and bloom groups. Clustering was based on similarities in water and sediment chemistry and non-cyanobacteria phytoplankton abundance. Our analysis focused on the contribution of individual parameters to discriminate between no-bloom and bloom groupings. Application to a second, more spatially diverse data set, revealed similar no-bloom and bloom discrimination, yet a few samples possess all the physicochemical characteristics of a bloom without the high cyanobacteria cell counts, suggesting that while specific environmental conditions can support a bloom, another environmental trigger may be required to initiate the bloom. Results highlight the conditions coincident with cyanobacteria blooms in Missisquoi Bay of Lake Champlain and indicate additional data are needed to identify possible ecological contributors to bloom initiation.
Portenga, E. W.; Bierman, P. R.; Rizzo, D. M.; Rood, D. H.. (2013) Low rates of bedrock outcrop erosion in the central Appalachian Mountains inferred from in situ Be-10. Geological Society of America Bulletin 125(1-2) 201-215
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Bedrock outcrops are common on central Appalachian Mountain ridgelines. Because these ridgelines define watersheds, the rate at which they erode influences the pace of landscape evolution. To estimate ridgeline erosion rates, we sampled 72 quartz-bearing outcrops from the Potomac and Susquehanna River Basins and measured in situ produced Be-10. Ridgeline erosion rates average 9 +/- 1 m m.y.(-1) (median = 6 m m.y.(-1)), similar to Be-10-derived rates previously reported for the region. The range of erosion rates we calculated reflects the wide distribution of samples we collected and the likely inclusion of outcrops affected by episodic loss of thick slabs and periglacial activity. Outcrops on main ridgelines erode slower than those on mountainside spur ridges because ridgelines are less likely to be covered by soil, which reduces the production rate of Be-10 and increases the erosion rate of rock. Ridgeline outcrops erode slower than drainage basins in the Susquehanna and Potomac River watersheds, suggesting a landscape in disequilibrium. Erosion rates are more similar for outcrops meters to tens of meters apart than those at greater distances, yet semivariogram analysis suggests that outcrop erosion rates in the same physiographic province are similar even though they are hundreds of kilometers apart. This similarity may reflect underlying lithological and/or structural properties common to each physiographic province. Average Be-10-derived outcrop erosion rates are similar to denudation rates determined by other means (sediment flux, fission-track thermochronology, [U-Th]/He dating), indicating that the pace of landscape evolution in the central Appalachian Mountains is slow, and has been since post-Triassic rifting events.
Ricketts, T. H.; Lonsdorf, E.. (2013) Mapping the margin: comparing marginal values of tropical forest remnants for pollination services. Ecological Applications 23(5) 1113-1123
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Natural ecosystems benefit human communities by providing ecosystem services such as water purification and crop pollination. Mapping ecosystem service values has become popular, but most are static snapshots of average value. Estimating instead the economic impacts of specific ecosystem changes can better inform typical resource decisions. Here we develop an approach to mapping marginal values, those resulting from the next unit of ecosystem change, across landscapes. We demonstrate the approach with a recent model of crop pollination services in Costa Rica, simulating deforestation events to predict resulting marginal changes in pollination services to coffee farms. We find that marginal losses from deforestation vary from zero to US$700/ha across the landscape. Financial risks for farmers from these losses and marginal benefits of forest restoration show similar spatial variation. Marginal values are concentrated in relatively few forest parcels not identified using average value. These parcels lack substitutes: nearby forest parcels that can supply services in the event of loss. Indeed, the marginal value of forest parcels declines exponentially with the density of surrounding forest cover. The approach we develop is applicable to any ecosystem service. Combined with information on costs, it can help target conservation or restoration efforts to optimize benefits to people and biodiversity.
Rizzo, Donna M; Dewoolkar, Mandar M; Hayden, Nancy J. (2013) Transferable Skills Development in Engineering Students: Analysis of Service-Learning Impact. Springer, Cambridge, U.K.. Pages 65-78;
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The practice of engineering, especially the design process, involves many aspects beyond just the technical and includes such critical components as engineering ethics, sustainability and transferable skills such as communication, leadership and mentoring. Engineering educators often struggle with how to best incorporate these nontechnical aspects within their curricula. Service learning offers an opportunity to do this. The disconnect is that students often view engineering as only the technical number crunching and these other nontechnical components as less important. We report on the assessment of student written reflections across two very different service-learning engineering design projects for the purpose of evaluating student attitudes about these service-learning experiences and to assess their awareness and appreciation of transferable-skills development. In the spirit of service-learning pedagogy, we divided the contents of the written reflections into three categories – academic enhancement, civic engagement and personal growth skills. The commonality across both courses centered on academic enhancements and the value of transferable skills (i.e., leadership, teamwork, negotiation skills, mentoring, scheduling, verbal and written communication skills). Assessments show our current service-learning pedagogy improves students’ understanding of the importance of written and oral presentation skills. However, as of yet, many students do not consider leadership, negotiation skills, design setbacks, scheduling and mentoring skills to be part of “real” engineering.
Roman, J.; Altman, I.; Dunphy-Daly, M. M.; Campbell, C.; Jasny, M.; Read, A. J.. (2013) The Marine Mammal Protection Act at 40: status, recovery, and future of US marine mammals. Year in Ecology and Conservation Biology 1286 29-49
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Passed in 1972, the Marine Mammal Protection Act has two fundamental objectives: to maintain U.S. marine mammal stocks at their optimum sustainable populations and to uphold their ecological role in the ocean. The current status of many marine mammal populations is considerably better than in 1972. Take reduction plans have been largely successful in reducing direct fisheries bycatch, although they have not been prepared for all at-risk stocks, and fisheries continue to place marine mammals as risk. Information on population trends is unknown for most (71%) stocks; more stocks with known trends are improving than declining: 19% increasing, 5% stable, and 5% decreasing. Challenges remain, however, and the act has generally been ineffective in treating indirect impacts, such as noise, disease, and prey depletion. Existing conservation measures have not protected large whales from fisheries interactions or ship strikes in the northwestern Atlantic. Despite these limitations, marine mammals within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone appear to be faring better than those outside, with fewer species in at-risk categories and more of least concern.
Ruckelshaus, Mary; McKenzie, Emily; Tallis, Heather; Guerry, Anne; Daily, Gretchen; Kareiva, Peter; Polasky, Stephen; Ricketts, Taylor; Bhagabati, Nirmal; Wood, Spencer A.; Bernhardt, Joanna. (2013) Notes from the field: Lessons learned from using ecosystem service approaches to inform real-world decisions. Ecological Economics (0)
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While there have been rapid advances in assessments of biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES), a critical remaining challenge is how to move from scientific knowledge to real-world decision making. We offer 6 lessons from our experiences applying new approaches and tools for quantifying BES in 20 pilot demonstrations: (1) Applying a BES approach is most effective in leading to policy change as part of an iterative science-policy process; (2) simple ecological production function models have been useful in a diverse set of decision contexts, across a broad range of biophysical, social, and governance systems. Key limitations of simple models arise at very small scales, and in predicting specific future BES values; (3) training local experts in the approaches and tools is important for building local capacity, ownership, trust, and long-term success; (4) decision makers and stakeholders prefer to use a variety of BES value metrics, not only monetary values; (5) an important science gap exists in linking changes in BES to changes in livelihoods, health, cultural values, and other metrics of human wellbeing; and (6) communicating uncertainty in useful and transparent ways remains challenging.
Sales, E.; Mendez, V. E.; Caporal, F. R.; Faria, J. C.. (2013) Agroecological Transition of Conilon Coffee (Coffea canephora) Agroforestry Systems in the State of Esp rito Santo, Brazil. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37(4) 405-429
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Coffee is a very important product in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil, and most of it is planted as unshaded coffee monocultures, with few growers managing shaded coffee agroforestry systems (AFS). To analyze the opportunities and challenges associated with coffee agroforestry management, we conducted 58 semistructured interviews with coffee growers. In addition, we conducted a field investigation that tested production of Coffea canephora with the shade trees Australian Cedar (Toona ciliata), Jequitiba (Cariniana legalis), and Teak (Tectona grandis). Of the 58 interviewed farmers, 64% (37) were satisfied with the AFS. One of the main factors that caused satisfaction was obtaining income from sources other than coffee. Unsatisfied farmers mentioned the competition between shade trees and coffee shrubs. Cedar was the shade tree that grew most and reduced coffee production, while the combination with Jequitiba maintained more stable yields. We conclude that the higher the growth rate of trees, the higher the negative impact on the coffee production in the study areas.
Schmitt Filho., A. L.; Farley, J.; Alvez, J. P.; Alarcon, G.; Rebollar, P. M.. (2013) Integrating Agroecology with Payments for Ecosystem Services in Santa Catarina’s Atlantic Forest. Springer Verlag, Dordrecht, Netherlands. (4) 333-355
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There are no longer acceptable trade-offs between agriculture and ecosystem services: Both are essential and at risk. Agroecology may be uniquely capable of providing both. However, there are real costs to promoting agroecology that someone must pay, but any payment scheme must recognize that many of the services provided as well as the resources required to provide them are both public goods. Payments to individual farmers do little to provide these services, especially if they are contingent upon provision. Public sector investments are required. Since the public goods provided by these investments cross political boundaries, payments for these investments should flow from those governments or collective institutions that benefit to those that will provide the services, supplementing resources invested by the latter.
Seguino, Stephanie. (2013) Toward gender justice: Confronting stratification and unequal power. GÉNEROS-Multidisciplinary Journal of Gender Studies 2(1) 1-36
Stephens, Jennie; Wilson, Elizabeth; Peterson, Tarla; Meadowcroft, James. (2013) Getting Smart? Climate Change and the Electric Grid. Challenges 4(2) 201-216
Stevens, L.; Rizzo, D. M.; Lucero, D. E.; Pizarro, J. C.. (2013) Household Model of Chagas Disease Vectors (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Considering Domestic, Peridomestic, and Sylvatic Vector Populations. Journal of Medical Entomology; Entomological Society of America, Bogor, Indonesia. 50(4) 907-915
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Disease transmission is difficult to model because most vectors and hosts have different generation times. Chagas disease is such a situation, where insect vectors have 1–2 generations annually and mammalian hosts, including humans, can live for decades. The hemataphagous triatominae vectors (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) of the causative parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) usually feed on sleeping hosts, making vector infestation of houses, peridomestic areas, and wild animal burrows a central factor in transmission. Because of difficulties with different generation times, we developed a model considering the dwelling as the unit of infection, changing the dynamics from an indirect to a direct transmission model. In some regions, vectors only infest houses; in others, they infest corrals; and in some regions, they also infest wild animal burrows. We examined the effect of sylvatic and peridomestic vector populations on household infestation rates. Both sylvatic and peridomestic vectors increase house infestation rates, sylvatic much more than peridomestic, as measured by the reproductive number R0. The efficacy of manipulating parameters in the model to control vector populations was examined. When R0 > 1, the number of infested houses increases. The presence of sylvatic vectors increases R0 by at least an order of magnitude. When there are no sylvatic vectors, spraying rate is the most influential parameter. Spraying rate is relatively unimportant when there are sylvatic vectors; in this case, community size, especially the ratio of houses to sylvatic burrows, is most important. The application of this modeling approach to other parasites and enhancements of the model are discussed.
Tata, R.; Hart, S. L.; Sharma, A.; Sarkar, C.. (2013) Why Making Money Is Not Enough. Mit Sloan Management Review; MIT Sloan Manage. Rev. 54(4) 96-+
Tsai, Yushiou; Zia, Asim; Koliba, Christopher; Guilbert, Justin; Bucini, Gabriela; Beckage, Brian. (2013) Impacts of land managers' decisions on landuse transition within Missisquoi Watershed Vermont: An application of agent-based modeling system. IEEE, Bogor, Indonesia. Pages 824-829;
Vatovec, C.; Senier, L.; Bell, M.. (2013) An Ecological Perspective on Medical Care: Environmental, Occupational, and Public Health Impacts of Medical Supply and Pharmaceutical Chains. Ecohealth 10(3) 257-267
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Healthcare organizations are increasingly examining the impacts of their facilities and operations on the natural environment, their workers, and the broader community, but the ecological impacts of specific healthcare services provided within these institutions have not been assessed. This paper provides a qualitative assessment of healthcare practices that takes into account the life-cycle impacts of a variety of materials used in typical medical care. We conducted an ethnographic study of three medical inpatient units: a conventional cancer ward, palliative care unit, and a hospice center. Participant observations (73 participants) of healthcare and support staff including physicians, nurses, housekeepers, and administrators were made to inventory materials and document practices used in patient care. Semi-structured interviews provided insight into common practices. We identified three major domains that highlight the cumulative environmental, occupational health, and public health impacts of medical supplies and pharmaceuticals used at our research sites: (1) medical supply procurement; (2) generation, handling, and disposal of medical waste; and (3) pharmaceutical handling and disposal. Impacts discovered through ethnographic inquiry included occupational exposures to chemotherapy and infectious waste, and public health exposures to pharmaceutical waste. This study provides new insight into the environmental, occupational, and public health impacts resulting from medical practices. In many cases, the lack of clear guidance and regulations regarding environmental impacts contributed to elevated harms to the natural environment, workers, and the broader community.
Warren, D. R.; Keeton, W. S.; Bechtold. H. A.; Rosi-Marshall, E. J.. (2013) Comparing streambed light availability and canopy cover in streams with old-growth versus early-mature riparian forests in western Oregon. Aquatic Sciences
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Light availability strongly influences stream primary production, water temperatures and resource availability at the base of stream food webs. In headwater streams, light is regulated primarily by the riparian forest, but few studies have evaluated the influence of riparian forest stand age and associated structural differences on light availability. In this study, we evaluated canopy cover and streambed light exposure in four second-order streams within paired reaches of primary old-growth versus second-growth mature riparian forests. Stand age class was used as a proxy here for canopy complexity. We estimated stream canopy cover using a spherical densiometer. Local streambed light exposure was quantified and compared within and between reaches using fluorescein dye photodegradation. Reaches with complex old-growth riparian forests had frequent canopy gaps which lead to greater stream light availability compared to adjacent reaches with simpler second-growth riparian forests. We quantified light exposure at relatively high resolution (every 5 m) and also found greater variability in stream light along the reaches with old-growth riparian forests in three of the four streams. Canopy gaps were particularly important in creating variable light within and between reaches. This work demonstrates the importance of the age, developmental stage, and structure of riparian forests in controlling stream light. The highly variable nature of light on the stream benthos also highlights the value of multiple measurements of light or canopy structure when quantifying stream light.
Wilcove, David S.; Giam, Xingli; Edwards, David P.; Fisher, Brendan; Koh, Lian Pin. (2013) Navjot's nightmare revisited: logging, agriculture, and biodiversity in Southeast Asia. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 28(9) 531-540
Yamana, T. K.; Bomblies, A.; Laminou, I. M.; Duchemin, J. B.; Eltahir, E. A. B.. (2013) Linking environmental variability to village-scale malaria transmission using a simple immunity model. Parasites & Vectors; Parasites Vectors 6 14
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Background: Individuals continuously exposed to malaria gradually acquire immunity that protects from severe disease and high levels of parasitization. Acquired immunity has been incorporated into numerous models of malaria transmission of varying levels of complexity (e. g. Bull World Health Organ 50: 347, 1974; Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 19, 2006; Math Biosci 90:385-396, 1988). Most such models require prescribing inputs of mosquito biting rates or other entomological or epidemiological information. Here, we present a model with a novel structure that uses environmental controls of mosquito population dynamics to simulate the mosquito biting rates, malaria prevalence as well as variability in protective immunity of the population. Methods: A simple model of acquired immunity to malaria is presented and tested within the framework of the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a coupled hydrology and agent-based entomology model. The combined model uses environmental data including rainfall, temperature, and topography to simulate malaria prevalence and level of acquired immunity in the human population. The model is used to demonstrate the effect of acquired immunity on malaria prevalence in two Niger villages that are hydrologically and entomologically very different. Simulations are conducted for the year 2006 and compared to malaria prevalence observations collected from the two villages. Results: Blood smear samples from children show no clear difference in malaria prevalence between the two villages despite pronounced differences in observed mosquito abundance. The similarity in prevalence is attributed to the moderating effect of acquired immunity, which depends on prior exposure to the parasite through infectious bites - and thus the hydrologically determined mosquito abundance. Modelling the level of acquired immunity can affect village vulnerability to climatic anomalies. Conclusions: The model presented has a novel structure constituting a mechanistic link between spatial and temporal environmental variability and village-scale malaria transmission. Incorporating acquired immunity into the model has allowed simulation of prevalence in the two villages, and isolation of the effects of acquired immunity in dampening the difference in prevalence between the two villages. Without these effects, the difference in prevalence between the two villages would have been significantly larger in response to the large differences in mosquito populations and the associated biting rates.
Zia, A.; Koliba, C.; Tian, Y.. (2013) Governance Network Analysis: Experimental Simulations of Alternate Institutional Designs for Intergovernmental Project Prioritization Processes.. Emergent Publications, Litchfield Park, AZ.
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There is an argument that says that research in Public Administration is always about social complexity. This argument is true. There is also an argument that says that Public Administration is actually very little informed by complexity. This is equally true. The differences lie in the different takes on complexity. The latter approach understands that comprehension of complexity requires a specific theoretical framework and associated tools to look into the black box of causality. The authors in this edited volume gathered in Rotterdam (The Netherlands, June 2011) to discuss how the complexity sciences can contribute to pertinent questions in the domains of Public Administration and Public Policy. Their contributions are presented in this edited volume. Each contribution is an attempt to answer the Challenge of Making Public Administration and Complexity Theory work-COMPACT, as the title says. Together, they present an overview of the diverse state of the art in thinking about and research in complex systems in the public domain.
Zia, A.. (2013) Post-Kyoto Climate Governance: Confronting the Politics of Scale, Ideology and Knowledge. Routledge, New York, NY. Pages 224;
Zia, Asim; Koliba, Christopher. (2013) The emergence of attractors under multi-level institutional designs: agent-based modeling of intergovernmental decision making for funding transportation projects. AI & SOCIETY; AI & Soc; Springer London, New York, NY. Pages 1-17;
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Multi-level institutional designs with distributed power and authority arrangements among federal, state, regional, and local government agencies could lead to the emergence of differential patterns of socioeconomic and infrastructure development pathways in complex social–ecological systems. Both exogenous drivers and endogenous processes in social–ecological systems can lead to changes in the number of “basins of attraction,” changes in the positions of the basins within the state space, and changes in the positions of the thresholds between basins. In an effort to advance the theory and practice of the governance of policy systems, this study addresses a narrower empirical question: how do intergovernmental institutional rules set by federal, state, and regional government agencies generate and sustain basins of attraction in funding infrastructure projects? A pattern-oriented, agent-based model (ABM) of an intergovernmental network has been developed to simulate real-world transportation policy implementation processes across the federal, the state of Vermont, regional, and local governments for prioritizing transportation projects. The ABM simulates baseline and alternative intergovernmental institutional rule structures and assesses their impacts on financial investment flows. The ABM was calibrated with data from multiple focus groups, individual interviews, and analysis of federal, state, and regional scale transportation projects and programs. The results from experimental simulations are presented to test system-wide effects of alternative multi-level institutional designs, in particular different power and authority arrangements between state and regional governments, on the emergence of roadway project prioritization patterns and funding allocations across regions and towns.
2012
Alvez, J. P.; Schmitt F., A. L.; Farley, J.; Alarcon, G.; Fantini, A. C.. (2012) The Potential for Agroecosystems to Restore Ecological Corridors and Sustain Farmer Livelihoods: Evidence from Brazil.. 30(4) 288-290
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This paper describes how an agroecological management technique (MIG) is helping farmers to farm avoiding the use of new 'slash and burn' practices and using slightly smaller areas. In turn, this mgmt might have the potential of re-establishing forest fragment connectivity (a.k.a. corridors), kickstarting the flow of ecosystem services.
Bomblies, A.. (2012) Modeling the role of rainfall patterns in seasonal malaria transmission. Climatic Change 112(3-4) 673-685
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Seasonal total precipitation is well known to affect malaria transmission because mosquitoes depend on standing water for breeding habitat. However, the within-season temporal pattern of the rainfall influences persistence of standing water and thus rainfall patterns can also affect mosquito population dynamics in water-limited environments. Here, using a numerical simulation, I show that intraseasonal rainfall pattern accounts for 39% of the variance in simulated mosquito abundance in a Niger Sahel village where malaria is endemic but highly seasonal. I apply a field validated coupled hydrology and entomology model. Using synthetic rainfall time series generated using a stationary first-order Markov Chain model, I hold all variables except hourly rainfall constant, thus isolating the contribution of rainfall pattern to variance in mosquito abundance. I further show the utility of hydrology modeling using topography to assess precipitation effects by analyzing collected water. Time-integrated surface area of pools explains 70% of the variance in simulated mosquito abundance from a mechanistic model, and time-integrated surface area of pools persisting longer than 7 days explains 82% of the variance. Correlations using the hydrology model output explain more variance in mosquito abundance than the 60% from rainfall totals. I extend this analysis to investigate the impacts of this effect on malaria vector mosquito populations under climate shift scenarios, holding all climate variables except precipitation constant. In these scenarios, rainfall mean and variance change with climatic change, and the modeling approach evaluates the impact of non-stationarity in rainfall and the associated rainfall patterns on expected mosquito activity.
Buchholz, T.; Da Silva, I.; Furtado, J.. (2012) Electricity from wood-fired gasification in Uganda - a 250 and 10 kW case study. Proceedings of the 2012 Twentieth Conference on the Domestic Use of Energy (DUE) Pages 12;
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Wood gasification systems have the potential to contribute to the rural electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper presents an operational and economic analysis of two wood-based gasification systems (250 and 10 kW) installed in Uganda in 2007. Both systems proved their potential to compete economically with diesel generated electricity when operating close to the rated capacity. At an output of 150 kW running for ~12 h/day and 8 kW running for ~8h/day, the systems produced electricity at US$ 0.18 and 0.34/kWh, respectively. A stable electricity demand close to the rated capacity proved to be a challenge for both systems. Fuelwood costs accounted for ~US$0.03/kWh for both systems. Recovery of even a small fraction of the excess heat (22%) already resulted in substantial profitability gains for the 250 kW system. Results indicate that replicating successful wood gasification systems stipulates integration of sustainable fuelwood supply and viable business models.
Buchholz, T.; Da Silva, I.; Furtado, J.. (2012) Power from wood gasifiers in Uganda - a 250 kW and 10 kW case study. Energy - Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers 165(EN4) 181-196
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Wood gasification systems have the potential to contribute to the rural electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper presents an operational and economic analysis of two wood-based gasification systems (250 and 10 kW) installed in Uganda in 2007. Both systems proved their potential to compete economically with diesel generated electricity when operating close to the rated capacity. At an output of 150 kW running for ~12 h/day and 8 kW running for ~8h/day, the systems produced electricity at US$ 0.18 and 0.34/kWh, respectively. A stable electricity demand close to the rated capacity proved to be a challenge for both systems. Fuelwood costs accounted for ~US$0.03/kWh for both systems. Recovery of even a small fraction of the excess heat (22%) already resulted in substantial profitability gains for the 250 kW system. Results indicate that replicating successful wood gasification systems stipulates integration of sustainable fuelwood supply and viable business models.
Buchholz, T.; Tennigkeit, T.; Weinreich, A.; Windhorst, K.; Da Silva, I.. (2012) Modeling the profitability of power production from short-rotation woody crops in Sub-Saharan Africa. Biomass and Bioenergy
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Increasing electricity supply in Sub-Saharan Africa is a prerequisite to enable economic development and reduce poverty. Renewable sources such as wood-fueled power plants are being promoted for social, environmental and economic reasons. We analyzed an economic model of a vertically integrated system of short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) plantations coupled with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant under Sub-Saharan African conditions. We analyzed a 5 MW (electric) base-case scenario under Ugandan conditions with a 2870 ha Eucalyptus grandis plantation and a productivity of 12 t ha 1 y 1 (oven dry basis) under a 5-year rotation. Plant construction and maintenance constituted 27% and 41% of total costs, respectively. Plantation productivity, carbon credit sales as well as land, fuel, labor & transport costs played an economic minor role. Highly influential variables included plant efficiency & construction costs, plantation design (spacing and rotation length) and harvest technologies. We conclude that growing 12e24 t ha 1 y 1 at a five year rotation can produce IRR’s of 16 and 19% over 30-years, respectively. Reducing rotation length significantly reduced short-term financial risk related to frontloaded costs and relatively late revenues from electricity sales. Long-term feed-in tariffs and availability of a heat market played a significant economic role. The base-case scenario’s 30-year IRR dropped from 16% to 9% when a heat market was absent. Results suggest a leveling-off of economies-of-scale effects above 20 MW (electric) installations. Implementation-related research needs for pilot activities should focus on SRWC productivity and energy life cycle analysis.
Buchholz, T.; Volk, T. A.. (2012) Considerations of Project Scale and Sustainability of Modern Bioenergy Systems in Uganda. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 31(1-2) 154-173
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Energy supply and accessibility has a major impact on the development of societies. Modern bioenergy production in the form of heat, electricity, and liquid transportation fuels is increasingly cost competitive as prices of fossil fuels continue to increase. However, the large potential benefits associated with bioenergy come with a price tag and risks that may be disproportionately carried by tropical and non-industrialized countries. This analysis focuses on the influence of project scale on economic, social, and environmental impacts of bioenergy production in the tropics using the framework of two wood fueled bioenergy projects in Uganda—a large (50 MW) and a small-scale (200 kW). There are indications that less sustainable practices often come with increasing project-scale. This study found that a distributed, small-scale infrastructure indeed can be more desirable in terms of resource efficiency, impacts on ecosystems and local societies, and financial risks and benefits compared with those associated with one large-scale. To support the implementation of small-scale projects, there is a need for policies fostering distributed energy infrastructure and participatory tools beyond traditional cost-benefit analysis to assess sustainability of bioenergy systems.
Butchart, S. H. M.; Scharlemann, Joern P. W.; Evans, Mike I.; Quader, Suhel; Arico, Salvatore; Arinaitwe, Julius; Balman, Mark; Bennun, L.; Bertzky, Bastian; Besancon, Charles; Boucher, Timothy M.; Brooks, T. M.; Burfield, Ian J.; Burgess, N.; Chan, Simba; Clay, Rob P.; Crosby, Mike J.; Davidson, Nicholas C.; De Silva, Naamal; Devenish, Christian; Dutson, Guy C. L.; Dia z Fernandez, David F.; Fishpool, Lincoln; Fitzgerald, Claire; Foster, Matt; Heath, Melanie F.; Hockings, Marc; Hoffmann, M.; Knox, D.; Larsen, Frank W.; Lamoreux, J.; Loucks, C.; May, Ian; Molloy, Dominic; Morling, P.; Parr, M.; Ricketts, T.; Seddon, Nathalie; Skolnik, Benjamin; Stuart, Simon N.; Upgren, Amy; Woodley, Stephen. (2012) Protecting Important Sites for Biodiversity Contributes to Meeting Global Conservation Targets. PloS One 7(3) 1-8
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Protected areas (PAs) are a cornerstone of conservation efforts and now cover nearly 13% of the world's land surface, with the world's governments committed to expand this to 17%. However, as biodiversity continues to decline, the effectiveness of PAs in reducing the extinction risk of species remains largely untested. We analyzed PA coverage and trends in species' extinction risk at globally significant sites for conserving birds (10,993 Important Bird Areas, IBAs) and highly threatened vertebrates and conifers (588 Alliance for Zero Extinction sites, AZEs) (referred to collectively hereafter as ‘important sites’). Species occurring in important sites with greater PA coverage experienced smaller increases in extinction risk over recent decades: the increase was half as large for bird species with>50% of the IBAs at which they occur completely covered by PAs, and a third lower for birds, mammals and amphibians restricted to protected AZEs (compared with unprotected or partially protected sites). Globally, half of the important sites for biodiversity conservation remain unprotected (49% of IBAs, 51% of AZEs). While PA coverage of important sites has increased over time, the proportion of PA area covering important sites, as opposed to less important land, has declined (by 0.45–1.14% annually since 1950 for IBAs and 0.79–1.49% annually for AZEs). Thus, while appropriately located PAs may slow the rate at which species are driven towards extinction, recent PA network expansion has under-represented important sites. We conclude that better targeted expansion of PA networks would help to improve biodiversity trends.
Cayuela, L.; Galvez-Bravo, L.; de Albuquerque, F. S.; Golicher, D. J.; Gonzalez-Espinosa, M.; Ramirez-Marcial, N.; Rey Benayas, J. M.; Zahawi, R. A.; Meave, J. A.; Benito, B. M.; Garibaldi, C.; Chan, I.; Perez-Perez, R.; Field, R.; Balvanera, P.; Castillo, M. A.; Figueroa-Rangel, B. L.; Griffith, D. M.; Islebe, G. A.; Kelly, D. L.; Olvera-Vergas, M.; Schnitzer, S. A.; Velazquez, E.; Williams-Linera, G.; Brewer, S. W.; Camacho-Cruz, A.; Coronado, I.; de Jong, B.; del Castillo, R.; Granzow-de la Cerda, I.; Fernandez, J.; Fonseca, W.; Galindo-Jaimes, L.; Gillespie, T. W.; Gonzalez-Rivas, B.; Gordon, J. E.; Hurtado, J.; Linares, J.; Letcher, S. G.; Mangan, S. A.; Mendez, V. E.; Meza, V.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Peterson, C. J.; Ruiz-Gutierrez, V.; Snarr, K. A.; Tun Dzul, F.; Valdez-Hernandez, M.; Viergever, K. M.; White, D. A.; Williams, J. N.; Bonet, F. J.; Zamora, R.. (2012) The International Network of Forest Inventory Plots (BIOTREE-NET) in Mesoamerica: advances, challenges and future perspectives.. 21(1-2) 126-135
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Conservation efforts in Neotropical regions are often hindered by lack of data, since for many species there is a vacuum of information, and many species have not even been described yet. The International Network of Forest Inventory Plots (BIOTREE-NET) gathers and facilitates access to tree data from forest inventory plots in Mesoamerica, while encouraging data exchange between researchers, managers and conservationists. The information is organised and standardised into a single database that includes spatially explicit data. This article describes the scope and objectives of the network, its progress, and the challenges and future perspectives. The database includes above 50 000 tree records of over 5000 species from more than 2000 plots distributed from southern Mexico through to Panama. Information is heterogeneous, both in nature and shape, as well as in the geographical coverage of inventory plots. The database has a relational structure, with 12 inter-connected tables that include information about plots, species names, dbh, and functional attributes of trees. A new system that corrects typographical errors and achieves taxonomic and nomenclatural standardization was developed using The Plant List (http://theplantlist.org/) as reference. Species distribution models have been computed for around 1700 species using different methods, and they will be publicly accessible through the web site in the future (http://portal.biotreenet.com). Although BIOTREE-NET has contributed to the development of improved species distribution models, its main potential lies, in our opinion, in studies at the community level. Finally, we emphasise the need to expand the network and encourage researchers willing to share data and to join the network and contribute to the generation of further knowledge about forest biodiversity in Neotropical regions.
Cayuela, L.; Gálvez-Bravo, L.; Pérez Pérez, R.; de Albuquerque, F. S.; Golicher, D. J.; Zahawi, R. A.; Ramírez-Marcial, N.; Garibaldi, C.; Field, R.; Rey Benayas, J. M.; González-Espinosa, M.; Balvanera, P.; Castillo, M. Á.; Figueroa-Rangel, B. L.; Griffith, D. M.; Islebe, G. A.; Kelly, D. L.; Olvera-Vargas, M.; Schnitzer, S. A.; Velázquez, E.; Williams-Linera, G.; Brewer, S. W.; Camacho-Cruz, A.; Coronado, I.; de Jong, B.; del Castillo, R.; Granzow-de la Cerda, Í.; Fernández, J.; Fonseca, W.; Galindo-Jaimes, L.; Gillespie, T. W.; González-Rivas, B.; Gordon, J. E.; Hurtado, J.; Linares, J.; Letcher, S. G.; Mangan, S. A.; Meave, J. A.; Méndez, E. V.; Meza, V.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Peterson, C. J.; Ruiz-Gutierrez, V.; Snarr, K. A.; Tun Dzul, F.; Valdez-Hernández, M.; Viergever, K. M.; White, D. A.; Williams, J. N.; Bonet, F. J.; Zamora, R.. (2012) The Tree Biodiversity Network (BIOTREE-NET): prospects for biodiversity research and conservation in the Neotropics. 4 211-224
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Biodiversity research and conservation efforts in the tropics are hindered by the lack of knowledge of the assemblages found there, with many species undescribed or poorly known. Our initiative, the Tree Biodiversity Network (BIOTREE-NET), aims to address this problem by assembling georeferenced data from a wide range of sources, making these data easily accessible and easily queried, and promoting data sharing. The database (GIVD ID NA-00-002) currently comprises ca. 50,000 tree records of ca. 5,000 species (230 in the IUCN Red List) from >2,000 forest plots in 11 countries. The focus is on trees because of their pivotal role in tropical forest ecosystems (which contain most of the world's biodiversity) in terms of ecosystem function, carbon storage and effects on other species. BIOTREE-NET currently focuses on southern Mexico and Central America, but we aim to expand coverage to other parts of tropical America. The database is relational, comprising 12 linked data tables. We summarise its structure and contents. Key tables contain data on forest plots (including size, location and date(s) sampled), individual trees (including diameter, when available, and both recorded and standardised species name), species (including biological traits of each species) and the researchers who collected the data. Many types of queries are facilitated and species distribution modelling is enabled. Examining the data in BIOTREE-NET to date, we found an uneven distribution of data in space and across biomes, reflecting the general state of knowledge of the tropics. More than 90% of the data were collected since 1990 and plot size varies widely, but with most less than one hectare in size. A wide range of minimum sizes is used to define a 'tree'. The database helps to identify gaps that need filling by further data collection and collation. The data can be publicly accessed through a web application at http://portal.biotreenet.com. Researchers are invited and encouraged to contribute data to BIOTREE-NET.
Conner, D.; King, B.; Kolodinsky, J.; Roche, E.; Koliba, C.; Trubek, A.. (2012) You can know your school and feed it too: Vermont farmers' motivations and distribution practices in direct sales to school food services. Agriculture and Human Values 29(3) 321-332
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Farm to School (FTS) programs are increasingly popular as methods to teach students about food, nutrition, and agriculture by connecting students with the sources of the food that they eat. They may also provide opportunity for farmers seeking to diversify market channels. Food service buyers in FTS programs often choose to procure food for school meals directly from farmers. The distribution practices required for such direct procurement often bring significant transaction costs for both school food service professionals and farmers. Analysis of data from a survey of Vermont farmers who sell directly to school food services explores farmers' motivations and distribution practices in these partnerships. A two-step cluster analysis procedure characterizes farmers' motivations along a continuum between market-based and socially embedded values. Further bivariate analysis shows that farmers who are motivated most by market-based values are significantly associated with distribution practices that facilitate sales to school food services. Implications for technical assistance to facilitate these sales are discussed.
Courtney, E.; Zencey, E.. (2012) Greening Vermont - The Search for a Sustainable State. Vermont Natural Resources Council/Thistle Hill Publications, New York. Pages 173;
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Whatever you call it - climate change, global warming -- weather abnormalities over the past several years reveal that we can no longer accurately predict weather by studying historical patterns. Nor can we continue to delude ourselves into thinking that the planet's resources are infinite. They are finite, and if we don't act to establish a sustainable relationship between humans and nature, these resources will run out sooner rather than later. Greening Vermont: In Search of a Sustainable State (Vermont Natural Resources Council, Thistle Hill Publications) looks back over five decades of Vermont's environmental activism in order to move us all forward into ecological sustainability. This book is a story about people, politics, money and the environment. As Tom Slayton tells us in his Forward: "It is a tale of environmental victories, defeats and, perhaps most significantly, collaborations and compromises that have put Vermont at the forefront of the environmental movement". Greening Vermont is a call to action. Authors Elizabeth Courtney and Eric Zencey advise: "Our ecosystems are out of balance, and if we don't address this issue now, there is no certain sustainable future." Our states are all currently unsustainable. We must fit our economic life into its proper ecological and social context, so Vermonters and the rest of us can enjoy a healthy environment. Greening Vermont illustrates what sustainability will look like and how we can shift our economic and energy resources to achieve that desired state. The book includes fascinating in depth interviews with Vermont movers and shakers from over the years, as well as stunning illustrations of the Vermont countryside.
Edwards, D. P.; Fisher, B.; Wilcove, D. S.. (2012) High Conservation Value or high confusion value? Sustainable agriculture and biodiversity conservation in the tropics. Conservation Letters 5(1) 20-27
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Green labeling of products that have been produced sustainably is an emerging tool of the environmental movement. A prominent example is the Forest Stewardship Council, which certifies timber that is harvested to manage and maintain forests defined as having High Conservation Value (HCV). The criteria for HCV are now being applied to four rapidly expanding crops in the tropics: oil palm, soy, sugarcane, and cacao. However, these criteria do not provide adequate protection for biodiversity when applied to agriculture. The only criterion that provides blanket protection to forests is one that protects large expanses of habitat (=20,000500,000 ha, depending on the country). Absent of other HCVs, the collective clearing of forest patches below these thresholds could result in extensive deforestation that would be sanctioned with a green label. Yet such forest patches retain much biodiversity and provide connectivity within the agricultural matrix. An examination of forest fragments in biodiverse countries across the tropics shows that future agricultural demand can be met by clearing only forest patches below a 1,000 ha threshold. We recommend the development of a new HCV criterion that recognizes the conservation value of habitat patches within the agricultural matrix and that protects patches above 1,000 ha.
Farley, J.; Schmitt F., A. L.; Alvez, J. P.; Rebola, P. M.. (2012) The farmer’s viewpoint: Payment for ecosystem services and agroecologic pasture based dairy production. Advances in Animal Biosciences 1(2) 490-491
Farley, J.; Schmitt F., A.; Alvez, J.; Ribiero de Freitas Jr., N.. (2012) How Valuing Nature Can Transform Agriculture. Solutions 2(6) 64-73
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Society must increase food production and restore vital ecosystem services or suffer unacceptable consequences. Unfortunately, conventional agriculture may be the single greatest threat to ecosystem function. At the same time, reducing ecologically harmful agricultural inputs or restoring farmlands to native ecosystems threatens food production. We fell into this predicament because we designed agricultural and economic systems that failed to account for ecosystem services, and the path forward requires redesigning both systems. Agroecology—which applies ecological principles to design sustainable farming methods that can increase food production, wean us away from nonrenewable and harmful agricultural inputs, and restore ecosystem services—promises to be an appropriate redesign of agricultural systems. We focus on the example of management-intensive grazing (MIG), which mimics natural grassland-grazer dynamics. Compared to conventional systems, MIG increases pasture growth and cattle production, reduces the use of fertilizers and pesticides, and enhances biodiversity, water quality, nutrient capture, and carbon sequestration. Redesigning economic institutions to reward the provision of ecosystem services and provide the public goods required for the global-scale development and dissemination of agroecology practices still presents a serious challenge. Payments for ecosystem services (PES) are a promising mechanism through which those who benefit from ecosystem services can compensate those who provide them, for mutual gain. Numerous schemes already exist that pay landowners for land uses that sequester carbon, regulate and purify water, and enhance biodiversity, but their effectiveness is debated. We propose a form of PES in which the potential public beneficiaries of ecosystem services at the local, national, and global scales fund the research and development, extension work (i.e., farmer education, usually supported by government agencies), and affordable credit required to scale agroecology up to the level required to provide for a growing global population.
Farley, J.. (2012) Ecosystem Services: The Economics Debate.. Ecosystem Services 1(1) 40-49
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The goal of this paper is to illuminate the debate concerning the economics of ecosystem services. The sustainability debate focuses on whether or not ecosystem services are essential for human welfare and the existence of ecological thresholds. If ecosystem services are essential, then marginal analysis and monetary valuation are inappropriate tools in the vicinity of thresholds. The justice debate focuses on who is entitled to ecosystem services and the ecosystem structure that generates them. Answers to these questions have profound implications for the choice of suitable economic institutions. The efficiency debate concerns both the goals of economicactivity and the mechanisms best suited to achieve those goals. Conventional economists pursue Pareto efficiency and the maximization of monetary value, achieved by integrating ecosystem services into the market framework. Ecological economists and many others pursue the less rigorously defined goal of achieving the highest possible quality of life compatible with the conservation of resilient, healthy ecosystems, achieved by adapting economic institutions to the physical characteristics of ecosystem services.The concept of ecosystem services is a valuable tool for economic analysis, and should not be discarded because of disagreements with particular economists’ assumptions regarding sustainability, justice and efficiency.
Farley, J.. (2012) Natural Capital. Berkshire Publishing, Gt Barrington, MA. 5 264-267
Farley, Joshua; Schmitt Filho, Abdon. (2012) Ecosystem Services, Agriculture and Economic Institutions. Meindert Brower, Partner in communications, Bunnik, The Netherlands.
Fisher, B.. (2012) Poverty, Payments and Ecosystem Services in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania.. Springer, New York. Pages 444;
Fisher, B.P.. (2012) Guest Editorial-Conservation and livelihoods: Identifying trade-offs and win-wins. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10(7) 343
Gunn, J. S.; Ganz, D. J.; Keeton, W. S.. (2012) Biogenic vs. geologic carbon emissions and forest biomass energy production. Global Change Biology Bioenergy 4(3) 239-242
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In the current debate over the CO2 emissions implications of switching from fossil fuel energy sources to include a substantial amount of woody biomass energy, many scientists and policy makers hold the view that emissions from the two sources should not be equated. Their rationale is that the combustion or decay of woody biomass is simply part of the global cycle of biogenic carbon and does not increase the amount of carbon in circulation. This view is frequently presented as justification to implement policies that encourage the substitution of fossil fuel energy sources with biomass. We present the opinion that this is an inappropriate conceptual basis to assess the atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting of woody biomass energy generation. While there are many other environmental, social, and economic reasons to move to woody biomass energy, we argue that the inferred benefits of biogenic emissions over fossil fuel emissions should be reconsidered.
Kaufman, Z. A.; Welsch, R. L.; Erickson, J. D.; Craig, S.; Adams, L. V.; Ross, D. A.. (2012) Effectiveness of a sports-based HIV prevention intervention in the Dominican Republic: a quasi-experimental study. 24(3) 377-385
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Previous observational and quasi-experimental studies in sub-Saharan Africa have suggested the effectiveness of youth-targeted HIV prevention interventions using sport as an educational tool. No studies have yet assessed the effect of similar programs in the Caribbean. A quasi-experimental trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a sports-based intervention in six migrant settlements in the Puerto Plata Province of the Dominican Republic. A total of 397 structured interviews were conducted with 140 adolescents prior to, immediately following, and four months following 10-hour interventions using the Grassroot Soccer curriculum. Interview responses were coded, aggregated into composite scores, and analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for baseline differences as well as age, sex, community, and descent. At post-intervention, significant differences were observed between groups in HIV-related knowledge (adjOR = 13.02, 95% CI = 8.26, 20.52), reported attitudes (adjOR = 12.01, 95% CI = 7.61, 18.94), and reported communication (adjOR = 3.13, 95% CI = 1.91, 5.12). These differences remained significant at four-month follow-up, though declines in post-intervention knowledge were observed in the Intervention group while gains in knowledge and reported attitudes were observed in the Control group. Results suggest that this sports-based intervention could play a valuable role in HIV prevention efforts in the Caribbean, particularly those targeting early adolescents. Further evaluation of sports-based interventions should include indicators assessing behavioral and biological outcomes, longer-term follow-up, a larger sample, randomization of study participants, and strenuous efforts to minimize loss-to-follow-up.
Knorn, J.; Kuemmerle, T.; Radeloff, V. C.; Keeton, W. S.; Gancz, V.; Biris, I. A.; Svoboda, M.; Griffiths, P.; Hagatis, A.; Hostert, P.. (2012) Continued loss of temperate old-growth forests in the Romanian Carpathians despite an increasing protected area network. Environmental Conservation 40(2) 182-193
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Old-growth forests around the world are vanishing rapidly and have been lost almost completely from the European temperate forest region. Poor management practices, often triggered by socioeconomic and institutional change, are the main causes of loss. Recent trends in old-growth forest cover in Romania, where some of the last remaining tracts of these forests within Europe are located, are revealed by satellite image analysis. Forest cover declined by 1.3% from 2000 to 2010. Romania's protected area network has been expanded substantially since the country's accession to the European Union in 2007, and most of the remaining old-growth forests now are located within protected areas. Surprisingly though, 72% of the old-growth forest disturbances are found within protected areas, highlighting the threats still facing these forests. It appears that logging in old-growth forests is, at least in part, related to institutional reforms, insufficient protection and ownership changes since the collapse of communism in 1989. The majority of harvesting activities in old-growth forest areas are in accordance with the law. Without improvements to their governance, the future of Romania's old-growth forests and the important ecosystem services they provide remains uncertain.
Knorn, J.; Kuemmerle, T.; Radeloff, V. C.; Szabo, A.; Mindrescu, M.; Keeton, W. S.; Abrudan, I.; Griffiths, P.; Gancz, V.; Hostert, P.. (2012) Forest restitution and protected area effectiveness in post-socialist Romania. Biological Conservation 146(1) 204-212
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The effectiveness of protected areas can diminish during times of pronounced socio-economic and institutional change. Our goals were to assess the effectiveness of Romanian protected areas at stemming unsanctioned logging, and to assess post-socialist logging in their surrounding landscapes, during a time of massive socio-economic and institutional change. Our results suggest that forest cover remained fairly stable shortly before and after 1990, but forest disturbance rates increased sharply in two waves after 1995 and 2005. We found substantial disturbances inside protected areas, even within core reserve areas. Moreover, disturbances in the matrix surrounding protected areas were even lower than inside protected area boundaries. We suggest that these rates are largely the result of high logging rates, triggered by rapid ownership and institutional changes. These trends compromise the goals of Romania's protected area network, lead to an increasing loss of forest habitat, and more isolated and more fragmented protected areas. The effectiveness of Romania's protected area network in terms of its ability to safeguard biodiversity is therefore most likely decreasing. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koliba, C.; Zia, A.. (2012) "Complexity Friendly" Meso-Level Frameworks for Modeling Complex Governance Systems. Emergent Publications, Litchfield Park, AZ. Pages 119-140;
Koliba, C.. (2012) Administrative Strategies for a Networked World: The Educational Imperative for Intergovernmental Relations in 2020.. Sage Publications, New York, NY. Pages 70-93;
Littlefield, C. E.; Keeton, W. S.. (2012) Bioenergy harvesting impacts on ecologically important stand structure and habitat characteristics. Ecological Applications 22(7) 1892-1909
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Demand for forest bioenergy fuel is increasing in the northern forest region of eastern North America and beyond, but ecological impacts, particularly on habitat, of bioenergy harvesting remain poorly explored in the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we evaluated the impacts of bioenergy harvests on stand structure, including several characteristics considered important for biodiversity and habitat functions. We collected stand structure data from 35 recent harvests in northern hardwood-conifer forests, pairing harvested areas with unharvested reference areas. Biometrics generated from field data were analyzed using a multi-tiered nonparametric uni- and multivariate statistical approach. In analyses comparing harvested to reference areas, sites that had been whole-tree harvested demonstrated significant differences (relative negative contrasts, P < 0.05) in snag density, large live-tree density, well-decayed downed coarse woody debris volume, and structural diversity index (H) values, while sites that had not been whole-tree harvested did not exhibit significant differences. Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses suggested that the strongest predictors of structural retention, as indicated by downed woody debris volumes and H index, were silvicultural treatment and equipment type rather than the percentage of harvested volume allocated to bioenergy uses. In general, bioenergy harvesting impacts were highly variable across the study sites, suggesting a need for harvesting guidelines aimed at encouraging retention of ecologically important structural attributes.
Macedo, M. N.; DeFries, R. S.; Morton, D. C.; Stickler, C. M.; Galford, G. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.. (2012) Decoupling of deforestation and soy production in the southern Amazon during the late 2000s. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109(4) 1341-1346
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From 2006 to 2010, deforestation in the Amazon frontier state of Mato Grosso decreased to 30% of its historical average (1996-2005) whereas agricultural production reached an all-time high. This study combines satellite data with government deforestation and production statistics to assess land-use transitions and potential market and policy drivers associated with these trends. In the forested region of the state, increased soy production from 2001 to 2005 was entirely due to cropland expansion into previously cleared pasture areas (74%) or forests (26%). From 2006 to 2010, 78% of production increases were due to expansion (22% to yield increases), with 91% on previously cleared land. Cropland expansion fell from 10 to 2% of deforestation between the two periods, with pasture expansion accounting for most remaining deforestation. Declining deforestation coincided with a collapse of commodity markets and implementation of policy measures to reduce deforestation. Soybean profitability has since increased to pre-2006 levels whereas deforestation continued to decline, suggesting that antideforestation measures may have influenced the agricultural sector. We found little evidence of direct leakage of soy expansion into cerrado in Mato Grosso during the late 2000s, although indirect land-use changes and leakage to more distant regions are possible. This study provides evidence that reduced deforestation and increased agricultural production can occur simultaneously in tropical forest frontiers, provided that land is available and policies promote the efficient use of already-cleared lands (intensification) while restricting deforestation. It remains uncertain whether government- and industry-led policies can contain deforestation if future market conditions favor another boom in agricultural expansion.
Manukyan, N.; Eppstein, M. J.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2012) Data-Driven Cluster Reinforcement and Visualization in Sparsely-Matched Self-Organizing Maps. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS ON LEARNING SYSTEMS 23(5) 846-852
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A self-organizing map (SOM) is a self-organized projection of high-dimensional data onto a typically 2-dimensional (2-D) feature map, wherein vector similarity is implicitly translated into topological closeness in the 2-D projection. However, when there are more neurons than input patterns, it can be challenging to interpret the results, due to diffuse cluster boundaries and limitations of current methods for displaying interneuron distances. In this brief, we introduce a new cluster reinforcement (CR) phase for sparsely-matched SOMs. The CR phase amplifies within-cluster similarity in an unsupervised, datadriven manner. Discontinuities in the resulting map correspond to between-cluster distances and are stored in a boundary (B) matrix. We describe a new hierarchical visualization of cluster boundaries displayed directly on feature maps, which requires no further clustering beyond what was implicitly accomplished during self-organization in SOM training. We use a synthetic benchmark problem and previously published microbial community profile data to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed methods.
McCauley, Stephen M.; Stephens, Jennie C.. (2012) Green energy clusters and socio-technical transitions: analysis of a sustainable energy cluster for regional economic development in Central Massachusetts, USA. Sustainability Science 7(2) 213-225
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As the societal benefits associated with transitioning to more sustainable, less fossil fuel-reliant energy systems are increasingly recognized by communities throughout the world, the potential of creating 'green jobs' within a 'green economy' is attracting much attention. Green energy clusters are increasingly promoted throughout the world as a strategy to simultaneously promote economic vitality and stimulate a sustainable energy transition. In spite of their emerging role in regional-scale sustainability planning efforts, such initiatives have not been considered within the sustainability transitions literature. This paper explores the development of one such regional sustainable energy cluster initiative in Central Massachusetts in Northeastern USA to consider the potential for such cluster initiatives to contribute to socio-technical transition in the energy system. Since 2008, a diverse set of stakeholders in Central Massachusetts, including politicians, universities, businesses, local citizens, and activists, have been working toward facilitating the emergence of an integrated cluster of activity focused on sustainable energy. Through interviews with key actors, participant observation, and document review, this research assesses the potential of this cluster initiative to contribute to a regional socio-technical transition. The empirical details of this case demonstrate that sustainable energy cluster initiatives can potentially accelerate change in entrenched energy regimes by promoting institutional thickness, generating regional 'buzz' around sustainable energy activities, and building trust between multiple and diverse stakeholders in the region. This research also contributes to emerging efforts to better ground socio-technical transitions in geographic space.
Mendez, V. E.; Castro-Tanzi, S.; Goodall, K.; Morris, K. S.; Bacon, C. M.; Laderach, P.; Morris, W. B.; Georgeoglou-Laxalde, M. U.. (2012) Livelihood and environmental trade-offs of climate mitigation in smallholder coffee agroforestry systems. Routledge, New York, NY. Pages 370-381;
Olson, M. B.; Morris, K. S.; Mendez, V. E.. (2012) Cultivation of maize landraces by small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador. 111 63-74
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Small-scale shade coffee agroecosystems have been noted for their potential for tree, bird, and insect biodiversity conservation in the tropics. However, there is a lack of research on other productive areas managed by small-scale coffee farmers such as subsistence maize and bean (milpa) plots, which may be sites of important crop biodiversity conservation, particularly through the on-farm cultivation of native landraces. This study empirically examined the factors that influence farmers’ choices between landraces and improved varieties of maize, how seed type interacts with management decisions, and how yields of local maize landraces compare with improved varieties on the farms of small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador. We conducted household interviews and focus groups with the membership of a 29-household coffee cooperative and tracked management and maize yields in the 42 milpa plots managed by these households. Farmers planted both a hybrid improved variety and five local maize landraces. ANOVA and Pearson’s chi-square test were used to compare household characteristics, management, agroecological variables, and yields between plots planted with landraces and plots planted with the improved variety. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the strongest drivers of farmers’ choice between landrace seed and improved seed. Analyses indicated that use of maize landraces was associated with higher household income and steeper plot slope. Landrace maize and improved maize were not managed differently, with the exception of synthetic insecticide use. There was no yield advantage for improved varieties over landraces in the 2009 growing season. Farmers appear to prefer local maize landraces for milpa plots on more marginal land, and continue to cultivate landraces despite the availability of improved seed. The farms of small-scale shade coffee farmers could have substantial conservation potential for crop genetic diversity, and the seed-saving and exchange activities among such farmers should be supported.
Penn, C. A.; Wemple, B. C.; Campbell, J. L.. (2012) Forest influences on snow accumulation and snowmelt at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. Hydrological Processes 26(17) 2524-2534
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Many factors influence snow depth, water content and duration in forest ecosystems. The effects of forest cover and canopy gap geometry on snow accumulation has been well documented in coniferous forests of western North America and other regions; however, few studies have evaluated these effects on snowpack dynamics in mixed deciduous forests of the northeastern USA. We measured snow depth and water equivalent near the time of peak snowpack accumulation and, again, during snowmelt to better understand the effect of forests on snowpack properties in the northeastern USA. Surveys occurred in openings and under the forest canopy at plots with different characteristics (e.g. aspect, elevation, forest composition) within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Snow water equivalent (SWE) was significantly greater in openings (?p?=?0.021) than in forests on north-facing plots but not on south-facing plots (?p?=?0.318) in early March 2009. One month later, SWE was more variable but remained greater in openings on north-facing plots (?p?=?0.067), whereas SWE was greater (?p?=?0.071) under forests than in clearings on south-facing plots, where snowmelt had sufficiently progressed. During peak accumulation, SWE decreased with increasing conifer cover on north-facing plots. During the snowmelt period, SWE on south-facing plots decreased with increasing basal area, sky view factor and diameter at breast height of trees on the plots. These results have implications for spring streamflow and soil moisture in the face of changing climate conditions and land use pressures in the forests of northern New England. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Ribeiro de Freitas, N.; Farley, J.. (2012) Restoring Ecosystem Services in Riparian Zones by Promoting Working Forests in São Paulo, Brazil.. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Ross, D. S.; Shanley, J. B.; Campbell, J. L.; Lawrence, G. B.; Bailey, S. W.; Likens, G. E.; Wemple, B. C.; Fredriksen, G.; Jamison, A. E.. (2012) Spatial patterns of soil nitrification and nitrate export from forested headwaters in the northeastern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences 117 14
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Nitrogen export from small forested watersheds is known to be affected by N deposition but with high regional variability. We studied 10 headwater catchments in the northeastern United States across a gradient of N deposition (5.4 - 9.4 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) to determine if soil nitrification rates could explain differences in stream water NO3- export. Average annual export of two years (October 2002 through September 2004) varied from 0.1 kg NO3--N ha(-1) yr(-1) at Cone Pond watershed in New Hampshire to 5.1 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) at Buck Creek South in the western Adirondack Mountains of New York. Potential net nitrification rates and relative nitrification (fraction of inorganic N as NO3-) were measured in Oa or A soil horizons at 21-130 sampling points throughout each watershed. Stream NO3- export was positively related to nitrification rates (r(2) = 0.34, p = 0.04) and the relative nitrification (r(2) = 0.37, p = 0.04). These relationships were much improved by restricting consideration to the 6 watersheds with a higher number of rate measurements (59-130) taken in transects parallel to the streams (r(2) of 0.84 and 0.70 for the nitrification rate and relative nitrification, respectively). Potential nitrification rates were also a better predictor of NO3- export when data were limited to either the 6 sampling points closest to the watershed outlet (r(2) = 0.75) or sampling points <250 m from the watershed outlet (r(2) = 0.68). The basal area of conifer species at the sampling plots was negatively related to NO3- export. These spatial relationships found here suggest a strong influence of near-stream and near-watershed-outlet soils on measured stream NO3- export.
Schaafsma, M.; Morse-Jones, S.; Posen, P.; Swetnam, R. D.; Balmford, A.; Bateman, I. J.; Burgess, N. D.; Chamshama, S. A. O.; Fisher, B.; Green, R. E.; Hepelwa, A. S.; Hernandez-Sirvent, A.; Kajembe, G. C.; Kulindwa, K.; Lund, J. F.; Mbwambo, L.; Meilby, H.; Ngaga, Y. M.; Theilade, I.; Treue, T.; Vyamana, V. G.; Turner, R. K.. (2012) Towards transferable functions for extraction of Non-timber Forest Products: A case study on charcoal production in Tanzania. Ecological Economics 80 48-62
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Mapping the distribution of the quantity and value of forest benefits to local communities is useful for forest management, when socio-economic and conservation objectives may need to be traded off. We develop a modelling approach for the economic valuation of annual Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFP) extraction at a large spatial scale, which has 4 main strengths: (1) it is based on household production functions using data of actual household behaviour, (2) it is spatially sensitive, using a range of explanatory variables related to socio-demographic characteristics, population density, resource availability and accessibility, (3) it captures the value of the actual flow rather than the potential stock, and (4) it is generic and can therefore be up-scaled across non-surveyed areas. We illustrate the empirical application of this approach in an analysis of charcoal production in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, using a dataset comprising over 1100 observations from 45 villages. The total flow of charcoal benefits is estimated at USD 14 million per year, providing an important source of income to local households, and supplying around 11% of the charcoal used in Dar es Salaam and other major cities. We discuss the potential and limitations of up-scaling micro-level analysis for NTFP valuation. Crown Copyright (c) 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schwenk, W. S.; Donovan, T. M.; Keeton, W. S.; Nunery, J. S.. (2012) Carbon storage, timber production, and biodiversity: comparing ecosystem services with multi-criteria decision analysis. Ecological Applications 22(5) 1612-1627
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Increasingly, land managers seek ways to manage forests for multiple ecosystem services and functions, yet considerable challenges exist in comparing disparate services and balancing trade-offs among them. We applied multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and forest simulation models to simultaneously consider three objectives: (1) storing carbon, (2) producing timber and wood products, and (3) sustaining biodiversity. We used the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) applied to 42 northern hardwood sites to simulate forest development over 100 years and to estimate carbon storage and timber production. We estimated biodiversity implications with occupancy models for 51 terrestrial bird species that were linked to FVS outputs. We simulated four alternative management prescriptions that spanned a range of harvesting intensities and forest structure retention. We found that silvicultural approaches emphasizing less frequent harvesting and greater structural retention could be expected to achieve the greatest net carbon storage but also produce less timber. More intensive prescriptions would enhance biodiversity because positive responses of early successional species exceeded negative responses of late successional species within the heavily forested study area. The combinations of weights assigned to objectives had a large influence on which prescriptions were scored as optimal. Overall, we found that a diversity of silvicultural approaches is likely to be preferable to any single approach, emphasizing the need for landscape-scale management to provide a full range of ecosystem goods and services. Our analytical framework that combined MCDA with forest simulation modeling was a powerful tool in understanding trade-offs among management objectives and how they can be simultaneously accommodated.
Seguino, S.. (2012) Macroeconomics, Human Development, and Distribution. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 13(1) 59-81
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Policies designed to pursue an equity-led macroeconomic growth strategy must take into account feedback effects, with distribution itself influencing macroeconomic outcomes. Under the right conditions, a more equitable distribution of income and opportunities in the form of human development can be a stimulus to growth, funding further investments in human development. Developing the policies to create those conditions is the central challenge for any human development-centered macroeconomic framework. I review here some macro-level policies that achieve this goal, identifying a key role for fiscal policy to raise productivity and for monetary policy to expand employment, a central goal of any macro-inclusive strategy.
Seguino, Stephanie; Heintz, James. (2012) Monetary tightening and the dynamics of US race and gender stratification. American Journal of Economics and Sociology 71(3) 603-638
Seguino, Stephanie. (2012) Development and Immigration: Experiences of Non-US Born Black Women. The Review of Black Political Economy; Rev Black Polit Econ; Springer-Verlag, Dordrecht, Netherlands. 39(2) 217-222
Severtson, D. J.; Vatovec, C.. (2012) The Theory-Based Influence of Map Features on Risk Beliefs: Self-Reports of What Is Seen and Understood for Maps Depicting an Environmental Health Hazard. Journal of Health Communication 17(7) 836-856
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Theory-based research is needed to understand how maps of environmental health risk information influence risk beliefs and protective behavior. Using theoretical concepts from multiple fields of study including visual cognition, semiotics, health behavior, and learning and memory supports a comprehensive assessment of this influence. The authors report results from 13 cognitive interviews that provide theory-based insights into how visual features influenced what participants saw and the meaning of what they saw as they viewed 3 formats of water test results for private wells (choropleth map, dot map, and a table). The unit of perception, color, proximity to hazards, geographic distribution, and visual salience had substantial influences on what participants saw and their resulting risk beliefs. These influences are explained by theoretical factors that shape what is seen, properties of features that shape cognition (preattentive, symbolic, visual salience), information processing (top-down and bottom-up), and the strength of concrete compared with abstract information. Personal relevance guided top-down attention to proximal and larger hazards that shaped stronger risk beliefs. Meaning was more local for small perceptual units and global for large units. Three aspects of color were important: preattentive "incremental risk" meaning of sequential shading, symbolic safety meaning of stoplight colors, and visual salience that drew attention. The lack of imagery, geographic information, and color diminished interest in table information. Numeracy and prior beliefs influenced comprehension for some participants. Results guided the creation of an integrated conceptual framework for application to future studies. Ethics should guide the selection of map features that support appropriate communication goals.
Sheil, Douglas; Basuki, Imam; German, Laura; Kuyper, Thomas W.; Limberg, Godwin; Puri, Rajindra K.; Sellato, Bernard; van Noordwijk, Meine; Wollenberg, Eva. (2012) Do Anthropogenic Dark Earths Occur in the Interior of Borneo? Some Initial Observations from East Kalimantan. Forests 3(2) 207-229
Smith, P.; Wollenberg, E.. (2012) Achieving Mitigation Through Synergies With Adaptation. Pages 50-57;
Stryker, J. J.; Bomblies, A.. (2012) The Impacts of Land Use Change on Malaria Vector Abundance in a Water-Limited, Highland Region of Ethiopia. Ecohealth 9(4) 455-470
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Changes in land use and climate are expected to alter the risk of malaria transmission in areas where rainfall limits vector abundance. We use a coupled hydrology-entomology model to investigate the effects of land use change on hydrological processes impacting mosquito abundance in a highland village of Ethiopia. Land use affects partitioning of rainfall into infiltration and runoff that reaches small-scale topographic depressions, which constitute the primary breeding habitat of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes. A physically based hydrology model isolates hydrological mechanisms by which land use impacts pool formation and persistence, and an agent-based entomology model evaluates the response of mosquito populations. This approach reproduced observed interannual variability in mosquito abundance between the 2009 and 2010 wet seasons. Several scenarios of land cover were then evaluated using the calibrated, field-validated model. Model results show variation in pool persistence and depth, as well as in mosquito abundance, due to land use changes alone. The model showed particular sensitivity to surface roughness, but also to root zone uptake. Scenarios in which land use was modified from agriculture to forest generally resulted in lowest mosquito abundance predictions; classification of the entire domain as rainforest produced a 34% decrease in abundance compared to 2010 results. This study also showed that in addition to vegetation type, spatial proximity of land use change to habitat locations has an impact on mosquito abundance. This modeling approach can be applied to assess impacts of climate and land use conditions that fall outside of the range of previously observed variability.
Tallis, H.; Mooney, H.; Andelman, S.; Balvanera, P.; Cramer, W.; Karp, D.; Polasky, S.; Reyers, B.; Ricketts, T.; Running, S.; Thonicke, K.; Tietjen, B.; Walz, A.. (2012) A Global System for Monitoring Ecosystem Service Change. Bioscience 62(11) 977-986
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Earth's life-support systems are in flux, yet no centralized system to monitor and report these changes exists. Recognizing this, 77 nations agreed to establish the Group on Earth Observations (GEO). The GEO Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) integrates existing data streams into one platform in order to provide a more complete picture of Earth's biological and social systems. We present a conceptual framework envisioned by the GEO BON Ecosystem Services Working Group, designed to integrate national statistics, numerical models, remote sensing, and in situ measurements to regularly track changes in ecosystem services across the globe. This information will serve diverse applications, including stimulating new research and providing the basis for assessments. Although many ecosystem services are not currently measured, others are ripe for reporting. We propose a framework that will continue to grow and inspire more complete observation and assessments of our planet's life-support systems.
Troy, Austin; Azaria, Dale; Voigt, Brian; Sadek, Adel. (2012) Integrating a traffic router and microsimulator into a land use and travel demand model. Transportation Planning and Technology; Routledge, Bogor, Indonesia. 35(8) 737-751
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Abstract This paper describes one of the first known attempts at integrating a dynamic and disaggregated land-use model with a traffic microsimulator and compares its predictions of land use to those from an integration of the same land-use model with a more traditional four-step travel demand model. For our study area of Chittenden County, Vermont, we used a 40-year simulation beginning in 1990. Predicted differences in residential units between models for 2030 broken down by town correlated significantly with predicted differences in accessibility. The two towns with the greatest predicted differences in land use and accessibility are also the towns that currently have the most severe traffic bottlenecks and poorest route redundancy. Our results suggest that this particular integration of a microsimulator with a disaggregated land-use model is technically feasible, but that in the context of an isolated, small metropolitan area, the differences in predicted land use are small. This paper describes one of the first known attempts at integrating a dynamic and disaggregated land-use model with a traffic microsimulator and compares its predictions of land use to those from an integration of the same land-use model with a more traditional four-step travel demand model. For our study area of Chittenden County, Vermont, we used a 40-year simulation beginning in 1990. Predicted differences in residential units between models for 2030 broken down by town correlated significantly with predicted differences in accessibility. The two towns with the greatest predicted differences in land use and accessibility are also the towns that currently have the most severe traffic bottlenecks and poorest route redundancy. Our results suggest that this particular integration of a microsimulator with a disaggregated land-use model is technically feasible, but that in the context of an isolated, small metropolitan area, the differences in predicted land use are small.
Vermeulen, S. J.; Aggarwal, P. K.; Ainslie, A.; Angelone, C.; Campbell, B. M.; Challinor, A. J.; Hansen, J. W.; Ingram, J. S. I.; Jarvis, A.; Kristjanson, P.; Lau, C.; Nelson, G. C.; Thornton, P. K.; Wollenberg, E.. (2012) Options for support to agriculture and food security under climate change. 15(1) 136-144
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Agriculture and food security are key sectors for intervention under climate change. Agricultural production is highly vulnerable even to 2C (low-end) predictions for global mean temperatures in 2100, with major implications for rural poverty and for both rural and urban food security. Agriculture also presents untapped opportunities for mitigation, given the large land area under crops and rangeland, and the additional mitigation potential of aquaculture. This paper presents a summary of current knowledge on options to support farmers, particularly smallholder farmers, in achieving food security through agriculture under climate change. Actions towards adaptation fall into two broad overlapping areas: (1) accelerated adaptation to progressive climate change over decadal time scales, for example integrated packages of technology, agronomy and policy options for farmers and food systems, and (2) better management of agricultural risks associated with increasing climate variability and extreme events, for example improved climate information services and safety nets. Maximization of agriculture's mitigation potential will require investments in technological innovation and agricultural intensification linked to increased efficiency of inputs, and creation of incentives and monitoring systems that are inclusive of smallholder farmers. Food systems faced with climate change need urgent, broad-based action in spite of uncertainties. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vermeulen, S. J.; Zougmore, R.; Wollenberg, E.; Thornton, P. K.; Nelson, G. C.; Kristjanson, P.; Kinyangi, J.; Jarvis, A.; Hansen, J. W.; Challinor, A. J.; Campbell, B.; Aggarwal, P. K.. (2012) Climate change, agriculture and food security: a global partnership to link research and action for low-income agricultural producers and consumers. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4(1) 128-133
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To achieve food security for many in low-income and middle-income countries for whom this is already a challenge, especially with the additional complications of climate change, will require early investment to support smallholder farming systems and the associated food systems that supply poor consumers. We need both local and global policy-linked research to accelerate sharing of lessons on institutions, practices and technologies for adaptation and mitigation. This strategy paper briefly outlines how the Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) of the Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centres (CGIAR) is working across research disciplines, organisational mandates, and spatial and temporal levels to assist immediate and longer-term policy actions.
Wollenberg, E.; Tapio-Bistroem, M. L.; Grieg-Gran, M.. (2012) Climate change mitigation and agriculture: designing projects and policies for smallholder farms. Routledge, New York, NY. Pages 3-27;
Zanchi, G.; Frieden, D.; Pucker, J.; Bird, D. N.; Buchholz, T.; Windhorst, K.. (2012) Climate benefits from alternative energy uses of biomass plantations in Uganda. Biomass and Bioenergy
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The establishment of tree plantations in rural areas in Uganda could provide renewable energy to rural communities, while decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from conventional electricity sources and unsustainable forest use. The study evaluates the greenhouse gas benefits that could be produced by biomass based energy systems in Anaka, a rural settlement in the Amuru district in northern Uganda. Two alternative energy uses are explored: a) electricity production through wood gasification and b) traditional fuelwood use. It is estimated that a small-scale wood gasifier could provide electricity for basic community services by planting less than 10 ha of new short rotation coppices (SRCs). The gasification system could save 50e67% of the GHG emissions produced by traditional diesel based electricity generators in terms of CO2-eq. (0.61e0.83 t MWh 1 or 7.1 t y 1 per hectare of SRCs). It was also estimated that traditional use of fuelwood in households is currently unsustainable, i.e. the consumption of wood is higher than the annual growth fromnatural wood resources in the study area. It is estimated that 0.02e0.06 ha per capita of plantations could render the current consumption of wood sustainable. In this way, the CO2 emissions produced through unsustainable extraction of wood could be avoided (2.0e7.3 t per capita per year or 50e130 t y 1 per hectare of SRCs).
Zencey, E.. (2012) The Other Road to Serfdom and the Path to Sustainable Democracy. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. Pages 340;
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Our planet is finite. Our political and economic systems were designed for an infinite planet. These difficult truths anchor the perceptive analysis offered in The Other Road to Serfdom and the Path to Sustainable Democracy. With wit, energy, and a lucid prose style, Eric Zencey identifies the key elements of "infinite planet" thinking that underlie our economics and our politics--and shows how they must change. Zencey's title evokes F. A. Hayek, who argued that any attempt to set overall limits to free markets--any attempt at centralized planning--is "the road to serfdom." But Hayek's argument works only if the planet is infinite. If Hayek is right that planning and democracy are irreducibly in conflict, Zencey argues, then on a finite planet, "free markets operated on infinite planet principles are just the other road to serfdom." The alternative is ecological economics, an emergent field that accepts limits to what humans can accomplish economically on a finite planet. Zencey explains this new school of thought and applies it to current political and economic concerns: the financial collapse, terrorism, population growth, hunger, the energy and oil industry's social control, and the deeply rooted dissatisfactions felt by conservative "values" voters who have been encouraged to see smaller government and freer markets as the universal antidote. What emerges is a coherent vision, a progressive and hopeful alternative to neoconservative economic and political theory--a foundation for an economy that meets the needs of the 99% and just might help save civilization from ecological and political collapse.
Zia, A.; Glantz, M. H.. (2012) Risk Zones: Comparative Lesson Drawing and Policy Learning from Flood Insurance Programs. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis 14(2) 143-159
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Risk insurance mechanisms have been proposed as proactive policy options to enhance the resilience of communities for coping with extreme events. Many risk insurance mechanisms require designation of "risk zones" to legalize governmental interventions. After a three-day workshop and ensuing interviews, "wicked" challenges were identified in the designation of risk zones: risk thresholds; land value; damage-reduction; land-use planning; forecast uncertainty; map accuracy; modifiable-areal-unit problem; winners and losers; single versus multiple hazards; and cross-jurisdictional administrative boundaries. A total of 56 peer-reviewed studies are synthesized that evaluate these "wicked" challenges in flood insurance programs and derive deliberative heuristics for designating risk zones in publicly sponsored insurance mechanisms.
Zia, A.. (2012) Land Use Adaptation to Climate Change: Economic Damages from Land-Falling Hurricanes in the Atlantic and Gulf States of the USA, 1900–2005. Sustainability 4 917-932
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Global climate change, especially the phenomena of global warming, is expected to increase the intensity of land-falling hurricanes. Societal adaptation is needed to reduce vulnerability from increasingly intense hurricanes. This study quantifies the adaptation effects of potentially policy driven caps on housing densities and agricultural cover in coastal (and adjacent inland) areas vulnerable to hurricane damages in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal regions of the U.S. Time series regressions, especially Prais-Winston and Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models, are estimated to forecast the economic impacts of hurricanes of varying intensity, given that various patterns of land use emerge in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal states of the U.S. The Prais-Winston and ARMA models use observed time series data from 1900 to 2005 for inflation adjusted hurricane damages and socio-economic and land-use data in the coastal or inland regions where hurricanes caused those damages. The results from this study provide evidence that increases in housing density and agricultural cover cause significant rise in the de-trended inflation-adjusted damages. Further, higher intensity and frequency of land-falling hurricanes also significantly increase the economic damages. The evidence from this study implies that a medium to long term land use adaptation in the form of capping housing density and agricultural cover in the coastal (and adjacent inland) states can significantly reduce economic damages from intense hurricanes. Future studies must compare the benefits of such land use adaptation policies against the costs of development controls implied in housing density caps and agricultural land cover reductions.
2011
Abell, R.; Thieme, M.; Ricketts, T. H.; Olwero, N.; Ng, R.; Petry, P.; Dinerstein, E.; Revenga, C.; Hoekstra, J. M.. (2011) Concordance of freshwater and terrestrial biodiversity. Conservation Letters 4(2) 127-136
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Efforts to set global conservation priorities have largely ignored freshwater diversity, thereby excluding some of the world's most speciose, threatened, and valuable taxa. Using a new global map of freshwater ecoregions and distribution data for about 13,300 fish species, we identify regions of exceptional freshwater biodiversity and assess their overlap with regions of equivalent terrestrial importance. Overlap is greatest in the tropics and is higher than expected by chance. These high-congruence areas offer opportunities for integrated conservation efforts, which could be of particular value when economic conditions force conservation organizations to narrow their focus. Areas of low overlap-missed by current terrestrially based priority schemes-merit independent freshwater conservation efforts. These results provide new information to conservation investors setting priorities at global or regional scales and argue for a potential reallocation of future resources to achieve representation of overlooked biomes.
Alvez, J.; Matthews, A. G.; Schmitt F., A.; Farley, J.. (2011) Sustainability indicators for cattle farms. Cadernos de Agroecologia 6(1)
Balmford, A.; Fisher, B.; Green, R. E.; Naidoo, R.; Strassburg, B.; Turner, R. K.; Rodrigues, A. S. L.. (2011) Bringing Ecosystem Services into the Real World: An Operational Framework for Assessing the Economic Consequences of Losing Wild Nature. Environmental & Resource Economics 48(2) 161-175
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Policy action to halt the global loss of biodiversity and ecosystems is hindered by the perception that it would be so costly as to compromise economic development, yet this assumption needs testing. Inspired by the recent Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, the leaders of the G8+5 nations commissioned a similar assessment of the economics of losing biodiversity, under the Potsdam Initiative on Biodiversity. Here, we propose a conceptual framework for such a global assessment which emphasizes several critical insights from the environmental economics and valuation literature: contrasting counterfactual scenarios which differ solely in whether they include specific conservation policies; identifying non-overlapping benefits; modeling the production, flow, use and value of benefits in a spatially-explicit way; and incorporating the likely costs as well as possible benefits of policy interventions. Tackling these challenges, we argue, will significantly enhance our ability to quantify how the loss of benefits derived from ecosystems and biodiversity compares with the costs incurred in retaining them. We also summarise a review of the current state of knowledge, in order to assess how quickly this framework could be operationalized for some key ecosystem services.
Boyle, Mary-Ellen; Ross, Laurie; Stephens, Jennie C.. (2011) Who has a stake? How stakeholder processes influence partnership sustainability. 2011 4 19
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As universities attempt to expand their relevance by engaging with local and regional societal challenges, various kinds of partnerships are emerging. A broad range of stakeholders, from both the university and the community, are typically engaged in and influence the development, implementation and perpetuation of these partnerships. This paper juxtaposes analysis of three community-university partnerships in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA, paying particular attention to the partnerships’ stakeholders, and to their relative importance. This research builds upon current understandings of critical factors in partnership sustainability, as these three partnerships have different goals, involve different university and community stakeholders, and are at different points in their organisational history. The fact that they share the same context – the same city – offers a unique opportunity for comparative case study analysis. The theory of stakeholder salience is used to explain findings about partnership sustainability and to make suggestions for strengthening existing partnerships. Specifically, we argue that stakeholder power and legitimacy, along with stakeholder urgency, are key factors in sustaining community-university partnerships. Keywords Community-university partnerships; economic development; community development; stakeholder salience
Buchholz, T.; Volk, T. A.. (2011) Improving the Profitability of Willow Crops-Identifying Opportunities with a Crop Budget Model. Bioenergy Research 4(2) 85-95
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Short-rotation woody crops like shrub willow are a potential source of biomass for energy generation and bioproducts. However, since willow crops are not widely grown in North America, the economics of this crop and the impacts of key crop production and management components are not well understood. We developed a budget model, EcoWillow v1.4 (Beta), that allows users to analyze the entire production-chain for willow systems from the establishment to the delivery of wood chips to the end-user. EcoWillow was used to analyze how yield, crop management options, land rent, fuel, labor, and other costs influence the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of willow crop systems in upstate New York. We further identified cost variables with the greatest potential for reducing production and transport costs of willow biomass. Productivity of 12 oven-dried tons (odt) ha(-1) year(-1) and a biomass price of $ (US dollars) 60 odt(-1) results in an IRR of 5.5%. Establishment, harvesting, and transportation operations account for 71% of total costs. Increases in willow yield, rotation length, and truck capacity as well as a reduction in harvester down time, land costs, planting material costs, and planting densities can improve the profitability of the system. Results indicate that planting speed and fuel and labor costs have a minimal effect on the profitability of willow biomass crops. To improve profitability, efforts should concentrate on (1) reducing planting stock costs, (2) increasing yields, (3) optimizing harvesting operations, and (4) co-development of plantation designs with new high-yielding clones to reduce planting density.
Cheng, A. S.; Danks, C.; Allred, S. R.. (2011) The role of social and policy learning in changing forest governance: An examination of community-based forestry initiatives in the US. Forest Policy and Economics 13(2) 89-96
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The role of learning in changing forest governance by community-based forestry (CBF) initiatives in the USA is examined through two conceptual lenses - social learning and policy learning - and across operational, collective-choice, and constitutional-choice levels of forest governance. Data used for this examination were derived from two qualitative, case study-based inquiries: the Ford Foundation's Community-Based Forestry Demonstration Program and a status report on CBF developed for the U.S. Endowment for Forests and Communities. Additional information on CBF learning and governance change was gleaned from the research literature and the authors' ongoing observations and participation with CBF groups. We found that CBF groups and coalitions are engaged in a wide variety of learning strategies simultaneously, frequently blending social and policy learning in order to determine if proposed strategies worked or require changes, and if their core beliefs are being attained. Most learning tends to involve single-loop learning, where the effect and effectiveness of strategies are measured against expected outcomes; in a small number of cases, we found evidence of double-loop learning, where the assumptions about causal relationships were questioned and adapted. Triple-loop learning of CBF governing values and structures, as well as the values and structures governing U.S. forest policy as a whole, is largely absent. CBF learning primarily focuses on operational-level governance, where management plans and strategies are altered to incorporate the linked goals of sustaining healthy forests and healthy communities. A small number of CBF advocacy coalitions are engaged in policy learning and change at the collective- and constitutional-choice levels; policy changes are generally at the collective-choice level, changing rules and structures that affect operational-level governance. Given the high cost of changing collective- and constitutional-choice governance and the generally long time to achieve policy change, CBF groups and coalitions must find ways to sustain the resources and energy necessary to stay engaged to affect long-term forest governance change. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Conner, D. S.; King, B.; Koliba, C.; Kolodinsky, J.; Trubek, A.. (2011) Mapping Farm-to-School Networks Implications for Research and Practice. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition 6 133-125
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In this article, the contemporary Farm-to-School movement is described as a system comprised of discrete actors operating at varying levels of geographic scale, social sector, and network function. Drawing on a literature review and case study research, the authors present and analyze a Farm-to-School network in Vermont as a series of relationships between network actors predicated on the flow of financial resources, whole and processed foods, information, and regulatory authority. Furthermore, the utility for using this map to critically examine the leverage points that may drive positive change within and across the system is discussed.
Conte, M.; Nelson, E.; Carney, K.; Fissore, C.; Olwero, N.; Plantinga, A.; Stanley, W.; Ricketts, T.. (2011) Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration and Storage. Oxford University Press, New York. Pages 111-128;
Costanza, R.; Kubiszewski, I.; Roman, J.; Sutton, P.. (2011) Changes in ecosystem services and migration in low-lying coastal areas over the next 50 years. Migration and Global Environmental Change
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This paper examines the history and current status of ecosystem services in low-lying coastal areas (LLCAs), their potential changes because of wider environmental and social shifts, and the potential impacts of these changes on human migration. We synthesised information from a number of sources on the status and value of ecosystem services in LLCAs, including information about key ecosystems that are likely to be particularly vulnerable to environmental change. We created maps of ecosystem and human population changes in LLCAs and then estimated changes in ecosystem services. Estimating the impacts of these potential changes depends on the future scenario one assumes. For our analysis four scenarios were developed for future ecosystem and ecosystem services conditions in 2060, based on the four SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios) scenarios with additional reference to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Great Transition Initiative scenarios. The two axes of the SRES scenarios are global vs. regional and material economy vs. environment foci. This allowed an assessment of the plausible range of future uncertainty about ecosystem services in LLCAs and the potential for changes in ecosystem services to drive human migration.
Daily, G. C.; Kareiva, P.; Polasky, S.; Ricketts, T.; Tallis, H.. (2011) Mainstreaming Natural Capital into Decisions. Oxford University Press, New York. Pages 3-14;
Daly, H.; Farley, J.. (2011) Ecological Economics: Principles and Applications. Island Press, Washington, D.C.. Pages 454;
De Oliveira, Jose Antonio Puppim; Ali, Saleem H.. (2011) Gemstone mining as a development cluster: A study of Brazil's emerald mines. Resources Policy 36(2) 132-141
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For many centuries, emeralds have bejeweled the rich and famous all over the world. Emeralds have also made many millionaires overnight, sometimes by chance, as in some of the cases reported in this study. On the other hand, even though emerald mining has brought some economic benefits, many of these have remained at the top of the production chain. In many cases mining activities have caused a number of negative social and environmental impacts locally. Working conditions in small mines are very poor in general: with bad ventilation, high temperatures, long working hours, lack of safety, informal working contracts and no health or life insurance. Environmental impacts can be significant, such as widespread deforestation, erosion of abandoned mines, and soil and water pollution in streams. The economic and social public benefits can be minimal. Even when taxes on gem mining are relatively low, much of the mining local activity is informal and the high value-added formal activities take place outside the mining regions. This study aims to understand the dynamics of emerald mining and its impact on local development using the concept of clusters. The research analyzes three case studies in Brazil: Campos Verdes/Santa Terezinha (Goias state), Nova Era/Itabira (Minas Gerais state) and Carnaiba/Campo Formoso (Bahia state). Emerald mining regions attract many migrants, increasing the demand for public services (infrastructure, health, education, etc.), but local governments are unable to provide for them because the activity produces little tax revenue. In the end, there is a growing mismatch between demand and supply of public services, leading to a series of social and environmental problems. However, working with the concept of cluster can help to shed light on policies to improve the local benefits of gem mining, by organizing the miners and their supporting organizations to allow investments that bring long term benefits locally. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edwards, D. P.; Fisher, B.; Giam, X. L.; Wilcove, D. S.. (2011) Underestimating the costs of conservation in Southeast Asia. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9(10) 544-545
Edwards, D. P.; Fisher, B.; Wilcove, D. S.. (2011) Green labelling being misused. Nature 475(7355) 174-174
Eppstein, M. J.; Grover, D. K.; Marshall, J. S.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2011) An agent-based model to study market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Energy Policy 39(6) 3789-3802
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A spatially explicit agent-based vehicle consumer choice model is developed to explore sensitivities and nonlinear interactions between various potential influences on plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) market penetration. The model accounts for spatial and social effects (including threshold effects, homophily, and conformity) and media influences. Preliminary simulations demonstrate how such a model could be used to identify nonlinear interactions among potential leverage points, inform policies affecting PHEV market penetration, and help identify future data collection necessary to more accurately model the system. We examine sensitivity of the model to gasoline prices, to accuracy in estimation of fuel costs, to agent willingness to adopt the PHEV technology, to PHEV purchase price and rebates, to PHEV battery range, and to heuristic values related to gasoline usage. Our simulations indicate that PHEV market penetration could be enhanced significantly by providing consumers with ready estimates of expected lifetime fuel costs associated with different vehicles (e.g., on vehicle stickers), and that increases in gasoline prices could nonlinearly magnify the impact on fleet efficiency. We also infer that a potential synergy from a gasoline tax with proceeds is used to fund research into longer-range lower-cost PHEV batteries. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Erickson, Daniel L.; Lovell, Sarah Taylor; Mendez, V. Ernesto. (2011) Landowner willingness to embed production agriculture and other land use options in residential areas of Chittenden County, VT. Landscape and Urban Planning 103(2) 174-184
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Throughout the world, urbanization is causing a loss of agricultural land as residential and commercial development expand. In Chittenden County, Vermont, U.S.A., this land use conversion has resulted in subdivision of farms into large residential parcels. Some of these residential parcels retain sizeable areas of undeveloped prime agricultural soil, yet the land is effectively removed from agricultural production. This study explored landowner willingness to enroll a portion of their land in a cooperative land management (CLM) scheme. Our results show support for embedding production agriculture and other cooperative land use options in residential parcels. Almost half of the respondents (45.6%) indicated they would enroll a portion of their land in a CLM program, while another 28.4% said "maybe". A cluster analysis partitioned the respondents into five clusters based on the following variables: percent agricultural land on parcel, parcel size, years in residence, and the population density of the town where the parcel is located. Willingness to participate in the CLM program and different land use options (livestock grazing, vegetables, fruit, field crops, biofuel, maple sugaring, wildflowers, medicinal plants, wildlife corridor, and recreational trails) varied across the clusters. A cluster containing a high percentage of agricultural land ("farms") had the highest support for production agriculture options, while a cluster of long term residents (old timers) had the lowest. These results are encouraging for farmers seeking access to affordable farmland and for planning efforts seeking increased regional landscape multifunctionality. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fisher, B.; Bradbury, R. B.; Andrews, J. E.; Ausden, M.; Bentham-Green, S.; White, S. M.; Gill, J. A.. (2011) Impacts of species-led conservation on ecosystem services of wetlands: understanding co-benefits and tradeoffs. Biodiversity and Conservation 20(11) 2461-2481
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Biodiversity conservation organisations have recently begun to consider a wider ecosystem services context for their activities. While the literature suggests the potential of 'win-win' situations where biodiversity conservation and the delivery of ecosystem services overlap, empirical evidence is wanting. Here we explore the role that species-led management for the benefit of biodiversity in cultural landscapes can play in the delivery of wider ecosystem services. We use UK lowland wetlands as a case study and show how successful delivery of species-led conservation through management interventions relies on practices that can affect greenhouse gas fluxes, water quality and regulation, and cultural benefits. In these wetlands, livestock grazing has potentially large effects on water and greenhouse gas related services, but there is little scope to alter management without compromising species objectives. Likewise, there is little potential to alter reedbed management without compromising conservation objectives. There is some potential to alter woodland and scrub management, but this would likely have limited influence due to the relatively small area over which such management is practiced. The management of water levels potentially has large effects on provision of several services and there does appear to be some scope to align this objective with biodiversity objectives. A comprehensive understanding of the net costs and benefits to society of these interventions will require fine-grained research integrating ecological, economic and social science research. However, a less analytic understanding of the potential costs and benefits can highlight ways by which land management principally to achieve biodiversity conservation objectives might be modified to enhance delivery of other ecosystem services.
Fisher, B.; Edwards, D. P.; Giam, X. L.; Wilcove, D. S.. (2011) The high costs of conserving Southeast Asia's lowland rainforests. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9(6) 329-334
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Mechanisms that mitigate greenhouse-gas emissions via forest conservation have been portrayed as a cost-effective approach that can also protect biodiversity and vital ecosystem services. However, the costs of conservation - including opportunity costs - are spatially heterogeneous across the globe. The lowland rainforests of Southeast Asia represent a unique nexus of large carbon stores, imperiled biodiversity, large stores of timber, and high potential for conversion to oil-palm plantations, making this region one where understanding the costs of conservation is critical. Previous studies have underestimated the gap between conservation costs and conversion benefits in Southeast Asia. Using detailed logging records, cost data, and species-specific timber auction prices from Borneo, we show that the profitability of logging, in combination with potential profits from subsequent conversion to palm-oil production, greatly exceeds foreseeable revenues from a global carbon market and other ecosystem-service payment mechanisms. Thus, the conservation community faces a massive funding shortfall to protect the remaining lowland primary forests in Southeast Asia.
Fisher, B.; Edwards, D. P.; Larsen, T. H.; Ansell, F. A.; Hsu, W. W.; Roberts, C. S.; Wilcove, D. S.. (2011) Cost-effective conservation: calculating biodiversity and logging trade-offs in Southeast Asia. Conservation Letters 4(6) 443-450
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The Sundaland Biodiversity Hotspot of Southeast Asia is widely regarded as one of the most imperiled biodiversity hotspots due to high degrees of endemism coupled with extensive logging and forest conversion to oil palm. The large financial returns to these activities have made it difficult to conserve much of the region's lowland primary forest, suggesting a large trade-off between economic interests and biodiversity conservation. Here, we provide an empirical examination of the magnitude of this trade-off in Borneo. By incorporating both financial values and biodiversity responses across logging regimes, we show that selectively logged forests represent a surprisingly low-cost option for conserving high levels of biodiversity. In our study, the standing value of timber dropped from similar to$10,460 ha-1 to similar to$2,010 ha-1 after two logging rotations, yet these forests retained over 75% of bird and dung beetle species found in primary unlogged forest. We suggest that the conservation of selectively logged forests represents a highly cost-efficient opportunity to enlarge existing protected areas, improve connectivity between them, and to create new, large protected areas.
Fisher, B.; Lewis, S. L.; Burgess, N. D.; Malimbwi, R. E.; Munishi, P. K.; Swetnam, R. D.; Turner, R. K.; Willcock, S.; Balmford, A.. (2011) Implementation and opportunity costs of reducing deforestation and forest degradation in Tanzania. Nature Climate Change 1(3) 161-164
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The Cancun Agreements provide strong backing for a REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) mechanism whereby developed countries pay developing ones for forest conservation(1). REDD+ has potential to simultaneously deliver cost-effective climate change mitigation and human development(2-5). However, most REDD+ analysis has used coarse-scale data, overlooked important opportunity costs to tropical forest users(4,5) and failed to consider how to best invest funds to limit leakage, that is, merely displacing deforestation(6). Here we examine these issues for Tanzania, a REDD+ country, by comparing district-scale carbon losses from deforestation with the opportunity costs of carbon conservation. Opportunity costs are estimated as rents from both agriculture and charcoal production (the most important proximate causes of regional forest conversion(7-9).). As an alternative we also calculate the implementation costs of alleviating the demand for forest conservation thereby addressing the problem of leakage by raising agricultural yields on existing cropland and increasing charcoal fuel-use efficiency. The implementation costs exceed the opportunity costs of carbon conservation (medians of US$6.50 versus US$3.90 per Mg CO(2)), so effective REDD+ policies may cost more than simpler estimates suggest. However, even if agricultural yields are doubled, implementation is possible at the competitive price of similar to US$12 per Mg CO(2).
Fisher, B.; Naidoo, R.. (2011) Concerns About Extrapolating Right Off the Bat. Science 333(6040) 287-287
Fisher, B.; Polasky, S.; Sterner, T.. (2011) Conservation and Human Welfare: Economic Analysis of Ecosystem Services. Environmental & Resource Economics 48(2) 151-159
Fisher, B.; Turner, R. K.; Burgess, N. D.; Swetnam, R. D.; Green, J.; Green, R. E.; Kajembe, G.; Kulindwa, K.; Lewis, S. L.; Marchant, R.; Marshall, A. R.; Madoffe, S.; Munishi, P. K. T.; Morse-Jones, S.; Mwakalila, S.; Paavola, J.; Naidoo, R.; Ricketts, T.; Rouget, M.; Willcock, S.; White, S.; Balmford, A.. (2011) Measuring, modeling and mapping ecosystem services in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. 35(5) 595-611
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In light of the significance that ecosystem service research is likely to play in linking conservation activities and human welfare, systematic approaches to measuring, modeling and mapping ecosystem services ( and their value to society) are sorely needed. In this paper we outline one such approach, which we developed in order to understand the links between the functioning of the ecosystems of Tanzania's Eastern Arc Mountains and their impact on human welfare at local, regional and global scales. The essence of our approach is the creation of a series of maps created using field-based or remotely sourced data, data-driven models, and socio-economic scenarios coupled with rule-based assumptions. Here we describe the construction of this spatial information and how it can help to shed light on the complex relationships between ecological and social systems. There are obvious difficulties in operationalizing this approach, but by highlighting those which we have encountered in our own case-study work, we have also been able to suggest some routes to overcoming these impediments.
Galford, G. L.; Melillo, J. M.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Mustard, J. F.; Cronin, T. W.; Cerri, C. E. P.; Cerri, C. C.. (2011) Historical carbon emissions and uptake from the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon. Ecological Applications 21(3) 750-763
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Tropical ecosystems play a large and complex role in the global carbon cycle. Clearing of natural ecosystems for agriculture leads to large pulses of CO(2) to the atmosphere from terrestrial biomass. Concurrently, the remaining intact ecosystems, especially tropical forests, may be sequestering a large amount of carbon from the atmosphere in response to global environmental changes including climate changes and an increase in atmospheric CO(2). Here we use an approach that integrates census-based historical land use reconstructions, remote-sensing-based contemporary land use change analyses, and simulation modeling of terrestrial biogeochemistry to estimate the net carbon balance over the period 1901-2006 for the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, which is one of the most rapidly changing agricultural frontiers in the world. By the end of this period, we estimate that of the state's 925 225 km(2), 221 092 km(2) have been converted to pastures and 89 533 km(2) have been converted to croplands, with forest-to-pasture conversions being the dominant land use trajectory but with recent transitions to croplands increasing rapidly in the last decade. These conversions have led to a cumulative release of 4.8 Pg C to the atmosphere, with similar to 80% from forest clearing and 20% from the clearing of cerrado. Over the same period, we estimate that the residual undisturbed ecosystems accumulated 0.3 Pg C in response to CO2 fertilization. Therefore, the net emissions of carbon from Mato Grosso over this period were 4.5 Pg C. Net carbon emissions from Mato Grosso since 2000 averaged 146 Tg C/yr, on the order of Brazil's fossil fuel emissions during this period. These emissions were associated with the expansion of croplands to grow soybeans. While alternative management regimes in croplands, including tillage, fertilization, and cropping patterns promote carbon storage in ecosystems, they remain a small portion of the net carbon balance for the region. This detailed accounting of a region's carbon balance is the type of foundation analysis needed by the new United Nations Collaborative Programmme for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD).
Garibaldi, L. A.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Kremen, C.; Morales, J. M.; Bommarco, R.; Cunningham, S. A.; Carvalheiro, L. G.; Chacoff, N. P.; Dudenhoeffer, J. H.; Greenleaf, S. S.; Holzschuh, A.; Isaacs, R.; Krewenka, K. M.; Mandelik, Y.; Mayfield, M. M.; Morandin, L. A.; Potts, S. G.; Ricketts, T. H.; Szentgyoergyi, H.; Viana, B. F.; Westphal, C.; Winfree, R.; Klein, A. M.. (2011) Stability of pollination services decreases with isolation from natural areas despite honey bee visits. Ecology Letters 14(10) 1062-1072
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Sustainable agricultural landscapes by definition provide high magnitude and stability of ecosystem services, biodiversity and crop productivity. However, few studies have considered landscape effects on the stability of ecosystem services. We tested whether isolation from florally diverse natural and semi-natural areas reduces the spatial and temporal stability of flower-visitor richness and pollination services in crop fields. We synthesised data from 29 studies with contrasting biomes, crop species and pollinator communities. Stability of flower-visitor richness, visitation rate (all insects except honey bees) and fruit set all decreased with distance from natural areas. At 1 km from adjacent natural areas, spatial stability decreased by 25, 16 and 9% for richness, visitation and fruit set, respectively, while temporal stability decreased by 39% for richness and 13% for visitation. Mean richness, visitation and fruit set also decreased with isolation, by 34, 27 and 16% at 1 km respectively. In contrast, honey bee visitation did not change with isolation and represented > 25% of crop visits in 21 studies. Therefore, wild pollinators are relevant for crop productivity and stability even when honey bees are abundant. Policies to preserve and restore natural areas in agricultural landscapes should enhance levels and reliability of pollination services.
Harrison, D. M.; Noordewier, T.. (2011) Empirical Evidence on Mortgage Choice as a Screening Mechanism for Default Risk. 20(1) 1-18
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Despite the enormously important role played by credit in modern market-based economies, the marketing literature offers little theoretical or empirical insight into how consumers choose among available credit products. This paper examines one of the most critical credit decisions made by consumers: selecting between a fixed-rate mortgage (FRM) and an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM). To understand this selection process, the authors test a theoretical model in which a borrower's mortgage choice (i.e., ARM vs. FRM) is contingent upon transaction default costs, where the latter are defined as costs associated with the borrower's defaulting on a mortgage (e.g., damage to the borrower's credit rating, search and legal costs stemming from having to purchase a new home, etc.). The model predicts that when a borrower's transaction costs of default are sufficiently small (high), high default risk borrowers will select fixed (adjustable) rate mortgages, and low default risk borrowers will select adjustable (fixed) rate mortgages. The authors empirically test this transaction cost-contingent hypothesis using a sample of 1,003 mortgage loans, finding evidence consistent with the proposed interaction. In contrast to traditional transaction cost studies, which focus on whether (or how well) alternative buyer-seller "governance" modes match the underlying attributes of the transactions, this research demonstrates that transaction cost reasoning is applicable to consumer product choice as well.
Hart, S. L.; Dowell, G.. (2011) A Natural-Resource-Based View of the Firm: Fifteen Years After. Journal of Management; J. Manag. 37(5) 1464-1479
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The authors revisit Hart's natural-resource-based view (NRBV) of the firm and summarize progress that has been made in testing elements of that theory and reevaluate the NRBV in light of a number of important developments that have emerged in recent years in both the resource-based view literature and in research on sustainable enterprise. First, the authors consider how the NRBV can both benefit from recent work in dynamic capabilities and can itself inform such work. Second, they review recent research in the areas of clean technology and business at the base of the pyramid and suggest how the NRBV can help inform research on the resources and capabilities needed to enter and succeed in these domains.
Hayden, N.; Rizzo, D.; Dewoolkar, M. M.; Neumann, M. D.; Lathem, S. A.; Sadek, A. W.. (2011) Incorporating a Systems Approach into Civil and Environmental Engineering Curricula: Effect on Course Redesign, and Student and Faculty Attitudes. Advances in Engineering Education 2(4) 1-27
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This paper presents a brief overview of the changes made during our department level reform (DLR) process (Grant Title: A Systems Approach for Civil and Environmental Engineering Education: Integrating Systems Thinking, Inquiry-Based Learning and Catamount Community Service-Learning Projects) and some of the effects of these changes on our students and ourselves. The overall goal of the reform has been to have students learn and apply a systems approach to engineering problem solving such that when they become practicing engineers they will develop more sustainable engineering solutions. We have integrated systems thinking into our programs in the following ways; 1) new material has been included in key courses (e.g., the first-year introductory and senior design courses), 2) a sequence of three related environmental and transportation systems courses have been included within the curricula (i.e., Introduction to Systems, Decision Making, and Modeling), and 3) service-learning (SL) projects have been integrated into key required courses as a way of practicing a systems approach. A variety of assessment methods were implemented as part of the reform including student surveys, student focus groups, faculty interviews, and assessment of student work. Student work in five classes demonstrate that students are learning the systems approach, applying it to engineering problem solving, and that this approach helps meet ABET outcomes. Initial student resistance to changing the curriculum has decreased post implementation (e.g., graduating class 2010), and many students are able to define and apply the concept of sustainability in senior design project. Student self-assessments show support of SL projects and that the program is influencing student understanding of the roles and responsibilities of engineers in society.
Hirsch, P. D.; Adams, W. M.; Brosius, J. P.; Zia, A.; Bariola, N.; Dammert, J. L.. (2011) Acknowledging Conservation Trade-Offs and Embracing Complexity. Conservation Biology 25(2) 259-264
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There is a growing recognition that conservation often entails trade-offs. A focus on trade-offs can open the way to more complete consideration of the variety of positive and negative effects associated with conservation initiatives. In analyzing and working through conservation trade-offs, however, it is important to embrace the complexities inherent in the social context of conservation. In particular, it is important to recognize that the consequences of conservation activities are experienced, perceived, and understood differently from different perspectives, and that these perspectives are embedded in social systems and preexisting power relations. We illustrate the role of trade-offs in conservation and the complexities involved in understanding them with recent debates surrounding REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation), a global conservation policy designed to create incentives to reduce tropical deforestation. Often portrayed in terms of the multiple benefits it may provide: poverty alleviation, biodiversity conservation, and climate-change mitigation; REDD may involve substantial trade-offs. The gains of REDD may be associated with a reduction in incentives for industrialized countries to decrease carbon emissions; relocation of deforestation to places unaffected by REDD; increased inequality in places where people who make their livelihood from forests have insecure land tenure; loss of biological and cultural diversity that does not directly align with REDD measurement schemes; and erosion of community-based means of protecting forests. We believe it is important to acknowledge the potential trade-offs involved in conservation initiatives such as REDD and to examine these trade-offs in an open and integrative way that includes a variety of tools, methods, and points of view.
Huang, G.; Zhou, W.; Ali, S.. (2011) Spatial patterns and economic contributions of mining and tourism in biodiversity hotspots: A case study in China. Ecological Economics 70(8) 1492-1498
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Mining activities and tourism are both growing fast in biodiversity intense areas globally. However, the dynamic and interactions between mining and tourism when they both occur in biodiversity hotspots, and how they together may impact the economy and environment in these biodiversity rich areas, remain unclear. This paper examined how the two industries interact in terms of their economic contributions and spatial patterns in a biodiversity hotspot, Yunnan, China. We used correlation analyses to measure the relationships between mining activities, tourism visits and local gross domestic productions. We also employed a distancebased technique to investigate the nature of any dependency between mining and tourism sites. Results showed that mining activities tend to be in relatively fluent areas while tourism tends to occur in less developed areas. Our results showed that the location of tourism and mining sites are likely to be close to one another but the two industries usually perform better economically when they are apart from each other. These findings can provide insights on how mining and tourism together may impact the economy and environment in biodiversity rich areas, and provide important information for managers and planners on balancing mining and tourism development in these areas.
Jarvis, A.; Lau, C.; Cook, S.; Wollenberg, E.; Hansen, J. W.; Bonilla, O.; Challinor, A. J.. (2011) AN INTEGRATED ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPING AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH: SYNERGIES AND TRADE-OFFS. 47(2) 185-203
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Global rood security is under threat by climate change, and the impacts fall disproportionately on resource-poor small producers. With the goal of making agricultural and food systems more climate-resilient this paper presents an adaptation and mitigation framework. A road map for bather agricultural research is proposed, based on the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security We propose a holistic, integrated approach that takes into account trade-offs and feedbacks between interventions. We divide the agenda into four research areas, three tackling risk management, accelerated adaptation and emissions mitigation, and the fourth facilitating adoption of research outputs. After reviewing specific technical, agronomic and policy options for reducing climate change vulnerability, we acknowledge that science and good-faith recommendations do not necessarily translate into effective and timely actions. We therefore outline impediments to behavioural change and propose that future research overcomes these obstacles by linking the right institutions, instruments and scientific outputs. Food security research must go beyond its focus on production to also examine food access and utilization issues. Finally, we conclude that urgent action is needed despite the uncertainties, trade-offs and challenges.
Kareiva, P.; Tallis, H.; Ricketts, T.; Daily, G. C.; Polasky, S.. (2011) Natural Capital: Theory and Practice of Mapping Ecosystem Services. Oxford University Press, New York. Pages 392;
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In 2005, The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) provided the first global assessment of the world's ecosystems and ecosystem services. It concluded that recent trends in ecosystem change threatened human wellbeing due to declining ecosystem services. This bleak prophecy has galvanized conservation organizations, ecologists, and economists to work toward rigorous valuations of ecosystem services at a spatial scale and with a resolution that can inform public policy.The editors have assembled the world's leading scientists in the fields of conservation, policy analysis, and resource economics to provide the most intensive and best technical analyses of ecosystem services to date. A key idea that guides the science is that the modelling and valuation approaches being developed should use data that are readily available around the world. In addition, the book documents a toolbox of ecosystem service mapping, modeling, and valuation models that both TheNature Conservancy and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) are beginning to apply around the world as they transform conservation from a biodiversity only to a people and ecosystem services agenda. The book addresses land, freshwater, and marine systems at a variety of spatial scales and includesdiscussion of how to treat both climate change and cultural values when examining tradeoffs among ecosystem services.
Keeton, W. S.; Whitman, A. A.; McGee, G. C.; Goodale, C. L.. (2011) Late-Successional Biomass Development in Northern Hardwood-Conifer Forests of the Northeastern United States. Forest Science 57(6) 489-505
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Managing the contribution of forest ecosystems to global carbon cycles requires accurate predictions of biomass dynamics in relation to stand development. Our study evaluated competing hypotheses regarding late-successional biomass dynamics in northern hardwood-conifer forests using a data set spanning the northeastern United States, including 48 mature and 46 old-growth stands. Continuous data on dominant tree ages were available for 29 of these and were used as an indicator of stand development. Aboveground live biomass was significantly (P < 0.001) different between mature (195 Mg/ha) and old-growth (266 Mg/ha) sites. Aboveground biomass was positively (P < 0.001) and logarithmically correlated with dominant tree age; this held for live trees (r(2) = 0.52), standing dead trees (r(2) = 0.36), total trees (r(2) = 0.63), and downed woody debris (r(2) = 0.24). In a Classification and Regression Tree analysis, stand age class was the strongest predictor of biomass, but ecoregion and percent conifer accounted for similar to 25-33% of intraregional variability. Biomass approached maximum values in stands with dominant tree ages of similar to 350-400 years. Our results support the hypothesis that aboveground biomass can accumulate very late into succession in northern hardwood-conifer forests, recognizing that early declines are also possible in secondary forests as reported previously. Empirical studies suggest a high degree of variability in biomass development pathways and these may differ from theoretical predictions. Primary forest systems, especially those prone to partial disturbances, may have different biomass dynamics compared with those of secondary forests. These differences have important implications for both the quantity and temporal dynamics of carbon storage in old-growth and recovering secondary forests. FOR. SCI 57(6):489-505.
Koliba, C. J.; Mills, R. M.; Zia, A.. (2011) Accountability in Governance Networks: An Assessment of Public, Private, and Nonprofit Emergency Management Practices Following Hurricane Katrina. Public Administration Review 71(2) 210-220
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What is the most effective framework for analyzing complex accountability challenges within governing networks? Recognizing the multiscale and intersector (public, private, and nonprofit) characteristics of these networks, an accountability model is advanced organized around democratic (elected representatives, citizens, and the legal system), market (owners and consumers), as well as administrative (bureaucratic, professional and collaborative) relationships. This concept draws from 2005 events following Hurricane Katrina. Multiple failures of governing networks to plan for and respond to Katrina include a breakdown in democratic, market, and administrative accountability as well as a pervasive confusion over trade-offs between accountability types emerging from crises. This essay offers several useful recommendations for emergency management planners as well as for those who teach and research.
Koliba, C.; Campbell, E.; Zia, A.. (2011) Performance Management Systems Of Congestion Management Networks: Evidence from Four Cases. Public Performance & Management Review 34(4) 520-548
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The central research question in this article asks how performance management systems are employed in interorganizational governance networks designed to mitigate traffic congestion. Congestion management networks (CMNs) adopt performance management systems across regionally bound networks of state, regional, and local actors; and within these networks, performance data are often assumed to be directing policy strategy and tool selection. Drawing on existing frameworks for categorizing performance measures and policy strategies used within congestion management networks, the authors present data from case studies of four regional networks. The CMNs studied here were indelibly shaped by the funded mandates of the U.S. Department of Transportation with guidance from the major transportation reauthorization bills since the early 1990s. No uniform performance management system exists in the regional CMSs that were studied. Rather, the CMNs' performance management systems are a construct of discrete and overlapping performance management subsystems. Making comparisons more difficult, CMN performance measures are tied to multiple policy domains (including economic, environmental health, and quality of life). Left unanswered are questions relating to the collection and analysis of performance data in terms of administrative and political drivers and the extent to which congestion management is ultimately the policy frame that drives action in these networks. Some suggestions are offered that may eventually lead to answering some of these questions through further empirical inquiry and modeling.
Koliba, C.; Zia, A.; Lee, B. H. Y.. (2011) Governance Informatics: Managing the Performance of Inter-Organizational Governance Networks. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal 16(1)
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This article introduces an informatics approach to managing the performance of inter-organizational governance networks that are designed to create, implement and evaluate public policies and the range of activities undertaken by practicing public administrators. We label this type of information flow process management “governance informatics” and lay out a range of theoretical constructs that may be used to collect, categorize, and analyze performance in inter-organizational governance networks. We discuss how governance informatics may be able to assess and re-design the accountability and transparency regimes of information flows in inter-organizational governance networks. The integration of a governance informatics-driven performance management system into an existing regional transportation planning network is presented as an application of the framework.
Koliba, C.. (2011) Performance Management In Governance Networks-Critical Concepts And Practices. Public Performance & Management Review 34(4) 515-519
Kraft, C. E.; Warren, D. R.; Keeton, W. S.. (2011) Identifying the spatial pattern of wood distribution in northeastern North American streams. Geomorphology 135(1-2) 1-7
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The spatial distribution of instream wood influences important ecological processes but has proven challenging to describe quantitatively. We present a modified version of a previously described metric used to quantify the spatial extent and pattern of instream wood distribution, then apply this approach in evaluating the distribution of wood habitat in forested northeastern North American streams. This revised metric, a 'binned neighbor-K analysis', provides greater resolution in evaluating the presence of aggregated, periodic, or segregated wood distributions in stream ecosystems. We employed this metric in evaluating the distribution of wood within 17 streams in two regions of northeastern North America. Our results indicate that the binned neighbor-K approach more accurately represents the spatial extent at which wood accumulates in streams by identifying recurring intervals in streams within which instream wood is not present and by more accurately quantifying the spatial extent of wood aggregations and periodically repeating occurrences of accumulated wood. We also used this metric to quantify the overall extent of wood 'organization' in streams, which revealed similarities and differences in instream wood distribution patterns in the two regions evaluated. Wood distribution patterns in both study regions were generally consistent with our expectations of increased organization at an intermediate stream size (up to 10 m bankfull width), then in larger streams (>10 m) wood was less organized. These observed patterns result from landscape and ecosystem influences upon wood accumulation and movement in streams. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kubiszewski, I.; Noordewier, T.; Costanza, R.. (2011) Perceived credibility of Internet encyclopedias. Computers & Education 56(3) 659-667
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A vast amount of information is now available online, produced by a variety of sources with a range of editorial oversight procedures. These range from very centralized information with multiple layers of review, to no oversight at all. Determining which information is credible can pose a real challenge. An experiment was designed to determine whether certain webpage characteristics affect academics' and students' perception of the credibility of information presented in an online article. The experiment looked at five peripheral cues: (1) presence or absence of an identifiable author, (2) presence or absence of references. (3) presence or absence of a biased sponsor, (4) presence or absence of an award, and (5) whether the article is designated as appearing in Encyclopedia Britannica, Wikipedia, or Encyclopedia of Earth. The results indicate that compared to Encyclopedia Britannica, article information appearing in both Encyclopedia of Earth and Wikipedia is perceived as significantly less credible. They also show that the presence of a biased sponsor has a significant negative effect on perceived credibility. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuemmerle, T.; Olofsson, P.; Chaskovskyy, O.; Baumann, M.; Ostapowicz, K.; Woodcock, C. E.; Houghton, R. A.; Hostert, P.; Keeton, W. S.; Radeloff, V. C.. (2011) Post-Soviet farmland abandonment, forest recovery, and carbon sequestration in western Ukraine. Global Change Biology 17(3) 1335-1349
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Land use is a critical factor in the global carbon cycle, but land-use effects on carbon fluxes are poorly understood in many regions. One such region is Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, where land-use intensity decreased substantially after the collapse of socialism, and farmland abandonment and forest expansion have been widespread. Our goal was to examine how land-use trends affected net carbon fluxes in western Ukraine (57 000 km2) and to assess the region's future carbon sequestration potential. Using satellite-based forest disturbance and farmland abandonment rates from 1988 to 2007, historic forest resource statistics, and a carbon bookkeeping model, we reconstructed carbon fluxes from land use in the 20th century and assessed potential future carbon fluxes until 2100 for a range of forest expansion and logging scenarios. Our results suggested that the low-point in forest cover occurred in the 1920s. Forest expansion between 1930 and 1970 turned the region from a carbon source to a sink, despite intensive logging during socialism. The collapse of the Soviet Union created a vast, but currently largely untapped carbon sequestration potential (up to similar to 150 Tg C in our study region). Future forest expansion will likely maintain or even increase the region's current sink strength of 1.48 Tg C yr-1. This may offer substantial opportunities for offsetting industrial carbon emissions and for rural development in regions with otherwise diminishing income opportunities. Throughout Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, millions of hectares of farmland were abandoned after the collapse of socialism; thus similar reforestation opportunities may exist in other parts of this region.
Lonsdorf, E.; Ricketts, T.; Kremen, C.; Winfree, R.; Greenleaf, S.; Williams, N.. (2011) Crop Pollination. Oxford University Press, New York. Pages 168-187;
Main-Knorn, M.; Moisen, G. G.; Healey, S. P.; Keeton, W. S.; Freeman, E. A.; Hostert, P.. (2011) Evaluating the Remote Sensing and Inventory-Based Estimation of Biomass in the Western Carpathians. Remote Sensing 3(7) 1427-1446
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Understanding the potential of forest ecosystems as global carbon sinks requires a thorough knowledge of forest carbon dynamics, including both sequestration and fluxes among multiple pools. The accurate quantification of biomass is important to better understand forest productivity and carbon cycling dynamics. Stand-based inventories (SBIs) are widely used for quantifying forest characteristics and for estimating biomass, but information may quickly become outdated in dynamic forest environments. Satellite remote sensing may provide a supplement or substitute. We tested the accuracy of aboveground biomass estimates modeled from a combination of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery and topographic data, as well as SBI-derived variables in a Picea abies forest in the Western Carpathian Mountains. We employed Random Forests for non-parametric, regression tree-based modeling. Results indicated a difference in the importance of SBI-based and remote sensing-based predictors when estimating aboveground biomass. The most accurate models for biomass prediction ranged from a correlation coefficient of 0.52 for the TM- and topography-based model, to 0.98 for the inventory-based model. While Landsat-based biomass estimates were measurably less accurate than those derived from SBI, adding tree height or stand-volume as a field-based predictor to TM and topography-based models increased performance to 0.36 and 0.86, respectively. Our results illustrate the potential of spectral data to reveal spatial details in stand structure and ecological complexity.
Markusson, Nils; Ishii, Atsushi; Stephens, Jennie C.. (2011) The social and political complexities of learning in carbon capture and storage demonstration projects. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 21(2) 293-302
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Demonstration of a fully integrated power plant with carbon capture and storage (CCS) at scale has not yet been achieved, despite growing international political interest in the potential of the technology to contribute to climate change mitigation and calls from multiple constituents for more demonstration projects. Acknowledging the scale of learning that still must occur for the technology to advance towards deployment, multiple CCS demonstration projects of various scales are emerging globally. Current plans for learning and knowledge sharing associated with demonstration projects, however, seem to be limited and narrowly conceived, raising questions about whether the projects will deliver on the expectations raised. Through a comparison of the structure, framing and socio-political context of three very different CCS demonstration projects in different places and contexts, this paper explores the complexity of social learning associated with demonstration projects. Variety in expectations of the demonstration projects' objectives, learning processes, information sharing mechanisms, public engagement initiatives, financing and collaborative partnerships are highlighted. The comparison shows that multiple factors including the process of building support for the project, the governance context and the framing of the project matter for the learning in demonstration projects. This analysis supports a broader conceptualization of learning than that currently found in CCS demonstration plans a result with implications for both future research and practice. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McDermott, M, A. Moote and C. Danks. (2011) Effective collaboration: overcoming external obstacles. University of Virginia Press, New York. Pages 81-110;
Morse-Jones, S.; Luisetti, T.; Turner, R. K.; Fisher, B.. (2011) Ecosystem valuation: some principles and a partial application. Environmetrics; Environmetrics 22(5) 675-685
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Understanding the economic value of nature and the services it provides to humanity has become increasingly important for local, national and global policy, and decision-making. However, problems arise in that it is difficult to obtain meaningful values for goods and services that ecosystems provide which have no formal market, or are characteristically intangible. Additional problems occur when economic methods are applied inappropriately and when the importance of ecosystem maintenance for human welfare is underestimated. In this article, we provide clarification to practitioners on important considerations in ecosystem services valuation. We first review and adapt definitions of ecosystem services in order to make an operational link to valuation methods. We make a distinction between intermediate and final ecosystem services and also identify non-monetary ways to incorporate regulatory and support services into decision-making. We then discuss the spatially explicit nature of ecosystem service provision and benefits capture, and highlight the issues surrounding the valuing of marginal changes, nonlinearities in service benefits, and the significance of non-convexities (threshold effects). Finally, we argue for a sequential decision support system that can lead to a more integrated and rigorous approach to ecosystem valuation and illustrate some of its features in a coastal ecosystem management context. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Negra, C.; Wollenberg, E.. (2011) LESSONS FROM REDD+ FOR AGRICULTURE. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security, Copenhagen, Denmark. Pages 113-122;
Pearce, A. R.; Rizzo, D. M.; Mouser, P. J.. (2011) Subsurface characterization of groundwater contaminated by landfill leachate using microbial community profile data and a nonparametric decision-making process. Water Resources Research 47
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Microbial biodiversity in groundwater and soil presents a unique opportunity for improving characterization and monitoring at sites with multiple contaminants, yet few computational methods use or incorporate these data because of their high dimensionality and variability. We present a systematic, nonparametric decision-making methodology to help characterize a water quality gradient in leachate-contaminated groundwater using only microbiological data for input. The data-driven methodology is based on clustering a set of molecular genetic-based microbial community profiles. Microbes were sampled from groundwater monitoring wells located within and around an aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate. We modified a self-organizing map (SOM) to weight the input variables by their relative importance and provide statistical guidance for classifying sample similarities. The methodology includes the following steps: (1) preprocessing the microbial data into a smaller number of independent variables using principal component analysis, (2) clustering the resulting principal component (PC) scores using a modified SOM capable of weighting the input PC scores by the percent variance explained by each score, and (3) using a nonparametric statistic to guide selection of appropriate groupings for management purposes. In this landfill leachate application, the weighted SOM assembles the microbial community data from monitoring wells into groupings believed to represent a gradient of site contamination that could aid in characterization and long-term monitoring decisions. Groupings based solely on microbial classifications are consistent with classifications of water quality from hydrochemical information. These microbial community profile data and improved decision-making strategy compliment traditional chemical groundwater analyses for delineating spatial zones of groundwater contamination.
Pringle, J. M.; Blakeslee, A. M. H.; Byers, J. E.; Roman, J.. (2011) Asymmetric dispersal allows an upstream region to control population structure throughout a species’ range. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108(37) 15288-15293
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In a single well-mixed population, equally abundant neutral alleles are equally likely to persist. However, in spatially complex populations structured by an asymmetric dispersal mechanism, such as a coastal population where larvae are predominantly moved downstream by currents, the eventual frequency of neutral haplotypes will depend on their initial spatial location. In our study of the progression of two spatially separate, genetically distinct introductions of the European green crab (Carcinus maenas) along the coast of eastern North America, we captured this process in action. We documented the shift of the genetic cline in this species over 8 y, and here we detail how the upstream haplotypes are beginning to dominate the system. This quantification of an evolving genetic boundary in a coastal system demonstrates that novel genetic alleles or haplotypes that arise or are introduced into upstream retention zones (regions whose export of larvae is not balanced by import from elsewhere) will increase in frequency in the entire system. This phenomenon should be widespread when there is asymmetrical dispersal, in the oceans or on land, suggesting that the upstream edge of a species’ range can influence genetic diversity throughout its distribution. Efforts to protect the upstream edge of an asymmetrically dispersing species’ range are vital to conserving genetic diversity in the species.
Pucko, Carolyn; Beckage, Brian; Perkins, Timothy; Keeton, William S.. (2011) Species shifts in response to climate change: Individual or shared responses?1,2. The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society; Torrey Botanical Society, Berkley, CA. 138(2) 156-176
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Individual species are expected to shift their distributions in response to global climate change. Species within existing communities may respond to climate change individualistically, resulting in the formation of novel communities, or may instead shift as intact communities. We examined whether montane plant communities in the northeastern United States have shifted their elevational range as intact assemblages or individualistically in response to recent regional climatic and environmental change. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) to examine changes in plant community composition and species distributions using vegetation surveys repeated five times between 1964 and 2006 across an elevational gradient (549–1158 m) on Camels Hump Mountain, Vermont, USA, in conjunction with an analysis of local climate change. We found evidence that species elevational distributions and community compositions have shifted in response to a 0.49 °C per decade warming. These species responses were complex and largely individualistic at some elevations, while at other elevations species in a given community tended to respond similarly. The magnitude of community compositional change was largely dependent on location with respect to the ecotone between northern hardwood and boreal forests. While climate change likely contributed to the large shifts in species within NMDS space, these shifts may also be a response to invasive earthworms at low elevations and to prolonged exposure to acid deposition at high elevations. Though we found evidence of shared species responses within communities, future species responses may become increasingly divergent as the magnitude of climate change increases causing species-specific environmental thresholds to be reached and as the synergistic effects of multiple anthropogenic perturbations rise.
Roman, J.. (2011) Listed : Dispatches from America's Endangered Species Act. Harvard University Press , Cambridge, MA. Pages 360;
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The first listed species to make headlines after the Endangered Species Act was passed in 1973 was the snail darter, a three-inch fish that stood in the way of a massive dam on the Little Tennessee River. When the Supreme Court sided with the darter, Congress changed the rules. The dam was built, the river stopped flowing, and the snail darter went extinct on the Little Tennessee, though it survived in other waterways. A young Al Gore voted for the dam; freshman congressman Newt Gingrich voted for the fish. A lot has changed since the 1970s, and Joe Roman helps us understand why we should all be happy that this sweeping law is alive and well today. More than a general history of endangered species protection, Listed is a tale of threatened species in the wild—from the whooping crane and North Atlantic right whale to the purple bankclimber, a freshwater mussel tangled up in a water war with Atlanta—and the people working to save them. Employing methods from the new field of ecological economics, Roman challenges the widely held belief that protecting biodiversity is too costly. And with engaging directness, he explains how preserving biodiversity can help economies and communities thrive. Above all, he shows why the extinction of species matters to us personally—to our health and safety, our prosperity, and our joy in nature.
Roman, J.. (2011) Why Whales? On learning from nature and the Endangered Species Act. (May-June 2011) 41-44
Ross, D. S.; Wemple, B. C.. (2011) Soil nitrification in a large forested watershed, Ranch Brook (Vermont), mirrors patterns in smaller northeastern USA catchments. Forest Ecology and Management 262(6) 1084-1093
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Soil nitrification rates in northeastern USA forested ecosystems appear to be regulated by a number of factors and are likely influenced by continuing N deposition. Among other factors, rates across small watersheds have been found to relate to the soil C/N ratio and tree species composition. We measured potential net nitrification rates in the Ranch Brook watershed, a relatively large (9.6 km(2)) forested basin in north central Vermont, to determine if relationships found in smaller catchments were evident at a larger scale. The stream network was divided into eight reaches to determine the variability within the watershed. Sampling points (6-15 along each reach, total of 74) were established along transects that paralleled the major watershed tributaries. At each point, we measured net rates of nitrification and ammonification in the uppermost humified soil horizon (Oa or A), using a one-day lab incubation. The basal area and density of all tree species were measured in a 10-m radius plot, along with a number of topographic metrics such as slope, aspect and elevation. In a stepwise regression, 39% of the variability in net nitrification rates was explained by the density of Picea rubens, elevation and the thickness of the forest floor. When net nitrification rates were normalized to soil C concentration, 60% of the variability was explained by soil N concentration, C/N ratio, elevation and the density of P. rubens. The significant negative influence of P. rubens density, and not basal area, was consistent with a previous cross-site study of 10 smaller northeastern USA watersheds. No influence of sugar maple basal area or density was found. Other relationships, similar to those found in smaller watersheds, were net nitrification rates predicted by the fraction of inorganic N as NO(3)(-), net nitrification predicted by the C/N ratio and the C/N ratio predicted by tree species. The consistent influence of tree species on potential net nitrification rates demonstrates a role for future forest management in influencing ecosystem processes. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Seguino, S.. (2011) Gender Inequality and Economic Growth: A Reply to Schober and Winter-Ebmer. World Development 39(8) 1485-1487
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Using data from a meta-wage analysis. Schober and Winter-Ebmer fail to confirm my earlier finding that gender wage inequality stimulates growth in semi-industrialized economies [SIEs]. The authors contend their wage data, based on micro-level studies with heterogeneous coverage, are superior to the education-adjusted manufacturing wages on which my paper relied. In response, I elucidate why wage data should be restricted to the manufacturing sector. I explore possible measurement errors their data introduce and note concerns with the meta-regression approach that limit the applicability of these data to the specific task of understanding the growth effect of gender inequality in SIEs. Finally, I discuss advances made over the last decade in the methodology used to evaluate gender effects on growth, identifying directions for new research on this important topic. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seguino, S.. (2011) Help or Hindrance? Religion's Impact on Gender Inequality in Attitudes and Outcomes. World Development 39(8) 1308-1321
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This paper investigates the effect of religiosity on attitudes toward gender equality using World Values Survey data. Results indicate that religiosity is strongly correlated with gender inequitable attitudes across countries. Further, OLS, TSLS, and 3SLS regression estimates reveal that gender inequitable attitudes are associated with negative effects on seven measures of gender equality of well-being and public policy. No single religion stands out as more gender inequitable than others. The impact of religiosity is likely transmitted via "stealth" effects on everyday behavior in economic transactions in labor markets, household resource allocation, and government spending. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stephens, Jennie C.; Hansson, Anders; Liu, Yue; de Coninck, Heleen; Vajjhala, Shalini. (2011) Characterizing the international carbon capture and storage community. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 21(2) 379-390
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Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a controversial climate change mitigation technology that has been receiving increased public and private investment over the past decade in several countries. During this time, a diverse international network of professionals focused on the advancement of CCS technology has emerged. Within this international CCS community, a shared perception of the value of advancing CCS technology is generally assumed, and this community has been influential in lobbying for increased support for the development of CCS in many countries and at the international level. The phenomenon of an apparently shared perspective within a specific community relates to Haas' (1992a) description of the evolution of an epistemic community, or a knowledge-based network of recognized experts who "not only hold in common a set of principled and causal beliefs but also have shared notions of validity and a shared policy enterprise". Understanding the extent to which a given community can be characterized as an epistemic community can provide insights about the effectiveness of its policy intervention, its association with the broader public, and the success of communicating the messages that it wants to convey. The goal of this research is to begin to explore the nature of the CCS community; to provide a preliminary characterization of the community, and to consider whether and in what ways the community might be considered to be an epistemic community or a compilation of multiple different epistemic communities. This characterization suggests that although the CCS community may be influencing decision-makers and successfully garnering political support for advancing CCS technology, a potential disconnect with the concerns of a broader public is deserving of more attention and social science research. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Surdi, J.; Schmitt F., A.; Farley, J.; Alvez, J.; Sa Tschumi, H.. (2011) The flow of ecosystem services in family farming of Encosta da Serra Catarinense. Cadernos de Agroecologia 6(2)
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Considering the predominance of family farming in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, a more sustainable livestock production has proved crucial. The objective of this study was to understand dairy farmer’s awareness about ecosystem services. Sixty dairy farmers working under the Voisin system were randomly selected through structured interviews. Results revealed that farmers perceived that soils were more structured, moist and covered under Voisin system. In addition, the annual silage production and supplementation decreased due to the improvement of naturalized pasture. Farmers also observed an increase in carrying capacity. After the adoption of the Voisin system, farmers began to deliver water through water-tanks in the paddocks, decreasing animal access to water sources. Thus, it was observed that pasture-based milk production improved the farm environment, causing an apparent increase in the flow of services of this pastoral agroecosystems.
Swetnam, R. D.; Fisher, B.; Mbilinyi, B. P.; Munishi, P. K. T.; Willcock, S.; Ricketts, T.; Mwakalila, S.; Balmford, A.; Burgess, N. D.; Marshall, A. R.; Lewis, S. L.. (2011) Mapping socio-economic scenarios of land cover change: A GIS method to enable ecosystem service modelling. Journal of Environmental Management 92(3) 563-574
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We present a GIS method to interpret qualitatively expressed socio-economic scenarios in quantitative map-based terms. (i) We built scenarios using local stakeholders and experts to define how major land cover classes may change under different sets of drivers; (ii) we formalised these as spatially explicit rules, for example agriculture can only occur on certain soil types; (iii) we created a future land cover map which can then be used to model ecosystem services. We illustrate this for carbon storage in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania using two scenarios: the first based on sustainable development, the second based on 'business as usual' with continued forest woodland degradation and poor protection of existing forest reserves. Between 2000 and 2025 4% of carbon stocks were lost under the first scenario compared to a loss of 41% of carbon stocks under the second scenario. Quantifying the impacts of differing future scenarios using the method we document here will be important if payments for ecosystem services are to be used to change policy in order to maintain critical ecosystem services. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trudel, R. E.; Bomblies, A.. (2011) Larvicidal effects of Chinaberry (Melia azederach) powder on Anopheles arabiensis in Ethiopia. Parasites & Vectors; Parasites Vectors 4 9
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Background: Synthetic insecticides are employed in the widely-used currently favored malaria control techniques involving indoor residual spraying and treated bednets. These methods have repeatedly proven to be highly effective at reducing malaria incidence and prevalence. However, rapidly emerging mosquito resistance to the chemicals and logistical problems in transporting supplies to remote locations threaten the long-term sustainability of these techniques. Chinaberry (Melia azederach) extracts have been shown to be effective growth-inhibiting larvicides against several insects. Because several active chemicals in the trees' seeds have insecticidal properties, the emergence of resistance is unlikely. Here, we investigate the feasibility of Chinaberry as a locally available, low-cost sustainable insecticide that can aid in controlling malaria. Chinaberry fruits were collected from Asendabo, Ethiopia. The seeds were removed from the fruits, dried and crushed into a powder. From developmental habitats in the same village, Anopheles arabiensis larvae were collected and placed into laboratory containers. Chinaberry seed powder was added to the larval containers at three treatment levels: 5 g m(-2), 10 g m(-2) and 20 g m(-2), with 100 individual larvae in each treatment level and a control. The containers were monitored daily and larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes were counted. This experimental procedure was replicated three times. Results: Chinaberry seed powder caused an inhibition of emergence of (3% at the 5 g m(-2) treatment level, and 100% inhibition of emergence at the two higher treatment levels. The Chinaberry had a highly statistically significant larvicidal effect at all treatment levels (chi(2) = 184, 184, and 155 for 5 g m(-2), 10 g m(-2) and 20 g m(-2), respectively; p < 0.0001 in all cases). In addition, estimates suggest that sufficient Chinaberry seed exists in Asendabo to treat developmental habitat for the duration of the rainy season and support a field trial. Conclusions: Chinaberry seed is a very potent growth-inhibiting larvicide against the major African malaria vector An. arabiensis. The seed could provide a sustainable additional malaria vector control tool that can be used where the tree is abundant and where An. arabiensis is a dominant vector. Based on these results, a future village-scale field trial using the technique is warranted.
Van den Belt, M.; Forgie, V.; Farley, J.. (2011) Valuation of Coastal Ecosystem Services.. Academic Press, Waltham. 12 35-54
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Valuation is about tradeoffs between alternative options, regardless of whether these tradeoffs are consciously made or not. Natural capital contributes substantially to societal and individual well-being by sustaining economies, generating life support functions and innumerable amenities, and assimilating waste. Societies that rely on the market system for resource allocation generally underestimate the contribution of natural capital to human welfare. Valuation exercises are about making these contributions more visible and thereby generate a better understanding of the way we assess, negotiate, measure, and use tradeoffs. Short-term, enduring, localized, individual tradeoffs are more easily perceived and estimated, and markets in many cases automatically calculate a monetary value or the market system can be simulated to provide a value. Tradeoffs and, therefore, valuation of more systemic ecosystem services, provided free by natural capital, require capturing long-term, risky and uncertain, global, and co-evolving community-oriented perceptions, and are much more difficult to make explicit. This chapter aims to cover a valuation continuum and first presents the approaches that fall in the realm of neoclassical economics valuation tools by providing examples of valuation from an ecological economics perspective.
Vermeulen, S. J.; Wollenberg, E. K.. (2011) Benefits of tropical crops for food security. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108(9) E31-E30; author reply E31
Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Ken; Johnson, Gary; Voigt, Brian. (2011) Scientific instruments for climate change adaptation: estimating and optimizing the efficiency of ecosystem service provision. Economía Agraria y Recursos Naturales (Agricultural and Resource Economics) 11(1) 83-98
Zia, A.; Hirsch, P.; Songorwa, A.; Mutekanga, D. R.; O'Connor, S.; McShane, T.; Brosius, P.; Norton, B.. (2011) Cross-Scale Value Trade-Offs in Managing Social-Ecological Systems: The Politics of Scale in Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Ecology and Society 16(4)
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Management of social-ecological systems takes place amidst complex governance processes and cross-scale institutional arrangements that are mediated through politics of scale. Each management scenario generates distinct cross-scale trade-offs in the distribution of pluralistic values. This study explores the hypothesis that conservation-oriented management scenarios generate higher value for international and national scale social organizations, whereas mixed or more balanced management scenarios generate higher value for local scale social organizations. This hypothesis is explored in the management context of Ruaha National Park (RNP), Tanzania, especially the 2006 expansion of RNP that led to the eviction of many pastoralists and farmers. Five management scenarios for RNP, i.e., national park, game reserve, game control area, multiple use area, and open area, are evaluated in a multicriteria decision analytical framework on six valuation criteria: economic welfare; good governance; socio-cultural values; social equity; ecosystem services; and biodiversity protection; and at three spatial scales: local, national, and international. Based upon this evaluation, we discuss the politics of scale that ensue from the implementation of management alternatives with different mixes of conservation and development goals in social-ecological systems.
Zia, A.; Koliba, C.. (2011) Accountable Climate Governance: Dilemmas of Performance Management across Complex Governance Networks. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis 13(5) 479-497
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How can accountability be institutionalized across complex governance networks that are dealing with the transboundary pollution problem of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions at multiple spatial, temporal and social scales? To address this question, we propose an accountability framework that enables comparison of the democratic, market and administrative anchorage of actor accountability within and across governance networks. A comparative analysis of performance measures in a sample of climate governance networks is undertaken. This comparative analysis identifies four critical performance management dilemmas in the areas of strategy, uncertain science, integration of multiple scales, and monitoring and verification of performance measures.
2010
Ahrends, A.; Burgess, N. D.; Milledge, S. A. H.; Bulling, M. T.; Fisher, B.; Smart, J. C. R.; Clarke, G. P.; Mhoro, B. E.; Lewis, S. L.. (2010) Predictable waves of sequential forest degradation and biodiversity loss spreading from an African city. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(33) 14556-14561
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Tropical forest degradation emits carbon at a rate of similar to 0.5 Pg.y(-1), reduces biodiversity, and facilitates forest clearance. Understanding degradation drivers and patterns is therefore crucial to managing forests to mitigate climate change and reduce biodiversity loss. Putative patterns of degradation affecting forest stocks, carbon, and biodiversity have variously been described previously, but these have not been quantitatively assessed together or tested systematically. Economic theory predicts a systematic allocation of land to its highest use value in response to distance from centers of demand. We tested this theory to see if forest exploitation would expand through time and space as concentric waves, with each wave targeting lower value products. We used forest data along a transect from 10 to 220 km from Dar es Salaam (DES), Tanzania, collected at two points in time (1991 and 2005). Our predictions were confirmed: high-value logging expanded 9 km.y(-1), and an inner wave of lower value charcoal production 2 km.y(-1). This resource utilization is shown to reduce the public goods of carbon storage and species richness, which significantly increased with each kilometer from DES [carbon, 0.2 Mg.ha(-1); 0.1 species per sample area (0.4 ha)]. Our study suggests that tropical forest degradation can be modeled and predicted, with its attendant loss of some public goods. In sub-Saharan Africa, an area experiencing the highest rate of urban migration worldwide, coupled with a high dependence on forest based resources, predicting the spatiotemporal patterns of degradation can inform policies designed to extract resources without unsustainably reducing carbon storage and biodiversity.
Aronson, J.; Blignaut, J. N.; de Groot, R. S.; Clewell, A.; Lowry, P. P.; Woodworth, P.; Cowling, R. M.; Renison, D.; Farley, J.; Fontaine, C.; Tongway, D.; Levy, S.; Milton, S. J.; Rangel, O.; Debrincat, B.; Birkinshaw, C.. (2010) The road to sustainability must bridge three great divides. 1185 225-236
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The world's large and rapidly growing human population is exhausting Earth's natural capital at ever-faster rates, and yet appears mostly oblivious to the fact that these resources are limited. This is dangerous for our well-being and perhaps for our survival, as documented by numerous studies over many years. Why are we not moving instead toward sustainable levels of use? We argue here that this disconnection between our knowledge and our actions is largely caused by three "great divides": an ideological divide between economists and ecologists; an economic development divide between the rich and the poor; and an information divide, which obstructs communications between scientists, public opinion, and policy makers. These divides prevent our economies from responding effectively to urgent signals of environmental and ecological stress. The restoration of natural capital (RNC) can be an important strategy in bridging all of these divides. RNC projects and programs make explicit the multiple and mutually reinforcing linkages between environmental and economic well-being, while opening up a promising policy road in the search for a sustainable and desirable future for global society. The bridge-building capacity of RNC derives from its double focus: on the ecological restoration of degraded, overexploited natural ecosystems, and on the full socio-economic and ecological interface between people and their environments.
Bateman, I. J.; Fisher, B.; Fitzherbert, E.; Glew, D.; Naidoo, R.. (2010) Tigers, markets and palm oil: market potential for conservation. Oryx 44(2) 230-234
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Increasing demand for cooking oil and biofuels has made palm oil, > 80% of which is grown in South-east Asia, the dominant globally traded vegetable oil However, this region is host to some of the world's most biodiverse and threatened tropical forests Strategic engagement with commercial operations is increasingly recognized to be an essential part of the solution for raising funds for conservation initiatives, raising consumer consciousness and potentially stemming environmental degradation Linking market incentives towards conservation is also of critical importance because it is becoming widely recognized that conservation needs to begin to address the wider countryside (outside protected areas) where human-wildlife interactions are frequent and impacts are large. Using the Sumatran tiger Panthera tigris sumatrae as both a threatened species in its own right and emblematic for wider species diversity, we show that western consumers are willing to pay a significant premium for products using palm oil grown in a manner that reduces impacts on such species. Results suggest that the price premium associated with a 'tiger-friendly' accreditation may provide a useful additional tool to raise conservation funds and, within the right institutional context, serve as an inducement to address the problem of habitat and species loss
Bell, Michael M.; Lloyd, Sarah E.; Vatovec, Christine. (2010) Activating the Countryside: Rural Power, the Power of the Rural and the Making of Rural Politics. Sociologia Ruralis 50(3) 205-224
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Against the current moment of rural doubt, we argue that the material, symbolic and relational practices of the rural continue to be articulate aspects of our politics. We term the material practices 'rural power' and the symbolic practices 'the power of the rural'. The relational practices we term 'rural constituencies' when relations are bounded materially and 'constituencies of the rural' when they are bounded symbolically. We apply this framework to a critique of contemporary theory, especially mobilities research, which, we argue, typically speaks with a passive rural voice. We argue for recognising the active rural voice in the mobilisation and stabilisation of the rural.
Besaw, L. E.; Rizzo, D. M.; Bierman, P. R.; Hackett, W. R.. (2010) Advances in ungauged streamflow prediction using artificial neural networks. Journal of Hydrology 386(1-4) 27-37
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In this work, we develop and test two artificial neural networks (ANNs) to forecast streamflow in ungauged basins. The model inputs include time-lagged records of precipitation and temperature. In addition, recurrent feedback loops allow the ANN streamflow estimates to be used as model inputs. Publically available climate and US Geological Survey streamflow records from sub-basins in Northern Vermont are used to train and test the methods. Time-series analysis of the climate-flow data provides a transferable and systematic methodology to determine the appropriate number of time-lagged input data. To predict streamflow in an ungauged basin, the recurrent ANNs are trained on climate-flow data from one basin and used to forecast streamflow in a nearby basin with different (more representative) climate inputs. One of the key results of this work, and the reason why time-lagged predictions of steamflow improve forecasts, is these recurrent flow predictions are being driven by time-lagged locally-measured climate data. The successful demonstration of these flow prediction methods with publicly available USGS flow and NCDC climate datasets shows that the ANNs, trained on a climate-discharge record from one basin, prove capable of predicting streamflow in a nearby basin as accurately as in the basin on which they were trained. This suggests that the proposed methods are widely applicable, at least in the humid, temperate climate zones shown in this work. A scaling ratio, based on a relationship between bankfull discharge and basin drainage area, accounts for the change in drainage area from one basin to another. Hourly streamflow predictions were superior to those using daily data for the small streams tested due the loss of critical lag times through upscaling. The ANNs selected in this work always converge, avoid stochastic training algorithms, and are applicable in small ungauged basins. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Blakeslee, A. M. H.; McKenzie, C. H.; Darling, J. A.; Byers, J. E.; Pringle, J. M.; Roman, J.. (2010) A hitchhiker's guide to the Maritimes: anthropogenic transport facilitates long-distance dispersal of an invasive marine crab to Newfoundland. 16(6) 879-891
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Aim To determine timing, source and vector for the recent introduction of the European green crab, Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus, 1758), to Newfoundland using multiple lines of evidence. Location Founding populations in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, Canada and potential source populations in the north-west Atlantic (NWA) and Europe. Methods We analysed mitochondrial and microsatellite genetic data from European and NWA populations sampled during 1999-2002 to determine probable source locations and vectors for the Placentia Bay introduction discovered in 2007. We also analysed Placentia Bay demographic data and shipping records to look for congruent patterns with genetic analyses. Results Demographic data and surveys suggested that C. maenas populations are established and were in Placentia Bay for several years (c. 2002) prior to discovery. Genetic data corroboratively suggested central/western Scotian Shelf populations (e.g., Halifax) as the likely source area for the anthropogenic introduction. These Scotian Shelf populations were within an admixture zone made up of genotypes from both the earlier (early 1800s) and later (late 1900s) introductions of the crab to the NWA from Europe. Placentia Bay also exhibited this mixed ancestry. Probable introduction vectors included vessel traffic and shipping, especially vessels carrying ballast water. Main conclusions Carcinus maenas overcame considerable natural barriers (i.e., coastal and ocean currents) via anthropogenic transport to become established and abundant in Newfoundland. Our study thus demonstrates how non-native populations can be important secondary sources of introduction especially when aided by human transport. Inference of source populations was possible owing to the existence of an admixture zone in central/western Nova Scotia made up of southern and northern genotypes corresponding with the crab's two historical introductions. Coastal vessel traffic was found to be a likely vector for the crab's spread to Newfoundland. Our study demonstrates that there is considerable risk for continued introduction or reintroduction of C. maenas throughout the NWA.
Buchholz, T.; Da Silva, I.. (2010) Potential of distributed wood-based biopower systems serving basic electricity needs in rural Uganda. Energy for Sustainable Development 14(1) 56-61
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Current efforts to improve electricity services in Uganda evolve around satisfying growing urban demand as well as stabilizing and boosting a low electricity supply. Although virtually non-existent, rural electrification is receiving very little attention. This paper investigates the potential of wood-based biopower fueled from coppicing shrubs on its feasibility to provide affordable basic electricity services to rural Ugandan households. Gasification was the specific technology we assessed. In the calculations, a worst case scenario was chosen for wood-based biopower to compete with alternative sources of electricity: Cost and land use estimates assumed a rather high household consumption (30 kWh/month), a low household size (8 persons), a low area productivity (3 oven-dried tons per ha per year), a low electrical conversion efficiency (15%) and a high demand competing for fertile land with the biopower system. Cost estimates considered a high biomass price (18.5 US$/odt), a low capacity factor for the biopower system of 0.5 (therefore requiring installation of a larger unit) and high capital costs of 2300 US$ per kW installed. Additional pressure on fertile land would be negligible. Such biopower systems can outcompete other sources of electricity from a micro and macro-economic standpoint when looking at the local scale. Results indicate that biopower can deliver better and more energy services at 47 US$/yr and household or 0.11 US$/kWh which is below current average costs for e. g. off-grid lighting in rural Ugandan households. Additionally, only this biopower option offers the ability to households, sell wood to the biopower system and contribute at least four times as much to the local economy than the other electricity options used as terms of comparison. Further research has to focus on developing business plans and loan schemes for such biopower options including sustainable fuelwood supply chains based on coppicing shrubs which have the ability to contribute to agricultural site improvements. The approach outlined in this paper can further serve as a general framework to compare different options of electricity production across technologies and fuel sources especially for rural development purposes incorporating a multitude of aspects. (C) 2010 International Energy Initiative. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Buchholz, T.; Weinreich, A.; Tennigkeit, T.. (2010) Modeling heliotropic tree growth in hardwood tree species-A case study on Maesopsis eminii. Forest Ecology and Management 260(10) 1656-1663
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There are many impacts during a tree's life that affect bole development. In Maesopsis eminii, a high-potential timber species in Uganda, studies have shown that the occurrence of strongly bent boles is the overwhelming reason that boles fail quality criteria. This observation is incongruous with the tree architecture model of Roux, which describes M. eminii as a tree with a strong apical dominance, meaning that it has a strong genetically based preference for vertical growth of the terminal sprout relative to side branches. As external causes for bent boles could be excluded, we demonstrate in this study the proof of heliotropic growth. i.e. an active bending towards light, for M. eminii beyond the sapling stage. We develop a model used to describe the effects of competition on bole quality using bole form parameters and basic information about the neighbouring trees, and without having to incorporate crown parameters. By means of calculated bole parameters and a mathematical equation to calculate the intensity and direction of competition, we prove the existence of a heliotropic growth reaction. However, we are not able to predict the intensity of this reaction. Finally, general silvicultural recommendations are discussed for tree species with strong heliotropic growth. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Costanza, R.; Batker, D.; Day, J. W.; Feagin, R. A.; Martinez, M. L.; Roman, J.. (2010) The Perfect Spill: Solutions for Averting the Next Deepwater Horizon. Solutions 1(5) 42-43
Costanza, R.; Farley, J.. (2010) What Should Be Done With the Revenues From a Carbon-Cap-and-Auction System?. Solutions 1(1) 33
Cox, G.; Woods, A.; Holmes, T.; Porter, W.; Erickson, J. D.. (2010) Survey of Public Priorities as a Guide for Future Sustainable Investment Strategies in the Northern Forest. Adirondack Journal of Environmental Studies 16
Crow, S.; Danks, C.. (2010) Why Certify? Motivations, Outcomes and the Importance of Facilitating Organizations in Certification of Community-Based Forestry Initiatives. Small-Scale Forestry 9(2) 195-211
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Despite documented challenges, many community-based forestry (CBF) initiatives pursue forest certification. This study asked community-based forestry practitioners in Vermont what influenced their decisions to seek or not seek certification and what outcomes were realized from certification. Relationships, public image, value alignment and feedback on management practices were most commonly cited as both motivations for and results of certification. Expectations for economic benefits were low and price premiums for products were only occasionally realized. Informants complained of the increasing cost, complexity and time commitment required of certification. Overall, however, certified CBF informants felt certification was worth the expense. Group certificates and external funding significantly reduced certification costs to grassroots CBF initiatives. This study highlights the importance of facilitating organizations that can provide outreach, secure funding, understand the rules, handle documentation and develop markets for certified products.
Curzon, M. T.; Keeton, W. S.. (2010) Spatial characteristics of canopy disturbances in riparian old-growth hemlock - northern hardwood forests, Adirondack Mountains, New York, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 40(1) 13-25
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Gap dynamics in temperate, late-successional forests influence important riparian functions, including organic matter recruitment and light environments over streams. However, controls on gap dynamics specific to riparian forests are poorly understood. We hypothesized that (i) gaps are larger and more frequent nearer streams, (ii) gaps cluster at within-stand scales, and (iii) tree damage type and gap fraction vary among riparian landforms. All gaps within four 6-9 ha plots in riparian old-growth eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere) - northern hardwood forest in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, USA, were mapped and measured. We recorded species, damage type, and diameter at breast height for gapmakers and dominant perimeter trees. Spatial distribution was assessed with Ripley's K. Spatial autocorrelation in gap area and tree damage type were assessed using Moran's I. Linear regression analysis defined relationships between proximity to streams and gap area and frequency. Expanded gap fraction ranged from 28.3% to 47.6%. Gaps were randomly distributed at scales 525 m and clustered at scales of 63-122 in. Distribution patterns were not consistent at other scales. Convergent and divergent landforms significantly influenced gap fraction, tree damage type, and species distributions. Positive correlations between convergent topography and gap area suggest ail interaction between low-order riparian landforms and gap formation dynamics in late-successional forests.
Echelle, A. A.; Hackler, J. C.; Lack, J. B.; Ballard, S. R.; Roman, J.; Fox, S. F.; Leslie, D. M., Jr.; Van Den Bussche, R. A.. (2010) Conservation genetics of the alligator snapping turtle: cytonuclear evidence of range-wide bottleneck effects and unusually pronounced geographic structure. 11(4) 1375-1387
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A previous mtDNA study indicated that female-mediated gene flow was extremely rare among alligator snapping turtle populations in different drainages of the Gulf of Mexico. In this study, we used variation at seven microsatellite DNA loci to assess the possibility of male-mediated gene flow, we augmented the mtDNA survey with additional sampling of the large Mississippi River System, and we evaluated the hypothesis that the consistently low within-population mtDNA diversity reflects past population bottlenecks. The results show that dispersal between drainages of the Gulf of Mexico is rare (F (STmsat) = 0.43, I broken vertical bar(STmtDNA) = 0.98). Past range-wide bottlenecks are indicated by several genetic signals, including low diversity for microsatellites (1.1-3.9 alleles/locus; H (e) = 0.06-0.53) and mtDNA (h = 0.00 for most drainages; pi = 0.000-0.001). Microsatellite data reinforce the conclusion from mtDNA that the Suwannee River population might eventually be recognized as a distinct taxonomic unit. It was the only population showing fixation or near fixation for otherwise rare microsatellite alleles. Six evolutionarily significant units are recommended on the basis of reciprocal mtDNA monophyly and high levels of microsatellite DNA divergence.
Edwards, D. P.; Fisher, B.; Boyd, E.. (2010) Protecting degraded rainforests: enhancement of forest carbon stocks under REDD. Conservation Letters 3(5) 313-316
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The likely Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) mechanism includes strategies for the enhancement of forest carbon stocks. Recent concerns have been expressed that such enhancement, or restoration, of forest carbon could be counterproductive to biodiversity conservation, because forests are managed as "carbon farms" with the application of intensive silvicultural management that could homogenize diverse degraded rainforests. Restoration increases regeneration rates in degraded forest compared to naturally regenerating forest, and thus could yield significant financial returns for carbon sequestered. Here, we argue that such forest restoration projects are, in fact, likely to provide a number of benefits to biodiversity conservation including the retention of biodiversity, the prevention of forest conversion to agriculture, and employment opportunities for poor local communities. As with other forms of forest-based carbon offsets, there are possible moral hazard and leakage problems with restoration. However, due to the multiple benefits, we urge that enhancement of forest carbon stocks be detailed as a major component in the future negotiations of REDD+.
Farley, J.; Aquino, A.; Daniels, A.; Moulaert, A.; Lee, D.; Krause, A.. (2010) Global mechanisms for sustaining and enhancing PES schemes. Ecological Economics 69(11) 2075-2084
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An international payment for ecosystem service (IPES) schemes may be one of the only mechanisms available to stimulate the provision of vital non-marketed ecosystem services at the global level, as those nations that benefit from global ecosystem services (GES) cannot readily force other sovereign nations to provide them. Currently, international trade offers trillions of dollars in incentives for countries to convert natural capital into marketable goods and services, and few payments to entice countries to conserve natural capital in order to sustain critical non-marketed ecosystem services. We examine the biophysical characteristics of climate change and biodiversity to understand the obstacles to developing effective IPES schemes. We find that none of the existing schemes for providing GES are adequate, given the scale of the problem. A cap and auction scheme for CO(2) emissions among wealthy nations could fund IPES and simultaneously deter carbon emissions. To disburse funds, we should adapt Brazil's ICMS ecologic, and apportion available funds to targeted countries in proportion to how well they meet specific criteria designed to measure the provision of GES. Individual countries can then develop their own policies for increasing provision of these services, ensured of compensation if they do so. Indirect IPES should include funding for freely available technologies that protect or provide GES, such as the low carbon energy alternatives that will be essential for curbing climate change. Markets rely on the price mechanism to generate profits, which rations technology to those who can afford it, reducing adoption rates, innovation and total value. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Farley, J.; Batker, D.; de la Torre, I.; Hudspeth, T.. (2010) Conserving Mangrove Ecosystems in the Philippines: Transcending Disciplinary and Institutional Borders. Environmental Management 45(1) 39-51
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Humans are rapidly depleting critical ecosystems and the life support functions they provide, increasing the urgency of developing effective conservation tools. Using a case study of the conversion of mangrove ecosystems to shrimp aquaculture, this article describes an effort to develop a transdisciplinary, transinstitutional approach to conservation that simultaneously trains future generations of environmental problem solvers. We worked in close collaboration with academics, non-government organizations, local government and local communities to organize a workshop in Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Philippines. The primary objectives of the workshop were to: (1) train participants in the basic principles of ecological economics and its goals of sustainable scale, just distribution and efficient allocation; (2) learn from local community stakeholders and participating scientists about the problems surrounding conversion of mangrove ecosystems to shrimp aquaculture; (3) draw on the skills and knowledge of all participants to develop potential solutions to the problem; and (4) communicate results to those with the power and authority to act on them. We found that the economic and ecological benefits of intact mangroves outweigh the returns to aquaculture. Perversely, however, private property rights to mangrove ecosystems favor inefficient, unjust and unsustainable allocation of the resource-a tragedy of the non-commons. We presented the workshop results to the press and local government, which shut down the aquaculture ponds to conserve the threatened ecosystem. Effective communication to appropriate audiences was essential for transforming research into action. Our approach is promising and can be readily applied to conservation research and advocacy projects worldwide, but should be improved through adaptive management-practitioners must continually build on those elements that work and discard or improve those that fail.
Farley, J.; Costanza, R.. (2010) Payments for ecosystem services: From local to global. Ecological Economics 69(11) 2060-2068
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Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) is becoming increasingly popular as a way to manage ecosystems using economic incentives. The environmental economics approach to PES tries to force ecosystem services into the market model, with an emphasis on efficiency. The ecological economics approach, in contrast, seeks to adapt economic institutions to the physical characteristics of ecosystem services prioritizing ecological sustainability and just distribution and requiring a transdisciplinary approach. This paper summarizes the results of a participatory "atelier" workshop held in Costa Rica. We developed a set of principles (the Heredia Declaration) for PES systems and report on evolving initiatives in several countries. We discuss how the distinction between ecosystem goods (which are stock-flow resources) and ecosystem services (which are fund-service resources) and the physical characteristics of the fund-services affect the appropriate institutional form for PES. We conclude that PES systems represent an important way to effectively manage fund-service resources as public goods, and that this represents a significant departure from conventional market institutions. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Farley, J.. (2010) Conservation Through the Economics Lens. Environmental Management 45(1) 26-38
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Although conservation is an inherently transdisciplinary issue, there is much to be gained from examining the problem through an economics lens. Three benefits of such an approach are laid out in this paper. First, many of the drivers of environmental degradation are economic in origin, and the better we understand them, the better we can conserve ecosystems by reducing degradation. Second, economics offers us a when-to-stop rule, which is equivalent to a when-to-conserve rule. All economic production is based on the transformation of raw materials provided by nature. As the economic system grows in physical size, it necessarily displaces and degrades ecosystems. The marginal benefits of economic growth are diminishing, and the marginal costs of ecological degradation are increasing. Conceptually, we should stop economic growth and focus on conservation when the two are equal. Third, economics can help us understand how to efficiently and justly allocate resources toward conservation, and this paper lays out some basic principles for doing so. Unfortunately, the field of economics is dominated by neoclassical economics, which builds an analytical framework based on questionable assumptions and takes an excessively disciplinary and formalistic approach. Conservation is a complex problem, and analysis from individual disciplinary lenses can make important contributions to conservation only when the resulting insights are synthesized into a coherent vision of the whole. Fortunately, there are a number of emerging transdisciplines, such as ecological economics and environmental management, that are dedicated to this task.
Fischlein, Miriam; Larson, Joel; Hall, Damon M.; Chaudhry, Rumika; Peterson, Tarla Rai; Stephens, Jennie C.; Wilson, Elizabeth J.. (2010) Policy stakeholders and deployment of wind power in the sub-national context: A comparison of four US states. Energy Policy 38(8) 4429-4439
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As climate change mitigation gains attention in the United States, low-carbon energy technologies such as wind power encounter both opportunities and barriers en route to deployment. This paper provides a state-level context for examining wind power deployment and presents research on how policy stakeholders perceive wind energy in four states: Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, and Texas. Through semi-structured interviews, state-level energy policy stakeholders were asked to explain their perceptions of wind energy technology within their state. Interview texts were coded to assess how various drivers promote or hinder the deployment of wind power in sub-national contexts. Responses were dominated by technical, political, and economic frames in all four states, but were often driven by a very different rationale. Environmental, aesthetic, and health/safety frames appeared less often in the discourse. This analysis demonstrates that each state arrived at its current level of deployment via very different political, economic, and technical paths. In addition to helping explain why and how wind technology was - or was not - deployed in each of these states, these findings provide insight into the diversity of sub-national dialogues on deployment of low-carbon energy technologies. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fisher, B.; Bateman, I. J.; Turner, K.. (2010) Valuing Ecosystem Services: benefits, values, space and time.. Routledge, London, U. K.. Pages 256;
Fisher, B.; Kulindwa, K.; Mwanyoka, I.; Turner, R. K.; Burgess, N. D.. (2010) Common pool resource management and PES: Lessons and constraints for water PES in Tanzania. Ecological Economics 69(6) 1253-1261
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Research into common pool resources from the field and in the laboratory has provided a series of insights for the successful management of such resources. The consequences of action and inaction in managing common pool resources are often most strongly felt (gains or losses) by local people. Several ecosystem services can be considered CPRs but in some cases the benefits of (mis)management are enjoyed by one group while the costs are levied on another group. Here we discuss some of the key findings of the CPR literature and how these relate to key considerations for using PES as a management tool. We focus on the role that ecosystems play in regulating water flows in two basins in Tanzania where feasibility studies have been conducted for the potential implementation of PES for water. We find that the lessons from CPR research shed light on some of the key implementation problems for PES mechanisms, and provide a useful guide for highlighting important user-resource considerations especially in contexts similar to East Africa, (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Fisher, B.. (2010) African exception to drivers of deforestation. 3 375-376
Fisher, B.. (2010) Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein: Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness. Environmental & Resource Economics 47(1) 149-150
Foster, B.; Wang, D.; Keeton, W.S.; Ashton, M.S.. (2010) Implementing sustainable forestry using six management concepts in an adaptive management framework.. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 29 79-108
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Certification and principles, criteria and indicators (PCI) describe desired ends for sustainable forest management (SFM) but do not address potential means to achieve those ends. As a result, forest owners and managers participating in certification and employing PCI as tools to achieving SFM may be doing so inefficiently: achieving results by trial-and-error rather than by targeted management practices; dispersing resources away from priority objectives; and passively monitoring outcomes rather than actively establishing quantitative goals. In this literature review, we propose six concepts to guide SFM implementation. These concepts include: Best Management Practices (BMPs)/Reduced Impact Logging (RIL), biodiversity conservation, forest protection, multi-scale planning, participatory forestry, and sustained forest production. We place these concepts within an iterative decision-making framework of planning, implementation, and assessment, and provide brief definitions of and practices delimited by each concept. A case study describing SFM in the neo-tropics illustrates a potential application of our six concepts. Overall our paper offers an approach that will help forest owners and managers implement the ambiguous SFM concept.
Galford, G. L.; Melillo, J. M.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Cronin, T. W.; Cerri, C. E. P.; Mustard, J. F.; Cerri, C. C.. (2010) Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(46) 19649-19654
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The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006-2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO2-equivalents (CO2-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24-49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2-0.4 Pg CO2-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier, suggesting that both should be considered in emissions policies. We find that avoided deforestation remains the best strategy for minimizing future greenhouse gas emissions from Mato Grosso.
Galford, G. L.; Melillo, J.; Mustard, J. F.; Cerri, C. E. P.; Cerri, C. C.. (2010) The Amazon Frontier of Land-Use Change: Croplands and Consequences for Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Earth Interactions 14
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The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural frontiers in the world. The authors assess changes in cropland area and the intensification of cropping in the Brazilian agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso using remote sensing and develop a greenhouse gas emissions budget. The most common type of intensification in this region is a shift from single-to double-cropping patterns and associated changes in management, including increased fertilization. Using the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, the authors created a green-leaf phenology for 2001-06 that was temporally smoothed with a wavelet filter. The wavelet-smoothed green-leaf phenology was analyzed to detect cropland areas and their cropping patterns. The authors document cropland extensification and double-cropping intensification validated with field data with 85% accuracy for detecting croplands and 64% and 89% accuracy for detecting single-and double-cropping patterns, respectively. The results show that croplands more than doubled from 2001 to 2006 to cover about 100 000 km(2) and that new double-cropping intensification occurred on over 20% of croplands. Variations are seen in the annual rates of extensification and double-cropping intensification. Greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for the period 2001-06 due to conversion of natural vegetation and pastures to row-crop agriculture in Mato Grosso averaged 179 Tg CO(2)-e yr(-1),over half the typical fossil fuel emissions for the country in recent years.
Jiusto, Scott; McCauley, Stephen; Stephens, Jennie. (2010) Integrating shared action learning into higher education for sustainability. Education 2010
Keeton, W. S.; Chernyavskyy, M.; Gratzer, G.; Main-Knorn, M.; Shpylchak, M.; Bihun, Y.. (2010) Structural characteristics and aboveground biomass of old-growth spruce-fir stands in the eastern Carpathian mountains, Ukraine. Plant Biosystems 144(1) 148-159
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Temperate old-growth forests are known to have ecological characteristics distinct from younger forests, but these have been poorly described for the remaining old-growth Picea abies-Abies alba forests in the eastern Carpathian mountains. In addition, recent studies suggest that old-growth forests may be more significant carbon sinks than previously recognized. This has stimulated interest in quantifying aboveground carbon stocks in primary forest systems. We investigated the structural attributes and aboveground biomass in two remnant old-growth spruce-fir stands and compared these against a primary (never logged) mature reference stand. Our sites were located in the Gorgany Nature Reserve in western Ukraine. Overstory data were collected using variable radius plots; coarse woody debris was sampled along line intercept transects. Differences among sites were assessed using non-parametric statistical analyses. Goodness-of-fit tests were used to evaluate the form of diameter distributions. The results strongly supported the hypothesis that old-growth temperate spruce-fir forests have greater structural complexity compared to mature forests, including higher densities of large trees, more complex horizontal structure, and elevated aboveground biomass. The late-successional sites we sampled exhibited rotated sigmoid diameter distributions; these may reflect natural disturbance dynamics. Old-growth Carpathian spruce-fir forests store on average approximately 155-165 Mg ha-1 of carbon in aboveground tree parts alone. This is approximately 50% higher than mature stands. Given the scarcity of primary spruce-fir forests in the Carpathian region, remaining stands have high conservation value, both as habitat for late-successional species and as carbon storage reservoirs.
Kemkes, R. J.; Farley, J.; Koliba, C. J.. (2010) Determining when payments are an effective policy approach to ecosystem service provision. Ecological Economics 69(11) 2069-2074
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There are several policy tools available for the provision of ecosystem services. The economic characteristics of the ecosystem service being provided, such as rivalry and excludability, along with the spatial scale at which benefits accrue can help determine the appropriate policy approach. In this paper we provide a brief introduction to ecosystem services and discuss the policy tools available for providing them along with the dimensions, political feasibility and appropriateness of each tool. Throughout the paper we focus primarily on payments as a mechanism for ecosystem service provision. We present a framework for determining the characteristics of an ecosystem service and when payments are a viable policy tool option based on the characteristics. Additionally, we provide examples of when payments do not provide a socially desirable level of ecosystem benefits. We conclude with a summary of policy recommendations, specifically desirable property rights and payment types based on the particular classification of an ecosystem service. We also discuss the advantages of creating monopsony power to reduce transaction costs, delineating and bundling ecosystem services and utilizing existing intermediaries. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Koliba, C.; Meek, J.; Zia, A.. (2010) Governance Networks in Public Administration and Public Policy.. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
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What do public administrators and policy analysts have in common? Their work is undertaken within networks formed when different organizations align to accomplish some kind of policy function. To be effective, they must find ways to navigate complexity and generate effective results. Governance Networks in Public Administration and Public Policy describes a variety of trends and movements that have contributed to the complexity of these systems and the challenges that must be faced as a result. Providing a theoretical and empirical foundation in governance networks, the book offers a conceptual framework for describing governance networks and provides a holistic way to conceive their construction. The text details the skills and functions of public administrators in the context of networked relationships and presents the theoretical foundations to analyze governance networks. It identifies the reforms and trends in governing that led to governance networks, explains the roles that various actors take on through networked relationships, highlights the challenges involved in the failure of networked activities, and illustrates how policy tools are mobilized by these relationships. Be a part of building governance networks 2.0! The authors website contains support materials such as PowerPoint presentations, writable case study templates, and other useful items related to building the fields capacity to describe, evaluate, and design governance networks using the framework of this book. You can post case studies of governance networks, draw on others case study materials, and learn about research and educational opportunities. Based on research and real-life experience, the book highlights the interplay between public actors and policy tools. The authors demystify this complex topic of governance networks and explore the practical applications of the conceptual framework. Practical and accessible, the book presents concepts in such a way that readers can engage in these ideas, apply them, and deepen their understanding of the dynamics unfolding around them.
Kubiszewski, I.; Farley, J.; Costanza, R.. (2010) The production and allocation of information as a good that is enhanced with increased use. Ecological Economics 69(6) 1344-1354
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Information has some unique characteristics. Unlike most other goods and services, it is neither rival (use by one prevents use by others) nor non-rival (use by one does not affect use by others), but is enhanced with increased use, or 'additive'. Therefore a unique allocation system for both the production and consumption of information is needed. Under the current market-based allocation system, production of information is often limited through the exclusive rights produced by patents and copyrights. This limits scientists' ability to share and build on each other's knowledge. We break the problem down into three separate questions: (1) do markets generate the type of information most important for modern society? (2) are markets the most appropriate institution for producing that information? and (3) once information is produced, are markets the most effective way of maximizing the social value of that information? We conclude that systematic market failures make it unlikely that markets will generate the most important types of information, while the unique characteristics of information reduce the cost-effectiveness of markets in generating information and in maximizing its social value. We then discuss alternative methods that do not have these shortcomings, and that would lead to greater overall economic efficiency, social justice and ecological sustainability. These methods include monetary prizes, publicly funded research from which the produced information is released into the public domain, and status driven incentive structures like those in academia and the "open-source" community. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, M. S.; Drizo, A.; Rizzo, D. M.; Druschel, G. K.; Hayden, N.; Twohig, E.. (2010) Evaluating the efficiency and temporal variation of pilot-scale constructed wetlands and steel slag phosphorus removing filters for treating dairy wastewater. Water Research 44(14) 4077-4086
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The performance and temporal variation of three hybrid and three integrated, saturated flow, pilot-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) were tested for treating dairy farm effluent. The three hybrid systems each consisted of two CWs in-series, with horizontal and vertical flow. Integrated systems consisted of a CW (horizontal and vertical flow) followed by a steel slag filter for removing phosphorus. Time series temporal semivariogram analyses of measured water parameters illustrated different treatment efficiencies existed over the course of one season. As a result, data were then divided into separate time period groups and CW systems were compared using ANOVA for parameter measurements within each distinct time period group. Both hybrid and integrated CWs were efficient in removing organics; however, hybrid systems had significantly higher performance ( p < 0.05) during peak vegetation growth. Compared to hybrid CWs, integrated CWs achieved significantly higher DRP reduction ( p < 0.05) throughout the period of investigation and higher ammonia reduction ( p < 0.05) in integrated CWs was observed in late summer. Geochemical modeling demonstrates hydroxyapatite and vivianite minerals forming on steel slag likely control the fate of phosphate ions given the reducing conditions prevalent in the system. The model also demonstrates how the wastewater:slag ratio can be adjusted to maximize phosphorus removal while staying at a near-neutral pH. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lovell, S. T.; DeSantis, S.; Nathan, C. A.; Olson, M. B.; Mendez, V. E.; Kominami, H. C.; Erickson, D. L.; Morris, K. S.; Morris, W. B.. (2010) Integrating agroecology and landscape multifunctionality in Vermont: An evolving framework to evaluate the design of agroecosystems. 103(5) 327-341
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Agroecosystems cover vast areas of land worldwide and are known to have a large impact on the environment, yet these highly modified landscapes are rarely considered as candidates for landscape design. While intentionally-designed agricultural landscapes could serve many different functions, few resources exist for evaluating the design of these complex landscapes, particularly at the scale of the whole-farm. The objective of this paper is to introduce an evolving framework for evaluating the design of agroecosystems based on a critical review of the literature on landscape rnultifunctionality and agroecology. We consider how agroecosystems might be designed to incorporate additional functions while adhering to agroecology principles for managing the landscape. The framework includes an assessment tool for evaluating farm design based on the extent of fine-scale land use features and their specific functions, to consider the present state of the farm, to plan for future conditions, or to compare alternative futures for the design of the farm. We apply this framework to two farms in Vermont that are recognized locally as successful, multifunctional landscapes. The Intervale Center, an agricultural landscape located within the city limits, serves as an incubator for new farm startups and provides unique cultural functions that benefit the local community. Butterworks Farm, a private operation producing organic yogurt and other food products, achieves important ecological functions through an integrated crop-livestock system. These farms and many others in Vermont serve as models of a framework that integrates landscape multifunctionality and agroecology in the design of the landscape. In the discussion section, we draw from the literature and our work to propose a set of important themes that might be considered for future research. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lovell, S. T.; Mendez, V. E.; Erickson, D. L.; Nathan, C.; DeSantis, S.. (2010) Extent, pattern, and multifunctionality of treed habitats on farms in Vermont, USA. 80(2) 153-171
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Agroecosystems can serve as multifunctional landscapes when treed habitats such as woodlots, hedgerows, riparian buffers, windbreaks, and orchards, are conserved on farms. We investigated the extent, pattern, and multifunctionality of on-farm treed habitats for 16 Vermont farms in the Lamoille watershed of the Lake Champlain Basin. The site was selected because the land use pattern is representative of the region, containing a mixture of agriculture and forest in different habitat types. We used a GIS-based approach to delineate treed habitats on farms and conducted semi-structured interviews with farmers to explore their perception of the functions of treed habitats. Through an evaluation of the relationship between farm characteristics and spatial attributes of treed habitats, we found farm size to be an important variable. Larger farms had more land in treed habitats, while the pattern of these habitats was more complex on smaller farms. Average elevation of the farm, an indicator of biophysical conditions, was a stronger predictor of the extent of treed habitats than farm characteristics. From interviews, we found that farmers benefited from alternative forest products, both for direct consumption and sale, including firewood, timber, maple sugar, edible fruits and nuts, and wood crafts. Most farmers also recognized cultural and ecological functions provided by treed habitats. These results have implications for developing policies to promote the conservation of treed habitats, considering the preferences of the landowner or farmer.
McBride, M.; Hession, W. C.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2010) Riparian reforestation and channel change: How long does it take?. Geomorphology 116(3-4) 330-340
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Repeated measurements of two small streams in northeastern Vermont document change in channel width and suggest variable rates of widening because of passive reforestation over four decades. Historic data on channel width are available for several tributaries to Sleepers River in Danville, VT, USA from the 1960s. In 2004 and 2008, we re-measured channel dimensions in two of these tributaries, in two reaches of upper Pope Brook and along seven reaches of an unnamed tributary (W12). Four reaches had reforested since 1966; two reaches remained nonforested. The other three reaches have been forested since at least the 1940s. Comparisons between 1966 and 2004 showed that reforested reaches widened significantly, and comparisons between 2004 and 2008 showed continued widening, but at a greater rate. Between 1966 and 2004, reforested reaches widened at an average rate of 4.1 cm/year, while the rate more than doubled for the last four years (8.7 cm/year). Additionally, turbulence data collected during five peak flows in the spring of 2005 showed significantly greater turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the reforested reach than in either the forested or nonforested reach. Our data add supporting information to the conceptual model of stream W12 that describes a process of incision, widening, and recovery of a stream reach transitioning from nonforested to forested riparian vegetation. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mendez, V. E.; Bacon, C. M.; Olson, M. B.; Morris, K. S.; Shattuck, A.. (2010) Agrobiodiversity and Shade Coffee Smallholder Livelihoods: A Review and Synthesis of Ten Years of Research in Central America. 62(3) 357-376
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We used households as the primary unit of analysis to synthesize agrobiodiversity research in small-scale coffee farms and cooperatives of Nicaragua and El Salvador. Surveys, focus groups, and plant inventories were used to analyze agrobiodiversity and its contribution to livelihoods. Households managed high levels of agrobiodiversity, including 100 shade tree and epiphyte species, food crops, and medicinals. Small farms contained higher levels of agrobiodiversity than larger, collectively managed cooperatives. Households benefited from agrobiodiversity through consumption and sales. To better support agrobiodiversity conservation, our analysis calls for a hybrid approach integrating bottom-up initiatives with the resources from top-down projects.
Mouser, P. J.; Rizzo, D. M.; Druschel, G. K.; Morales, S. E.; Hayden, N.; O'Grady, P.; Stevens, L.. (2010) Enhanced detection of groundwater contamination from a leaking waste disposal site by microbial community profiles. Water Resources Research 46
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Groundwater biogeochemistry is adversely impacted when municipal solid waste leachate, rich in nutrients and anthropogenic compounds, percolates into the subsurface from leaking landfills. Detecting leachate contamination using statistical techniques is challenging because well strategies or analytical techniques may be insufficient for detecting low levels of groundwater contamination. We sampled profiles of the microbial community from monitoring wells surrounding a leaking landfill using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Results show in situ monitoring of bacteria, archaea, and the family Geobacteraceae improves characterization of groundwater quality. Bacterial T-RFLP profiles showed shifts correlated to known gradients of leachate and effectively detected changes along plume fringes that were not detected using hydrochemical data. Experimental sediment microcosms exposed to leachate-contaminated groundwater revealed a shift from a beta-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria dominated community to one dominated by Firmicutes and delta-Proteobacteria. This shift is consistent with the transition from oxic conditions to an anoxic, iron-reducing environment as a result of landfill leachate-derived contaminants and associated redox conditions. We suggest microbial communities are more sensitive than hydrochemistry data for characterizing low levels of groundwater contamination and thus provide a novel source of information for optimizing detection and long-term monitoring strategies at landfill sites.
Mulder, K.; Hagens, N.; Fisher, B.. (2010) Burning Water: A Comparative Analysis of the Energy Return on Water Invested. Ambio 39(1) 30-39
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While various energy-producing technologies have been analyzed to assess the amount of energy returned per unit of energy invested, this type of comprehensive and comparative approach has rarely been applied to other potentially limiting inputs such as water, land, and time. We assess the connection between water and energy production and conduct a comparative analysis for estimating the energy return on water invested (EROWI) for several renewable and non-renewable energy technologies using various Life Cycle Analyses. Our results suggest that the most water-efficient, fossil-based technologies have an EROWI one to two orders of magnitude greater than the most water-efficient biomass technologies, implying that the development of biomass energy technologies in scale sufficient to be a significant source of energy may produce or exacerbate water shortages around the globe and be limited by the availability of fresh water.
Nunery, J. S.; Keeton, W. S.. (2010) Forest carbon storage in the northeastern United States: Net effects of harvesting frequency, post-harvest retention, and wood products. Forest Ecology and Management 259(8) 1363-1375
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Temperate forests are an important carbon sink, yet there is debate regarding the net effect of forest management practices on carbon storage. Few studies have investigated the effects of different silvicultural systems on forest carbon stocks, and the relative strength of in situ forest carbon versus wood products pools remains in question. Our research describes (1) the impact of harvesting frequency and proportion of post-harvest structural retention on carbon storage in northern hardwood-conifer forests, and (2) tests the significance of including harvested wood products in carbon accounting at the stand scale. We stratified Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots to control for environmental, forest structural and compositional variables, resulting in 32 FIA plots distributed throughout the northeastern U.S. We used the USDA Forest Service's Forest Vegetation Simulator to project stand development over a 160 year period under nine different forest management scenarios. Simulated treatments represented a gradient of increasing structural retention and decreasing harvesting frequencies, including a "no harvest" scenario. The simulations incorporated carbon flux between aboveground forest biomass (dead and live pools) and harvested wood products. Mean carbon storage over the simulation period was calculated for each silvicultural scenario. We investigated tradeoffs among scenarios using a factorial treatment design and two-way ANOVA. Mean carbon sequestration was significantly (alpha = 0.05) greater for "no management" compared to any of the active management scenarios. Of the harvest treatments, those favoring high levels of structural retention and decreased harvesting frequency stored the greatest amounts of carbon. Classification and regression tree analysis showed that management scenario was the strongest predictor of total carbon storage, though site-specific variables were important secondary predictors. In order to isolate the effect of in situ forest carbon storage and harvested wood products, we did not include the emissions benefits associated with substituting wood fiber for other construction materials or energy sources. Modeling results from this study show that harvesting frequency and structural retention significantly affect mean carbon storage. Our results illustrate the importance of both post-harvest forest structure and harvesting frequency in carbon storage, and are valuable to land owners interested in managing forests for carbon sequestration. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pearce, Andrea R; Bierman, Paul R; Druschel, Gregory K; Massey, Christine; Rizzo, Donna M; Watzin, Mary C; Wemple, Beverly C. (2010) Pitfalls and successes of developing an interdisciplinary watershed field science course. Journal of Geoscience Education 58(3) 145-154
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At the University of Vermont, an interdisciplinary faculty team developed an introductory watershed science field course. This course honed field skills and catalyzed communication across water-related disciplines without requiring specific prerequisites. Five faculty (geology, engineering, geography, natural resources) taught the four-credit course, highlighting interactions between the hydrosphere, biosphere, and solid Earth. The course, based in the Winooski River watershed, followed the river from its headwaters downstream to its outlet in Lake Champlain focusing on data collection and analysis methods, while exploring threats to this freshwater ecosystem. This course was offered as a summer field course in 2007. Student learning was assessed using weekly summative assignments and final presentations incorporating field data and acquired knowledge. Attitude and knowledge surveys, administered before and after this first year, documented increased self-assessed learning, affinity for the field learning environment, and that the course provided training relevant to various disciplines. The fiscally unsustainable summer model, and course evaluations guided major revisions to the course. The second offering, in 2009, met weekly during spring term to provide students with context before a two-week field component. This field component was held immediately after classes ended to avoid the need to pay faculty summer salaries.
Reynolds, T. W.; Farley, J.; Huber, C.. (2010) Investing in human and natural capital: An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia. Ecological Economics 69(11) 2140-2150
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Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa. Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ricketts, T. H.; Soares-Filho, B.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Nepstad, D.; Pfaff, A.; Petsonk, A.; Anderson, A.; Boucher, D.; Cattaneo, A.; Conte, M.; Creighton, K.; Linden, L.; Maretti, C.; Moutinho, P.; Ullman, R.; Victurine, R.. (2010) Indigenous lands, protected areas, and slowing climate change. Plos Biology 8(3) e1000331-e1000331
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Recent climate talks in Copenhagen reaffirmed the crucial role of reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD). Creating and strengthening indigenous lands and other protected areas represents an effective, practical, and immediate REDD strategy that addresses both biodiversity and climate crises at once.
Roman, J.; Ehrlich, P. E.; Pringle, R.; Avise, J. A.. (2010) Facing extinction: Nine steps to save biodiversity. Solutions 1(1) 32-45
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Human history has followed a pattern—which began in Africa but is now global in scope—of exploiting nature and depleting resources. As we have expanded our influence over the world, we have also extinguished species and populations at an alarming rate. Despite attempts to reduce biodiversity loss, the trend is likely to continue: nearly 20% of all humans—more than a billion—now live within biodiversity hotspots, and their growth rate is faster than the population at large. This article presents nine steps to reduce biodiversity loss, with a goal of categorizing human-caused extinctions as wrongs, such as the slave trade and child labor, that are unacceptable to society. These steps include developing a system of parks that highlight the planet’s biological legacy, much as historical landmarks celebrate human history. Legal prohibitions that are fairly and capably enforced will also be essential in protecting rare and declining species. Biodiversity endowments—from national governments, nongovernmental organizations, and private enterprises—can help support parks and native species in perpetuity. Like a good sports team, conservationists need to defend extant wilderness areas, but they also need to play offense by restoring ecosystems, reclaiming keystone and umbrella species, and making human landscapes more hospitable to biodiversity. In the long run, the most effective forms of conservation will be those that engage local stakeholders; the cultivation of sustainable ecosystems and their services must be promoted along with conservation of endangered species and populations. The emerging field of ecological economics can unite these goals by revealing the connections between human well-being and conservation.
Roman, J.; McCarthy, J. J.. (2010) The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin. PloS One 5(10)
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It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3x10(4) metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward "whale pump" played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities.
Roman, J.. (2010) Aquatic invasive species. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC.
Seguino, Stephanie. (2010) Gender, distribution, and balance of payments constrained growth in developing countries. Review of Political Economy 22(3) 373-404
Seguino, Stephanie. (2010) The global economic crisis, its gender and ethnic implications, and policy responses. Gender & Development; Routledge, Dordrecht, Netherlands. 18(2) 179-199
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The global financial crisis that began in 2008 has resulted in the widespread destruction of jobs and livelihoods. Among the factors that precipitated the crisis, growing inequality both within and between countries contributed to low levels of aggregate demand and the reliance of low-income households on unsustainable borrowing to maintain living standards. The crisis provides the opportunity to rethink macroeconomic policy, and for feminist economists to advance proposals that promote jobs, economic security, and equality by class, gender, and ethnicity. Reviving the global economy will require policies that focus heavily on job creation, putting money into the hands of low- and middle-income households.
Shammin, Md R.; Herendeen, Robert A.; Hanson, Michelle J.; Wilson, Eric J. H.. (2010) A multivariate analysis of the energy intensity of sprawl versus compact living in the US for 2003. Ecological Economics 69(12) 2363-2373
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We explore the energy intensity of sprawl versus compact living by analyzing the total energy requirements of U.S. households for the year 2003. The methods used are based on previous studies on energy cost of living. Total energy requirement is calculated as a function of individual energy intensities of goods and services derived from economic input-output analysis and expenditures for those goods and services. We use multivariate regression analysis to estimate patterns in household energy intensities. We define sprawl in terms of location in rural areas or in areas with low population size. We find that even though sprawl-related factors account for about 83% of the average household energy consumption, sprawl is only 17-19% more energy intensive than compact living based on how people actually lived. We observe that some of the advantages of reduced direct energy use by people living in high density urban centers are offset by their consumption of other non-energy products. A more detailed analysis reveals that lifestyle choices (household type, number of vehicles, and family size) that could be independent of location play a significant role in determining household energy intensity. We develop two models that offer opportunities for further analysis. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sikor, T.; Stahl, J.; Enters, T.; Ribot, J.C.; Singh, N.M.; Sunderlin, W.D.; Wollenberg, E. (2010) REDD-plus, forest people's rights and nested climate governance. Global Environmental Change 20(3)
Springate-Baginski, O.; Wollenberg, E.. (2010) REDD, forest governance and rural livelihoods: the emerging agenda. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia. Pages VI, 279p.;
Stephens, Jennie C.; Graham, Amanda C.. (2010) Toward an empirical research agenda for sustainability in higher education: exploring the transition management framework. Journal of Cleaner Production 18(7) 611-618
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A large and growing body of research examining sustainability in higher education has emerged in the past decade. This literature is dominated by empirical and descriptive studies of specific approaches and individual initiatives, but lacks a cohesive research agenda and is not yet supported by strong theoretical underpinnings. This paper contributes to the advancement of this emerging field by exploring the theoretical framework of transition management (TM), a multi-scale, multi-actor, process-oriented approach and analytical framework to understand and promote change in social systems. The TM framework provides guidance toward informing and prioritizing future empirical research in this important emerging field. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stephens, Jennie C.; Jiusto, Scott. (2010) Assessing innovation in emerging energy technologies: Socio-technical dynamics of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) in the USA. Energy Policy 38(4) 2020-2031
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This study applies a socio-technical systems perspective to explore innovation dynamics of two emerging energy technologies with potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from electrical power generation in the United States: carbon capture and storage (CCS) and enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The goal of the study is to inform sustainability science theory and energy policy deliberations by examining how social and political dynamics are shaping the struggle for resources by these two emerging, not-yet-widely commercializable socio-technical systems. This characterization of socio-technical dynamics of CCS and EGS innovation includes examining the perceived technical, environmental, and financial risks and benefits of each system, as well as the discourses and actor networks through which the competition for resources - particularly public resources - is being waged. CCS and EGS were selected for the study because they vary considerably with respect to their social, technical, and environmental implications and risks, are unproven at scale and uncertain with respect to cost, feasibility, and life-cycle environmental impacts. By assessing the two technologies in parallel, the study highlights important social and political dimensions of energy technology innovation in order to inform theory and suggest new approaches to policy analysis. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turner, R. K.; Morse-Jones, S.; Fisher, B.. (2010) Ecosystem valuation A sequential decision support system and quality assessment issues. 1185 79-101
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Understanding the economic value of nature and the services it provides to humanity has become increasingly important for local, national, and global policy and decision making. It has become obvious that quantifying and integrating these services into decision making will be crucial for sustainable development. Problems arise in that it is difficult to obtain meaningful values for the goods and services that ecosystems provide and for which there is no formal market. A wide range of ecosystem services fall into this category. Additional problems arise when economic methods are applied inappropriately and when the importance of ecosystem maintenance for human welfare is underestimated. In this article we identify a place for monetary valuation within the pluralistic approach supported by ecological economics and assess progress to date in the application of environmental valuation to ecosystem service provision. We first review definitions of ecosystem services in order to make an operational link to valuation methods. We then discuss the spatially explicit nature of ecosystem services provision and benefits capture. We highlight the importance of valuing marginal changes and the role for macroscale valuation, nonlinearities in service benefits, and the significance of nonconvexities (threshold effects). We also review guidance on valuation studies quality assurance, and discuss the problems inherent in the methodology as exposed by the findings of behavioral economics, as well as with benefits transfer-the most common way valuation studies are applied in the policy process. We argue for a sequential decision support system that can lead to a more integrated and rigorous approach to environmental valuation and biophysical measurement of ecosystem services. This system itself then needs to be encompassed within a more comprehensive multicriteria assessment dialogue and process.
Vermeulen, Sonja Joy; Aggarwal, PK; Ainslie, A; Angelone, C; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Challinor, AJ; Hansen, J; Ingram, JSI; Jarvis, A; Kristjanson, P. (2010) Agriculture, food security and climate change: Outlook for knowledge, tools and action.
Westdijk, K.; Koliba, C.; Hamshaw, K.. (2010) Collecting Data to Inform Decision Making and Action:. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 14(2) 5-33
Wu, N.; Gao, J.; Sudebilige; Ricketts, T. H.; Olwero, N.; Luo, Z.. (2010) Evaluation of ecosystem provisioning service and its economic value. 21(2) 409-414
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Aiming at the fact that the current approaches of evaluating the efficacy of ecosystem provisioning service were lack of spatial information and did not take the accessibility of products into account, this paper established an evaluation model to simulate the spatial distribution of ecosystem provisioning service and its economic value, based on ArcGIS 9. 2 and taking the supply and demand factors of ecosystem products into account. The provision of timber product in Laojunshan in 2000 was analyzed with the model. In 2000, the total physical quantity of the timber' s provisioning service in Laojunshan was 11. 12 x 10(4) m(3) . a(-1), occupying 3.2% of the total increment of timber stock volume. The total provisioning service value of timber was 6669. 27 x 10(4) yuan, among which, coniferous forest contributed most (90. 41%). Due to the denser distribution of populations and roads in the eastern area of Laojunshan, some parts of the area being located outside of conservancy district, and forests being in scattered distribution, the spatial distribution pattern of the physical quantity of timber' s provisioning service was higher in the eastern than in the western area.
Zia, A.; Todd, A. M.. (2010) Evaluating the effects of ideology on public understanding of climate change science: How to improve communication across ideological divides?. Public Understanding of Science 19(6) 743-761
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While ideology can have a strong effect on citizen understanding of science, it is unclear how ideology interacts with other complicating factors, such as college education, which influence citizens' comprehension of information. We focus on public understanding of climate change science and test the hypotheses: [H(1)] as citizens' ideology shifts from liberal to conservative, concern for global warming decreases; [H(2)] citizens with college education and higher general science literacy tend to have higher concern for global warming; and [H(3)] college education does not increase global warming concern for conservative ideologues. We implemented a survey instrument in California's San Francisco Bay Area, and employed regression models to test the effects of ideology and other socio-demographic variables on citizen concern about global warming, terrorism, the economy, health care and poverty. We are able to confirm H(1) and H(3), but reject H(2). Various strategies are discussed to improve the communication of climate change science across ideological divides.
2009
Ali, S. H.. (2009) Islam and Education: Conflict and Conformity in Pakistan's Madrassahs. Oxford University Press, New Haven, CT.
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Islamic educational institutions have come under intense public scrutiny in recent years because of their perceived linkage to militancy. However, much of the research thus far has relied upon anecdotal accounts and investigative journalism. In particular, Pakistani madrassahs (or seminaries), have been the focus of much media coverage. Islam and Education aims to provide an empirically-grounded analysis of madrassahs in Pakistan, thereby informing the larger discussion of the role of Islamic education in conflict causality. Unlike earlier works that have focused primarily on the curriculum of madrassahs, this book provides a comprehensive examination of Islamic education as an integrated social movement. The ultimate aim of Islam and Education is to prevent the escalation of existing regional conflict as well as the perceived conflict between Islam and the West, while providing guidance to policymakers regarding their attempt to reform educational institutions.
Ali, S. H.. (2009) PAKISTAN’S MADRASSAS: THE NEED FOR INTERNAL REFORM AND THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE. Brookings Doha Center (August 2009)
Ali, S.. (2009) Better environmental treaties. Issues in Science and Technology (Winter) 9
Ali, S.. (2009) Treasures of the Earth: Need, Greed and a Sustainable Future.. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. Pages 304;
Armitage, D. R.; Plummer, R.; Berkes, F.; Arthur, R. I.; Charles, A. T.; Davidson-Hunt, I. J.; Diduck, A. P.; Doubleday, N. C.; Johnson, D. S.; Marschke, M.; McConney, P.; Pinkerton, E. W.; Wollenberg, E. K.. (2009) Adaptive co-management for social-ecological complexity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(2) 95-102
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Building trust through collaboration, institutional development, and social learning enhances efforts to foster ecosystem management and resolve multi-scale society-environment dilemmas. One emerging approach aimed at addressing these dilemmas is adaptive co-management. This method draws explicit attention to the learning ( experiential and experimental) and collaboration ( vertical and horizontal) functions necessary to improve our understanding of, and ability to respond to, complex social-ecological systems. Here, we identify and outline the core features of adaptive co-management, which include innovative institutional arrangements and incentives across spatiotemporal scales and levels, learning through complexity and change, monitoring and assessment of interventions, the role of power, and opportunities to link science with policy.
Baker, D; Koliba, C; Kolodinsky, J; Liang, K; McMahon, E; Patterson, T; Wang, Q. (2009) Moving toward a transdisciplinary approach in the land-grant system: A case study. NACTA Journal 53(2) 34-42
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The complexity of problems facing contemporary society requires an approach to knowledge creation that synthesizes solutions from multiple disciplinary perspectives. Traditional disciplinary structures functioning individually can inhibit the integration and application of useful knowledge. In response, many funding agencies and some universities have promoted multi-disciplinary collaboration and even interdisciplinary approaches, where faculty from different disciplines work together as a unit. This article takes the discussion a step further by examining the evolution of the Community Development and Applied Economics (CDAE) department at the University ofVermont. It provides an illustrative case study of a move beyond interdisciplinarity into transdisciplinarity, where faculty coheres as a team in teaching, researching, identifying and solving problems. The experience of this department suggests that the development of a transdiciplinary approach is not easy or simple. It cuts against the grain of the traditional culture of the Academy, which continues to incentivize and place high premiums on traditional disciplinary structures. The article concludes with an examination of the difficulties experienced in the building of a transdiciplinary program. It reveals the importance of maintaining openness to the stakeholder participation and collaboration that is vital in attracting scholars and students accustomed to the security of orthodox disciplinary identities.
Beddoe, R.; Costanza, R.; Farley, J.; Garza, E.; Kent, J.; Kubiszewski, I.; Martinez, L.; McCowen, T.; Murphy, K.; Myers, N.; Ogden, Z.; Stapleton, K.; Woodward, J.. (2009) Overcoming systemic roadblocks to sustainability: The evolutionary redesign of worldviews, institutions, and technologies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(8) 2483-2489
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A high and sustainable quality of life is a central goal for humanity. Our current socio-ecological regime and its set of interconnected worldviews, institutions, and technologies all support the goal of unlimited growth of material production and consumption as a proxy for quality of life. However, abundant evidence shows that, beyond a certain threshold, further material growth no longer significantly contributes to improvement in quality of life. Not only does further material growth not meet humanity's central goal, there is mounting evidence that it creates significant roadblocks to sustainability through increasing resource constraints (i.e., peak oil, water limitations) and sink constraints (i.e., climate disruption). Overcoming these roadblocks and creating a sustainable and desirable future will require an integrated, systems level redesign of our socio-ecological regime focused explicitly and directly on the goal of sustainable quality of life rather than the proxy of unlimited material growth. This transition, like all cultural transitions, will occur through an evolutionary process, but one that we, to a certain extent, can control and direct. We suggest an integrated set of worldviews, institutions, and technologies to stimulate and seed this evolutionary redesign of the current socio-ecological regime to achieve global sustainability.
Beddoe, R.; Costanza, R.; Farley, J.; Garza, E.; Kent, J.; Kubiszewski, I.; Martinez, L.; McCowen, T.; Murphy, K.; Myers, N.; Ogden, Z.; Stapleton, K.; Woodward, J.. (2009) Reply to Knecht: Achieving sustainable health. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(28) E81-E81
Berik, G.; Rodgers, Y. V.; Seguino, S.. (2009) FEMINIST ECONOMICS OF INEQUALITY, DEVELOPMENT, AND GROWTH. Feminist Economics 15(3) 1-33
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This study examines connections between intergroup inequality and macroeconomic outcomes, considering various channels through which gender, growth, and development interact. It upholds the salience not only of equality in opportunities but also equality in outcomes. The contribution argues that inequalities based on gender, race, ethnicity, and class undermine the ability to provision and expand capabilities, and it examines the macroeconomic policies that are likely to promote broadly shared development. It explores how the macroeconomy acts as a structure of constraint in achieving gender equality and in turn how gender relations in areas like education and wage gaps can have macro-level impacts. Further, it underscores that the interaction of the macroeconomy and gender relations depends on the structure of the economy, the nature of job segregation, the particular measure of gender inequality, and a country's international relations. Finally, it outlines policies for promoting gender equality as both an intrinsic goal and a step toward improving well-being.
Besaw, L. E.; Rizzo, D. M.; Kline, M.; Underwood, K. L.; Doris, J. J.; Morrissey, L. A.; Pelletier, K.. (2009) Stream classification using hierarchical artificial neural networks: A fluvial hazard management tool. Journal of Hydrology 373(1-2) 34-43
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Watershed managers and planners have long sought decision-making tools for forecasting changes in stream-channels over large spatial and temporal scales. In this research, we apply non-parametric, clustering and classification artificial neural networks to assimilate large amounts of disparate data types for use in fluvial hazard management decision-making. Two types of artificial neural networks (a counter-propagation algorithm and a Kohonen self-organizing map) are used in hierarchy to predict reach-scale stream geomorphic condition, inherent vulnerability and sensitivity to adjustments using expert knowledge in combination with a variety of geomorphic assessment field data. Seven hundred and eighty-nine Vermont stream reaches (+7500 km) have been assessed by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources' geomorphic assessment protocols, and are used in the development of this work. More than 85% of the reach-scale stream geomorphic condition and inherent vulnerability predictions match expert evaluations. The method's usefulness as a QA/QC tool is discussed. The Kohonen self-organizing map clusters the 789 reaches into groupings of stream sensitivity (or instability). By adjusting the weight of input variables, experts can fine-tune the classification system to better understand and document similarities/differences among expert opinions. The use of artificial neural networks allows for an adaptive watershed management approach, does not require the development of site-specific, physics-based, stream models (i.e., is data-driven), and provides a standardized approach for classifying river network sensitivity in various contexts. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bomblies, A.; Duchemin, J. B.; Eltahir, E. A. B.. (2009) A mechanistic approach for accurate simulation of village scale malaria transmission. Malaria Journal; Malar. J. 8 12
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Background: Malaria transmission models commonly incorporate spatial environmental and climate variability for making regional predictions of disease risk. However, a mismatch of these models' typical spatial resolutions and the characteristic scale of malaria vector population dynamics may confound disease risk predictions in areas of high spatial hydrological variability such as the Sahel region of Africa. Methods: Field observations spanning two years from two Niger villages are compared. The two villages are separated by only 30 km but exhibit a ten-fold difference in anopheles mosquito density. These two villages would be covered by a single grid cell in many malaria models, yet their entomological activity differs greatly. Environmental conditions and associated entomological activity are simulated at high spatial- and temporal resolution using a mechanistic approach that couples a distributed hydrology scheme and an entomological model. Model results are compared to regular field observations of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquito populations and local hydrology. The model resolves the formation and persistence of individual pools that facilitate mosquito breeding and predicts spatio-temporal mosquito population variability at high resolution using an agent-based modeling approach. Results: Observations of soil moisture, pool size, and pool persistence are reproduced by the model. The resulting breeding of mosquitoes in the simulated pools yields time-integrated seasonal mosquito population dynamics that closely follow observations from captured mosquito abundance. Interannual difference in mosquito abundance is simulated, and the inter-village difference in mosquito population is reproduced for two years of observations. These modeling results emulate the known focal nature of malaria in Niger Sahel villages. Conclusion: Hydrological variability must be represented at high spatial and temporal resolution to achieve accurate predictive ability of malaria risk at the village scale, which can then be integrated appropriately to regional spatial scales and seasonal temporal scales. These results have important implications for models seeking to link the impacts of climate change and climate variability to malaria transmission. The highly focal nature of malaria in the Sahel makes detailed representation necessary to evaluate village-level risks associated with hydrology-related vector population variability.
Bomblies, A.; Eltahir, E. A. B.. (2009) Assessment of the Impact of Climate Shifts on Malaria Transmission in the Sahel. Ecohealth 6(3) 426-437
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Climate affects malaria transmission through a complex network of causative pathways. We seek to evaluate the impact of hypothetical climate change scenarios on malaria transmission in the Sahel by using a novel mechanistic, high spatial- and temporal-resolution coupled hydrology and agent-based entomology model. The hydrology model component resolves individual precipitation events and individual breeding pools. The impact of future potential climate shifts on the representative Sahel village of Banizoumbou, Niger, is estimated by forcing the model of Banizoumbou environment with meteorological data from two locations along the north-south climatological gradient observed in the Sahel-both for warmer, drier scenarios from the north and cooler, wetter scenarios from the south. These shifts in climate represent hypothetical but historically realistic climate change scenarios. For Banizoumbou climatic conditions (latitude 13.54 N), a shift toward cooler, wetter conditions may dramatically increase mosquito abundance; however, our modeling results indicate that the increased malaria transmissibility is not simply proportional to the precipitation increase. The cooler, wetter conditions increase the length of the sporogonic cycle, dampening a large vectorial capacity increase otherwise brought about by increased mosquito survival and greater overall abundance. Furthermore, simulations varying rainfall event frequency demonstrate the importance of precipitation patterns, rather than simply average or time-integrated precipitation, as a controlling factor of these dynamics. Modeling results suggest that in addition to changes in temperature and total precipitation, changes in rainfall patterns are very important to predict changes in disease susceptibility resulting from climate shifts. The combined effect of these climate-shift-induced perturbations can be represented with the aid of a detailed mechanistic model.
Buchholz, T.; Luzadis, V. A.; Volk, T. A.. (2009) Sustainability criteria for bioenergy systems: results from an expert survey. Journal of Cleaner Production 17 S86-S98
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Environmental impacts associated with the use of fossil fuels, rising prices, potential limitations in supply and concerns about regional and national security are driving the development and use of biomass for bioenergy, biofuels and bioproducts. However, the use of biomass does not automatically imply that its production, conversion and use are sustainable. In order to operationalize sustainability assessments of biomass systems, it is crucial to identify critical criteria, but keep their number and measurement at a manageable level. The selection of these criteria can vary depending on individual's expertise, geographical region where they work, and spatial scale they are focused on. No clear consensus has yet emerged on what experts consider as critical indicators of sustainability. Objectives of this paper were to analyze how key experts perceive the 35 sustainability criteria for bioenergy found in emerging sustainability assessment frameworks and to identify levels of agreement and uncertainty. Experts were asked to rate the criteria for attributes of relevance, practicality, reliability, and importance. Perceptions of the importance of the 35 criteria varied among the experts surveyed. Only two criteria, energy balance and greenhouse gas balance, were perceived as critical by more than half of the respondents. Social criteria and locally applied criteria were generally ranked low for all four attributes. Seven of the 12 criteria scored as most important focused on environmental issues, four were social and only one was economic. Of the 12 most important criteria, seven were ranked low in practicality and reliability indicating that mechanisms to assess a number of important criteria need to be developed. The spatial scale the experts worked at and their profession explained most of the differences in importance ranking between experts, while regional focus had minimal effect. Criteria that were ranked low for importance, were characterized by a lack of consensus, suggesting the need for further debate regarding their inclusion in sustainability assessments. Outcomes of the survey provide a foundation for further discussions and development of sustainability assessments for bioenergy systems and may also provide a basis for assessing individual bioenergy projects within their specific geographic, ecological, societal, and technological context and scale. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buchholz, T.; Rametsteiner, E.; Volk, T. A.; Luzadis, V. A.. (2009) Multi Criteria Analysis for bioenergy systems assessments. Energy Policy 37(2) 484-495
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Sustainable bioenergy systems are, by definition, embedded in social, economic, and environmental contexts and depend on support of many stakeholders with different perspectives. The resulting complexity constitutes a major barrier to the implementation of bioenergy projects. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the potential of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) to facilitate the design and implementation of sustainable bioenergy projects. Four MCA tools (Super Decisions, DecidelT, Decision Lab, NAIADE) are reviewed for their suitability to assess sustainability of bioenergy systems with a special focus on multi-stakeholder inclusion. The MCA tools are applied using data from a multi-stakeholder bioenergy case study in Uganda. Although contributing to only a part of a comprehensive decision process, MCA can assist in overcoming implementation barriers by (i) structuring the problem, (ii) assisting in the identification of the least robust and/or most uncertain components in bioenergy systems and (iii) integrating stakeholders into the decision process. Applying the four MCA tools to a Ugandan case study resulted in a large variability in outcomes. However, social criteria were consistently identified by all tools as being decisive in making a bioelectricity project viable. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daily, G. C.; Polasky, S.; Goldstein, J.; Kareiva, P. M.; Mooney, H. A.; Pejchar, L.; Ricketts, T. H.; Salzman, J.; Shallenberger, R.. (2009) Ecosystem services in decision making: time to deliver. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(1) 21-28
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Over the past decade, efforts to value and protect ecosystem services have been promoted by many as the last, best hope for making conservation mainstream - attractive and commonplace worldwide. In theory, if we can help individuals and institutions to recognize the value of nature, then this should greatly increase investments in conservation, while at the same time fostering human well-being. In practice, however, we have not yet developed the scientific basis, nor the policy and finance mechanisms, for incorporating natural capital into resource- and land-use decisions on a large scale. Here, we propose a conceptual framework and sketch out a strategic plan for delivering on the promise of ecosystem services, drawing on emerging examples from Hawai'i. We describe key advances in the science and practice of accounting for natural capital in the decisions of individuals, communities, corporations, and governments.
Danks, C. M.. (2009) Benefits of community-based forestry in the US: lessons from a demonstration programme. International Forestry Review 11(2) 171-185
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Community-based forestry (CBF) in the US involves a diversity of activities that cat) Occur on public or private lands, and extends beyond land ownership and management into the processing and marketing of forest products and services. Like CBF in many other parts of the world, it shares the interdependent goals of achieving ecological health and social well-being. Actual benefits achieved through CBF are not yet well documented in the literature. This paper illustrates the diversity of CBF activities in the US through the participating projects of the Ford Foundation's Community-Based Forestry Demonstration Program and examines programme Outcomes with attention given to the conditions under which benefits accrue to poor and marginalised people. The discussion reflects on the importance of looking at institutional change as well as project level benefits when assessing environmental and social outcomes.
De Coninck, Heleen; Stephens, Jennie C.; Metz, Bert. (2009) Global learning on carbon capture and storage: A call for strong international cooperation on CCS demonstration. Energy Policy 37(6) 2161-2165
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Closing the gap between carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) rhetoric and technical progress is critically important to global climate mitigation efforts. Developing strong international cooperation on CCS demonstration with global coordination, transparency, cost-sharing and communication as guiding principles would facilitate efficient and cost-effective collaborative global learning on CCS, would allow for improved understanding of the global capacity and applicability of CCS, and would strengthen global trust, awareness and public confidence in the technology. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dewoolkar, M. M.; George, L.; Hayden, N. J.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2009) Vertical Integration of Service-Learning into Civil and Environmental Engineering Curricula. International Journal of Engineering Education 25(6) 1257-1269
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Department level reform efforts funded by the National Science Foundation were instituted for the civil and environmental engineering (CEE) programs at the University of Vermont. The overall goal of the reform was to educate and have students apply a systems approach to civil and environmental problems. A key strategy for practicing a systems approach was through service-learning (S-L) projects that were introduced into existing courses. The reform began in 2005 and now includes S-L projects in required courses in each of the four years of the programs. Students have worked with community partners (e. g. Vermont towns and non-profit organizations) on inquiry-based, open-ended, real-world S-L projects. Student work and assessments showed that the S-L projects provided ideal platforms for CEE undergraduate students to grasp systems concepts while accomplishing academic goals, civic engagement and improving personal/interpersonal skills. The S-L projects also contributed toward meeting the program accreditation criteria (ABET outcomes 3a-k).
Fisher, B.; Balmford, A.; Green, R. E.; Trevelyan, R.. (2009) Conservation science training: the need for an extra dimension. Oryx 43(3) 361-363
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Because of the complex interactions between socio-economic systems and remaining natural systems, conservation biology will need to be better integrated within a wider discipline of conservation science that is inherently integrated with the social sciences. Key to this progress will be the graduate training given to conservation scientists. We surveyed graduate students at the annual Student Conference on Conservation Science at Cambridge University in March 2007 to look at how current conservation science students view this need for integration. Our survey indicates that students want social science training alongside that in biology or ecology and that their current training in social science is inadequate for their future work in conservation.
Fisher, B.; Bolt, K.; Bradbury, R. B.; Gardner, T. A.; Green, J. M. H.; Hole, D. G.; Naidoo, R.. (2009) Two Cultures of Conservation. Conservation Biology 23(5) 1069-1071
Fisher, B.; Turner, R. K.; Morling, P.. (2009) Defining and classifying ecosystem services for decision making. Ecological Economics 68(3) 643-653
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The concept of ecosystems services has become an important model for linking the functioning of ecosystems to human welfare. Understanding this link is critical for a wide-range of decision-making contexts. While there have been several attempts to come up with a classification scheme for ecosystem services, there has not been an agreed upon, meaningful and consistent definition for ecosystem services. In this paper we offer a definition of ecosystem services that is likely to be operational for ecosystem service research and several classification schemes. We argue that any attempt at classifying ecosystem services should be based on both the characteristics of the ecosystems of interest and a decision context for which the concept of ecosystem services is being mobilized. Because of this there is not one classification scheme that will be adequate for the many contexts in which ecosystem service research may be utilized. We discuss several examples of how classification schemes will be a function of both ecosystem and ecosystem service characteristics and the decision-making context. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gianotti, R. L.; Bomblies, A.; Eltahir, E. A. B.. (2009) Hydrologic modeling to screen potential environmental management methods for malaria vector control in Niger. Water Resources Research 45 12
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This paper describes the first use of Hydrology-Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a physically based distributed hydrology model, to investigate environmental management methods for malaria vector control in the Sahelian village of Banizoumbou, Niger. The investigation showed that leveling of topographic depressions where temporary breeding habitats form during the rainy season, by altering pool basin microtopography, could reduce the pool persistence time to less than the time needed for establishment of mosquito breeding, approximately 7 days. Undertaking soil surface plowing can also reduce pool persistence time by increasing the infiltration rate through an existing pool basin. Reduction of the pool persistence time to less than the rainfall interstorm period increases the frequency of pool drying events, removing habitat for subadult mosquitoes. Both management approaches could potentially be considered within a given context. This investigation demonstrates that management methods that modify the hydrologic environment have significant potential to contribute to malaria vector control in water-limited, Sahelian Africa.
Hong, B.; Limburg, K. E.; Erickson, J. D.; Gowdy, J. M.; Nowosielski, A. A.; Polimeni, J. M.; Stainbrook, K. M.. (2009) Connecting the ecological-economic dots in human-dominated watersheds: Models to link socio-economic activities on the landscape to stream ecosystem health. Landscape and Urban Planning 91(2) 78-87
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We present an interdisciplinary modeling framework to investigate how human socio-economic activities influence the spatial pattern of urbanization, and how consequent changes inland use affect water quality and stream ecosystem condition. The framework is composed of three submodels considering (1) the social and economic structures based upon a social accounting matrix, (2) land use change and urban sprawl based upon a binary logit regression, and (3) stream ecosystem condition in the catchment area based upon the NAWQA (National Water Quality Assessment) dataset. We applied our integrated model to Dutchess County, New York, USA, as a case study. Our study, in spite of its limitations and uncertainties, demonstrates the importance of a quantitative holistic approach in linking human and natural systems and estimating tradeoffs between economic benefits and environmental quality. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Koliba, C.; Gajda, R.. (2009) “Communities of Practice” as an Analytical Construct: Implications for Theory and Practice. International Journal of Public Administration 32(2) 97-135
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The “community of practice” (CoP) has emerged as a potentially powerful unit of analysis linking the individual and the collective because it situates the role of learning, knowledge transfer, and participation among people as the central enterprise of collective action. The authors?uo; surface tensions and highlight unanswered questions regarding CoP theory, concluding that it relies on a largely normative and under-operationalized set of premises. Avenues for theory development and the empirical testing of assertions are provided.
Koliba, C.; Meek, J. W.; Zia, A.. (2009) Gordian Knot or Integrated Theory? Critical Conceptual Considerations for Governance Network Analysis. Rutgers, Newark, NJ. Pages 277-300;
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In recent decades, theorists and researchers have begun to shift emphasis away from the analysis and descriptions of government roles and responsibilities to processes of governance unfolding amidst complex networks of individuals, organizations and institutions. Observing this trend, George Frederickson observes that the current status of theory development of network governance is “neither theoretically tidy nor parsimonious,” and “at this point there isn’t a single theory that puts its arms around third party governance” (Frederickson, 2007, p. 11). Despite efforts to define critical characteristics of “policy subsystems,” “policy networks,” “public management networks,” and “governance networks,” we are left to conclude that the development of a theoretical framework through which to describe, evaluate and analyze governance networks is a particularly ambitious undertaking, possessing several kinds of “Gordian knot” dilemmas. In this chapter, the authors frame these challenges in terms of questions concerning the differentiation of macro-level forms (markets, hierarchies and networks), accounting for the possibilities of mixed administrative authorities (combinations of vertical and horizontal relations), multi-sector relationships, and multiple policy functions, and challenges associated with mixed social scales. The current ambiguities around these questions are explored and related propositions for addressing each is offered.
Koliba, C.; Zia, A.. (2009) Dispelling the Myth of the Invisible Hand: An Argument for Democratically Legitimate Inter-Organizational Governance Networks.. Administrative Theory & Praxis 31(3) 417-423
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The legitimacy of democratic governments hinges on the capacity of public institutions and their elected and appointed leaders to successfully fulfill their sovereign obligations. Dating back to Alexander Hamilton’s insistence on creating the Department of Treasury, these sovereign obligations have presumably been extended into matters pertaining to the health of the national economy. Since the Great Depression, national economic policies have been designed and implemented with regularity. These policies have ranged from large scale public works projects of the New Deal, to the creation of economic regulation subsystems during the post WWII era, , to the de-regulation and privatization movements of the re-reinventing governments era.. Economic policies have often been framed in terms of certain philosophies, political ideologies and governance theories that run the gamut from Keynesian, Neo-classical, Real Business Cycle, and New Public Management conceptions of government and market relationships. We argue that this recent history needs to be taken into consideration as questions about the implications of the economic crisis for the democratic legitimacy of governments are raised. We conclude that the current economic crisis is leading to the repudiation of certain assumptions concerning markets, democracies, and the role of government. However, we assert that, any critique of neo-classical economic and market theory needs to be grounded in certain assumptions regarding governance and the “polycentric” governance networks that have emerged over the course of the past forty years. We suggest that as a result of an increasing reliance on indirect and third party governance structures (Salamon, 2002), the roles and responsibilities of democratic governments in addressing pressing public problems have been drastically altered. We argue that the question of democratic legitimacy has shifted focus from being a matter solely relevant to governments to being an attribute of governance processes (Cleveland, 1973; Frederickson, 1999). Grounded in a now three decades-old body of literature that views governances processes as unfolding in inter-organizational policy or governance networks (Heclo, 1978; Rhodes, 1997; Milward and Provan, 199-; Agronoff and McGuire, 2003; Sorenson and Torfing, 2008), we suggest that the question of how and to what extent the legitimacy of the public sector thrives or suffers depends on the capabilities of government actors to reassert their capacity to regulate regulatory subsystems, including both market and non-market transactions, to effectively manage contracts, and infuse governance processes with sufficient “democratic anchorage” (Sorensen and Torfing, 2005).
Kuemmerle, T.; Chaskovskyy, O.; Knorn, J.; Radeloff, V. C.; Kruhlov, I.; Keeton, W. S.; Hostert, P.. (2009) Forest cover change and illegal logging in the Ukrainian Carpathians in the transition period from 1988 to 2007. Remote Sensing of Environment 113(6) 1194-1207
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Illegal logging is a major environmental and economic problem, and exceeds in some countries the amounts of legally harvested timber. In Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, illegal logging increased and reforestation on abandoned farmland was widespread after the breakdown of socialism, and the region's forest cover trends remain overall largely unclear. Our goal here was to map forest cover change and to assess the extent of illegal logging and reforestation in the Ukrainian Carpathians. We used Landsat TM/ETM+ images and Support Vector Machines (SVM) to derive forest change trajectories between 1988 and 2007 for the entire Ukrainian Carpathians. We calculated logging and reforestation rates, and compared Landsat-based forest trends to official statistics and inventory maps. Our classification resulted in reliable forest/nonforest maps (overall accuracies between 97.1%-98.01%) and high clear cut detection rates (on average 89.4%). Forest cover change was widespread in the Ukrainian Carpathians between 1988 and 2007. We found forest cover increase in peripheral areas, forest loss in the interior Carpathians, and increased logging in remote areas. Overall, our results suggest that unsustainable forest use from socialist times likely persisted in the post-socialist period, resulting in a continued loss of older forests and forest fragmentation. Landsat-based forest trends differed substantially from official forest resource statistics. Illegal logging appears to have been at least as extensive as documented logging during the early 1990s and so-called sanitary clear-cuts represent a major loophole for overharvesting and logging in restricted areas. Reforestation and illegal logging are frequently not accounted for in forest resource statistics, highlighting limitations of these data. Combating illegal logging and transitioning towards sustainable forestry requires better monitoring and up-to-date accounting of forest resources, in the Carpathians and elsewhere in Eastern Europe, and remote sensing can be a key technology to achieve these goals. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lonsdorf, E.; Kremen, C.; Ricketts, T. H.; Winfree, R.; Williams, N.; Greenleaf, S.. (2009) Modelling pollination services across agricultural landscapes. 103(9) 1589-1600
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Crop pollination by bees and other animals is an essential ecosystem service. Ensuring the maintenance of the service requires a full understanding of the contributions of landscape elements to pollinator populations and crop pollination. Here, the first quantitative model that predicts pollinator abundance on a landscape is described and tested. Using information on pollinator nesting resources, floral resources and foraging distances, the model predicts the relative abundance of pollinators within nesting habitats. From these nesting areas, it then predicts relative abundances of pollinators on the farms requiring pollination services. Model outputs are compared with data from coffee in Costa Rica, watermelon and sunflower in California and watermelon in New Jersey-Pennsylvania (NJPA). Results from Costa Rica and California, comparing field estimates of pollinator abundance, richness or services with model estimates, are encouraging, explaining up to 80 % of variance among farms. However, the model did not predict observed pollinator abundances on NJPA, so continued model improvement and testing are necessary. The inability of the model to predict pollinator abundances in the NJPA landscape may be due to not accounting for fine-scale floral and nesting resources within the landscapes surrounding farms, rather than the logic of our model. The importance of fine-scale resources for pollinator service delivery was supported by sensitivity analyses indicating that the model's predictions depend largely on estimates of nesting and floral resources within crops. Despite the need for more research at the finer-scale, the approach fills an important gap by providing quantitative and mechanistic model from which to evaluate policy decisions and develop land-use plans that promote pollination conservation and service delivery.
Mazet, J. A. K.; Clifford, D. L.; Coppolillo, P. B.; Deolalikar, A. B.; Erickson, J. D.; Kazwala, R. R.. (2009) A "One Health" Approach to Address Emerging Zoonoses: The HALI Project in Tanzania. 6(12)
Mendez, V. E.; Shapiro, E. N.; Gilbert, G. S.. (2009) Cooperative management and its effects on shade tree diversity, soil properties and ecosystem services of coffee plantations in western El Salvador. 76(1) 111-126
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We compared how management approaches affected shade tree diversity, soil properties, and provisioning and carbon sequestration ecosystem services in three shade coffee cooperatives. Collectively managed cooperatives utilized less diverse shade, and pruned coffee and shade trees more intensively, than individual farms. Soil properties showed significant differences among the cooperatives, with the following properties contributing to differentiation: N, pH, P, K, and Ca. Higher tree richness was associated with higher soil pH, CEC, Ca, and Mg, and lower K. Higher tree densities were associated with lower N, K, and organic matter. Although we found differences in the incidence of provisioning services (e.g., fruit), all plantations generated products other than coffee. No differences were observed between C-stocks. The history and institutional arrangements of cooperatives can influence management approaches, which affect ecosystem properties and services. Our study corroborates that interdisciplinary investigations are essential to understand the socio-ecological context of tropical shade coffee landscapes.
Moeliono, M.; Wollenberg, E.; Limberg, G.; eds. (2009) The decentralization of forest governance: politics, economics and the fight for control of forests in Indonesian Borneo. Earthscan Publications, London, UK. Pages 320 p.;
Mwakalila, S.; Burgess, N.; Ricketts, T.; Olwero, N.; Swetnam, R. D.; Mbilinyi, B. P.; Marchant, R.; Mtalo, F.; White, S.; Munishi, P. K.; Marshall, A.; Malimbwi, R. E.; Smith, C. M.; Jambiya, G.; Madoffe, S.; Fisher, B.; Kajembe, G.; Morse-Jones, S.; Kulindwa, K.; Green, J. M. H.; Balmford, A.. (2009) Linking Science with Stakeholders to Sustain Natural Capital.. 23 22-27
Pongsiri, M. J.; Roman, J.; Ezenwa, V. O.; Goldberg, T. L.; Koren, H. S.; Newbold, S. C.; Ostfeld, R. S.; Pattanayak, S. K.; Salkeld, D. J.. (2009) Biodiversity Loss Affects Global Disease Ecology. Bioscience 59(11) 945-954
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Changes in the type and prevalence of human diseases have occurred during shifts in human social organization, for example, from hunting and gathering to agriculture and with urbanization during the Industrial Revolution. The recent emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases appears to be driven by globalization and ecological disruption. We propose that habitat destruction and biodiversity loss associated with biotic homogenization can increase the incidence and distribution of infectious diseases affecting humans. The clearest connection between biotic homogenization and infectious disease is the spread of nonindigenous vectors and pathogens. The loss of predators and hosts that dilute pathogen transmission can also increase the incidence of vectorborne illnesses. Other mechanisms include enhanced abiotic conditions for pathogens and vectors and higher host-pathogen encounter rates. Improved understanding of these causal mechanisms can inform decisionmaking on biodiversity conservation as an effective way to protect human health.
Ray, D. G.; Seymour, R. S.; Scott, N. A.; Keeton, W. S.. (2009) Mitigating Climate Change with Managed Forests: Balancing Expectations, Opportunity, and Risk. Journal of Forestry 107(1) 50-51
Roman, J.. (2009) Whales and whaling. Univ of California Press, Washington, DC. (2) 975-981
Ross, D. S.; Wemple, B. C.; Jamison, A. E.; Fredriksen, G.; Shanley, J. B.; Lawrence, G. B.; Bailey, S. W.; Campbell, J. L.. (2009) A Cross-Site Comparison of Factors Influencing Soil Nitrification Rates in Northeastern USA Forested Watersheds. Ecosystems 12(1) 158-178
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Elevated N deposition is continuing on many forested landscapes around the world and our understanding of ecosystem response is incomplete. Soil processes, especially nitrification, are critical. Many studies of soil N transformations have focused on identifying relationships within a single watershed but these results are often not transferable. We studied 10 small forested research watersheds in the northeastern USA to determine if there were common factors related to soil ammonification and nitrification. Vegetation varied between mixed northern hardwoods and mixed conifers. Watershed surface soils (Oa or A horizons) were sampled at grid or transect points and analyzed for a suite of chemical characteristics. At each sampling point, vegetation and topographic metrics (field and GIS-based) were also obtained. Results were examined by watershed averages (n = 10), seasonal/watershed averages (n = 28), and individual sampling points (n = 608). Using both linear and tree regression techniques, the proportion of conifer species was the single best predictor of nitrification rates, with lower rates at higher conifer dominance. Similar to other studies, the soil C/N ratio was also a good predictor and was well correlated with conifer dominance. Unlike other studies, the presence of Acer saccharum was not by itself a strong predictor, but was when combined with the presence of Betula alleghaniensis. Topographic metrics (slope, aspect, relative elevation, and the topographic index) were not related to N transformation rates across the watersheds. Although found to be significant in other studies, neither soil pH, Ca nor Al was related to nitrification. Results showed a strong relationship between dominant vegetation, soil C, and soil C/N.
Stephens, Jennie C.; Rand, Gabriel M.; Melnick, Leah L.. (2009) Wind Energy in US Media: A Comparative State-Level Analysis of a Critical Climate Change Mitigation Technology. Environmental Communication-a Journal of Nature and Culture 3(2) 168-190
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Wind power is a critically important climate change mitigation technology, and the most rapidly growing renewable energy technology in the USA. Wind energy can provide carbon-free electricity generation, so within societal discourse on how society should minimize the risks of climate change it is widely recognized and acknowledged as a valuable technology. Despite recent increases in wind turbine installation in the USA, the high-level of variation in deployment patterns of wind technology in different states cannot be explained simply by wind resource patterns. Other factors, including differences in the state-level, socio-political context, seem to be influencing wind development. This research compares these contextual differences by using media analysis to assess state-level public discourse about wind technology. Through comparative content and frame analysis of newspaper coverage of wind power in Texas, Minnesota, and Massachusetts, we explore state-level variations in the salience of wind in public discourse, the focus on wind power as a climate change mitigating technology, and the framing of wind power's risks and benefits. In addition to identifying distinct state-level variation in wind energy discourse, the results demonstrate that wind's climate change mitigation potential has been a limited but growing part of media coverage on wind power.
Stovall, J. P.; Keeton, W. S.; Kraft, C. E.. (2009) Late-successional riparian forest structure results in heterogeneous periphyton distributions in low-order streams. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 39(12) 2343-2354
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Late-successional riparian forests often regulate autotrophic microhabitats in low-order streams through shading provided by canopies. However, few studies have linked forest structure with periphyton microhabitat in adjoining streams. Our hypotheses were that (1) the heterogeneous horizontal structure in old-growth forests creates more spatially variable below-canopy light environments compared with mature forests and (2) site-specific light availability over streams correlates with spatial distributions of periphyton microhabitat. We surveyed 15 low-order stream reaches in late-successional northern hardwood-hem lock forests in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, USA. We measured forest structure and the below-canopy light environment at all reaches and the periphyton chlorophyll a concentration on artificial substrates in eight reaches. While stand age was not statistically significant, multivariate models of horizontal forest structure (e.g., gap distribution) and topography showed strong relationships (R(2) > 0.70) with the below-canopy light environment across all late-successional forests. Furthermore, metrics of below-canopy light availability explained a small but statistically significant proportion of the variation in chlorophyll a concentration. This variation in chlorophyll a indicates that complex late-successional riparian forests, both mature and old-growth, create a mosaic of heterotrophic (shaded) and autotrophic (lighted) microhabitats along low-order streams. These results reveal important and previously unrecognized links between stream habitat heterogeneity and the horizontal heterogeneous late-successional forest structure.
Strassburg, B.; Turner, R. K.; Fisher, B.; Schaeffer, R.; Lovett, A.. (2009) Reducing emissions from deforestation-The "combined incentives" mechanism and empirical simulations. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 19(2) 265-278
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Despite accounting for 17-25% of anthropogenic emissions, deforestation was not included in the Kyoto Protocol. The UN Convention on Climate Change is considering its inclusion in future agreements and asked its scientific board to study methodological and scientific issues related to positive incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation. Here we present an empirically derived mechanism that offers a mix of incentives to developing countries to reduce emissions from deforestation, conserve and possibly enhance their ecosystem's carbon stocks. We also use recent data to model its effects on the 20 most forested developing countries. Results show that at low CO(2) prices (similar to US$ 8/t CO(2)) a successful mechanism could reduce more than 90% of global deforestation at an annual cost of US$ 30 billion. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turner, K.; Fisher, B.. (2009) An ecosystem services approach: income inequality and poverty. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, U.K.. Pages 311;
Vatovec, Christine; Balser, Teri. (2009) Podcasts as tools in introductory environmental studies. Journal of microbiology & biology education 10(1) 19-24
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Technological tools have increasingly become a part of the college classroom, often appealing to teachers because of their potential to increase student engagement with course materials. Podcasts in particular have gained popularity as tools to better inform students by providing access to lectures outside of the classroom. In this paper, we argue that educators should expand course materials to include prepublished podcasts to engage students with both course topics and a broader skill set for evaluating readily available media. We present a pre- and postassignment survey evaluation assessing student preferences for using podcasts and the ability of a podcast assignment to support learning objectives in an introductory environmental studies course. Overall, students reported that the podcasts were useful tools for learning, easy to use, and increased their understanding of course topics. However, students also provided insightful comments on visual versus aural learning styles, leading us to recommend assigning video podcasts or providing text-based transcripts along with audio podcasts. A qualitative analysis of survey data provides evidence that the podcast assignment supported the course learning objective for students to demonstrate critical evaluation of media messages. Finally, we provide recommendations for selecting published podcasts and designing podcast assignments.
Voigt, B.; Troy, A.; Miles, B.; Reiss, A.. (2009) Testing an Integrated Land Use and Transportation Modeling Framework for a Small Metropolitan Area. (2133) 83-91
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This paper describes the implementation of a land use and transportation modeling framework developed for Chittenden County, Vermont, to test for differences in modeled output when employing a dynamically linked travel demand model (TDM) versus an assumption of static regional accessibilities over time. With the use of the land use model UrbanSim, two versions of a 40-year simulation for the county, one with a TDM and one without, were compared. In the first version, UrbanSim was integrated with the TransCAD four-step TDM; this allowed regional accessibilities to be recalculated at regularly scheduled intervals. In the second version, TransCAD was used to compute year 2000 accessibilities; these values were held constant for the duration of the model run. The results indicated some significant differences in the modeled outputs. In particular, although centrally located traffic analysis zones (TAZs) reveal relatively little difference between the two models, the differential within peripheral TAZs is both more pronounced and more heterogeneous. The pattern displayed suggests that some peripheral TAZs have higher modeled development with a TDM because the TDM accounts for the increased proximity of destinations, thereby making them amenable to development. Meanwhile, some peripheral TAZs have lower modeled development with a TDM because they already have good accessibility (e.g., access via Interstate), but the model without the TDM does not account for increased congestion.
Warren, D. R.; Kraft, C. E.; Keeton, W. S.; Nunery, J. S.; Likens, G. E.. (2009) Dynamics of wood recruitment in streams of the northeastern US. Forest Ecology and Management 258(5) 804-813
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Wood is an important component of forested stream ecosystems, and stream restoration efforts often incorporate large wood. In most cases, however, stream restoration projects are implemented without information regarding the amount of wood that historically occurred or the natural rates of wood recruitment. This study uses a space-for-time analysis to quantify large wood loading to 28 streams in the northeastern US with a range of in-stream and riparian forest characteristics. We document the current volume and frequency of occurrence of large wood in streams with riparian forests varying in their stage of stand development as well as stream size and gradient. Linear models relating stream wood characteristics to stream geomorphic and forest characteristics were compared using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) model selection. The AIC analysis indicated that the volume and frequency of large wood and wood accumulations (wood jams) in streams was most closely associated with the age of the dominant canopy trees in the riparian forest (best models: log(10)(large wood volume (m(3) 100 m(-1))) = (0.0036 x stand age) - 0.2281, p < 0.001, r(2) = 0.80; and large wood frequency (number per 100 m) = (0.1326 x stand age) + 7.3952, p < 001, r(2) = 0.63). Bankfull width was an important factor accounting for wood volume per unit area (m(3) ha(-1)) but not the volume of wood per length of stream (100 m(-1)). The empirical models developed in this study were unsuccessful in predicting wood loading in other regions, most likely due to difference in forest characteristics and the legacy of forest disturbance. However, these models may be applicable in other streams in the northeastern US or in streams with comparable riparian forests, underlying geology, and disturbance regimes-factors that could alter long-term wood loading dynamics. Our results highlight the importance of understanding region-specific processes when planning stream restoration and stream management projects. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wilson, Elizabeth J.; Stephens, Jennie C.. (2009) Wind Deployment in the United States: States, Resources, Policy, and Discourse. Environmental Science & Technology 43(24) 9063-9070
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A transformation in the way the United States produces and uses energy is needed to achieve greenhouse gas reduction targets for climate change mitigation. Wind power is an important low-carbon technology and the most rapidly growing renewable energy technology in the U.S. Despite recent advances in wind deployment, significant state-by-state variation in wind power distribution cannot be explained solely by wind resource patterns nor by state policy. Other factors embedded within the state-level socio-political context also contribute to wind deployment patterns. We explore this sociopolitical context in four U.S. states by integrating multiple research methods. Through comparative state-level analysis of the energy system, energy policy, and public discourse as represented in the media, we examine variation in the context for wind deployment in Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, and Texas. Our results demonstrate that these states have different patterns of wind deployment, are engaged in different debates about wind power, and appear to frame the risks and benefits of wind power in different ways. This comparative assessment highlights the complex variation of the state-level socio-political context and contributes depth to our understanding of energy technology deployment processes, decision-making, and outcomes.
Wollenberg, E.; Campbell, B.; Dounias, E.; Gunarso, P.; Moeliono, M.; Sheil, D.. (2009) Interactive Land-Use Planning in Indonesian Rain-Forest Landscapes: Reconnecting Plans to Practice. Ecology and Society 14(1)
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Indonesia's 1999-2004 decentralization reforms created opportunities for land-use planning that reflected local conditions and local people's needs. We report on seven years of work in the District of Malinau in Indonesian Borneo that attempted to reconnect government land-use plans to local people's values, priorities, and practices. Four principles are proposed to support more interactive planning between government and local land users: Support local groups to make their local knowledge, experience, and aspirations more visible in formal land-use planning and decision making; create channels of communication, feedback, and transparency to support the adaptive capacities and accountability of district leadership and institutions; use system frameworks to understand the drivers of change and resulting scenarios and trade-offs; and link analysis and intervention across multiple levels, from the local land user to the district and national levels. We describe the application of these principles in Malinau and the resulting challenges.
Zencey, E.. (2009) Fixing Locke: Civil Liberties for a Finite Planet. Routledge, New York, NY. Pages 180-201;
Zencey, Eric. (2009) I left work early to buy snow tires. The North American Review; University of Northern Iowa, New York, NY. 294(6) 6-9
2008
Ali, S. H.. (2008) The Siachen Peace Park proposal: Moving from concept to reality. Environment 50(3) 43-43
Allnutt, T. F.; Ferrier, S.; Manion, G.; Powell, G. V. N.; Ricketts, T. H.; Fisher, B. L.; Harper, G. J.; Irwin, M. E.; Kremen, C.; Labat, J. N.; Lees, D. C.; Pearce, T. A.; Rakotondrainibe, F.. (2008) A method for quantifying biodiversity loss and its application to a 50-year record of deforestation across Madagascar. Conservation Letters 1(4) 173-181
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Madagascar is a top global conservation priority for high rates of deforestation and endemism. Deforestation has been extensive, but impacts of forest loss on biodiversity have not been well quantified, especially for nonvertebrates. We use generalized dissimilarity modeling (GDM) as a basis for estimating forest biodiversity remaining at different points in time. We predict that 9.1% of species in Madagascar have been committed to extinction from deforestation between 1950 and 2000. This quantity is higher than losses expected from random deforestation of the same total area, indicating that deforestation has been biased towards environmentally and biologically distinct areas. In contrast to traditional area-based methods, these techniques allow one to estimate biodiversity loss based on the location of deforestation and thus can inform land-use policies that aim to minimize biodiversity impacts of deforestation or development.
Bacon, C. M.; Mendez, V. E.; Flores Gomez, M. E.; Stuart, D.; Diaz Flores, S. R.. (2008) Are Sustainable Coffee Certifications Enough to Secure Farmer Livelihoods? The Millenium Development Goals and Nicaragua's Fair Trade Cooperatives. 5(2) 259-274
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In December 2001, green coffee commodity prices hit a 30-year low. This deepened the livelihood crisis for millions of coffee farmers and rural communities. The specialty coffee industry responded by scaling up several sustainable coffee certification programs, including Fair Trade. This study uses household-and community-level research conducted in Nicaragua from 2000 to 2006 to assess the response to the post-1999 coffee crisis. A participatory action research team surveyed 177 households selling into conventional and Fair Trade markets in 2006. In an effort to dialogue with specialty coffee industry and mainstream development agencies, results are framed within the context of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Findings suggest that households connected to Fair Trade cooperatives experienced several positive impacts in education, infrastructure investment, and monetary savings. However, several important livelihoods insecurities, including low incomes, high emigration, and food insecurity, persisted among all small-scale producers.
Balogh-Brunstad, Z.; Keller, C. K.; Bormann, B. T.; O'Brien, R.; Wang, D.; Hawley, G. J.. (2008) Chemical weathering and chemical denudation dynamics through ecosystem development and disturbance. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 22(1)
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Mineral weathering and chemical denudation of terrestrial environments are understood by both geochemists and ecologists to be affected by rooted plant growth. We used unique 20-year "sandbox'' experiments to test the predictions of both disciplines regarding the influence of tree growth and harvest on chemical weathering and denudation of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+). Results showed 3 temporal phases: 1) weathering-dominated rapid uptake of mineral nutrients with retention in trees and soil, and low denudation; 2) biocycling-dominated nutrient uptake with slower tree growth, and chemical fluxes reduced to near zero; and 3) denudation-dominated loss of nutrient reserves after harvest by disruption of biotic regulation. Overall, a red pine sandbox used and retained its resources more effectively than a reference non-vascular system. The results suggest that disturbance may be an important factor controlling chemical denudation rates. Temporal variations of the fluxes highlight difficulties of extrapolating weathering and denudation rates over long timescales.
Bomblies, A.; Duchemin, J. B.; Eltahir, E. A. B.. (2008) Hydrology of malaria: Model development and application to a Sahelian village. Water Resources Research 44(12) 26
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We present a coupled hydrology and entomology model for the mechanistic simulation of local-scale response of malaria transmission to hydrological and climatological determinants in semiarid, desert fringe environments. The model is applied to the Sahel village of Banizoumbou, Niger, to predict interannual variability in malaria vector mosquito populations that lead to variations in malaria transmission. Using a high-resolution, small-scale distributed hydrology model that incorporates remotely sensed data for land cover and topography, we simulate the formation and persistence of the pools constituting the primary breeding habitat of Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes, the principal regional malaria vector mosquitoes. An agent-based mosquito population model is coupled to the distributed hydrology model, with aquatic-stage and adult-stage components. Through a dependence of aquatic-stage mosquito development and adult emergence on pool persistence, we model small-scale hydrology as a dominant control of mosquito abundance. For each individual adult mosquito, the model tracks attributes relevant to population dynamics and malaria transmission, which are updated as mosquitoes interact with their environment, humans, and animals. Weekly field observations were made in 2005 and 2006. A 16% increase in rainfall between the two years was accompanied by a 132% increase in mosquito abundance between 2005 and 2006. The model reproduces mosquito population variability at seasonal and interannual timescales and highlights individual pool persistence as a dominant control. Future developments of the presented model can be used in the evaluation of impacts of climate change on malaria, as well as the a priori evaluation of environmental management-based interventions.
Clark, J. S.; Rizzo, D. M.; Watzin, M. C.; Hession, W. C.. (2008) Spatial distribution and geomorphic condition of fish habitat in streams: An analysis using hydraulic modelling and geostatistics. River Research and Applications 24(7) 885-899
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Reach-scale physical habitat assessment scores are increasingly used to make decisions about management. We characterized the spatial distribution of hydraulic habitat characteristics at the reach and sub-reach scales for four fish species using detailed two-dimensional hydraulic models and spatial analysis techniques (semi-variogram analyses). We next explored whether these hydraulic characteristics were correlated with commonly used reach-scale geomorphic assessment (RGA) scores, rapid habitat assessment (RHA) scores, or indices of fish biodiversity and abundance. River2D was used to calculate weighted usable areas (WUAs) at median flows, Q(50), for six Vermont streams using modelled velocity, depth estimates, channel bed data and habitat suitability curves for blacknose dace (Rhinichthys atratulus), brown trout (Salmo trutta), common shiner (Notropis cornutus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) at both the adult and spawn stages. All stream reaches exhibited different spatial distributions of WUA ranging from uniform distribution of patches of high WUA to irregular distribution of more isolated patches. Streams with discontinuous, distinct patches of high score WUA had lower fish biotic integrity measured with the State of Vermont's Mixed Water Index of Biotic Integrity (MWIBI) than streams with a more uniform distribution of high WUA. In fact, the distribution of usable habitats may be a determining factor for fish communities. A relationship between predicted WUAs averaged at the reach scale and RGA or RHA scores was not found. Future research is needed to identify the appropriate spatial scales to capture the connections between usable patches of stream channel habitat. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Costanza, R.; Fisher, B.; Ali, S.; Beer, C.; Bond, L.; Boumans, R.; Danigelis, N. L.; Dickson, J.; Elliott, C.; Farley, J.; Gayer, D. E.; Glenn, L. M.; Hudspeth, T. R.; Mahoney, D. F.; McCahill, L.; McIntosh, B.; Reed, B.; Rizvi, A. T.; Rizzo, D. M.; Simpatico, T.; Snapp, R.. (2008) An Integrative Approach to Quality of Life Measurement, Research, and Policy. SAPIENS 1(1) 17-21
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While Quality of Life (QOL) has long been an explicit or implicit policy goal, adequate definition and measurement have been elusive. Diverse “objective” and “subjective” indicators across a range of disciplines and scales, and recent work on subjective well-being (SWB) surveys and the psychology of happiness have spurred renewed interest. Drawing from multiple disciplines, we present an integrative definition of QOL that combines measures of human needs with subjective well-being or happiness. QOL is proposed as a multiscale, multi-dimensional concept that contains interacting objective and subjective elements. We relate QOL to the opportunities that are provided to meet human needs in the forms of built, human, social and natural capital (in addition to time) and the policy options that are available to enhance these opportunities. Issues related to defining, measuring, and scaling these concepts are discussed, and a research agenda is elaborated. Policy implications include strategies for investing in opportunities to maximize QOL enhancement at the individual, community, and national scales.
Danks, C.. (2008) Institutional arrangements in community-based forestry. Resources for the Future , Washington, D.C..
Darling, John A.; Bagley, Mark J.; Roman, Joe; Tepolt, Carolyn K.; Geller, Jonathan B.. (2008) Genetic patterns across multiple introductions of the globally invasive crab genus Carcinus. 17(23) 4992-5007
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The European green crab Carcinus maenas is one of the world's most successful aquatic invaders, having established populations on every continent with temperate shores. Here we describe patterns of genetic diversity across both the native and introduced ranges of C. maenas and its sister species, C. aestuarii, including all known non-native populations. The global data set includes sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene, as well as multilocus genotype data from nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci. Combined phylogeographic and population genetic analyses clarify the global colonization history of C. maenas, providing evidence of multiple invasions to Atlantic North America and South Africa, secondary invasions to the northeastern Pacific, Tasmania, and Argentina, and a strong likelihood of C. maenas x C. aestuarii hybrids in South Africa and Japan. Successful C. maenas invasions vary broadly in the degree to which they retain genetic diversity, although populations with the least variation typically derive from secondary invasions or from introductions that occurred more than 100 years ago.
Doris, J. J.; Rizzo, D. M.; Dewoolkar, M. M.. (2008) Forecasting vertical ground surface movement from shrinking/swelling soils with artificial neural networks. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 32(10) 1229-1245
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Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to estimate vertical ground surface movement when soils expand and contract due to changes in soil moisture content caused by changing climate conditions. Several counterpropagation ANN test cases were investigated to map climate data (i.e. temperature and rainfall) to vertical ground surface movement at field sites in Texas and Australia. Three of the four ANN test cases use a historical time series of climate data to forecast ground surface elevation relative to a specified datum. The fourth ANN test case predicts the rate of ground surface movement, and requires post-processing of the predicted rates to calculate ground surface elevation relative to a specified datum. The counterpropagation network has demonstrated a successful mapping of temperature and rainfall data to vertical ground surface movement at a field site when it is trained with a subset of data from the same field site (test cases 1 and 2). The results of training an ANN on one field site and testing it on another field site (test cases 3 and 4) demonstrate the ability of the ANN to capture trends in vertical ground surface movement. When compared with the predictions from a physics-based method (shrink test-water content method) that requires measurements/ estimates of changes in soil water content, the ANN-based predictions (based on climatic changes) captured the trends in the field measurements of shrinking-swelling soil surface movements equally well. These findings are promising and merit further investigation with data from additional field sites. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Farley, J.; Miles, B.. (2008) Science and Problem Solving in a Political World: Insights from Katrina. 11(S08) 3-20
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While as scientists ecological economists pursue objectivity and empiricism, as problem solvers we strive to move our policy solutions to pressing problems onto the political agenda. To what extent is a rigorous scientific understanding of sustainability issues necessary and sufficient for creating more sustainable policies? If it is not, what are the obligations of scientists who understand the threats to sustainability to act on their understanding? We use a case study of Katrina to show that impartial science alone is inadequate to achieve our ends. Ecological economics and market fundamentalists are those currently receiving the most consideration, which exacerbates the problems as defined by ecological economists. As scientists and problem solvers, ecological economists must empirically study the public policy process to learn how to promote our policy solutions. We therefore assess two schools of thought concerning public policy - the market model and polis model. The market model of the public policy process assumes that policy makers rationally analyze the options available to achieve a specific goal then choose the one that maximizes utility. The polis model in contrast assumes that policy makers are not consistently rational but respond instead to the strategic presentation of situations using stories and symbols more than value-neutral facts. We argue that the polis model is a more accurate empirical interpretation of the policy process, and therefore, to be good scientific problem solvers, ecological economists must rely on emotionally charged stories that explain the significance of their scientific research instead of impartial presentation of empirical evidence.
Farley, J.. (2008) The Role of Prices in Conserving Critical Natural Capital. Conservation Biology 22(6) 1399-1408
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Until recent decades, economic decision makers have largely ignored the nonmarket benefits provided by nature, resulting in unprecedented threats to ecological life-support functions. The economic challenge today is to decide how much ecosystem structure can be converted to economic production and how much must be conserved to provide essential ecosystem services. Many economists and a growing number of life scientists hope to address this challenge by estimating the marginal value of environmental benefits and then using this information to make economic decisions. I assessed this approach first by examining the role and effectiveness of the price mechanism in a well-functioning market economy, second by identifying the issues that prevent markets from pricing many ecological benefits, and third by focusing on problems inherent to valuing services generated by complex and poorly understood ecosystems subject to irreversible change. I then focus on critical natural capital (CNC), which generates benefits that are essential to human welfare and have few if any substitutes. When imminent ecological thresholds threaten CNC, conservation is essential and marginal valuation becomes inappropriate. Once conservation needs have been met, remaining ecosystem structure is potentially available for economic production. Demand for this available supply will determine prices. In other words, conservation needs should be price determining, not price determined. Conservation science must help identify CNC and the quantity and quality of ecosystem structure required to ensure its sustained provision.
Fisher, B.; Turner, K.; Zylstra, M.; Brouwer, R.; de Groot, R.; Farber, S.; Ferraro, P.; Green, R.; Hadley, D.; Harlow, J.; Jefferiss, P.; Kirkby, C.; Morling, P.; Mowatt, S.; Naidoo, R.; Paavola, J.; Strassburg, B.; Yu, D.; Balmford, A.. (2008) ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND ECONOMIC THEORY: INTEGRATION FOR POLICY-RELEVANT RESEARCH. Ecological Applications 18(8) 2050-2067
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It has become essential in policy and decision-making circles to think about the economic benefits (in addition to moral and scientific motivations) humans derive from well-functioning ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem services has been developed to address this link between ecosystems and human welfare. Since policy decisions are often evaluated through cost -benefit assessments, an economic analysis can help make ecosystem service research operational. In this paper we provide some simple economic analyses to discuss key concepts involved in formalizing ecosystem service research. These include the distinction between services and bene. ts, understanding the importance of marginal ecosystem changes, formalizing the idea of a safe minimum standard for ecosystem service provision, and discussing how to capture the public bene. ts of ecosystem services. We discuss how the integration of economic concepts and ecosystem services can provide policy and decision makers with a fuller spectrum of information for making conservation -conversion trade-offs. We include the results from a survey of the literature and a questionnaire of researchers regarding how ecosystem service research can be integrated into the policy process. We feel this discussion of economic concepts will be a practical aid for ecosystem service research to become more immediately policy relevant.
Fisher, B.; Turner, R. K.. (2008) Ecosystem services: Classification for valuation. Biological Conservation 141(5) 1167-1169
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This letter is in response to an article by Ken Wallace titled "Classifications of ecosystem services: problems and solutions" (Biological Conservation 139, 2007). This letter discusses the points we see as problematic with Wallace's framework and sets out our conceptualization of linking ecosystem services with human welfare. In this letter we suggest that utilizing the terms intermediate services, final services and benefits should go a long way to clearing up much of the ambiguity in ecosystem services typologies, especially for economic valuation purposes. As Wallace points out, clearly defining and organizing the concept of ecosystem services is not just a semantic decision, but it is integral to operationalizing something that can clearly illuminate tradeoffs in natural resource management. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fisher, B.. (2008) Deep economy: The wealth of communities and the durable future. 17(3) 422-424
Foster, B.; Wang, D.; Keeton, W.. (2008) An exploratory, post-harvest comparison of ecological and economic characteristics of FSC certified and uncertified northern hardwood stands.. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 26(3) 171-191
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As more forest entities worldwide consider pursuing Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification, a critical question remains on whether stand-level management impacts differ between certified and uncertified forests. To begin to answer this question, we measured forest structure on three FSC-certified stands, three uncertified stands, and six adjacent unharvested reference stands (12 stands total) composed primarily of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) on non-industrial private properties in central Vermont, USA. The certified and uncertified partial harvests reduced total tree biomass and live tree carbon storage by one-third compared to reconstructed pre-harvest conditions. Both treatments also contained significantly lower densities of saplings and some mid-size trees compared to non-harvested references due to similar impacts from harvesting. The net present value of merchantable sugar maple over 10 year projections was consistently lower on certified than uncertified stands, but this difference was insignificant at discount rates from 4–8%. The certified stands contained significantly greater total residual volumes of coarse woody debris (standing and downed) than uncertified stands, although the debris was smaller than that found in unmanaged mature forests. Overall, our data suggest that FSC-certified harvested stands in northern hardwood forests have similar sugar maple timber value, aboveground live tree carbon storage value, similar live tree structure, and greater residual coarse woody debris than uncertified harvested stands.
Galford, G. L.; Mustard, J. F.; Melillo, J. M.; Gendrin, A.; Cerri, C. C.; Cerri, C. E. P.. (2008) Wavelet analysis of MODIS time series to detect expansion and intensification of row-crop agriculture in Brazil. Remote Sensing of Environment 112(2) 576-587
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Since 2000, the southwestern Brazilian Amazon has undergone a rapid transformation from natural vegetation and pastures to row-crop agricultural with the potential to affect regional biogeochemistry. The goals of this research are to assess wavelet algorithms applied to MODIS time series to determine expansion of row-crops and intensification of the number of crops grown. MODIS provides data from February 2000 to present, a period of agricultural expansion and intensification in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon. We have selected a study area near Comodoro, Mato Grosso because of the rapid growth of row-crop agriculture and availability of ground truth data of agricultural land-use history. We used a 90% power wavelet transform to create a wavelet-smoothed time series for five years of MODIS EVI data. From this wavelet-smoothed time series we determine characteristic phenology of single and double crops. We estimate that over 3200 km(2) were converted from native vegetation and pasture to row-crop agriculture from 2000 to 2005 in our study area encompassing 40,000 km(2). We observe an increase of 2000 km(2) of agricultural intensification, where areas of single crops were converted to double crops during the study period. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gianotti, R. L.; Bomblies, A.; Dafalla, M.; Issa-Arzika, I.; Duchemin, J. B.; Eltahir, E. A. B.. (2008) Efficacy of local neem extracts for sustainable malaria vector control in an African village. Malaria Journal; Malar. J. 7 11
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Background: Larval control of malaria vectors has been historically successful in reducing malaria transmission, but largely fell out of favour with the introduction of synthetic insecticides and bed nets. However, an integrated approach to malaria control, including larval control methods, continues to be the best chance for success, in view of insecticide resistance, the behavioural adaptation of the vectors to changing environments and the difficulties of reaching the poorest populations most at risk,. Laboratory studies investigating the effects of neem seed (Azadirachta indica) extracts on Anopheles larvae have shown high rates of larval mortality and reductions in adult longevity, as well as low potential for resistance development. Methods: This paper describes a method whereby seeds of the neem tree can be used to reduce adult Anopheles gambiae s. l. abundance in a way that is low cost and can be implemented by residents of rural villages in western Niger. The study was conducted in Banizoumbou village, western Niger. Neem seeds were collected from around the village. Dried seeds were ground into a coarse powder, which was then sprinkled onto known Anopheles larvae breeding habitats twice weekly during the rainy season 2007. Adult mosquitoes were captured on a weekly basis in the village and captures compared to those from 2005 and 2006 over the same period. Adult mosquitoes were also captured in a nearby village, Zindarou, as a control data set and compared to those from Banizoumbou. Results: It was found that twice-weekly applications of the powder to known breeding habitats of Anopheles larvae in 2007 resulted in 49% fewer adult female Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes in Banizoumbou, compared with previous captures under similar environmental conditions and with similar habitat characteristics in 2005 and 2006. The productivity of the system in 2007 was found to be suppressed compared to the mean behaviour of 2005 and 2006 in Banizoumbou, whereas no change was found in Zindarou. Conclusion: With a high abundance of neem plants in many villages in this area, the results of this study suggest that larval control using neem seed powder offers a sustainable additional tool for malaria vector control in the Sahel region of Niger.
Hermans, C.; Howarth, R. B.; Noordewier, T.; Erickson, J. D.. (2008) Constructing Preferences in Structured Group Deliberative Processes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Pages 50-79;
Keeton, W. S.. (2008) Evaluation of tree seedling mortality and protective strategies in riparian forest restoration. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 25(3) 117-123
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Riparian forest restoration can be severely constrained by tree seedling mortality. I evaluated the effects of tree shelters and planting density on herbivory and seedling mortality at a restoration site in the Lake Champlain Basin of Vermont. Eighteen experimental units were established along a 5th-order stream and planted with bare-root seedlings of seven species associated with northern hardwood floodplain forests. Two treatments were applied in a factorial design: shelters versus no shelters and high versus low planting density. Mortality and herbivory data were collected over three growing seasons. Survivorship declined to 56.4% after three growing seasons and varied significantly by species. Planting density, presence/absence of shelters, and their interaction had significant effects on survival, browse, or girdling intensity when tested for all species combined. Browse rates were high (44%), whereas girdling rates were low (3.4%). Both browse (P < 0.001) and girdling (P = 0.022) contributed to seedling mortality. High rates of deer browse on seedlings in shelters were due, in part, to the short height (60 cm) of the shelters, suggesting a need for taller shelters. A large portion (39%) of dead seedlings were neither browsed nor girdled, signaling the importance of other mortality agents. An adaptive approach is recommended to compensate for high seedling mortality and the limited effectiveness of protective devices.
Kollat, J. B.; Reed, P. M.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2008) Addressing model bias and uncertainty in three dimensional groundwater transport forecasts for a physical aquifer experiment. Geophysical Research Letters 35(17)
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This work contributes a combination of laboratory-based aquifer tracer experimentation and bias-aware Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF) to demonstrate that systematic modeling errors ( or bias) in source loading dynamics and the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity pose severe challenges for groundwater transport forecasting under uncertainty. The impacts of model bias were evaluated using an ammonium chloride tracer experiment conducted in a three dimensional laboratory tank aquifer with 105 near real-time sampling locations. This study contributes a bias-aware EnKF framework that (i) dramatically enhances the accuracy of concentration breakthrough forecasts in the presence of systematic, spatio-temporally correlated modeling errors, (ii) clarifies in space and time where transport gradients are maximally impacted by model bias, and (iii) expands the size and scope of flow- and-transport problems that can be considered in the future.
Kusters, K.; Ruiz Perez, M.; de Foresta, H.; Dietz, T.; Ros-Tonen, M.; Belcher, B.; Manalu, P.; Nawir, A.; Wollenberg, E.. (2008) Will agroforests vanish? The case of Damar agroforests in Indonesia. 36(3) 357-370
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Resin producing agroforestry in the Krui area of Sumatra in Indonesia is presented as an environmentally friendly, income generating land-use system which contributes to both development and conservation objectives. We studied the change in household income portfolios in three communities in the Krui area. The studies revealed that in the period 1995-2004 agroforestry remained the main source of income. We predict, however, that due to declining resin productivity per hectare, and rising price and demand for timber, an increasing number of farmers will cut their mature agroforests in the near future. At the same time our data suggests that farmers will continue tree planting activities. In result old agroforests may vanish while new ones will be established.
Loucks, C.; Ricketts, T. H.; Naidoo, R.; Lamoreux, J.; Hoekstra, J.. (2008) Explaining the global pattern of protected area coverage: relative importance of vertebrate biodiversity, human activities and agricultural suitability. 35(8) 1337-1348
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Aim Twelve per cent of the Earth's terrestrial surface is covered by protected areas, but neither these areas nor the biodiversity they contain are evenly distributed spatially. To guide future establishment of protected areas, it is important to understand the factors that have shaped the spatial arrangement of the current protected area system. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess the ability of vertebrate biodiversity measures, resource consumption and agricultural potential to explain the global coverage pattern of protected areas. Location Global. Methods For each of 762 World Wildlife Fund terrestrial ecoregions of the world, we measured protected area coverage, resource consumption, terrestrial vertebrate species richness, number of endemic species, number of threatened species, net primary production, elevation and topographic heterogeneity. We combined these variables into 39 a priori models to describe protected area coverage at the global scale, and for six biogeographical realms. Using the Akaike information criterion and Akaike weights, we identified the relative importance and influence of each variable in describing protected area coverage. Results Globally, the number of endemic species was the best variable describing protected area coverage, followed by the number of threatened species. Species richness and resource consumption were of moderate importance and agricultural potential had weak support for describing protected area coverage at a global scale. Yet, the relative importance of these factors varied among biogeographical realms. Measures of vertebrate biodiversity (species richness, endemism and threatened species) were among the most important variables in all realms, except the Indo-Malayan, but had a wide range of relative importance and influence. Resource consumption was inversely related to protected area coverage across all but one realm (the Palearctic), most strongly in the Nearctic realm. Agricultural potential, despite having little support in describing protected area coverage globally, was strongly and positively related to protection in the Palearctic and Neotropical realms, as well as in the Indo-Malayan realm. The Afrotropical, Indo-Malayan and Australasian realms showed no clear, strong relationships between protected area coverage and the independent variables. Main conclusions Globally, the existing protected area network is more strongly related to biodiversity measures than to patterns of resource consumption or agricultural potential. However, the relative importance of these factors varies widely among the world's biogeographical realms. Understanding the biases of the current protected area system may help to correct for them as future protected areas are added to the global network.
Luzadis, Valerie A; Volk, Timothy A; Buchholz, Thomas S. (2008) Using a systems approach to improve bioenergy sustainability assessment. Renewable Energy from Forest Resources in the United States 10 196
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The current focus on sustainable development and the goal to move from a fossil fuel to a renewable-based economy brings with it the challenge of assessing the sustainability of the wide array of diff erent potential bioenergy systems. Concern about the impact of growing biomass for energy on food security in the poorest regions of the world intensifi es the need for reliable, manageable, comprehensive approaches to assessing the sustainability of biomass systems at all scales. Efforts to develop, implement, and revise criteria and indicators to assess the sustainability of forest management provide a foundation for building strong bioenergy sustainability assessment approaches. However, the forest management eff ort encompasses only one type of feedstock, woody biomass, from one source, naturally occurring forests. It also focuses on only one portion of bioenergy systems, biomass production. While discussion continues, no clear consensus has yet been reached for how to assess bioenergy sustainability. The assessment must focus on all components of the system, from biomass production through useful energy products, and encompass social and economic values. In this paper, we propose a systems approach to more comprehensively inform the development of sustainability criteria and indicators, and to synthesize the many insights from wide-ranging research on biomass-to-energy as well as the associated ranges of social and economic values. Specifically, we present a five-step process for how to use a participatory, systems approach to assess bioenergy sustainability. We suggest that this approach is more comprehensive than the dominant economy environment-social assessment approach, which is largely ad hoc in nature.
McBride, M.; Hession, W. C.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2008) Riparian reforestation and channel change: A case study of two small tributaries to Sleepers River, northeastern Vermont, USA. Geomorphology 102(3-4) 445-459
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Measurements of two small streams in northeastern Vermont, collected in 1966 and 2004-2005, document considerable change in channel width following a period of passive reforestation. Channel widths of several tributaries to Sleepers River in Danville, VT, USA, were previously measured in 1966 when the area had a diverse patchwork of forested and nonforested riparian vegetation. Nearly 40 years later, we remeasured bed widths and surveyed large woody debris (LWD) in two of these tributaries, along 500 m of upper Pope Brook and along nearly the entire length (3 km) of an unnamed tributary (W12). Following the longitudinal survey, we collected detailed channel and riparian information for nine reaches along the same two streams. Four reaches had reforested since 1966: two reaches remained nonforested. The other three reaches have been forested since at least the 1940s. Results show that reforested reaches were significantly wider than as measured in 1966, and they are more incised than all other forested and nonforested reaches. Visual observations, cross-sectional surveys, and LWD characteristics indicate that reforested reaches continue to change in response to riparian reforestation. The three reaches with the oldest forest were widest for a given drainage area, and the nonforested reaches were Substantially narrower. Our observations culminated in a conceptual model that describes a multiphase process of incision, widening, and recovery following riparian reforestation of nonforested areas. Results from this case study may help inform stream restoration efforts by providing insight into potentially unanticipated changes in channel size associated with the replanting of forested riparian buffers adjacent to small streams. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Naidoo, R.; Balmford, A.; Costanza, R.; Fisher, B.; Green, R. E.; Lehner, B.; Malcolm, T. R.; Ricketts, T. H.. (2008) Global mapping of ecosystem services and conservation priorities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(28) 9495-9500
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Global efforts to conserve biodiversity have the potential to deliver economic benefits to people (i.e., "ecosystem services"). However, regions for which conservation benefits both biodiversity and ecosystem services cannot be identified unless ecosystem services can be quantified and valued and their areas of production mapped. Here we review the theory, data, and analyses needed to produce such maps and find that data availability allows us to quantify imperfect global proxies for only four ecosystem services. Using this incomplete set as an illustration, we compare ecosystem service maps with the global distributions of conventional targets for biodiversity conservation. Our preliminary results show that regions selected to maximize biodiversity provide no more ecosystem services than regions chosen randomly. Furthermore, spatial concordance among different services, and between ecosystem services and established conservation priorities, varies widely. Despite this lack of general concordance, "win-win" areas-regions important for both ecosystem services and biodiversity-can be usefully identified, both among ecoregions and at finer scales within them. An ambitious interdisciplinary research effort is needed to move beyond these preliminary and illustrative analyses to fully assess synergies and trade-offs in conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services.
North, M. P.; Keeton, W. S.. (2008) Emulating Natural Disturbance Regimes: an Emerging Approach for Sustainable Forest Management. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY. Pages 32;
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Sustainable forest management integrates ecological, social, and economic objectives. To achieve the former, researchers and practitioners are modifying silvicultural practices based on concepts from successional and landscape ecology to provide a broader array of ecosystem functions than is associated with conventional approaches. One such innovation is disturbance-based management. Under this approach, forest practices that emulate natural ecological processes, such as local disturbance regimes, are viewed as more likely to perpetuate the evolutionary environment and ecosystem functions of the forest matrix. We examine how this concept has been applied in three U.S. forest types: Pacific Northwest temperate coniferous, Western mixed-conifer, and Northeastern northern hardwood forests. In general, stand-level treatments have been widely used and often closely mimic historic disturbance because forest structure and composition guidelines have been well defined from reconstructive research. Disturbance-based landscape management, however, has not yet been closely approximated in the three forest types we examined. Landscape implementation has been constrained by economic, ownership, safety, and practical limitations. Given these constraints we suggest that disturbance-based management concepts are best applied as an assessment tool with variable implementation potential. Silviculture practices can be compared against the frequency, scale, and level of biological legacies characteristic of natural disturbance regimes to evaluate their potential impact on ecosystem sustainability.
Ricketts, T. H.; Regetz, J.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Cunningham, S. A.; Kremen, C.; Bogdanski, A.; Gemmill-Herren, B.; Greenleaf, S. S.; Klein, A. M.; Mayfield, M. M.; Morandin, L. A.; Ochieng, A.; Potts, S. G.; Viana, B. F.. (2008) Landscape effects on crop pollination services: are there general patterns? (vol 11, pg 499, 2008). Ecology Letters 11(10) 1121-1121
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Pollination by bees and other animals increases the size, quality, or stability of harvests for 70% of leading global crops. Because native species pollinate many of these crops effectively, conserving habitats for wild pollinators within agricultural landscapes can help maintain pollination services. Using hierarchical Bayesian techniques, we synthesize the results of 23 studies – representing 16 crops on five continents – to estimate the general relationship between pollination services and distance from natural or semi-natural habitats. We find strong exponential declines in both pollinator richness and native visitation rate. Visitation rate declines more steeply, dropping to half of its maximum at 0.6 km from natural habitat, compared to 1.5 km for richness. Evidence of general decline in fruit and seed set – variables that directly affect yields – is less clear. Visitation rate drops more steeply in tropical compared with temperate regions, and slightly more steeply for social compared with solitary bees. Tropical crops pollinated primarily by social bees may therefore be most susceptible to pollination failure from habitat loss. Quantifying these general relationships can help predict consequences of land use change on pollinator communities and crop productivity, and can inform landscape conservation efforts that balance the needs of native species and people.
Roman, J.. (2008) Whale communication and culture. Environmental Information Coalition, National COuncil for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC.
Seguino, Stephanie. (2008) Micro-Macro Linkages between Gender, Development and Growth: Implications for the Caribbean Region. Journal of Eastern Caribbean Studies 33(4) 8-42
Smith, K. J.; Keeton, W. S.; Twery, M. J.; Tobi, D. R.. (2008) Understory plant responses to uneven-aged forestry alternatives in northern hardwood-conifer forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 38(6) 1303-1318
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The understory layer encompasses the majority of plain species diversity ill forested ecosystems and may be sensitive to timber harvest disturbance. We hypothesize that (i) uneven-aged, low-intensity silvicultural systems can maintain understory plant diversity and support late-successional species following harvest disturbance; (ii) retaining and enhancing stand structural complexity can increase understory plant diversity in northern hardwood-conifer forests; and (iii) plant responses are influenced by interactions among canopy structure, soils, and climate processes. Experimental treatments include single-tree selection and group selection, both modified to increase structural retention, and a third technique designed to promote late-successional forest structure and function, structural complexity enhancement. Four replications of each treatment were applied to 2 ha units in Vermont and New York, USA. Understory vegetation was monitered 2 years pre- and 4 years post-treatment. Results show that over time, understory responses were strongly affected by overstory treatment and less influenced by soils and drought. All treatments succeeded at maintaining overall composition and diversity. However, late-successional diversity increased significantly in structural complexity enhancement units compared with group selection units. These results indicate that while conventional uneven-aged systems can maintain understory plant diversity, variations that retain or enhance structural complexity may be effective at retaining late-successional species.
Smith, K. M.; Keeton, W. S.; Donovan, T. M.; Mitchell, B.. (2008) Stand-level forest structure and avian habitat: Scale dependencies in predicting occurrence in a heterogeneous forest. Forest Science 54(1) 36-46
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We explored the role of stand-level forest structure and spatial extent of forest sampling in models of avian occurrence in northern hardwood-conifer forests for two species: black-throated blue warbler (Dendroica caerulescens) and ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus). We estimated site occupancy from point counts at 20 sites and characterized the forest structure at these sites at three spatial extents (0.2, 3.0, and 12.0 ha). Weight of evidence was greatest for habitat models using forest stand structure at the 12.0-ha extent and diminished only slightly at the 3.0-ha extent, a scale that was slightly larger than the average territory size of both species. Habitat models characterized at the 0.2-ha extent had low support, yet are the closest in design to those used in many of the habitat studies we reviewed. These results suggest that the role of stand-level vegetation may have been underestimated in the past, which will be of interest to land managers who use habitat models to assess the suitability of habitat for species of concern.
Stephens, Jennie C.; Hernandez, Maria E.; Román, Mikael; Graham, Amanda C.; Scholz, Roland W.. (2008) Higher education as a change agent for sustainability in different cultures and contexts. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education 9(3) 317-338
Stephens, Jennie C.; Keith, David W.. (2008) Assessing geochemical carbon management. Climatic Change 90(3) 217-242
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The challenge of reversing rising atmospheric CO(2) concentrations is growing with the continued expansion of CO(2)-emitting energy infrastructure throughout the world and with the lack of coordinated, effective measures to manage and reduce emissions. Given this situation, it is prudent for society to explore all potential carbon management options, including those with seemingly low probability for success. Recent initiatives for advancing and enhancing carbon storage options have focused primarily on the physical trapping of CO(2) in underground geologic formations and on the biological uptake of CO(2); less attention has been given to approaches that rely primarily on geochemical reactions that enhance transformation of CO(2) gas into dissolved or solid phase carbon by liberating cations to neutralize carbonic acid. This paper provides a structured review of the technical status of these geochemical approaches, and also presents a simple framework for assessing the potential and limitations of various proposed geochemical approaches to assist prioritizing future research in this area. Despite major limitations, geochemical approaches have unique potential to contribute to CO(2) reductions in ways that neither physical nor biological carbon storage can by allowing for the direct removal of CO(2) from the atmosphere with minimal requirements for integrating with existing infrastructure. Recognizing the severity and urgency of the need for carbon management options, we argue for an increase in research activity related to geochemical approaches to carbon management.
Stephens, Jennie C.; Wilson, Elizabeth J.; Peterson, Tarla Rai. (2008) Socio-Political Evaluation of Energy Deployment (SPEED): An integrated research framework analyzing energy technology deployment. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 75(8) 1224-1246
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Stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases to reduce the risks of climate change requires a major transition in society's energy infrastructure; yet despite a growing sense of urgency, deployment of alternative emerging energy technologies has been slow and uncertain. This paper proposes a systematic, interdisciplinary framework for the integrated analysis of regulatory, legal, political, economic, and social factors that influence energy technology deployment decisions at the state level to enhance awareness of the interconnections and enable improved energy policy and planning and accelerated change in society's energy infrastructure. This framework, Socio-Political Evaluation of Energy Deployment, (SPEED), integrates analysis of laws, regulations, institutions and policy actors as well as varying regional perceptions and levels of awareness about the risks and benefits of emerging energy technologies to facilitate improved understanding of the complex interconnected components of state energy systems. While this framework has been developed with U.S. states as a model, the SPEED framework is generalizable to other countries with different sub-national structures. We present three research methods that could be applied within the SPEED framework that could be particularly helpful in understanding the integrated socio-political influences on energy technology deployment: (1) policy review and analysis, (2) media analysis, and (3) focus groups and structured interviews with key stakeholders. By integrating the fields of technology diffusion, environmental policy, comparative analysis' of states, and risk perception, future empirical research conducted within this SPEED framework will improve understanding of the interconnected socio-political influences on energy technology deployment to enable energy modelers, policy-makers, energy professionals, state planners and other stakeholders to develop and implement more effective strategies to accelerate the deployment of emerging energy technologies. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stevens, L.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2008) Local adaptation to biocontrol agents: A multi-objective datadriven optimization model for the evolution of resistance. Ecological Complexity 5(3) 252-259
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Spatial and temporal variability in the application of biological control agents such as parasites or pathogenic bacteria can cause the evolution of resistance in pest organisms. Because biocontrol will be more effective if organisms are not resistant, it is desirable to examine the evolution of resistance under different application strategies. We present a computational method that integrates a genetic algorithm with experimental data for predicting when local populations are likely to evolve resistance to biocontrol pathogens. The model incorporates parameters that can be varied as part of pest control measures such as the distribution and severity of the biocontrol agent (e.g., pathogenic fungi). The model predicts the evolution of pathogen defense as well as indirect selection on several aspects of the organism's genetic system. Our results show that both variability of selection within populations as well as mean differences among populations are important in the evolution of defenses against biocontrol pathogens. The mean defense is changed through the pest organism's genotype and the variance is affected by components of the genetic system, namely, the resiliency, recombination rate and number of genes. The data-driven model incorporates experimental data on pathogen susceptibility and the cost of defense. The results suggest that spatial variability rather than uniform application of biological control will limit the evolution of resistance in pest organisms. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Turner, K.; Georgiou, S.; Fisher, B.. (2008) Valuing Ecosystem Services: The Case of Multi-functional Wetlands. Earthscan, London, UK. Pages 229;
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Ecosystem services can be broadly defined as the aspects of ecosystems that provide benefits to people. This book provides guidance on the valuation of ecosystem services, using the case of multifunctional wetlands to illustrate and make recommendations regarding the methods and techniques that can be applied to appraise management options. It provides a review of ecosystem service valuation rationale, including its importance from both a policy and project appraisal perspective, and a useful reference when considering policy and appraisal of ecosystem management options. It shows how legal obligations and other high-level management targets should be taken into account in valuation exercises, thus giving important policy context to the management options. The authors set out what they call an Ecosystem Services Approach to the full appraisal of the role of ecosystem services in the economy and society. Although concentrating on wetlands, the approaches suggested provide an assessment framework that can be applied to other types of ecosystem assets.
Turner, R. K.; Fisher, B.. (2008) Environmental economics - To the rich man the spoils. Nature 451(7182) 1067-1068
Voigt, B.; Troy, A.. (2008) Ecological models: Land use modelling. Elsevier Science, Waltham. Pages 2126-2132;
Warren, D. R.; Keeton, W. S.; Kraft, C. E.. (2008) A comparison of line-intercept and census techniques for assessing large wood volume in streams. Hydrobiologia 598 123-130
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Most surveys of large wood in streams are conducted by counting and measuring every piece of large wood within a reach, a technique that is effective but time-consuming. In this study we evaluated an alternative method that takes less time and can be employed in studies in which an estimate of total large wood volume along a stream reach is the primary metric of interest. In first- through third-order streams we estimated in-stream large wood volume and large wood frequency, comparing large wood census estimates to those from a modified a line-intercept technique that has been commonly used in terrestrial forest surveys. Estimates of large wood volume from line transects located in the geographic center of the stream (parallel to stream axis and equidistant from bankfull margins) were highly correlated with those from the wood census (P < 0.001, r(2) = 0.88, Pearson's r = 0.935), but produced slightly greater estimates of large wood volume (regression slope = 1.28, SE = 0.16). Line-intercept estimates of large wood frequency (number per 100 m of stream) were significantly correlated to the wood census counts, but the line-intercept method underestimated frequency by about 50% (P = 0.016). Differences in the estimated large wood volume between line-intercept and wood census surveys were associated with variability in the diameter of the large wood, but unrelated to stream bankfull width, for the range of stream sizes evaluated in this study (approximate to 2 to 11 m). Our results suggest that in small constrained streams, line-intercept surveys are an effective method for estimating in-stream large wood volume and that these estimates better approximate results from whole-stream census techniques where the diameter of in-stream wood is relatively consistent.
Wollenberg, Eva; Iwan, Ramses; Limberg, Godwin; Moeliono, Moira. (2008) Locating social choice in forest comanagement and local governance: the politics of public decision making and interest. Public and Private in Natural Resource Governance: A False Dichotomy? Pages 27;
Wunder, Sven; Campbell, Bruce; Frost, Peter GH; Sayer, Jeffrey A; Iwan, Ramses; Wollenberg, Lini. (2008) When donors get cold feet: the community conservation concession in Setulang (Kalimantan, Indonesia) that never happened. Ecology and Society 13(1) 12
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There is consensus that payments for biodiversity services are a promising conservation tool, yet the implementation of applied schemes has been lagging behind. This paper explores some reasons why potential biodiversity buyers may hesitate. It describes the case of an unsuccessful attempt to establish a community conservation concession in the village of Setulang (East Kalimantan, Indonesia) to safeguard a biologically valuable area from predatory logging. Potential biodiversity donors did not engage in this payments-for-environmental-services scheme mainly because of their limited time horizon and uneasiness about the conditionality principle. Other complicating factors included overlapping land claims, and the diagnosis of the externality at hand. We conclude that new investment modalities and attitudes are needed if potential biodiversity buyers are to exploit the advantages of this innovative tool. We also provide some tangible recommendations on factors to consider when designing a compensation scheme for conservation at the community level.
2007
Armsworth, P. R.; Chan, K. M. A.; Daily, G. C.; Ehrlich, P. R.; Kremen, C.; Ricketts, T. H.; Sanjayan, M. A.. (2007) Ecosystem-service science and the way forward for conservation. Conservation Biology 21(6) 1383-1384
Besaw, L. E.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2007) Stochastic simulation and spatial estimation with multiple data types using artificial neural networks. Water Resources Research 43(11)
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A novel data-driven artificial neural network ( ANN) that quantitatively combines large numbers of multiple types of soft data is presented for performing stochastic simulation and/or spatial estimation. A counterpropagation ANN is extended with a radial basis function to estimate parameter fields that reproduce the spatial structure exhibited in autocorrelated parameters. Applications involve using three geophysical properties measured on a slab of Berea sandstone and the delineation of landfill leachate at a site in the Netherlands using electrical formation conductivity as our primary variable and six types of secondary data ( e. g., hydrochemistry, archaea, and bacteria). The ANN estimation fields are statistically similar to geostatistical methods ( indicator simulation and cokriging) and reference fields ( when available). The method is a nonparametric clustering/ classification algorithm that can assimilate significant amounts of disparate data types with both continuous and categorical responses without the computational burden associated with the construction of positive definite covariance and cross-covariance matrices. The combination of simplicity and computational speed makes the method ideally suited for environmental subsurface characterization and other Earth science applications with spatially autocorrelated variables.
Buchholz, T. S.; Volk, T. A.; Luzadis, V. A.. (2007) A participatory systems approach to modeling social, economic, and ecological components of bioenergy. Energy Policy 35(12) 6084-6094
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Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed manner. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Costanza, R.; Farley, J.. (2007) Ecological economics of coastal disasters: Introduction to the special issue. Ecological Economics 63(2-3) 249-253
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Coastal disasters are increasing in frequency and magnitude-measured in terms of human lives lost, destroyed infrastructure, ecological damage and disrupted social networks. Hurricane Katrina and the Indian ocean tsunami illustrate the severe and widespread impacts of such disasters on human well-being. The proximate cause of most of these disasters is "forces of nature". However, human decisions, driven largely by economic forces, do much to aggravate these natural disasters-for example, coastal mangroves and wetlands protect coastal communities from wave surges and winds, but are rapidly being converted for the production of market goods, and anthropogenic climate change driven by the energy use of our economy may exacerbate coastal disasters in several ways. The goal of economics should be to improve the sustainable well-being of humans. Our well-being is generated in part by the production of market goods and services, but also by the goods and services provided by nature, by social networks and norms, by knowledge and health-in short: built, natural, social and human capital, respectively. in seeking to increase human well-being solely, by maximizing the monetary value of market goods (built capital), our current economic system may be doing more to undermine our sustainable well-being than to improve it, a point made clear by the growing negative impacts of coastal disasters. An economic system should allocate available resources in a way that equitably and efficiently provides for the sustainable well-being of people by protecting and investing in all four types of capital. This is what ecological economics seeks to do. This article introduces ten papers that apply the four capital framework to the analysis of coastal disasters, seeking to understand their impacts and how to mitigate them, how to predict and plan for them, and how to use this information to redesign coastal areas in a more sustainable and desirable way. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Costanza, R.; Fisher, B.; Ali, S.; Beer, C.; Bond, L.; Boumans, R.; Danigelis, N. L.; Dickinson, J.; Elliott, C.; Farley, J.; Gayer, D. E.; Glenn, L. M.; Hudspeth, T.; Mahoney, D.; McCahill, L.; McIntosh, B.; Reed, B.; Rizvi, S. A. T.; Rizzo, D. M.; Simpatico, T.; Snapp, R.. (2007) Quality of life: An approach integrating opportunities, human needs, and subjective well-being. Ecological Economics 61(2-3) 267-276
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Enhancing Quality of Life (QOL) has long been an explicit or implicit goal for individuals, communities, nations, and the world. But defining QOL and measuring progress toward meeting this goal have been elusive. Diverse "objective" and "subjective" indicators across a range of disciplines and scales, and recent work on subjective well-being (SWB) surveys and the psychology of happiness have spurred interest. Drawing from multiple disciplines, we present an integrative definition of QOL that combines measures of human needs with subjective well-being or happiness. QOL is proposed as a multi-scale, multi-dimensional concept that contains interacting objective and subjective elements. We relate QOL to the opportunities that are provided to meet human needs in the forms of built, human, social and natural capital (in addition to time) and the policy options that are available to enhance these opportunities. Issues related to defining, measuring, and scaling these concepts are discussed, and a research agenda is elaborated. Policy implications include strategies for investing in opportunities to maximize QOL enhancement at the individual, community, and national scales. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Costanza, R.; Fisher, B.; Mulder, K.; Liu, S.; Christopher, T.. (2007) Biodiversity and ecosystem services: A multi-scale empirical study of the relationship between species richness and net primary production. Ecological Economics 61(2-3) 478-491
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Biodiversity (BD) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP) are intricately linked in complex ecosystems such that a change in the state of one of these variables can be expected to have an impact on the other. Using multiple regression analysis at the site and ecoregion scales in North America, we estimated relationships between BD (using plant species richness as a proxy) and NPP (as a proxy for ecosystem services). At the site scale, we found that 57% of the variation in NPP was correlated with variation in BD after effects of temperature and precipitation were accounted for. At the ecoregion scale, 3 temperature ranges were found to be important. At low temperatures (-2.1 degrees C average) BD was negatively correlated with NPP. At mid-temperatures (5.3 degrees C average) there was no correlation. At high temperatures (13 degrees C average) BD was positively correlated with NPP, accounting for approximately 26% of the variation in NPP after effects of temperature and precipitation were accounted for. The general conclusion of positive links between BD and ecosystem functioning from earlier experimental results in micro and mesocosms was qualified by our results, and strengthened at high temperature ranges. Our results can also be linked to estimates of the total value of ecosystem services to derive an estimate of the value of the biodiversity contribution to these services. We tentatively conclude from this that a 1% change in BD in the high temperature range (which includes most of the world's BD) corresponds to approximately a 1/2% change in the value of ecosystem services. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Farley, J.; Baker, D.; Batker, D.; Koliba, C.; Matteson, R.; Mills, R.; Pittman, J.. (2007) Opening the policy window for ecological economics: Katrina as a focusing event. Ecological Economics 63(2-3) 344-354
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Ecological economics and its allied trans-disciplinary fields are well established in academia, but so far have failed to have significant influence on policy makers. Public policy research and theory suggest that three process streams must converge in order to shape the political agenda and change policy [Kingdon, J. 1984. Agenda, Alternatives, and Public Policies. Boston: Little, Brown]. First, the "problem" stream emerges when an existing condition is defined as a problem - a discrepancy between current reality and a desired goal - and critical policy makers accept the definition of the problem. The "policy" stream emerges as consensus grows around policy instruments to solve the problem. The "politics" stream emerges as the "national mood" and leading politicians accept the gravity of the problem and are willing to implement the policies required to address it. When these three streams converge, a policy window is created that can move issues onto the political agenda and into formal policy. A focusing event, like Katrina, can bring these three process streams together. However, different strategic representations of the situation may allow entirely different problem definitions and policies to dominate the political agenda. This paper analyzes the extent to which Katrina has opened a policy window for ecological economics. We find that Katrina has strengthened the three streams necessary to create a policy window for ecological economics, but that the dominant economic paradigm currently on the political agenda - market fundamentalism - is strategically presenting Katrina as supporting its own problem stream and policy stream. Key elements of the ecological economic agenda, such as investing in natural capital, are making it on to the political agenda, but overall market fundamentalist policies appear likely to dominate. We argue that ecological economists have failed to galvanize public acceptance for the policy goals of sustainable scale and just distribution, thus failing to effectively communicate their perspectives on problem definition and/or policy solutions to policy makers and the voting public. We conclude with suggestions for how ecological economists can still take advantage of the Katrina window, and better prepare for future windows opening. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fisher, B.; Christopher, T.. (2007) Poverty cand biodiversity: Measuring the overlap of human poverty and the biodiversity hotspots. Ecological Economics 62(1) 93-101
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In an effort to prioritize conservation efforts, scientists have developed the concept of biodiversity hotspots. Since most hotspots occur in countries where poverty is widespread, the success of conservation efforts depends upon the recognition that poverty can be a significant constraint on conservation, and at the same time conservation is an important component to the alleviation of long-term poverty. In this paper we present five key socioeconomic poverty indicators (access to water, undernourishment, potential population pressure, number living below poverty line and debt service) and integrate them with an ecologically based hotspots analysis in order to illustrate magnitude of the overlap between biological conservation and poverty. The analysis here suggests that the overlap between severe, multifaceted poverty and key areas of global biodiversity is great and needs to be acknowledged. Understanding the magnitude of overlap and interactions among poverty, conservation and macroeconomic processes is crucial for identifying illusive, yet possible, win-win solutions. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fisher, B.; Erickson, J.. (2007) Growth and equity: Dismantling the Kaldor–Kuznets–Solow consensus. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, U.K.. Pages 384;
Fisher, B.. (2007) Authorship in ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5(1) 11-11
Fisher, B.. (2007) CO2 emissions: Getting bang for the buck. Science 318(5858) 1865-1865
Gajda, R.; Koliba, C.. (2007) Evaluating the imperative of intraorganizational collaboration - A school improvement perspective. American Journal of Evaluation 28(1) 26-44
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"Collaboration" is a ubiquitously championed concept and widely recognized across the public and private sectors as the foundation on which the capacity for addressing complex issues is predicated. For those invested in organizational improvement, high-quality collaboration has become no less than an imperative. However, evaluators and program stakeholders often struggle to assess the quality of collaborative dynamics and the merits of collaborative structures. In this article, the authors describe an approach to demystifying and assessing interpersonal collaboration and use their consultancy work with school improvement stakeholders to illustrate a multistage collaboration evaluation process. Evaluators in a wide range of organizational settings are encouraged to utilize collaboration theory and the evaluation strategies presented herein to cultivate stakeholder capacity to understand, examine, and capitalize on the power of collaboration.
Grand, J.; Cummings, M. P.; Rebelo, T. G.; Ricketts, T. H.; Neel, M. C.. (2007) Biased data reduce efficiency and effectiveness of conservation reserve networks. Ecology Letters 10(5) 364-374
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Complementarity-based reserve selection algorithms efficiently prioritize sites for biodiversity conservation, but they are data-intensive and most regions lack accurate distribution maps for the majority of species. We explored implications of basing conservation planning decisions on incomplete and biased data using occurrence records of the plant family Proteaceae in South Africa. Treating this high-quality database as 'complete', we introduced three realistic sampling biases characteristic of biodiversity databases: a detectability sampling bias and two forms of roads sampling bias. We then compared reserve networks constructed using complete, biased, and randomly sampled data. All forms of biased sampling performed worse than both the complete data set and equal-effort random sampling. Biased sampling failed to detect a median of 1-5% of species, and resulted in reserve networks that were 9-17% larger than those designed with complete data. Spatial congruence and the correlation of irreplaceability scores between reserve networks selected with biased and complete data were low. Thus, reserve networks based on biased data. require more area to protect fewer species and identify different locations than those selected with randomly sampled or complete data.
Hermans, C.; Erickson, J.; Noordewier, T.; Sheldon, A.; Kline, M.. (2007) Collaborative environmental planning in river management: An application of multicriteria decision analysis in the White River Watershed in Vermont. Journal of Environmental Management 84(4) 534-546
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Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) provides a well-established family of decision tools to aid stakeholder groups in arriving at collective decisions. MCDA can also function as a framework for the social learning process, serving as an educational aid in decision problems characterized by a high level of public participation. In this paper, the framework and results of a structured decision process using the outranking MCDA methodology preference ranking organization method of enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) are presented. PROMETHEE is used to frame multi-stakeholder discussions of river management alternatives for the Upper White River of Central Vermont, in the northeastern United States. Stakeholders met over 10 months to create a shared vision of an ideal river and its services to communities, develop a list of criteria by which to evaluate river management alternatives, and elicit preferences to rank and compare individual and group preferences. The MCDA procedure helped to frame a group process that made stakeholder preferences explicit and substantive discussions about long-term river management possible. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keeton, W. S.; Kraft, C. E.; Warren, D. R.. (2007) Mature and old-growth riparian forests: Structure, dynamics, and effects on adirondack stream habitats. Ecological Applications 17(3) 852-868
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Riparian forests regulate linkages between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, yet relationships among riparian forest development, stand structure, and stream habitats are poorly understood in many temperate deciduous forest systems. Our research has (1) described structural attributes associated with old-growth riparian forests and (2) assessed linkages between these characteristics and in-stream habitat structure. The 19 study sites were located along predominantly first-and second-order streams in northern hardwood-conifer forests in the Adirondack Mountains of New York (USA). Sites were classified as mature forest (6 sites), mature with remnant old-growth trees (3 sites), and old-growth (10 sites). Forest-structure attributes were measured over stream channels and at varying distances from each bank. In-stream habitat features such as large woody debris (LWD), pools, and boulders were measured in each stream reach. Forest structure was examined in relation to stand age using multivariate techniques, ANOVA, and linear regression. We investigated linkages between forest structure and stream characteristics using similar methods, preceded by information-theoretic modeling (AIC). Old-growth riparian forest structure is more complex than that found in mature forests and exhibits significantly greater accumulations of aboveground tree biomass, both living and dead. In-stream LWD volumes were significantly (alpha = 0.05) greater at old-growth sites (200 m(3)/ha) compared to mature sites (34 m(3)/ha) and were strongly related to the basal area of adjacent forests. In-stream large-log densities correlated strongly with debris-dam densities. AIC models that included large-log density, debris-dam density, boulder density, and bankfull width had the most support for predicting pool density. There were higher proportions of LWD-formed pools relative to boulder-formed pools at old-growth sites as compared to mature sites. Old-growth riparian forests provide in-stream habitat features that have not been widely recognized in eastern North America, representing a potential benefit from late-successional riparian forest management and conservation. Riparian management practices (including buffer delineation and restorative silvicultural approaches) that emphasize development and maintenance of late-successional characteristics are recommended where the associated in-stream effects are desired.
Keeton, William S; Mote, Philip W; Franklin, Jerry F. (2007) Climate variability, climate change, and western wildfire with implications for the urban–wildland interface. Advances in the Economics of Environmental Resources; Emerald Group Publishing Limited, New York. 6 225-253
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Climate change during the next century is likely to significantly influence forest ecosystems in the western United States, including indirect effects on forest and shrubland fire regimes. Further exacerbation of fire hazards by the warmer, drier summers projected for much of the western U.S. by climate models would compound already elevated fire risks caused by 20th century fire suppression. This has potentially grave consequences for the urban–wildland interface in drier regions, where residential expansion increasingly places people and property in the midst of fire-prone vegetation. Understanding linkages between climate variability and change, therefore, are central to our ability to forecast future risks and adapt land management, allocation of fire management resources, and suburban planning accordingly. To establish these linkages we review previous research and draw inferences from our own retrospective work focused on 20th century climate–fire relationships in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). We investigated relationships between the two dominant modes of climate variability affecting the PNW, which are Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Nin˜o/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and historic fire activity at multiple spatial scales. We used historic fire data spanning most of the 20th century for USDA Forest Service Region 6, individual states (Idaho, Oregon, and Washington), and 20 national forests representative of the region’s physiographic diversity. Forest fires showed significant correlations with warm/dry phases of PDO at regional and state scales; relationships were variable at the scale of individual national forests. Warm/dry phases of PDO were especially influential in terms of the occurrence of very large fire events throughout the PNW. No direct statistical relationships were found between ENSO and forest fires at regional scales, although relationships may exist at smaller spatial scales. However, both ENSO and PDO were correlated with summer drought, as estimated by the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and PDSI was correlated with fire activity at all scales. Even moderate (70.31C decadal mean) fluctuations in PNW climate over the 20th century have influenced wildfire activity based on our analysis. Similar trends have been reported for other regions of the western U.S. Thus, forest fire activity has been sensitive to past climate variability, even in the face of altered dynamics due to fire suppression, as in the case of our analysis. It is likely that fire activity will increase in response to future temperature increases, at the same or greater magnitude as experienced during past climate variability. If extreme drought conditions become more prevalent we can expect a greater frequency of large, high-intensity forest fires. Increased vulnerability to forest fires may worsen the current fire management problem in the urban–wildland interface. Adaptation of fire management and restoration planning will be essential to address fire hazards in areas of intermingled exurban development and fire-prone vegetation. We recommend: (1) landscape-level strategic planning of fire restoration and containment projects; (2) better use of climatic forecasts, including PDO and ENSO related predictions; and (3) community-based efforts to limit further residential expansion into fire-prone forested and shrubland areas.
Koliba, C. J.; Lathrop, J.. (2007) Inquiry as intervention - Employing action research to surface intersubjective theories-in-use and support an organization's capacity to learn. Administration & Society 39(1) 51-76
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Social science can be practiced as a decidedly action-oriented and applied phenomenon, in particular within the context of organizational change and development. These practices are often prefaced by assumptions concerning the social construction of reality, the role of the researcher as an active agent for change, and the capacity of organizations to learn. This article recounts the attempts of social science researchers to employ an action research process to promote and support organizational learning within a public school setting. Addressing concerns with regard to the methodological challenges of translating individual perceptions into organizational themes or problems, the authors discuss the use of intersubjectively constructed accounts to support organizational learning.
Koliba, C.. (2007) Engagement, Scholarship, and Faculty Work: Trends and Implications for Public Affairs Education. Journal of Public Affairs Education 13(2) 315-333
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Building on the assumption that public administration and public affairs education has a role to play in helping students and communities bridge theory and practice, the author provides an overview of the "civic engagement movement" that is informing how higher education institutions, particularly their faculty, carry out their work. Ernest Boyer's effort to "reconsider scholarship" is reviewed in light of current practices shaping contemporary public affairs education. The author explores the current trends affecting faculty work load and performance appraisal. Suggestions for further research and dialogue around the issues raised in this article are provided.
Koliba, C.. (2007) On Sharpening Knives & Governing Networks. Administrative Theory & Praxis 29(2) 321-325
Kremen, C.; Williams, N. M.; Aizen, M. A.; Gemmill-Herren, B.; LeBuhn, G.; Minckley, R.; Packer, L.; Potts, S. G.; Roulston, T.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Vazquez, D. P.; Winfree, R.; Adams, L.; Crone, E. E.; Greenleaf, S. S.; Keitt, T. H.; Klein, A. M.; Regetz, J.; Ricketts, T. H.. (2007) Pollination and other ecosystem services produced by mobile organisms: a conceptual framework for the effects of land-use change. Ecology Letters 10(4) 299-314
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Many ecosystem services are delivered by organisms that depend on habitats that are segregated spatially or temporally from the location where services are provided. Management of mobile organisms contributing to ecosystem services requires consideration not only of the local scale where services are delivered, but also the distribution of resources at the landscape scale, and the foraging ranges and dispersal movements of the mobile agents. We develop a conceptual model for exploring how one such mobile-agent-based ecosystem service (MABES), pollination, is affected by land-use change, and then generalize the model to other MABES. The model includes interactions and feedbacks among policies affecting land use, market forces and the biology of the organisms involved. Animal-mediated pollination contributes to the production of goods of value to humans such as crops; it also bolsters reproduction of wild plants on which other services or service-providing organisms depend. About one-third of crop production depends on animal pollinators, while 60-90% of plant species require an animal pollinator. The sensitivity of mobile organisms to ecological factors that operate across spatial scales makes the services provided by a given community of mobile agents highly contextual. Services vary, depending on the spatial and temporal distribution of resources surrounding the site, and on biotic interactions occurring locally, such as competition among pollinators for resources, and among plants for pollinators. The value of the resulting goods or services may feed back via market-based forces to influence land-use policies, which in turn influence land management practices that alter local habitat conditions and landscape structure. Developing conceptual models for MABES aids in identifying knowledge gaps, determining research priorities, and targeting interventions that can be applied in an adaptive management context.
Lamoreux, J. F.; Morrison, J. C.; Ricketts, T. H.; Olson, D. M.; Dinerstein, E.; McKnight, M. W.; Shugart, H. H.. (2007) The multifaceted nature of biodiversity conservation: Reply to Leroux and Schmiegelow. Conservation Biology 21(1) 269-270
Langevin, H. M.; Rizzo, D. M.; Fox, J. R.; Badger, G. J.; Wu, J.; Konofagou, E. E.; Stevens-Tuttle, D.; Bouffard, N. A.; Krag, M. H.. (2007) Dynamic morphometric characterization of local connective tissue network structure in humans using ultrasound. Bmc Systems Biology 1(25)
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Background: In humans, connective tissue forms a complex, interconnected network throughout the body that may have mechanosensory, regulatory and signaling functions. Understanding these potentially important phenomena requires non-invasive measurements of collagen network structure that can be performed in live animals or humans. The goal of this study was to show that ultrasound can be used to quantify dynamic changes in local connective tissue structure in vivo. We first performed combined ultrasound and histology examinations of the same tissue in two subjects undergoing surgery: in one subject, we examined the relationship of ultrasound to histological images in three dimensions; in the other, we examined the effect of a localized tissue perturbation using a previously developed robotic acupuncture needling technique. In ten additional non-surgical subjects, we quantified changes in tissue spatial organization over time during needle rotation vs. no rotation using ultrasound and semi-variogram analyses. Results: 3-D renditions of ultrasound images showed longitudinal echogenic sheets that matched with collagenous sheets seen in histological preparations. Rank correlations between serial 2-D ultrasound and corresponding histology images resulted in high positive correlations for semi-variogram ranges computed parallel (r = 0.79, p < 0.001) and perpendicular ( r = 0.63, p < 0.001) to the surface of the skin, indicating concordance in spatial structure between the two data sets. Needle rotation caused tissue displacement in the area surrounding the needle that was mapped spatially with ultrasound elastography and corresponded to collagen bundles winding around the needle on histological sections. In semi-variograms computed for each ultrasound frame, there was a greater change in the area under the semi-variogram curve across successive frames during needle rotation compared with no rotation. The direction of this change was heterogeneous across subjects. The frame-to-frame variability was 10-fold ( p < 0.001) greater with rotation than with no rotation indicating changes in tissue structure during rotation. Conclusion: The combination of ultrasound and semi-variogram analyses allows quantitative assessment of dynamic changes in the structure of human connective tissue in vivo.
Li, Wen Jun; Ali, Saleem H.; Zhang, Qian. (2007) Property rights and grassland degradation: A study of the Xilingol Pasture, Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of Environmental Management 85(2) 461-470
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The semi-private property rights arrangement called the Household Production Responsibility System (HPRS) was started in the early 1980s in Xilingol pasture of Inner Mongolia (China), and stimulated the development of stockbreeding. The grassland has been degrading severely with increasing numbers of livestock. Based on a historical review of property rights regimes in Inner Mongolia and empirical surveys in Xilingol pasture during 2001-2003, this paper assesses the implementation of HPRS and its impacts on incomes of households as well as the environmental impact on the grassland. It was found that HPRS does not mitigate the "Tragedy of the Commons", instead it has exacerbated the situation. It was also found that co-management of grassland and livestock among a few households presents a sustainable use of grassland to develop livestock breeding. We conclude with the recommendation that small-scale collective property rights systems should be encouraged in Xilingol pasture of Inner Mongolia. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McBride, M.; Hession, W. C.; Rizzo, D. M.; Thompson, D. M.. (2007) The influence of riparian vegetation on near-bank turbulence: a flume experiment. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 32(13) 2019-2037
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Measurements from a fixed-bed, Froude-scaled hydraulic model of a stream in northeastern Vermont demonstrate the importance of forested riparian vegetation effects on near-bank turbulence during overbank flows. Sections of the,prototype stream, a tributary to Sleepers River, have increased in channel width within the last 40 years in response to passive reforestation of its riparian zone. Previous research found that reaches of small streams with forested riparian zones are commonly wider than adjacent reaches with non-forested, or grassy, vegetation; however, driving mechanisms for this morphologic difference are not fully explained. Flume experiments were performed with a 1:5 scale, simplified model of half a channel and its floodplain, mimicking the typical non-forested channel size. Two types of riparian vegetation were placed on the constructed floodplain: non-forested, with synthetic grass carpeting; and forested, where rigid, randomly distributed, wooden dowels were added. Three-dimensional velocities were measured with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter at 41 locations within the channel and floodplain at near-bed and 0.6-depth elevations. Observations of velocity components and calculations of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), Reynolds shear stress and boundary shear stress showed significant differences between forested and non-forested runs. Generally, forested runs exhibited a narrow band of high turbulence between the floodplain and main channel, where TKE was roughly two times greater than TKE in non-forested runs. Compared to non-forested runs, the hydraulic characteristics of forested runs appear to create an environment with higher erosion potential. Given that sediment entrainment and transport can be amplified in flows with high turbulence intensity and given that mature forested stream reaches are wider than comparable non-forested reaches, our results demonstrated a possible driving mechanism for channel widening during overbank flow events in stream reaches with recently reforested riparian zones. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mendez, V. E.; Gliessman, S. R.; Gilbert, G. S.. (2007) Tree biodiversity in farmer cooperatives of a shade coffee landscape in western El Salvador. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 119(1-2) 145-159
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Conservation of tropical biodiversity in agricultural landscapes has become more important as the area covered by natural ecosystems decreases. We analyzed the effects of local livelihoods, cooperative types, and selected biophysical variables (elevation, slope, percent shade, distance to the forest, coffee density, and coffee age) on tree biodiversity in shade coffee cooperatives of El Salvador. Tree inventories from 51 quadrats in coffee cooperatives included 2743 individuals from 46 families and 123 identified tree species. Species richness and tree diameters differed among some cooperatives, with greater richness associated with greater stein density; other biophysical variables had little impact on diversity. The amount of shade in the coffee plantations differed among cooperatives, particularly in the wet season. Of the tree species reported in a recent study of a neighboring forest and in the cooperatives (N = 227 species combined), 16% were present at both sites. The three coffee plantations shared 35% of total species reported from all cooperatives. Our research shows that the number of tree species found in a coffee plantation increases with the density of shade trees included in the system. In turn, agroecological management, as influenced by farmer livelihood strategies and cooperative types, directly affects shade canopy composition. Important factors to take into account are the types of farmer organizations present, the cost of maintaining species of conservation concern, and the potential benefits that conservation could bring to the livelihood strategies of farm households. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mirus, B. B.; Ebel, B. A.; Loague, K.; Wemple, B. C.. (2007) Simulated effect of a forest road on near-surface hydrologic response: redux. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 32(1) 126-142
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In the work reported here the comprehensive physics-based Integrated Hydrology Model (InHM) was employed to conduct both three- and two-dimensional (3D and 2D) hydrologic-response simulations for the small upland catchment known as C3 (located within the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon). Results from the 3D simulations for the steep unchannelled C3 (i) identify subsurface stormflow as the dominant hydrologic-response mechanism and (ii) show the effect of the down-gradient forest road on both the surface and subsurface flow systems. Comparison of the 3D results with the 2D results clearly illustrates the importance of convergent subsurface How (e.g. greater pore-water pressures in the hollow of the catchment for the 3D scenario). A simple infinite-slope model, driven by subsurface pore-water pressures generated from the 3D and 2D hydrologic-response simulations, was employed to estimate slope stability along the long-profile of the C3 hollow axis. As expected, the likelihood of slope failure is underestimated for the lower pore pressures from the 2D hydrologic-response simulation compared, in a relative sense, to the higher pore pressures from the 3D hydrologic response simulation. The effort reported herein provides a firm quantitative foundation for generalizing the effects that forest roads can have on near-surface hydrologic response and slope stability at the catchment scale. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pongsiri, M. J.; Roman, J.. (2007) Examining the links between Biodiversity and human health: An interdisciplinary research initiative at the US Environmental Protection Agency. Ecohealth 4(1) 82-85
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Under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's mission to protect human health and the environment, the agency seeks to conduct research on the structure and function of ecosystems and to improve our understanding of the processes that contribute to the sustained health of the nation's ecosystems and the well-being of human populations. Changes in biodiversity can profoundly impact the ability of ecosystems to provide clean water, energy, food, recreation, and other services that contribute to human well-being. In addition, changes in biodiversity can affect the transmission of infectious disease to humans, particularly vectorborne diseases such as malaria and Lyme disease. The Environmental Protection Agency's new initiative supports interdisciplinary research to characterize the mechanisms that link biodiversity and human health and to use this knowledge to develop integrative tools and approaches for quantifying and predicting these relationships. Research on these links can have an important impact on our view of biodiversity and how we manage resources to protect human and ecosystem health.
Roman, J.; Darling, J. A.. (2007) Paradox lost: genetic diversity and the success of aquatic invasions. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 22(9) 454-464
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There is mounting evidence that reduced genetic diversity in invasive populations is not as commonplace as expected. Recent studies indicate that high propagule vectors, such as ballast water and shellfish transplantations, and multiple introductions contribute to the elimination of founder effects in the majority of successful aquatic invasions. Multiple introductions, in particular, can promote range expansion of introduced populations through both genetic and demographic mechanisms. Closely related to vectors and corridors of introduction, propagule pressure can play an important role in determining the genetic outcome of introduction events. Even low-diversity introductions have numerous means of avoiding the negative impact of diversity loss. The interaction of high propagule vectors and multiple introductions reveal important patterns associated with invasion success and deserve closer scrutiny.
Seguino, S.. (2007) Plus CA change? Evidence on global trends in gender norms and stereotypes. Feminist Economics 13(2) 1-28
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Gender norms and stereotypes that perpetuate inequality are deeply embedded in social and individual consciousness and, as a result, are resistant to change. Gender stratification theories propose that women's control over material resources can increase bargaining power to leverage change in key institutions, prompting a shift to more equitable norms. By extension, policies that promote women's paid employment should serve as a fulcrum for gender equitable change. Is there any evidence to support this hypothesis? Investigating this requires a means to capture gender norms and stereotypes. The World Values Survey provides just such a mechanism because it contains a series of gender questions that span a twenty-year period and includes respondents from more than seventy countries. This paper uses that survey's data to analyze determinants of trends in norms and stereotypes over time and across countries, and finds evidence that increases in women's paid employment promotes gender equitable norms and stereotypes.
Seguino, Stephanie. (2007) Is more mobility good?: Firm mobility and the low wage–low productivity trap. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 18(1) 27-51
Sullivan, S. M. P.; Watzin, M. C.; Keeton, W. S.. (2007) A riverscape perspective on habitat associations among riverine bird assemblages in the Lake Champlain Basin, USA. Landscape Ecology 22(8) 1169-1186
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The riverscape perspective recognizes the heterogeneous habitat types within the stream corridor as a single, integrated ecological unit operating across spatial scales. Although there is ample evidence that the riverscape notion is appropriate in understanding the physical phenomena of stream corridors, significantly less attention has focused on its ecological ramifications. To this end, we surveyed riverscape habitat variables and bird community characteristics in the Champlain Valley of Vermont, USA. From the data collected, we used information theoretic methodology (AIC(c)) to model relationships between bird community attributes and key habitat variables across the riverscape. Our models with the greatest support suggest that riverine bird communities respond to a suite of characteristics; representing a variety of riverscape habitats at the in-stream, floodplain, and riparian levels. Channel slope, drainage area, percent conifers, and in-stream habitat condition were among the most influential variables. We found that piscivores are potentially important indicators of riverscape condition, responding to a host of variables across the riverscape. Our results endorse a holistic approach to assessing and managing the mosaic of patches in the riverscape and suggest that a riverscape approach has significant conservation potential.
Todd, J.. (2007) The Future Significance of Ecological Design.
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Society is faced with undergoing a fundamental redesign of its infrastructures, if it is to adapt to a post-petroleum and climate-unstable future. Ecology can provide the intellectual template for such a transformation. Through ecological design, adaptive and flexible systems can be created to support the human family and restore ecological services. Examples of ecologically engineered systems for producing energy, growing foods, treating wastes and for environmental restoration will be described. A proposal for a new ecologically based economy for Appalachian areas devastated by mountain top removal and valley fill coal mining will be outlined. The plan involves linking environmental restoration of the region to a natural resource and renewable energy based economy.
Van Koppen, B.; Unruh, J.; Souza, W.; Ali, S. H.; Goswami, A.; Nakiganda, A.; Mariyono, J.; Jones, M.; Timmer, C. P.; Balooni, K.; Oglesby, S.. (2007) Experts address the question: In your view, do agricultural subsidies in developed countries benefit or harm the majority of the poor in developing countries?. Natural Resources Forum 31(4) 318-321
Voinov, A.; Farley, J.. (2007) Reconciling sustainability, systems theory and discounting. Ecological Economics 63(1) 104-113
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Most definitions of sustainability imply that a system is to be maintained at a certain level, held within certain limits, into the indefinite future. Sustainability denies run-away growth, but it also avoids any decline or destruction. This sustainability path is hard to reconcile with the renewal cycle that can be observed in many natural systems developing according to their intrinsic mechanisms and in social systems responding to internal and external pressures. Systems are parts of hierarchies where systems of higher levels are made up of subsystems from lower levels. Renewal in components is an important factor of adaptation and evolution. If a system is sustained for too long, it borrows from the sustainability of a supersystern and rests upon lack of sustainability in subsystems. Therefore by sustaining certain systems beyond their renewal cycle, we decrease the sustainability of larger, higher-level systems. For example, Schumpeter's theory of creative destruction posits that in a capitalist economy, the collapse and renewal of firms and industries is necessary to sustain the vitality of the larger economic system. However, if the capitalist economic system relies on endless growth, then sustaining it for too long will inevitably borrow from the sustainability of the global ecosystem. This could prove catastrophic for humans and other species. To reconcile sustainability with hierarchy theory, we must decide which hierarchical level in a system we want to sustain indefinitely, and accept that lower level subsystems must have shorter life spans. In economic analysis, inter-temporal discount rates essentially tell us how long we should care about sustaining any given system. Economists distinguish between discount rates for individuals based on personal time preference, lower discount rates for firms based on the opportunity cost of capital, and even lower discount rates for society. For issues affecting even higher-level systems, such as global climate change, many economists question the suitability of discounting future values at all. We argue that to reconcile sustainability with inter-temporal discounting, discount rates should be determined by the hierarchical level of the system being analyzed. (C) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wemple, B.; Shanley, J.; Denner, J.; Ross, D.; Mills, K.. (2007) Hydrology and water quality in two mountain basins of the northeastern US: assessing baseline conditions and effects of ski area development. Hydrological Processes 21(12) 1639-1650
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Mountain regions throughout the world face intense development pressures associated with recreational and tourism uses. Despite these pressures, much of the research on bio-geophysical impacts of humans in mountain regions has focused on the effects of natural resource extraction. This paper describes findings from the first 3 years of a study examining high elevation watershed processes in a region undergoing alpine resort development. Our study is designed as a paired-watershed experiment. The Ranch Brook watershed (9.6 km(2)) is a relatively pristine, forested watershed and serves as the undeveloped 'control' basin. West Branch (11.7 km(2)) encompasses an existing alpine ski resort, with approximately 17% of the basin occupied by ski trails and impervious surfaces, and an additional 7% slated for clearing and development. Here, we report results for water years 2001-2003 of streamflow and water quality dynamics for these watersheds. Precipitation increases significantly with elevation in the watersheds, and winter precipitation represents 36-46% of annual precipitation. Artificial snowmaking from water within West Branch watershed currently augments annual precipitation by only 3-4%. Water yield in the developed basin exceeded that in the control by 18-36%. Suspended sediment yield was more than two and a half times greater and fluxes of all major solutes were higher in the developed basin. Our study is the first to document the effects of existing ski area development on hydrology and water quality in the northeastern US and will serve as an important baseline for evaluating the effects of planned resort expansion activities in this area. Published in 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wollenberg, E.; Iwan, R.; Limberg, G.; Moeliono, M.; Rhee, S.; Sudana, M.. (2007) Facilitating cooperation during times of chaos: Spontaneous orders and muddling through in Malinau District, Indonesia. Ecology and Society 12(1)
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Adaptive management has become increasingly common where natural resource managers face complex and uncertain conditions. The collaboration required among managers and others to do adaptive management, however, is not always easy to achieve. We describe efforts to work with villagers and government officials in Malinau, East Kalimantan Indonesia, where a weak, uncertain institutional setting and complex shifting political landscape made formal cooperation among these groups for forest management problematic. Through successive trials, the team learned instead to work with and enhance a "spontaneous order" of cooperation using four tactics: (1) continuous physical presence, (2) regular contact with the people who advised and were close to major decision makers, (3) maintenance of multiple programs to fit the needs of different interest groups, and (4) hyperflexibility in resource allocation and schedules.
Wollenberg, E.; Merino, L.; Agrawal, A.; Ostrom, E.. (2007) Fourteen years of monitoring community-managed forests: learning from IFRI's experience. International Forestry Review 9(2) 670-684
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Although community managed forests constitute a significant proportion of the worlds' forests, there is little information about their condition or how they are managed. The International Forestry Resources and Institutions (IFRI) network is a research programme established in 1992 to collect interdisciplinary information about forest sustainability and governance. IFRI is unique in terms of the large number of small-scale sites monitored (more than 350 communities and 9000 forest plots) for more than a decade, under the guidance of strong central leadership, a well defined research framework, relative autonomy of network members, and a strong inward focus. These features have enabled IFRI to have particular impacts on new knowledge, policy and local communities, and capacity building. Lessons about how to further strengthen, extend and sustain these impacts include developing more robust agreement about measures of forest sustainability, building network members' capacities to conduct comparative analysis, ensuring the database meets the needs of Multiple users and expanding the membership and outreach of the network.
Zencey, Eric. (2007) Labyrinthitis and Postmodernism. The North American Review; University of Northern Iowa, New York, NY. 292(5) 41-44
Zhang, W.; Ricketts, T. H.; Kremen, C.; Carney, K.; Swinton, S. M.. (2007) Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecological Economics 64(2) 253-260
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Agricultural ecosystems are actively managed by humans to optimize the provision of food, fiber, and fuel. These ecosystem services from agriculture, classified as provisioning services by the recent Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, depend in turn upon a web of supporting and regulating services as inputs to production (e.g., soil fertility and pollination). Agriculture also receives ecosystem dis-services that reduce productivity or increase production costs (e.g., herbivory and competition for water and nutrients by undesired species). The flows of these services and dis-services directly depend on how agricultural ecosystems are managed and upon the diversity, composition, and functioning of remaining natural ecosystems in the landscape. Managing agricultural landscapes to provide sufficient supporting and regulating ecosystem. services and fewer dis-services will require research that is policy-relevant, multidisciplinary and collaborative. This paper focuses on how ecosystem services contribute to agricultural productivity and how ecosystem dis-services detract from it. We first describe the major services and dis-services as well as their key mediators. We then explore the importance of scale and economic externalities for the management of ecosystem service provision to agriculture. Finally, we discuss outstanding issues in regard to improving the management of ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
2006
Ali, S. H.; Grewal, A. S.. (2006) The ecology and economy of indigenous resistance: Divergent perspectives on mining in New Caledonia. Contemporary Pacific 18(2) 361-392
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Mineral development in remote parts of the world has become a major focus of environmental and social resistance movements. Despite the economic benefits that may accrue for local people, the impact of such projects is increasingly being questioned, particularly by indigenous communities. However, there are ways by which amicable and effective resolutions to development disagreements can be achieved despite cultural differences between the developer and the community. Using qualitative research methods, this article presents a comparative analysis of two mining projects on the Pacific island of New Caledonia where the indigenous Kanak community has shown differentiation in their response to the two projects. Our analysis shows that the project encountering less resistance has more effectively embraced principles of transparency, flexibility, and indigenous ownership. Our analysis suggests that mineral developers operating on indigenous lands should consider the power of process in reaching agreements rather than erroneously assuming that litigation or buyouts are inevitable. Such an approach is likely to reach more sustainable solutions to development in remote indigenous communities.
Ali, S. H.. (2006) Beyond territory and scarcity: Exploring conflicts over natural resource management. International Journal of African Historical Studies 39(1) 184-185
Ali, S.. (2006) Gold mining and the golden rule: a challenge for producers and consumers in developing countries. Journal of Cleaner Production 14 455-462
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The environmental and social impact of gold mining is particularly acute and hence there has been a call on the part of numerous activists to reconsider the necessity of mining this metal when more supplies of gold are above than below ground. This is especially true since gold is eminently recyclable and is primarily used for ornamentation. However, the key issue with regard to the gold industry is that unlike most luxury commodities, the largest areas of gold consumption are found in impoverished developing countries. Cultural factors play an important role in gold consumption and Western anti-mining activists are often tepid on this issue to avoid being blamed for lack of sensitivity. Yet, if developing countries are to accuse developed countries of overconsumption and resulting environmental impacts, they must also evaluate their own consumption patterns of gold. This paper explores the ways in which this issue can be approached as an integrated societal concern. By following these measures, both developed and developing countries can avoid breaking the ‘‘golden rule’’ of personal accountability and reduce the potential for conflict.
Burgess, N. D.; Hales, J. D.; Ricketts, T. H.; Dinerstein, E.. (2006) Factoring species, non-species values and threats into biodiversity prioritisation across the ecoregions of Africa and its islands. Biological Conservation 127(4) 383-401
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Biodiversity in Africa, Madagascar and smaller surrounding islands is both globally extraordinary and increasingly threatened. However, to date no analyses have effectively integrated species values (e.g., richness, endemism) 'non-species' values (e.g., migrations, intact assemblages), and threats into a single assessment of conservation priorities. We present such an analysis for the 119 ecoregions of Africa, Madagascar and smaller islands. Biodiversity is not evenly distributed across Africa and patterns vary somewhat among taxonomic groups. Analyses of most vertebrates (i.e., birds, mammals, amphibians) tend to identify one set of priority ecoregions, while plants, reptiles, and invertebrates highlight additional areas. 'Non-species' biological values are not correlated with species measures and thus indicate another set of ecoregions. Combining species and non-species values is therefore crucial for assembling a comprehensive portfolio of conservation priorities across Africa. Threats to biodiversity are also unevenly distributed across Africa. We calculate a synthetic threat index using remaining habitat, habitat block size, degree of habitat fragmentation, coverage within protected areas, human population density, and the extinction risk of species. This threat index is positively correlated with all three measures of biological value (i.e., richness, endemism, non-species values), indicating that threats tend to be focused on the region's most important areas for biodiversity. Integrating biological values with threats allows identification of two distinct sets of ecoregion priority. First, highly imperilled ecoregions with many narrow endemic species that require focused actions to prevent the loss of further habitat leading to the extinction of narrowly distributed endemics. Second, less threatened ecoregions that require maintenance of large and well-connected habitats that will support large-scale habitat processes and associated area-demanding species. By bringing these data together we can be much more confident that our set of conservation recommendations serves the needs of biodiversity across Africa, and that the contribution of different agencies to achieving African conservation can be firmly measured against these priorities. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Campbell, B.; Hagmann, J.; Sayer, J.; Stroud, A.; Thomas, R.; Wollenberg, E.. (2006) What kind of research and development is needed for natural resource management?. 31(3) 343-360
View Abstract
This paper presents a set of principles and operational guide lines for research and development (R&D) to better address natural resource management problems distilled in a series of workshops with more than 150 experts and practitioners. The principles and guidelines, a number of which relate to scaling issues, are illustrated with case studies from Zimbabwe and Indonesia. The former included research on watershed management for improved small-scale irrigation, while the latter focused on work with communities that had confronted logging companies, partly because of the negative impact of logging on water quality. The principles are grouped as follows: (a) learning approaches; (b) systems approaches, and (c) organisational models. Eleven operational guidelines for implementing the approach are suggested, arranged in three clusters: (a) working together; (b) establishing the institutional and organisational framework; and (c) improving the approaches to suit the task. The elements and strategies for two of these cornerstones (collaborative partnerships and scaling-up and scaling-out) are illustrated to indicate the quality needed to achieve appropriate implementation of the R&D approach.
Cianfrani, C. M.; Hession, W. C.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2006) Watershed imperviousness impacts on stream channel condition in southeastern Pennsylvania. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION 42(4) 941-956
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Forty-six independent stream reaches in southeastern Pennsylvania were surveyed to assess the relationships between geomorphic and habitat variables and watershed total impervious area (TIA) and to test the ability of the impervious cover model (ICM) to predict the impervious category based on stream reach variables, Ten variables were analyzed using simple and multivariate statistical techniques including scatterplots, Spearman's Rank correlations, principal components analysis (PICA), and discriminant analysis (DA). Graphical analysis suggested differences in the response to TIA between the stream reaches with less than 13 percent TIA and those with greater than 24 percent TIA. Spearman's Rank correlations showed significant relationships for large woody debris and sinuosity when analyzing the entire dataset and for depth diversity and the standard deviation of maximum pool depths when analyzing stream reaches with greater than 24 percent TIA. Classification into the ICM using DA was 49 percent accurate; however, the stream reaches did support the ICM in other ways. These results indicate that stream reach response to urbanization may not be consistent across geographical regions and that local conditions (specifically riparian buffer vegetation) may significantly affect channel response; and the ICM, used in the appropriate context, can aid in the management of stream reaches and watersheds.
Cleveland, C. J.; Hall, C. A. S.; Herendeen, R. A.. (2006) Energy returns on ethanol production. Science 312(5781) 1746-1746
Dorioz, J.M.; Wang, D.; Poulenard, J.; Trévisan, D.. (2006) The effect of grass buffer strips on phosphorus dynamics - a critical review and synthesis as a basis for application in agricultural landscapes in France.. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment (117) 4-21
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Recommending the use of ‘‘grass buffer strips’’ to control diffuse P transfer has become well accepted among extension advisors, agricultural consultants, planners, and other practitioners that influence the structure of the agricultural landscape. These grassed areas are put in place to capture the P contained in runoff from source fields. They are designed to function as a filter and a sediment trap although it is often unclear what the long-term disposition of the accumulated P may be. The objective of this work was to determine if the available scientific literature justifies the continued recommendation of this approach in the prevention of phosphorus movement from agricultural soils to surface waters. We employed a theoretical analysis of the mechanisms of the buffering effect and the specific behaviour of phosphorus in typical grass buffer strips to establish the critical set of literature applicable to this question. An adequate body of literature exists describing many aspects of P dynamics and the short-term functioning of grass buffer strips over their seasonal cycles. Despite variable results in a diversity of landscape contexts, overall, the use of grass buffer strips appears to provide useful short-term functions in the reduction of P transport to surface waters. Long-term benefits remain questionable given the relatively short-termuse of this approach in P reduction and the lack of long-term experimental results, but this current lack of data is not sufficient to deter the continued incorporation of grass buffer strips in the landscape of French agricultural. Additionally, a more comprehensive conceptual model integrating the shortterm functioning of grass buffer strips with seasonal cycles and the long-term consequences of cumulative storage emerged from our synthesis.
Farber, S.; Costanza, R.; Childers, D. L.; Erickson, J.; Gross, K.; Grove, M.; Hopkinson, C. S.; Kahn, J.; Pincetl, S.; Troy, A.; Warren, P.; Wilson, M.. (2006) Linking ecology and economics for ecosystem management. Bioscience 56(2) 121-133
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This article outlines an approach, based on ecosystem services, for assessing the trade-offs inherent in managing humans embedded in ecological systems. Evaluating these trade-offs requires an understanding of the biophysical magnitudes of the changes in ecosystem services that result from human actions, and of the impact of these changes on human welfare. We summarize the state of the art of ecosystem services-based management and the information needs for applying it. Three case studies of Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites-coastal, urban, and agricultural-illustrate the usefulness, information needs, quantification possibilities, and methods for this approach. One example of the application of this approach, with rigorously established service changes and valuations taken front the literature, is used to illustrate the potential for full economic valuation of several agricultural landscape management options, including managing for water quality biodiversity, and crop productivity.
Farley, J.; Daly, H.. (2006) Natural capital: The limiting factor - A reply to Aronson, Blignaut, Milton and Clewell. Ecological Engineering 28(1) 6-10
Gates, J. E.; Dawe, N. K.; Erickson, J. D.; Farley, J. C.; Geist, V.; Hands, H.; Magee, P.; Trauger, D. L.. (2006) Perspectives on The Wildlife Society's economic growth policy statement and the development process. 34(2) 507-511
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On 18 September 2004, The Wildlife Society (TWS) published an official policy statement on economic growth and wildlife conservation. We believe this policy statement did not adequately address the issues. Thus, TWS missed an opportunity to lead the natural resource profession in refuting the fallacious rhetoric that "there is no conflict between economic growth and wildlife conservation" through the adoption of a strong policy statement on economic growth. Although we commend TWS Council for adopting a policy statement on economic growth, we believe the final wording contains several weaknesses. Here, we take a closer look at the statement and further evaluate how it might be strengthened in the future.
Herendeen, R. A.. (2006) Prospective/retrospective on strategies. 31(1) 3-9
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This contains my goals for, and reactions to, the Panel on 'Strategies' at the Workshop, 'Advances in Energy Studies: Exploring Supplies, Constraints, and Strategies', 23-27 May 2000, Porto Venere, Italy. The very ambitious goals for the four speakers were not fully realized; hence my reactions are also goals for future work. I propose and discuss specific topics and techniques that are appropriately addressed by energy analysts. Several of these stretch in new directions, or, more typically, towards wider purview over global impacts and equity issues. (c) 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hess, G. R.; Bartel, R. A.; Leidner, A. K.; Rosenfeld, K. M.; Rubino, M. J.; Snider, S. B.; Ricketts, T. H.. (2006) Effectiveness of biodiversity indicators varies with extent, grain, and region. Biological Conservation 132(4) 448-457
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The use of indicator taxa for conservation planning is common, despite inconsistent evidence regarding their effectiveness. These inconsistencies may be the result of differences among species and taxonomic groups studied, geographic location, or scale of analysis. The scale of analysis can be defined by grain and extent, which are often confounded. Grain is the size of each observational unit and extent is the size of the entire study area. Using species occurrence records compiled by NatureServe from survey data, range maps, and expert opinion, we examined correlations in species richness between each of seven taxa (amphibians, birds, butterflies, freshwater fish, mammals, freshwater mussels, and reptiles) and total richness of the remaining six taxa at varying grains and extents in two regions of the US (Mid-Atlantic and Pacific Northwest). We examined four different spatial units of interest: hexagon (similar to 649 km(2)), subecoregion (3800-34,000 km(2)), ecoregion (8300 - 79,000 km(2)), and geographic region (315,000-426,000 km(2)). We analyzed the correlations with varying extent of analysis (grain held constant at the hexagon) and varying grain (extent held constant at the region). The strength of correlation among taxa was context dependent, varying widely with grain, extent, region, and taxon. This suggests that (1) taxon, grain, extent, and study location explain, in part, inconsistent results of previous studies; (2) planning based on indicator relationships developed at other grains or extents should be undertaken cautiously; and (3) planning based on indicator relationships developed in other geographic locations is risky, even if planning occurs at an equivalent grain and extent. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keeton, W. S.. (2006) Managing for late-successional/old-growth characteristics in northern hardwood-conifer forests. Forest Ecology and Management 235(1-3) 129-142
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In the northern hardwood region of North America managing for late-successional forest habitats and functions is an important element of ecosystem management. This study tests the hypothesis that uneven-aged practices can be modified to accelerate rates of late-successional forest development. An approach, termed "structural complexity enhancement" (SCE), is compared against conventional uneven-aged systems modified to increase post-harvest structural retention. Experimental treatments, including controls, were applied to 2 ha units and replicated at two multi-aged northern hardwood forests in Vermont, USA. Structural objectives include vertically differentiated canopies, elevated large snag and downed log densities, variable horizontal density (including small gaps), and re-allocation of basal area to larger diameter classes. The latter objective is achieved, in part, by cutting to a rotated sigmoid diameter distribution. This is generated from a basal area (34 m(2) ha(-1)) and tree size (90 cm dbh) indicative of old-growth structure. Forest structure data have been collected over 2 years pre-treatment and 3 years post-treatment. Fifty-year simulations of stand development were run in NE-TWIGS and FVS comparing treatment and no treatment scenarios. Simulations also tested the sensitivity of large tree development to prescription parameters. Leaf area index retention was spatially variable but significantly (P < 0.001) greater under SCE (91%) compared to conventional treatments (75%). Post-harvest aboveground biomass (P = 0.041), total basal area (P = 0.010), and stem density (P = 0.025) were significantly different among treatments, with SCE generally retaining more structure than conventional treatments. SCE increased coarse woody debris volumes by 140%; there was a 30% increase under conventional treatments. SCE successfully achieved the rotated sigmoid diameter distributions, and sustained these 50 years into the future, resulting in reallocated basal area. Cumulative basal area increments are projected to increase by 3.7 and 5.0 m(2) ha(-1) compared to no treatment scenarios for SCE and conventional treatments, respectively. Basal areas will be significantly (P = 0.025) greater after 50 years in SCE units due to higher residual basal areas. Conventional treatments are projected to produce 10 fewer large trees per hectare (> 50 cm dbh) than would have developed without treatment, whereas SCE is likely to recruit five more large trees per hectare than the no treatment scenario. Large tree recruitment rates were related primarily to the form of residual diameter distributions (P = 0.006) and, possibly, to maximum diameter limits. Late-successional characteristics in northem-hardwood systems can be promoted through a variety of modified uneven-aged silvicultural approaches based on the results. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keller, C.K.; O'Brien, R.; Havig, J.R.; Smith, J.L.; Bormann, B.T.; Wang, D.. (2006) Tree harvest in an experimental sand ecosystem: Plant effects on nutrient dynamics and solute generation.. Ecosystems 9 634-646
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The hydrochemical signatures of forested ecosystems are known to be determined by a timevariant combination of physical-hydrologic, geochemical, and biologic processes. We studied subsurface potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and nitrate (NO3) in an experimental red -pine mesocosm to determine how trees affect the behavior of these nutrients in soil water, both during growth and after a harvest disturbance. Solution chemistry was monitored for 2 years at the end of a 15-year period of tree growth, and then for 3 more years after harvest and removal of aboveground biomass. Concentrations were characterized by three distinct temporal patterns that we ascribe to changes in solute generation mechanisms. Prior to harvest, K soilwater concentrations were relatively uniform with depth, whereas Ca soil-water concentrations doubled with depth. Nitrate concentrations were below detection in soil water and discharge (drainage) water. Plant uptake and water/nutrient cycling exerted strong control during this interval. During the 1st year after harvest, K concentrations tripled in shallow soil water, relative to preharvest levels, and showed a strong seasonal peak in discharge that mimicked soil temperature. Summer soil temperatures and annual water flux also increased. Decomposition of labile litter, with complete nitrogen (N) immobilization, characterized this interval. In the third interval (years 2 and 3 after harvest), decomposition shifted from N to carbon (C) limitation, and Ca and NO3 concentrations in discharge spiked to nearly 200 and 400 lM, respectively. Relatively stable ionic strength and carbonate chemistry in discharge, throughout the study period, indicate that carbonic-acid weathering was sustained by belowground decomposition long after the harvest. This stable chemical weathering regime, along with the persistence of N limitation for a long period after disturbance, may be characteristic of early-phase primary-successional systems.
Khagram, S.; Ali, S.. (2006) Environment and Security. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31 395-411
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A broadening research program focused on environment and security emerged over the past 30 years. But the meaning and operationalization of environment and security have been an implicit and increasingly explicit part of the scholarly debate. Approaches range from the more specific focus on the linkages between environmental change and violent (deadly) conflict, the possible role of environmental conservation, cooperation, and collaboration in promoting peace, and the broader focus on potential relationships between environmental change and human security (understood as freedom from both violent conflict and physical want). In addition to the different conceptions of environment and security, the type and direction of causal relationships among different factors continue to be a focus of research. With respect to the environment and violent conflict, which constitute the largest explicit research stream on environment and security, the debate has centered on whether and why environmental scarcity, abundance, or dependence might cause militarized conflict. Less research has been conducted on the environmental effects of violent conflict and war or traditional security institutions such as militaries and military-industrial complexes. Rigorous research on the consequences of peace or human security for the environment is virtually nonexistent.
Kobos, P. H.; Erickson, J. D.; Drennen, T. E.. (2006) Technological learning and renewable energy costs: implications for US renewable energy policy. Energy Policy 34(13) 1645-1658
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This paper analyzes the relationship between current renewable energy technology costs and cumulative production, research, development and demonstration expenditures, and other institutional influences. Combining the theoretical framework of 'learning by doing' and developments in 'learning by searching' with the fields of organizational learning and institutional economics offers a complete methodological framework to examine the underlying capital cost trajectory when developing electricity cost estimates used in energy policy planning models. Sensitivities of the learning rates for global wind and solar photovoltaic technologies to changes in the model parameters are tested. The implications of the results indicate that institutional policy instruments play an important role for these technologies to achieve cost reductions and further market adoption. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Koliba, C. J.; Campbell, E. K.; Shapiro, C.. (2006) The practice of service learning in local school-community contexts. Educational Policy 20(5) 683-717
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In this article, the authors set out to examine the ways in which service learning is practiced, perceived, and sustained in school settings. Drawing on extensive qualitative case studies, the authors highlight three cases of schools at varying levels of integration of service into their curriculum. Their history of offering service learning is summarized. Participant perceptions regarding the role of service learning in student learning and concerns regarding the relationship between service learning and student academic achievement are explored. The authors conclude that service learning is practiced amidst a series of complex, and often times conflicting, assumptions regarding the alms of education and the proper formats through which student achievement should be assessed.
Lamoreux, J. F.; Morrison, J. C.; Ricketts, T. H.; Olson, D. M.; Dinerstein, E.; McKnight, M. W.; Shugart, H. H.. (2006) Global tests of biodiversity concordance and the importance of endemism. Nature 440(7081) 212-214
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Understanding patterns of biodiversity distribution is essential to conservation strategies(1), but severe data constraints make surrogate measures necessary(2-4). For this reason, many studies have tested the performance of terrestrial vertebrates as surrogates for overall species diversity, but these tests have typically been limited to a single taxon or region(3-10). Here we show that global patterns of richness are highly correlated among amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, as are endemism patterns. Furthermore, we demonstrate that although the correlation between global richness and endemism is low, aggregate regions selected for high levels of endemism capture significantly more species than expected by chance. Although areas high in endemism have long been targeted for the protection of narrow-ranging species(11,12), our findings provide evidence that endemism is also a useful surrogate for the conservation of all terrestrial vertebrates.
McKenny, H. C.; Keeton, W. S.; Donovan, T. M.. (2006) Effects of structural complexity enhancement on eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) populations in northern hardwood forests. Forest Ecology and Management 230(1-3) 186-196
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Managing for stand structural complexity in northern hardwood forests has been proposed as a method for promoting microhabitat characteristics important to eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus). We evaluated the effects of alternate, structure-based silvicultural systems on red-backed salamander populations at two research sites in northwestern Vermont. Treatments included two uneven-aged approaches (single-tree selection and group-selection) and one unconventional approach, termed "structural complexity enhancement" (SCE), that promotes development of late-successional structure, including elevated levels of coarse woody debris (CWD). Treatments were applied to 2 ha units and were replicated two to four times depending on treatment. We surveyed red-backed salamanders with a natural cover search method of transects nested within vegetation plots 1 year after logging. Abundance estimates corrected for detection probability were calculated from survey data with a binomial mixture model. Abundance estimates differed between study areas and were influenced by forest structural characteristics. Model selection was conducted using Akaike Information Criteria, corrected for over-dispersed data and small sample size (QAIC(c)). We found no difference in abundance as a response to treatment as a whole, suggesting that all of the uneven-aged silvicultural systems evaluated can maintain salamander populations after harvest. However, abundance was tied to specific structural habitat attributes associated with study plots within treatments. The most parsimonious model of habitat covariates included site, relative density of overstory trees, and density of more-decayed and less-decayed downed CWD. Abundance responded positively to the density of downed, well-decayed CWD and negatively to the density of poorly decayed CWD and to overstory relative density. CWD volume was not a strong predictor of salamander abundance. We conclude that structural complexity enhancement and the two uneven-aged approaches maintained important microhabitat characteristics for red-backed salamander populations in the short term. Over the long-term, given decay processes as a determinant of biological availability, forestry practices such as SCE that enhance CWD availability and recruitment may result in associated population responses. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mulder, K.; Costanza, R.; Erickson, J.. (2006) The contribution of built, human, social and natural capital to quality of life in intentional and unintentional communities. Ecological Economics 59(1) 13-23
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Ecovillages, co-housing communities, and other types of intentional communities (ICs) have proliferated in recent years. There are currently several thousands of these communities worldwide and their numbers are increasing rapidly. We surveyed a subset of these communities to learn more about their characteristics, including their world view or vision, the status of four basic types of capital (built, human, social, and natural), and the quality of life (QoL) they provide for their residents. Survey results indicate that ICs have a better balance between built, human, social, and natural capital than unintentional communities (based on a parallel survey of neighborhoods in Burlington, VT, USA) and that this results in a higher QoL among residents. It is difficult to assess the sustainability of ICs, but the data indicates that within ICs, social capital is substituted for built capital thereby reducing the level of material throughput. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Naidoo, R.; Balmford, A.; Ferraro, P. J.; Polasky, S.; Ricketts, T. H.; Rouget, M.. (2006) Integrating economic costs into conservation planning. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21(12) 681-687
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Recent studies that incorporate the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs in conservation planning have shown that limited budgets can achieve substantially larger biological gains than when planning ignores costs. Despite concern from donors about the effectiveness of conservation interventions, these increases in efficiency from incorporating costs into planning have not yet been widely recognized. Here, we focus on what these costs are, why they are important to consider, how they can be quantified and the benefits of their inclusion in priority setting. The most recent work in the field has examined the degree to which dynamics and threat affect the outcomes of conservation planning. We assess how costs fit into this new framework and consider prospects for integrating them into conservation planning.
Naidoo, R.; Ricketts, T. H.. (2006) Mapping the economic costs and benefits of conservation. Plos Biology 4(11) 2153-2164
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Resources for biodiversity conservation are severely limited, requiring strategic investment. Understanding both the economic benefits and costs of conserving ecosystems will help to allocate scarce dollars most efficiently. However, although cost-benefit analyses are common in many areas of policy, they are not typically used in conservation planning. We conducted a spatial evaluation of the costs and benefits of conservation for a landscape in the Atlantic forests of Paraguay. We considered five ecosystem services ( i.e., sustainable bushmeat harvest, sustainable timber harvest, bioprospecting for pharmaceutical products, existence value, and carbon storage in aboveground biomass) and compared them to estimates of the opportunity costs of conservation. We found a high degree of spatial variability in both costs and benefits over this relatively small (similar to 3,000 km(2)) landscape. Benefits exceeded costs in some areas, with carbon storage dominating the ecosystem service values and swamping opportunity costs. Other benefits associated with conservation were more modest and exceeded costs only in protected areas and indigenous reserves. We used this cost-benefit information to show that one potential corridor between two large forest patches had net benefits that were three times greater than two otherwise similar alternatives. Spatial cost-benefit analysis can powerfully inform conservation planning, even though the availability of relevant data may be limited, as was the case in our study area. It can help us understand the synergies between biodiversity conservation and economic development when the two are indeed aligned and to clearly understand the trade-offs when they are not.
Palumbi, S. R.; Roman, J.. (2006) The history of whales read from DNA. University of Califonia Press, Berkley, CA. Pages 102-115;
Ricketts, T.; Williams, N.; Mayfield, M. M.. (2006) Connectivity and ecosystem services: crop pollination in fragmented landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.. Pages 712;
Rizzo, D. M.; Mouser, P. J.; Whitney, D. H.; Mark, C. D.; Magarey, R. D.; Voinov, A. A.. (2006) The comparison of four dynamic systems-based software packages: Translation and sensitivity analysis. Environmental Modelling & Software 21(10) 1491-1502
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Dynamic model development for describing complex ecological systems continues to grow in popularity. For both academic research and project management, understanding the benefits and limitations of systems-based software could improve the accuracy of results and enlarge the user audience. A Surface Wetness Energy Balance (SWEB) model for canopy surface wetness has been translated into four software packages and their strengths and weaknesses were compared based on 'novice' user interpretations. We found expression-based models such as Simulink and GoldSim with Expressions were able to model the SWEB more accurately; however, stock and flow-based models such as STELLA, Madonna, and GoldSim with Flows provided the user a better conceptual understanding of the ecologic system. Although the original objective of this study was to identify an 'appropriate' software package for predicting canopy surface wetness using SWEB, our outcomes suggest that many factors must be considered by the stakeholders when selecting a model because the modeling software becomes part of the model and of the calibration process. These constraints may include user demographics, budget limitations, built-in sensitivity and optimization tools, and the preference of user friendliness vs. computational power. Furthermore, the multitude of closed proprietary software may present a disservice to the modeling community, creating model artifacts that originate somewhere deep inside the undocumented features of the software, and masking the underlying properties of the model. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roman, J.. (2006) Bon Appetít. (January-March 2006) 22-27
Roman, J.. (2006) Diluting the founder effect: cryptic invasions expand a marine invader's range. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 273(1600) 2453-2459
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Most invasion histories include an estimated arrival time, followed by range expansion. Yet, such linear progression may not tell the entire story. The European green crab (Carcinus maenas) was first recorded in the US in 1817, followed by an episodic expansion of range to the north. Its population has recently exploded in the Canadian Maritimes. Although it has been suggested that this northern expansion is the result of warming sea temperatures or cold-water adaptation, Canadian populations have higher genetic diversity than southern populations, indicating that multiple introductions have occurred in the Maritimes since the 1980s. These new genetic lineages, probably from the northern end of the green crab's native range in Europe, persist in areas that were once thought to be too cold for the original southern invasion front. It is well established that ballast water can contain a wide array of nonindigenous species. Ballast discharge can also deliver genetic variation on a level comparable to that of native populations. Such gene flow not only increases the likelihood of persistence of invasive species, but it can also rapidly expand the range of long-established nonindigenous species.
Roman, J.. (2006) Whale. Reaktion Books, London, UK. Pages 240;
Ross, D. S.; Fredriksen, G.; Jamison, A. E.; Wemple, B. C.; Bailey, S. W.; Shanley, J. B.; Lawrence, G. B.. (2006) One-day rate measurements for estimating net nitrification potential in humid forest soils. Forest Ecology and Management 230(1-3) 91-95
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Measurements of net nitrification rates in forest soils have usually been performed by extended sample incubation (2-8 weeks), either in the field or in the lab. Because of disturbance effects, these measurements are only estimates of nitrification potential and shorter incubations may suffice. In three separate studies of northeastern USA forest soil surface horizons, we found that laboratory nitrification rates measured over 1 day related well to those measured over 4 weeks. Soil samples of Oa or A horizons were mixed by hand and the initial extraction of subsamples, using 2 mol L-1 KCl, occurred in the field as soon as feasible after sampling. Soils were kept near field temperature and subsampled again the following day in the laboratory. Rates measured by this method were about three times higher than the 4-week rates. Variability in measured rates was similar over either incubation period. Because NO3- concentrations were usually quite low in the field, average rates from 10 research watersheds could be estimated with only a single, 1-day extraction. Methodological studies showed that the concentration of NH4+ increased slowly during contact time with the KCl extractant and, thus, this contact time should be kept similar during the procedure. This method allows a large number of samples to be rapidly assessed. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rossman, A. J.; Hayden, N. J.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2006) Low-temperature soil heating using renewable energy. Journal of Environmental Engineering-Asce 132(5) 537-544
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Data from a pilot study, in which renewable energy was used for low-temperature subsurface heating in a northern climate, suggests that such an approach may be useful for remediating low permeable soils. Low-temperature soil heating is expected to enhance remediation effectiveness by increasing contaminant volatility, diffusion, desorption, and microbiological activity. Direct and indirect solar energy was harvested with a hybrid photovoltaic/wind electric system. The electrical energy generated by the hybrid renewable energy system was distributed to the subsurface using a control system and wire, then converted to heat energy using a resistive element emplaced in, an unsaturated silty layer 2.3 m below grade. Renewable energy system performance, soil temperature, and environmental data were collected. Ambient soil temperatures fluctuated seasonally within the silt layer from 4 to 15 degrees C. The small renewable energy system performed As predicted and injected 441 kWh of energy into the soil over the eight-month study. This energy input translated to increased soil temperatures ranging from 7.7 to 19.4 degrees C and from 3.3 to 4.3 degrees C above ambient at distances 0.3 and 0.9 m from the heating well, respectively. The system supplied sufficient heat to maintain soil temperatures above ambient even in winter in Vermont, where low direct solar energy was available and sustained low ambient temperatures prevail.
Seguino, Stephanie; Grown, Caren. (2006) Gender equity and globalization: macroeconomic policy for developing countries. Journal of International Development 18(8) 1081-1104
Wollenberg, E.; Colchester, M.; Mbugua, G.; Griffiths, T.. (2006) Linking social movements: how international networks can better support community action about forests. International Forestry Review 8(2) 265-272
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International networks in community forestry face challenges in linking with local social movements. We examine four efforts of international networks to overcome these challenges and better link with local people in Peru, Brazil, India and Kenya. The examples demonstrate that the networks created effective links by making funds available for meetings and local data collection; providing international analyses that helped people understand their own situation better; sharing strategies for media, policy and letter campaigns; helping to disseminate information about local people's priorities, providing independent assessments and building local people's confidence. Efforts to improve communications technologies required a better understanding of local conditions. Networks will be more relevant to local movements to the extent that they are regularly active at the local level, can respond flexibly to local needs and small-scale events, and work with an array of national partners. The effectiveness of networks in carrying out these tasks may require a careful balance between linking to versus working at the local level.
Wollenberg, E.; Moeliono, M.; Limberg, G.; Iwan, R.; Rhee, S.; Sudana, M.. (2006) Between state and society: Local governance of forests in Malinau, Indonesia. Forest Policy and Economics 8(4) 421-433
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Decentralization in post-Soeharto Indonesia has not only changed state and society relations at the local level, but brought increased control over forests at the district level. Local social forces gained more influence because of their close relations with local government and acted to limit the local government. In this article we use the case of Malinau, East Kalimantan Indonesia to show how the new local autonomy over forests played a role in the rise of new local political orders. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zia, A.; Norton, B. G.; Noonan, D. S.; Rodgers, M. O.; DeHart-Davis, L.. (2006) A quasi-experimental evaluation of high-emitter non-compliance and its impact on vehicular tailpipe emissions in Atlanta, 1997-2001. Transportation Research Part D-Transport and Environment 11(1) 77-96
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A quasi-experimental evaluation is employed to assess the compliance behavior of high emitters in response to Atlanta's Inspection and Maintenance program between 1997 and 2001 and to predict the impact of compliance behavior on vehicular tailpipe emissions of ozone precursors, such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide. Remote sensing data of a sample of approximately 0.8 million observations of on-road vehicles are matched with IM program data and vehicle registration data to identify the compliant and non-compliant high emitters. A mixed-pool time-series regression analysis is carried out to predict changes in the vehicular tailpipe emissions due to the compliance and non-compliance of the high emitters in the Atlanta airshed. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
2005
Balmford, A.; Bennun, L.; ten Brink, B.; Cooper, D.; Cote, I. M.; Crane, P.; Dobson, A.; Dudley, N.; Dutton, I.; Green, R. E.; Gregory, R. D.; Harrison, J.; Kennedy, E. T.; Kremen, C.; Leader-Williams, N.; Lovejoy, T. E.; Mace, G.; May, R.; Mayaux, P.; Morling, P.; Phillips, J.; Redford, K.; Ricketts, T. H.; Rodriguez, J. P.; Sanjayan, M.; Schei, P. J.; van Jaarsveld, A. S.; Walther, B. A.. (2005) The convention on biological diversity's 2010 target. Science 307(5707) 212-213
Beard, K. H.; Wang, D.; Waite, C. E.; Decker, K. L. M.; Hawley, G. J.; DeHayes, D. D.; Hughes, J. W.; Cumming, J. R.. (2005) Quantifying ecosystem controls and their contextual interactions on nutrient export from developing forest mesocosms. Ecosystems 8(2) 210-224
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The complexity of natural ecosystems makes it difficult to compare the relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors and to assess the effects of their interactions on ecosystem development. To improve our understanding of ecosystem complexity, we initiated an experiment designed to quantify the main effects and interactions of several factors that are thought to affect nutrient export from developing forest ecosystems. Using a replicated 2 x 2 x 4 factorial experiment, we quantified the main effects of these factors and the factor interactions on annual calcium, magnesium, and potassium export from field mesocosms over 4 years for two Vermont locations, two soils, and four different tree seedling communities. We found that the main effects explained 56%-97% of total variation in nutrient export. Abiotic factors (location and soil) accounted for a greater percentage of the total variation in nutrient export (47%-94%) than the biotic factor (plant community) (2%-15%). However, biotic control over nutrient export was significant, even when biomass was minimal. Factor interactions were often significant, but they explained less of the variation in nutrient export (1%-33%) than the main effects. Year-to-year fluctuations influenced the relative importance of the main effects in determining nutrient export and created factor interactions between most of the explanatory variables. Our study suggests that when research is focused on typically used main effects, such as location and soil, and interactions are aggregated into overall error terms, important information about the factors controlling ecosystem processes can be lost.
Chokkalingam, Unna; Sabogal, Cesar; Almeida, Everaldo; Carandang, AntonioP; Gumartini, Tini; Jong, Wil; Brienza, Silvio, Jr.; Lopez, AbelMeza; Murniati,; Nawir, AniAdiwinata; Wibowo, LukasRumboko; Toma, Takeshi; Wollenberg, Eva; Zaizhi, Zhou. (2005) Local Participation, Livelihood Needs, and Institutional Arrangements: Three Keys to Sustainable Rehabilitation of Degraded Tropical Forest Lands. Springer New York, Washington, D. C.. Pages 405-414;
Czech, B.; Trauger, D. L.; Farley, J.; Costanza, R.; Daly, H. E.; Hall, C. A. S.; Noss, R. F.; Krall, L.; Krausman, P. R.. (2005) Establishing indicators for biodiversity. Science 308(5723) 791-792
Dutton, A. L.; Loague, K.; Wemple, B. C.. (2005) Simulated effect of a forest road on near-surface hydrologic response and slope stability. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 30(3) 325-338
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Forest management practices often result in significant changes to hydrologic and geomorphic responses at or near the earth's surface. A well-known, but not fully tested, hypothesis in hilislope hydrology/geomorphology is that a near-surface permeability contrast, caused by the surface compaction associated with forest roads, can result in diverted subsurface flow paths that produce increased up-slope pore pressures and slope failure. The forest road focused on in this study is located in a steep forested, zero-order catchment within the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest (Oregon). A three-phase modelling effort was employed to test the aforementioned hypothesis: (i) two-dimensional (vertical slice), steady-state, heterogeneous, saturated subsurface flow simulations at the watershed scale for establishing the boundary conditions for the catchment-scale boundary-value problem in (ii); (ii) two-dimensional (vertical slice), transient, heterogeneous, variably saturated subsurface flow simulations at the catchment scale for estimating near-surface hydrologic response and pore pressure distributions; and (iii) slope stability analyses, using the infinite slope approach, driven by the pore pressure distributions simulated in (ii), for assessing the impact of the forest road. Both observed and hypothetical rainfall events are used to drive the catchment-scale simulations. The results reported here support the hypothesis that a forest road can have an effect on slope stability. The permeability contrast associated with the forest road in this study led to a simulated altering of slope-parallel subsurface flow with increased pore pressures up-slope of the road and, for a large rainfall event, a slope failure prediction. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley F Sons, Ltd.
Fisher, B.; Costanza, R.. (2005) Regional commitment to reducing emissions - Local policy in the United States goes some way towards countering anthropogenic climate change. Nature 438(7066) 301-302
Gowdy, J.; Erickson, J. D.. (2005) The approach of ecological economics. Cambridge Journal of Economics 29(2) 207-222
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This paper discusses the major tenets of ecological economics-including value pluralism, methodological pluralism and multi-criteria policy assessment. Ecological economics offers viable alternatives to the theoretical foundations and policy recommendations of neoclassical welfare economics. A revolution in neoclassical economics is currently taking place, and the core assumptions of welfare economics are being replaced with more realistic models of consumer and firm behaviour. This paper argues that these new theoretical and empirical findings are largely ignored in applied work and policy applications in environmental economics. As the only heterodox school of economics focusing on the human economy both as a social system and as one imbedded in the biophysical universe, and thus both holistic and scientifically based, ecological economics is poised to play a leading role in recasting the scope and method of economic science.
Gowdy, J.; Erickson, J.. (2005) Ecological economics at a crossroads. Ecological Economics 53(1) 17-20
Hoekstra, J. M.; Boucher, T. M.; Ricketts, T. H.; Roberts, C.. (2005) Confronting a biome crisis: global disparities of habitat loss and protection. Ecology Letters 8(1) 23-29
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Human impacts on the natural environment have reached such proportions that in addition to an 'extinction crisis', we now also face a broader 'biome crisis'. Here we identify the world's terrestrial biomes and, at a finer spatial scale, ecoregions in which biodiversity and ecological function are at greatest risk because of extensive habitat conversion and limited habitat protection. Habitat conversion exceeds habitat protection by a ratio of 8 : 1 in temperate grasslands and Mediterranean biomes, and 10 : 1 in more than 140 ecoregions. These regions include some of the most biologically distinctive, species rich ecosystems on Earth, as well as the last home of many threatened and endangered species. Confronting the biome crisis requires a concerted and comprehensive response aimed at protecting not only species, but the variety of landscapes, ecological interactions, and evolutionary pressures that sustain biodiversity, generate ecosystem services, and evolve new species in the future.
Jennings, N.; Swidler, S.; Koliba, C.. (2005) Place-based education in the standards-based reform era - Conflict or complement?. American Journal of Education 112(1) 44-65
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In this article we discuss the relationship between place-based education and standards-based reforms. Using an initiative in Vermont to include place-based standards into the state's curricular frameworks, we examine state policy makers' and practitioners' views of state standards and place-based curriculum. Furthermore, we explore the ways in which the practitioners view the impact of both of these curricular efforts on their classroom practices. We challenge the common view of incompatibility between state standards and locally responsive curriculum and offer instead a view of complementarity.
Keeton, W. S.; Franklin, J. F.. (2005) Do remnant old-growth trees accelerate rates of succession in mature Douglas-fir forests?. Ecological Monographs 75(1) 103-118
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Biological legacies left by natural disturbances provide ecological functions throughout forest stand development, but their influences on processes of ecological succession are not completely understood. We investigated the successional role of one type of biological legacy: remnant old-growth trees persisting in mature Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) forests in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. We tested the hypothesis that remnant old-growth Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock) and Thuja plicata (western red cedar) trees enhance the reestablishment of shade-tolerant conifers by increasing the availability of seed. Reestablishment of shade-tolerant conifers is a key process in late-successional forest development because it leads to vertical differentiation of the canopy and eventual codominance of shade-tolerant species. Two study areas were selected in the southern Washington Cascade Range, USA. Both had an unfragmented, mature forest cover that was regenerated naturally following wildfire. Twelve study sites were selected, including sites with and without remnant T. plicata and T. heterophylla. Overstory structure and composition, microsite variables, and conifer regeneration were systematically sampled using nested belt transects and quadrats. Sites with remnant T. heterophylla and T plicata had significantly higher densities of conspecific seedlings. Multivariate analyses showed remnant T. heterophylla and T. plicata presence and density to be the strongest predictors of seedling densities, although the basal area of mature conspecific trees, relative density, aspect, stand age, and microsite characteristics were important secondary predictors. Microsite variations explained regeneration patchiness. Seedling densities were strongly correlated with proximity to remnant trees, exhibiting a negative exponential decline with distance. Shade-tolerant conifers are likely to reestablish faster at sites with remnant seed trees, but canopy. disturbances are probably necessary for subsequent height growth. Remnant shade-tolerant conifers are an important biological legacy and seed source influencing rates of ecological succession in mature P. menziesii stands. Successional and stand development models should explicitly incorporate this dynamic.
Kier, G.; Mutke, J.; Dinerstein, E.; Ricketts, T. H.; Kuper, W.; Kreft, H.; Barthlott, W.. (2005) Global patterns of plant diversity and floristic knowledge. 32(7) 1107-1116
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Aims We present the first global map of vascular plant species richness by ecoregion and compare these results with the published literature on global priorities for plant conservation. In so doing, we assess the state of floristic knowledge across ecoregions as described in floras, checklists, and other published documents and pinpoint geographical gaps in our understanding of the global vascular plant flora. Finally, we explore the relationships between plant species richness by ecoregion and our knowledge of the flora, and between plant richness and the human footprint - a spatially explicit measure of the loss and degradation of natural habitats and ecosystems as a result of human activities. Location Global. Methods Richness estimates for the 867 terrestrial ecoregions of the world were derived from published richness data of c. 1800 geographical units. We applied one of four methods to assess richness, depending on data quality. These included collation and interpretation of published data, use of species-area curves to extrapolate richness, use of taxon-based data, and estimates derived from other ecoregions within the same biome. Results The highest estimate of plant species richness is in the Borneo lowlands ecoregion (10,000 species) followed by nine ecoregions located in Central and South America with >= 8000 species; all are found within the Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests biome. Among the 51 ecoregions with >= 5000 species, only five are located in temperate regions. For 43% of the 867 ecoregions, data quality was considered good or moderate. Among biomes, adequate data are especially lacking for flooded grasslands and flooded savannas. We found a significant correlation between species richness and data quality for only a few biomes, and, in all of these cases, our results indicated that species-rich ecoregions are better studied than those poor in vascular plants. Similarly, only in a few biomes did we find significant correlations between species richness and the human footprint, all of which were positive. Main conclusions The work presented here sets the stage for comparisons of degree of concordance of plant species richness with plant endemism and vertebrate species richness: important analyses for a comprehensive global biodiversity strategy. We suggest: (1) that current global plant conservation strategies be reviewed to check if they cover the most outstanding examples of regions from each of the world's major biomes, even if these examples are species-poor compared with other biomes; (2) that flooded grasslands and flooded savannas should become a global priority in collecting and compiling richness data for vascular plants; and (3) that future studies which rely upon species-area calculations do not use a uniform parameter value but instead use values derived separately for subregions.
Limburg, Karin E.; Stainbrook, Karen M.; Erickson, Jon D.; Gowdy, John M.. (2005) Urbanization consequences: Case studies in the Hudson River watershed. 47 23-37
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Parcel by parcel, urban/suburban development is one of the most active converters of land in the Hudson River Valley in New York State. We are taking an integrative approach to understanding the drivers of and responses to urbanization, by Studying how economy drives land use change and how that, in turn, affects downstream indicators of ecosystem state. The ultimate goal of the project is to provide a tool for policymakers, illustrating consequences of different development strategies. In this paper, we discuss synoptic ecological assessments of two major Hudson River tributaries in Dutchess County, the Wappinger Creek and Fishkill Creek watersheds. Physical, chemical, geographic, and biotic indices are compiled, creating a multivariate data set. These data, when set into a geographic information database, provide a spatial response to land use. Application of a regionally calibrated index of biotic integrity showed little relationship to urbanization, although some component metrics indicated a response. Chemical or biogeochemical indicators were more reflective of urbanization gradients. A hierarchy of responses, beginning with physicochemical and moving up to fish assemblages, reflected decreasing responses to urbanization. However, fish densities and the stable isotopic ratios of nitrogen determined in a sentinel species (eastern blacknose dace Rhinichthys atratulus) were significantly affected by urbanization. Longitudinal gradients of elevation were identified as strong drivers of development, potentially confounding relationships of land-use attributes and ecological responses.
Loh, J.; Green, R. E.; Ricketts, T.; Lamoreux, J.; Jenkins, M.; Kapos, V.; Randers, J.. (2005) The Living Planet Index: using species population time series to track trends in biodiversity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 360(1454) 289-295
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The Living Planet Index was developed to measure the changing state of the world's biodiversity over time. It uses time-series data to calculate average rates of change in a large number of populations of terrestrial, freshwater and marine vertebrate species. The dataset contains about 3000 population time series for over 1100 species. Two methods of calculating the index are outlined: the chain method and a method based on linear modelling of log-transformed data. The dataset is analysed to compare the relative representation of biogeographic realms, ecoregional biomes, threat status and taxonomic groups among species contributing to the index. The two methods show very similar results: terrestrial species declined on average by 25% from 1970 to 2000. Birds and mammals are over-represented in comparison with other vertebrate classes, and temperate species are over-represented compared with tropical species, but there is little difference in representation between threatened and non-threatened species. Some of the problems arising from over-representation are reduced by the way in which the index is calculated. It may be possible to reduce this further by post-stratification and weighting, but new information would first need to be collected for data-poor classes, realms and biomes.
McDermott, Melanie Hughes; Moote, Margaret Ann; Danks, Cecilia. (2005) How community-based collaboratives overcome external institutional barriers to achieving their environmental goals. Fifth National Community-based Collaboratives Research Consortium
Mouser, P. J.; Hession, W. C.; Rizzo, D. M.; Gotelli, N. J.. (2005) Hydrology and geostatistics of a Vermont, USA kettlehole peatland. Journal of Hydrology 301(1-4) 250-266
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The ability to predict the response of peatland ecosystems to hydrologic changes is imperative for successful conservation and remediation efforts. We studied a 1.25-ha Vermont kettlehole bog for one year (September 2001-October 2002) to identify hydrologic controls, temporal and spatial variability in flow regimes, and to link hydrologic processes to density of the carnivorous plant (Sarracenia purpurea), an ombrotrophic bog specialist. Using a spatial array of nested piezometers, we measured surface and subsurface flow in shallow peat and surrounding mineral soil. Our unique sampling array was based on a repeated measures factorial design with: (1) incremental distances from a central kettlehole pond; (2) equal distances between piezometers; and (3) at three depths from the peat surface. Local flow patterns in the peat were controlled by snowpack storage during winter and spring months and by evapotranspiration and pond water elevation during summer and fall months. Hydraulic head values showed a local reversal within the peat during spring months which was reflected in higher chemical constituent concentrations in these wells. On a regional scale, higher permeable soils diverted groundwater beneath the peatland to a nearby wetland complex. Horizontal water gradient magnitudes were larger in zones where the peatland was perched above regional groundwater and smaller in zones where a hydraulic connection existed between the peatland and the regional groundwater. The density of pitcher plants (S. purpurea) is strongly correlated to the distance from a central pond, [Fe3+], [Na+], [Cl-], and [SO42-]. The pH, conductivity, and [Ca2+] had significant effects of depth and time with horizontal distance correlations between 20 and 26 m. The pH samples had temporal correlations between 27 and 79 days. The link between pitcher plants and ion chemistry; significant effects of peatland chemistry on distance, depth, and time; and spatial and temporal correlations are important considerations for peatland restoration strategies. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mouser, P. J.; Rizzo, D. M.; Roling, W. F. M.; Van Breukelen, B. M.. (2005) A multivariate statistical approach to spatial representation of groundwater contamination using hydrochemistry and microbial community profiles. Environmental Science & Technology 39(19) 7551-7559
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Managers of landfill sites are faced with enormous challenges when attempting to detect and delineate leachate plumes with a limited number of monitoring wells, assess spatial and temporal trends for hundreds of contaminants, and design long-term monitoring (LTM) strategies. Subsurface microbial ecology is a unique source of data that has been historically underutilized in LTM groundwater designs. This paper provides a methodology for utilizing qualitative and quantitative information (specifically, multiple water quality measurements and genome-based data) from a landfill leachate contaminated aquifer in Banisveld, The Netherlands, to improve the estimation of parameters of concern. We used a principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce nonindependent hydrochemistry data, Bacteria and Archaea community profiles from 16S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), into six statistically independent variables, representing the majority of the original dataset variances. The PCA scores grouped samples based on the degree or class of contamination and were similar over considerable horizontal distances. Incorporation of the principal component scores with traditional subsurface information using cokriging improved the understanding of the contaminated area by reducing error variances and increasing detection efficiency. Combining these multiple types of data (e.g., genome-based information, hydrochemistry, borings) may be extremely useful at landfill or other LTM sites for designing cost-effective strategies to detect and monitor contaminants.
Rapp, J.; Wang, D.; Capen, D.; Thompson, E.; Lautzenheiser, T.. (2005) Evaluating error in using the National Vegetation Classification System for ecological community mapping in northern New England, USA. 25(1) 46-54
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At the landscape scale, representation of reality using ecological community maps is limited by: how well the chosen classification system represents actual vegetation community composition; how effectively aerial photography captures the distinguishing features of each mapping unit within the classification; and how well these mapping units are delineated by photo-interpreters. Three errors deriving from these factors can be defined as classification system error, photo-limitation error, and mapper error. We evaluated the relative importance of these error types for ecological community mapping in a 7283 ha area including the Lake Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (LUNWR). We used the association level of the National Vegetation Classification System (NVC) to classify and map ecological communities through combined aerial-photo interpretation and fieldwork. Map accuracy assessment using an error matrix yielded an overall map accuracy of 46 +/- 9%. Fuzzy set analysis and use of a "goodness-of-fit" table showed that classification system error accounted for 25% of the error, photolimitations for 66% of the error, and mapper error for the remaining 9%. To improve map accuracy, classification system error can be reduced by: (1) refining class definitions to decrease ambiguity, (2) adding new classes to more adequately describe the complex of local vegetation patterns, or (3) using a higher level of classification within the NVC. Photo-limitation error can be reduced by: (1) defining mapping units by aggregating NVC associations into photo-interpretable groups, (2) utilizing aerial photographs with a higher resolution than the 1:15,840 scale photographs used in this study, or (3) mapping primarily using fieldwork.
Ricketts, T. H.; Dinerstein, E.; Boucher, T.; Brooks, T. M.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Hoffmann, M.; Lamoreux, J. F.; Morrison, J.; Parr, M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Rodrigues, A. S. L.; Sechrest, W.; Wallace, G. E.; Berlin, K.; Bielby, J.; Burgess, N. D.; Church, D. R.; Cox, N.; Knox, D.; Loucks, C.; Luck, G. W.; Master, L. L.; Moore, R.; Naidoo, R.; Ridgely, R.; Schatz, G. E.; Shire, G.; Strand, H.; Wettengel, W.; Wikramanayake, E.. (2005) Pinpointing and preventing imminent extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102(51) 18497-18501
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Slowing rates of global biodiversity loss requires preventing species extinctions. Here we pinpoint centers of imminent extinction, where highly threatened species are confined to single sites. Within five globally assessed taxa (i.e., mammals, birds, selected reptiles, amphibians, and conifers), we find 794 such species, three times the number recorded as having gone extinct since 1500. These species occur in 595 sites, concentrated in tropical forests, on islands, and in mountainous areas. Their taxonomic and geographical distribution differs significantly from that of historical extinctions, indicating an expansion of the current extinction episode beyond sensitive species and places toward the planet's most biodiverse mainland regions. Only one-third of the sites are legally protected, and most are surrounded by intense human development. These sites represent clear opportunities for urgent conservation action to prevent species loss.
Ricketts, T.; Brooks, T. M.; Hoffmann, M.; Stuart, S.; Balmford, A.; Purvis, A.; Reyers, B.; Wang, J.; Revenga, C.; Kennedy, E. T.; Naeem, S.; Alkemade, R.; Allnutt, T. F.; Bakaar, M.; Bond, W.; Chanson, J.; Cox, N.; Fonseca, G.; Hilton-Taylor, C.; Loucks, C.; Rodrigues, A.; Sechrest, W.; Stattersfield, A.; van Rensvurg, B. J.; Whiteman, C.. (2005) Biodiversity. Island Press, Washiington, D. C.. Pages 917;
Rocha, L. A.; Robertson, D. R.; Roman, J.; Bowen, B. W.. (2005) Ecological speciation in tropical reef fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 272(1563) 573-579
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The high biodiversity in tropical seas provides a long-standing challenge to allopatric speciation models. Physical barriers are few in the ocean and larval dispersal is often extensive, a combination that should reduce opportunities for speciation. Yet coral reefs are among the most species-rich habitats in the world, indicating evolutionary processes beyond conventional allopatry. In a survey of mtDNA sequences of five congeneric west Atlantic reef fishes (wrasses, genus Halichoeres) with similar dispersal potential, we observed phylogeographical patterns that contradict expectations of geographical isolation, and instead indicate a role for ecological speciation. In Halichoeres bivittatus and the species pair Halichoeres radiatus/brasiliensis, we observed strong partitions (3.4% and 2.3% divergence, respectively) between adjacent and ecologically distinct habitats, but high genetic connectivity between similar habitats separated by thousands of kilometres. This habitat partitioning is maintained even at a local scale where H. bivittatus lineages are segregated between cold- and warm-water habitats in both Bermuda and Florida. The concordance of evolutionary partitions with habitat types, rather than conventional biogeographical barriers, indicates parapatric ecological speciation, in which adaptation to alternative environmental conditions in adjacent locations overwhelms the homogenizing effect of dispersal. This mechanism can explain the long-standing enigma of high biodiversity in coral reef faunas.
Ruggiero, Peter; Kaminsky, George M; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Voigt, Brian. (2005) Seasonal to interannual morphodynamics along a high-energy dissipative littoral cell. Journal of Coastal Research Pages 553-578;
Vatovec, C.; Jordan, N.; Huerd, S.. (2005) Responsiveness of certain agronomic weed species to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 20(03) 181-189
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are plant root symbionts that provide many benefits to crop production and agro-ecosystem function; therefore, management of AMF is increasingly seen as important to ecological farming. Agronomic weeds that form a symbiotic relationship with AMF can increase diversity and abundance of agronomically beneficial AMF taxa. Also, AMF can strongly affect plant community composition, and may thus provide some degree of biological control for weeds. Therefore, relationships between weeds and AMF have a dual significance in ecological farming, but are relatively unexamined. In glasshouse experiments, seedlings of 14 agronomic weed species were grown in the presence or absence of AMF inocula sampled from each of three types of cropping systems: organic, transitional-organic or high-input/conventional. For each weed species, AMF root colonization rates and growth responses to AMF were assessed. On the basis of observed colonization levels, the species were classified as strong hosts (five species), weak hosts (three) and non-host species (six). Among species, biomass responses to AMF were highly variable. Strong hosts showed more positive responses to AMF than weak hosts, although the range of responses was great. Non-hosts did not suffer consistent negative biomass responses to AMF, although strong biomass reductions were noted for certain species–inoculum combinations. Biomass responses to inocula from different cropping systems varied significantly among weed species in one of two experiments. Results suggest that weed–AMF interactions can affect weed community dynamics. We recommend investigation of these interactions in agro-ecosystems that use management methods likely to intensify weed–AMF interactions, such as conservation tillage and cover cropping.
WOLLENBERG, EVA; NAWIR, ANI ADIWINATA. (2005) Turning straw into gold: specialization among damar agroforest farmers in pesisir, Sumatra. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 15(4) 317-336
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As most nontimber forest products (NTFPs) are of low cash value, their potential for generating significant income appears limited. Low value products can, however, result in significant incomes when people specialize in them. We examine specialization and the conditions under which it occurred for resin production from agroforests in Pesisir Sumatra using data from 223 households. Households with agroforests enjoyed incomes 26% higher than average. Comparison of two villages suggests specialization was associated with access to markets, less suitable land for wet rice cultivation and reliance on damar income for purchasing food staples. In contrast to findings elsewhere, Krui farmers specialized using low value products and minimum inputs. The cultivation of damar in low maintenance agroforests yielded attractive returns. We conclude that low value NTFPs should not be overlooked, as specialization and low input production systems such as agroforests can help to generate significant income from these products.
Waichler, S. R.; Wemple, B. C.; Wigmosta, M. S.. (2005) Simulation of water balance and forest treatment effects at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest. Hydrological Processes 19(16) 3177-3199
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The distributed hydrology soil-vegetation model (DHSVM) was applied to the small watersheds WS1, 2, 3 in H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon, and tested for skill in simulating observed forest treatment effects on streamflow. These watersheds, located in the rain-snow transition zone, underwent road and clearcut treatments during 1959-66 and subsequent natural regeneration. DHSVM was applied with 10 m and 1 h resolution to 1958-98, most of the period of record. Water balance for old-growth WS2 indicated that evapotranspiration and streamflow were unlikely to be the only loss terms, and groundwater recharge was included to account for about 12% of precipitation; this term was assumed zero in previous studies. Overall efficiency in simulating hourly streamflow exceeded 0.7, and mean annual error was less than 10%. Model skill decreased at the margins, with overprediction of low flows and underprediction of high flows. However, statistical analyses of simulated and observed peakflows yielded similar characterizations of treatment effects. Primary simulation weaknesses were snowpack accumulation, snowmelt under rain-on-snow conditions, and production of quickflow. This was the first test of DHSVM against observations of both control and treated watersheds in a classic paired-basin study involving a long time period of forest regrowth and hydrologic recovery. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Yelpaala, K.; Ali, S. H.. (2005) Multiple scales of diamond mining in Akwatia, Ghana: addressing environmental and human development impact. Resources Policy 30(3) 145-155
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Ghana is the second largest producer of gold in sub-Saharan Africa, and has experienced a significant increase in national mining production over the last two decades. Between 1983 and 1998, the mining industry brought approximately US $4 billion in foreign direct investment to Ghana. While large-scale gold mining has seen a significant increase, artisanal gold and diamond mining product have grown exponentially. While much research has been conducted on gold mining in Ghana, there is relatively little research on the environmental and human development consequences of diamond mining in the country. Unlike other West African countries such as Sierra Leonne and Liberia, small-scale diamond mining in Ghana has not been linked to conflict but its role in development has also been relatively modest. This paper examines large and small-scale mining in Ghana's largest diamond mining town, Akwatia, and their relative impact on environmental degradation, health, and the livelihood of artisanal miners. We conclude that while an increase in artisanal diamond mining has been a means of employement and income-generation for small-scale miners, there are some human development challenges, related to environmental burden from land degradation and health. GCD is an ailing mining company in Ghana, in desperate need of an injection of capital to keep the mine alive, but botched bidding has slowed the process of de-regulating the company. We also conclude that the de-regulation of GCD may lead to a relatively reduced environmental burden in Akwatia and more revenue for the GCD to invest in the human development needs of communities in the town. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
2004
Burgess, N.; D'Amico Hales, J.; Underwood, E.; Dinerstein, E.; Olsen, D.; Schipper, J.; Ricketts, T.; Itoua, I.; Newman, K.. (2004) Terrestrial Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar: A Conservation Assessment. Island Press, Washington, D. C.. Pages 544;
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As part of a global effort to identify those areas where conservation measures are needed most urgently, World Wildlife Fund has assembled teams of scientists to conduct ecological assessments of all five continents. Terrestrial Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar is the latest contribution, presenting in a single volume the first comprehensive assessment of biodiversity patterns, threats to biodiversity, and resulting conservation priorities across the African continent and its islands. Looking at biodiversity and threats in terms of biological units rather than political units, the book offers a comprehensive examination of African biodiversity across all biomes and multiple taxonomic groups. In addition to the seven main chapters, the book includes twenty essays by regional experts that provide more depth on key issues, as well as nine detailed appendixes that present summary data used in the analyses, specific analytical methodologies, and a thorough text description for each of Africa's 119 terrestrial ecoregions. Terrestrial Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar provides a blueprint for conservation action and represents an unparalleled guide for investments and activities of conservation agencies and donor organizations.
Burgess, N.; Ricketts, T.; Balmford, A.; Wild, R.. (2004) The 5th World Parks Congress, Durban. Oryx 38(1) 1-2
Carlson, B.; Wang, D.; Capen, D.; Thompson, E.. (2004) An evaluation of GIS-derived landscape diversity units to guide landscape-level mapping of natural communities. 12(1) 15-23
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As conservation planning increases in scale from specific sites to entire regions, organisations like The Nature Conservancy face a critical need for GIS-based tools to evaluate landscapes on a regional scale. An existing, field-based approach to analyse the diversity of a landscape is by delineating natural community types, which is a time-intensive process. This study evaluated the utility of using an existing, GIS-derived landscape diversity model as a predictive tool for mapping natural communities on a large (8369 ha) upland forest site in the northern Taconic region of Vermont. The GIS model incorporates four geophysical factors: elevation, bedrock type, surficial deposits, and landform. A significant level (alpha = 0.05) of association between eight pairs of landscape diversity unit (LDU) types and natural community types was found. However, the strength of these associations is low (Cramer's V values ltoreq 0.172), suggesting a poor predictive efficiency of landscape diversity units for natural community types. The results suggest that variables in the LDU model are relevant to natural community distribution, but the LDU model alone is not an effective tool to aid in mapping of natural community types of upland forests in Vermont. Until better landscape-level techniques are developed, the role of this type of model is limited to screening the landscape for areas with a particular set of geophysical characteristics, which can help an ecologist interpret the patterns on the landscape, but cannot substitute for a field-based approach to natural community mapping. (C) 2004 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Costanza, R.; Erickson, J.; Fligger, K.; Adams, A.; Adams, C.; Altschuler, B.; Balter, S.; Fisher, B.; Hike, J.; Kelly, J.; Kerr, T.; McCauley, M.; Montone, K.; Rauch, M.; Schmiedeskamp, K.; Saxton, D.; Sparacino, L.; Tusinski, W.; Williams, L.. (2004) Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) for Vermont, Chittenden County and Burlington, from 1950 to 2000. Ecological Economics 51(1-2) 139-155
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The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), a version of the Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW), is a significantly more comprehensive approach to assessing economic progress than conventional measures like gross domestic product (GDP). GPI adjusts for income distribution effects, the value of household and volunteer work, costs of mobility and pollution, and the depletion of social and natural capital. 1SEW or GPI have been estimated for several countries around the world and a few Canadian provinces, but we report here on the first multi-scale application at the city, county and state levels in Vermont, USA. We show that it is feasible to apply the GPI approach at these smaller scales and to compare across scales and with the national average. Data limitations and problems still exist, but potential solutions to these problems also exist. All three Vermont scales had significantly higher GPI per capita since 1980 than the national average, indicating the major differences that can exist within countries. The GPI per capita for all Vermont scales was similar to the national average in the 1950-1980 period, but more than twice the national average by 2000. The main factors explaining this difference had to do with Vermont's much better environmental performance than the national average in the post-1980 period. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Costanza, R.; Stern, D.; Fisher, B.; He, L. N.; Ma, C. B.. (2004) Influential publications in ecological economics: a citation analysis. Ecological Economics 50(3-4) 261-292
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We assessed the degree of influence of selected papers and books in ecological economics using citation analysis. We looked at both the internal influence of publications on the field of ecological economics and the external influence of those same publications on the broader academic community. We used four lists of papers and books for the analysis: (1) 92 papers nominated by the Ecological Economics (EE) Editorial Board; (2) 71 papers that were published in EE and that received 15 or more citations in all journals included in the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Citation Index; (3) 57 papers that had been cited in EE 15 or more times; and (4) 77 monographs and edited books that had been cited in EE 15 or more times. In all, we analyzed 251 unique publications. For each publication, we counted the total number of ISI citations as well as the total number of citations in EE. We calculated the average number of citations per year to each paper since its publication in both the IST database and in EE, along with the percentage of the total ISI citations that were in EE. Ranking the degree of influence of the publications can be done in several ways, including using the number of I SI citations, the number of EE citations or both. We discuss both the internal and external influence of publications and show how these influences might be considered jointly. We display and analyze the results in several ways. By plotting the ISI citations against the EE citations, we can identify those papers that are mainly influential in EE with some broader influence, those that are mainly influential in the broader literature but have also had influence on EE and other patterns of influence. There are both overlaps and interesting lacunae among the four lists that give us a better picture of the real influence of publications in ecological economics vs. perceptions of those publications' importance. By plotting the number of citations vs. dates of publication, we can identify those publications that are projected to be most influential. Plots of the time series of citations over the 1990-2003 period show a generally increasing trend (contrary to what one would expect for an "average" paper) for the top papers. We suggest that this pattern of increasing citations (and thus influence) over time is one hallmark of a "foundational" paper. Data used in the analysis is available for download from the International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE) web site to allow further analysis by interested readers. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Daly, H.; Farley, J.. (2004) Ecological economics: principles and applications. Island Press, Washington, D.C..
Danks, C. and L. Fortmann. (2004) Collaborative forestry: forest and tree tenure and ownership. Elsevier Ltd., Oxford. Pages 1157-1162;
Ferreira, D.; Suslick, S.; Farley, J.; Costanza, R.; Krivov, S.. (2004) A decision model for financial assurance instruments in the upstream petroleum sector. Energy Policy 32(10) 1173-1184
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The main objective of this paper is to deepen the discussion regarding the application of financial assurance instruments, bonds, in the upstream oil sector. This paper will also attempt to explain the current choice of instruments within the sector. The concepts of environmental damages and internalization of environmental and regulatory costs will be briefly explored. Bonding mechanisms are presently being adopted by several governments with the objective of guaranteeing the availability of funds for end-of-leasing operations. Regulators are mainly concerned with the prospect of inheriting liabilities from lessees. Several forms of bonding instruments currently available were identified and a new instrument classification was proposed. Ten commonly used instruments were selected and analyzed under the perspective of both regulators and industry (surety, paid-in and periodic-payment collateral accounts, letters of credit, self-guaran tees, investment grade securities, real estate collaterals, insurance policies, pools, and special funds). A multiattribute value function model was then proposed to examine current instrument preferences. Preliminary simulations confirm the current scenario where regulators are likely to require surety bonds, letters of credit, and periodic payment collateral account tools. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harrison, D. M.; Noordewier, T. G.; Yavas, A.. (2004) Do riskier borrowers borrow more?. 32(3) 385-411
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Conventional wisdom in the mortgage industry holds that loan-to-value (LTV) ratios are positively correlated with mortgage default rates. However, not all empirical studies of mortgage loan performance support this view. This paper offers a theoretical signaling model of why the correlation between LTV ratios and default risk is contingent upon the default costs of the borrower. Specifically, the model proposes that when default costs are high there exists a separating equilibrium in which risky borrowers will self-select into lower LTV loans to reduce the probability of facing a costly default, while safe borrowers will self-select into higher LTV loans as a signal of their enhanced creditworthiness. This adverse selection process gives rise to the possibility of higher default probabilities for lower LTV loans. Conversely, when default costs are low the conventional result, in which risky borrowers select higher LTV loans than safe borrowers, is obtained. Empirical results, based on a sample of 859 single-family residential mortgage loans drawn from the portfolio of a national mortgage lender, are consistent with the separating equilibria predicted by the model.
Herendeen, R. A.; Hill, W. R.. (2004) Growth dilution in multilevel food chains. 178(3-4) 349-356
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Microalgae can absorb contaminants from the aqueous environment, and harvesting microalgae has been proposed as a method to purify water. However, rapid growth of microalgae (stimulated by increased light, for example) results in lowered tissue concentration of contaminant. This reduction has been observed to propagate to herbivores. Here we investigate (with simulation and supporting analytical argument) the propagation of growth dilution in all trophic levels of a food chain. We are concerned with concentration as well as overall mass of contaminant in each level, for different functional relationships between levels. We find that transient (i.e., prompt) growth dilution occurs for all levels. However, the new steady state concentrations can increase or decrease, depending on functional relationships (e.g., ratio versus prey dependence). These results, which have implications for pollution control, call for experimental testing. (C) 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Herendeen, R. A.. (2004) Bottom-up and top-down effects in food chains depend on functional dependence: an explicit framework. 171(1-2) 21-33
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Observed stock changes in perturbed ecosystems sometimes, but not always, are smaller than predicted by the trophic cascade hypothesis. These varying outcomes can be explained by (1) using detailed analysis of trophic-level interactions within the standard energy-based linear food-chain model, or (2) invoking web models and/or non-energy interactions between organisms. Previously I developed an analytic approach for the linear chain for a press-type perturbation and applied it to ratio-dependent functional relationships. Here I extend the linear chain analysis to a more general functional relationship which allows independent variation of prey dependence and intra-level interference. I find that different combinations of prey dependence and interference lead to large or small cascading effects. Generally, large top-down effects require weak interference, while large bottom-up effects require both weak interference and strong prey dependence. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Herendeen, R. A.. (2004) Dynamic trophic cascade. 177(1-2) 129-142
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In a previous article, I developed, and demonstrated with simulations, an analytical approach for predicting and analyzing effects of press (step-function) perturbations on food chains [Ecol. Model. 171 (2004) 21]. The method allows explicit variation of the functional dependence connecting trophic levels. Here I extend that analysis to perturbations sinusoidal in time. The sinusoid partially bridges the gap between the idealized press-type experiment (which assumes initial and final steady states, but is doubtful experimentally) and a totally dynamic situation (which is daunting analytically but closer to reality). I find that the effect of a sinusoidal perturbation is to multiply the previous press result by a factor that diminishes both up and down the food chain. The factor depends on perturbing frequency approximately as 1/(1+(omegatau(i))(2))(1/2), where tau(i) is the characteristic time of affected level i. This frequency-dependent diminution is another potential reason why bottom-up and top-down cascade effects are hard to detect. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Herendeen, R. A.. (2004) Energy analysis and EMERGY analysis - a comparison. 178(1-2) 227-237
Herendeen, R. A.. (2004) Personal energy impact of attending a professional meeting. 29(1) 13-17
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At a four-day energy workshop in Italy in September, 2002, 44 attendees, about half of the total, completed a questionnaire covering their travel (mode, distance) and monetary expenditures. These have been converted to direct and indirect energy requirements. Average total energy per respondent was 2.9 barrels of oil equivalent, of which 91% resulted from round trip travel of 6100 km. For comparison, global average annual per capita energy consumption is 12 barrels of oil equivalent. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Higgins, J. V.; Ricketts, T. H.; Parrish, J. D.; Dinerstein, E.; Powell, G.; Palminteri, S.; Hoekstra, J. M.; Morrison, J.; Tomasek, A.; Adams, J.. (2004) Beyond Noah: Saving species is not enough. Conservation Biology 18(6) 1672-1673
Imhoff, M. L.; Bounoua, L.; DeFries, R.; Lawrence, W. T.; Stutzer, D.; Tucker, C. J.; Ricketts, T.. (2004) The consequences of urban land transformation on net primary productivity in the United States. Remote Sensing of Environment 89(4) 434-443
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We use data from two satellites and a terrestrial carbon model to quantify the impact of urbanization on the carbon cycle and food production in the US as a result of reduced net primary productivity (NPP). Our results show that urbanization is taking place on the most fertile lands and hence has a disproportionately large overall negative impact on NPP. Urban land transformation in the US has reduced the amount of carbon fixed through photosynthesis by 0.04 pg per year or 1.6% of the pre-urban input. The reduction is enough to offset the 1.8% gain made by the conversion of land to agricultural use, even though urbanization covers an area less than 3% of the land surface in the US and agricultural lands approach 29% of the total land area. At local and regional scales, urbanization increases NPP in resource-limited regions and through localized warming "urban heat" contributes to the extension of the growing season in cold regions. In terms of biologically available energy, the loss of NPP due to urbanization of agricultural lands alone is equivalent to the caloric requirement of 16.5 million people, or about 6% of the US population. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Imhoff, M. L.; Bounoua, L.; Ricketts, T.; Loucks, C.; Harriss, R.; Lawrence, W. T.. (2004) Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production. Nature 429(6994) 870-873
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The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems(1,2). A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use(3,4). Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere(5), levels of biodiversity(6), energy flows within food webs(7) and the provision of important ecosystem services(8). Here we present a global map showing the amount of net primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial balance sheet of net primary production 'supply' and 'demand' for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production 'imports' and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.
Jordan, Nicholas; Vatovec, Christine. (2004) Agroecological Benefits from Weeds. Springer Netherlands, Oxford, UK. Pages 137-158;
Keeton, William S.; Franklin, Jerry F.. (2004) Fire-related landform associations of remnant old-growth trees in the southern Washington Cascade Range. Canadian Journal of Forest Research; Canadian Science Publishing, New York. 34(11) 2371-2381
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The spatial distribution of biological legacies left by natural disturbances is an important source of variability in forest development. We investigated one type of biological legacy: remnant old-growth trees persisting in mature Douglas-fir forests. We hypothesized that persistence varies with topographic heterogeneity influencing fire behavior. Our two study areas are located in the southern Washington Cascade Range, USA. They have an unfragmented, mature forest cover that regenerated following wildfire. We mapped all remnant old-growth trees (live and dead) within 4.2–6.4 km long belt transects. Digital elevation models were used to generate convergent and divergent landform classes. Frequency analysis was used to test for landform associations. Live remnant western hemlock and western redcedar were strongly associated with convergent landforms and aspects that had greater availability of soil moisture. Live remnant Douglas-fir were most abundant, but were not correlated with convergence or divergence, although certain landforms had higher concentrations. Remnant snags were abundant across convergent and divergent landforms. We conclude that species with low fire resistance survive most frequently on landforms that have a dampening effect on fire intensity. Topographic variability may indirectly influence ecological functions associated with biological legacies by affecting the spatial distributions of remnant old-growth trees. (English) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] La distribution spatiale des legs biologiques laissés par les perturbations naturelles est une importante source de variabilité dans le développement de la forêt. Les auteurs ont étudié un type de legs biologique : les vieux arbres rémanents qui persistent dans les forêts matures de douglas. Ils ont fait l'hypothèse que la persistance varie avec l'hétérogénéité topographique qui influence le comportement du feu. Leurs deux zones d'étude sont situées dans la partie sud de la chaîne des Cascades dans l'État de Washington, aux États-Unis. On y retrouve un couvert de forêt mature non fragmentée qui origine d'un feu. Ils ont cartographié tous les vieux arbres rémanents (morts et vivants) le long de transects en bandes de 4,2 à 6,4 km. Des modèles numériques d'altitude ont été utilizés pour générer des classes de modelés convergents et divergents. L'analyse de fréquence a été utilizée pour tester les relations avec les modelés. Les tiges rémanentes encore vivantes de pruche de l'Ouest et de thuya géant sont fortement associées à des modelés convergents et à des orientations qui correspondent à une plus grande disponibilité de l'humidité dans le sol. Les tiges rémanentes encore vivantes de douglas sont très abondantes mais leur présence n'est pas corrélée avec la convergence ou la divergence bien que de plus fortes concentrations soient associées à certains modelés. Les chicots rémanents sont abondants dans les modelés convergents ou divergents. Les auteurs concluons que les espèces qui ont une faible résistance au feu survivent plus fréquemment dans les modelés qui ont pour effet de tempérer l'intensité du feu. La variabilité topographique peut indirectement influencer les fonctions écologiques associées aux legs biologiques en ayant un effet sur la distribution spatiale des vieux arbres rémanents.[Traduit par la Rédaction] (French) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Canadian Journal of Forest Research is the property of Canadian Science Publishing and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Luck, G. W.; Ricketts, T. H.; Daily, G. C.; Imhoff, M.. (2004) Alleviating spatial conflict between people and biodiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(1) 182-186
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Human settlements are expanding in species-rich regions and pose a serious threat to biodiversity conservation. We quantify the degree to which this threat manifests itself in two contrasting continents, Australia and North America, and suggest how it can be substantially alleviated. Human population density has a strong positive correlation with species richness in Australia for birds, mammals, amphibians, and butterflies (but not reptiles) and in North America for all five taxa. Nevertheless, conservation investments could secure locations that harbor almost all species while greatly reducing overlap with densely populated regions. We compared two conservation-planning scenarios that each aimed to represent all species at least once in a minimum set of sampling sites. The first scenario assigned equal cost to each site (ignoring differences in human population density); the second assigned a cost proportional to the site's human population density. Under the equal-cost scenario, 13-40% of selected sites occurred where population density values were highest (in the top decile). However, this overlap was reduced to as low as 0%, and in almost all cases to < 10%, under the population-cost scenario, when sites of high population density were avoided where possible. Moreover, this reduction of overlap was achieved with only small increases in the total amount of area requiring protection. As densely populated regions continue to expand rapidly and drive up land values, the strategic conservation investments of the kind highlighted in our analysis are best made now.
Mark, C. D.; Sadek, A. W.; Rizzo, D.. (2004) Predicting experienced travel time with neural networks: a PARAMICS simulation study. Proceedings. The 7th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (IEEE Cat. No.04TH8749) Pages 906-11;
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The implementation of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) in recent years has resulted in the development of systems capable of monitoring roadway conditions and disseminating traffic information to travelers in a network. However, the development of algorithms and methodologies specialized in handling large amounts of data for the purpose of real-time control has lagged behind the sensing and communication technological developments in ITS. In this study, data generated by a PARAMICS model of a real-world freeway section are used to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) capable of predicting experienced travel time between two points on the transportation network. Computational experiments demonstrate that the studied ANNs were able to reasonably predict the experienced travel time. Generally, the study shows that the length of the time lag did not have a statistically significant effect on ANN performance, that speed appears to be the most influential input variable, and no statistically significant difference in ANN performance was observed when data from the left lane loop detector was substituted for data from the right lane loop detector
Palumbi, S. R.; Roman, J.. (2004) Counting whales in the North Atlantic - Response. Science 303(5654) 40-40
Ricketts, T. H.; Daily, G. C.; Ehrlich, P. R.; Michener, C. D.. (2004) Economic value of tropical forest to coffee production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(34) 12579-12582
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Can economic forces be harnessed for biodiversity conservation? The answer hinges on characterizing the value of nature, a tricky business from biophysical, socioeconomic, and ethical perspectives. Although the societal benefits of native ecosystems are clearly immense,they remain largely unquantified for all but a few services. Here, we estimate the value of tropical forest in supplying pollination services to agriculture. We focus on coffee because it is one of the world's most valuable export commodities and is grown in many of the world's most biodiverse regions. Using pollination experiments along replicated distance gradients, we found that forest-based pollinators increased coffee yields by 20% within approximate to1 km of forest. Pollination also improved coffee quality near forest by reducing the frequency of "peaberries" (i.e., small misshapen seeds) by 27%. During 2000-2003, pollination services from two forest fragments (46 and 111 hectares) translated into approximate to$60,000 (U.S.) per year for one Costa Rican farm. This value is commensurate with expected revenues from competing land uses and far exceeds current conservation incentive payments. Conservation investments in human-dominated landscapes can therefore yield double benefits: for biodiversity and agriculture.
Ricketts, T. H.. (2004) Tropical forest fragments enhance pollinator activity in nearby coffee crops. Conservation Biology 18(5) 1262-1271
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Crop pollination by wild bees is an ecosystem service of enormous value, but it is under increasing threat from agricultural intensification. As with many ecosystem services, the mechanisms, scales, and species through which crop pollination is provided are too poorly understood to inform land-use decisions. I investigated the role of tropical forest remnants as sources of pollinators to surrounding coffee crops in Costa Rica. In 2001 and 2002 I observed bee activity and pollen deposition rates at coffee flowers along distance gradients from two fragments and one narrow riparian strip of forest. Eleven eusocial species were the most common visitors: 10 species of native meliponines and the introduced honeybee, Apis mellifera (hereafter Apis). Bee richness, overall visitation rate, and pollen deposition rate were all significantly higher in sites within approximately 100 m of forest fragments than in sites farther away (maximum distance of 1.6 km). Apis visitation rates were constant across the distance gradient, however, and Apis accounted for >90% of all floral visits in distant sites. The gradient from the riparian strip showed a similar drop in bee species richness with distance, but visitation rates were uniformly low along the gradient. Throughout the study area, Apis abundances declined sharply from 2001 to 2002, reducing visitation rates by over 50% in distant sites (where Apis was almost the only pollinator). In near sites, however, overall visitation rates dropped only 9% because native species almost entirely compensated for the Apis decline. Forest fragments (more so than the riparian strip) thus provided nearby coffee with a diversity of bees that increased both the amount and stability of pollination services by reducing dependence on a single introduced pollinator. Exploring the economic links between forest preservation and coffee cultivation may help align the goals of conservation and agriculture within many regions of global conservation priority.
Roman, J.; Palumbi, S. R.. (2004) A global invader at home: population structure of the green crab, Carcinus maenas, in Europe. 13(10) 2891-2898
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The European green crab, Carcinus maenas, has a native distribution that extends from Norway to Mauritania. It has attracted attention because of its recent invasions of Australia, Tasmania, South Africa, Japan and both coasts of North America. To examine the population structure of this global invader in its native range, we analysed a 502-base-pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene from 217 crabs collected in the North Atlantic and 13 specimens from the Mediterranean. A clear genetic break (11% sequence divergence) occurs between the Mediterranean and Atlantic, supporting the species-level status of these two forms. Populations in the Faeroe Islands and Iceland were genetically distinct from continental populations (F-ST = 0.264-0.678), with Iceland represented by a single lineage also found in the Faeroes. This break is consistent with a deep-water barrier to dispersal in green crabs. Although there are relatively high levels of gene flow along the Atlantic coast of Europe, slight population structure was found between the central North Sea and populations to the south. Analysis of variance, multidimensional scaling, and the distribution of private haplotypes support this break, located between Bremerhaven, Germany, and Hoek van Holland. Similar biogeographical and genetic associations for other species, such as benthic algae and freshwater eels, suggest that the marine fauna of Europe may be generally subdivided into the areas of Mediterranean, western Europe and northern Europe.
Seltzer, Nicole; Wang, Deane. (2004) Importance of Hydric Soils and Near-Lake Areas as Phosphorus Source Areas in the Lake Champlain Basin: Evidence from a Landscape-Level Model. Springer US, Dordrecht, Netherlands. Pages 143-158;
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The passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972 made maintaining and improving surface water quality a national goal. Much of the initial effort was levied against point sources of pollution (Puckett, 1995); however, controlling non-point pollution has become a priority as control of the remaining point source problems becomes increasingly less cost-effective. Non-point phosphorus (P) pollution, in particular, has received frequent public attention as it threatens many of our nation’s streams and rivers. Eutrophication, typically caused by high P levels, has been identified as the number one water quality problem in many regions (NYC DEP, 1999; LCBP, 1994).
Stephens, Jennie C; Hering, Janet G. (2004) Factors affecting the dissolution kinetics of volcanic ash soils: dependencies on pH, CO2, and oxalate. Applied Geochemistry 19(8) 1217-1232