University of Vermont

Browse publications by Gund Institute Fellows, Affiliates, and Students. Or use the search box to find what you're looking for. For most publications, you can view abstracts and follow a link to the publication itself.

Search Publications

Advanced Search
2014
Bacon, Christopher M.; Sundstrom, William A.; Flores Gómez, María Eugenia; Ernesto Méndez, V.; Santos, Rica; Goldoftas, Barbara; Dougherty, Ian. (2014) Explaining the ‘hungry farmer paradox’: Smallholders and fair trade cooperatives navigate seasonality and change in Nicaragua's corn and coffee markets. Global Environmental Change (0)
Link to Publication View Abstract
Latin American smallholder coffee farmers linked with fair trade and organic markets are frequently cited as models for sustainable food systems. Yet many experience seasonal hunger, which is a very common, but understudied, form of food insecurity. Northern Nicaragua's highlands include well-organized cooperatives, high rural poverty rates, and rain dependent farms, offering a compelling study area to understand what factors are associated with seasonal hunger. This participatory mixed methods study combines data from observations, interviews and focus groups with results from a survey of 244 cooperative members. It finds that seasonal hunger is influenced by multiple factors, including: (1) annual cycles of precipitation and rising maize prices during the lean months; (2) inter annual droughts and periodic storms; and (3) the long-term inability of coffee harvests and prices to provide sufficient income. Sampled households experienced an average of about 3 months of seasonal hunger in 2009. A series of five least squares regression models find the expected significant impacts of corn harvest quantity, farm area, improved grain storage, and household incomes, all inversely correlated with lean months. Unanticipated results include the finding that households with more fruit trees reported fewer lean months, while the predominant environmentally friendly farming practices had no discernable impacts. The presence of hunger among producers challenges sustainable coffee marketing claims. We describe one example of a partnership-based response that integrates agroecological farm management with the use of fair trade cooperative institutions to re-localize the corn distribution system. Increased investments and integrated strategies will be needed to reduce threats to food security, livelihoods, and biodiversity associated with the rapid spread of coffee leaf rust and falling commodity prices.
Gaddis, EricaJ Brown; Voinov, Alexey; Seppelt, Ralf; Rizzo, DonnaM. (2014) Spatial Optimization of Best Management Practices to Attain Water Quality Targets. Water Resources Management; Water Resour Manage; Springer Netherlands, Germany. Pages 1-15;
Link to Publication View Abstract
Diffuse nutrient loads are a common problem in developed and agricultural watersheds. While there has been substantial investment in best management practices (BMPs) to reduce diffuse pollution, there remains a need to better prioritize controls at the watershed scale as reflected in recent US-EPA guidance for watershed planning and Total Maximum Daily Load development. We implemented spatial optimization techniques among four diffuse source pathways in a mixed-use watershed in Northern Vermont to maximize total reduction of phosphorus loading to streams while minimizing associated costs. We found that within a capital cost range of 138 to 321 USD ha-1 a phosphorus reduction of 0.29 to 0.38 kg ha−1 year−1, is attainable. Optimization results are substantially more cost-effective than most scenarios identified by stakeholders. The maximum diffuse phosphorus load reduction equates to 1.25 t year−1using the most cost-effective technologies for each diffuse source at a cost of $3,464,260. However, 1.13 t year−1 could be reduced at a much lower cost of $976,417. This is the practical upper limit of achievable diffuse phosphorus reduction, above which additional spending would not result in substantially more phosphorus reduction. Watershed managers could use solutions along the resulting Pareto optimal curve to select optimal combinations of BMPs based on a water quality target or available funds. The results demonstrate the power of using spatial optimization methods to arrive at a cost-effective selection of BMPs and their distribution across a landscape.
Jha, Shalene; Bacon, Christopher M.; Philpott, Stacy M.; Ernesto Méndez, V.; Läderach, Peter; Rice, Robert A.. (2014) Shade Coffee: Update on a Disappearing Refuge for Biodiversity. Bioscience
Link to Publication View Abstract
In the past three decades, coffee cultivation has gained widespread attention for its crucial role in supporting local and global biodiversity. In this synthetic Overview, we present newly gathered data that summarize how global patterns in coffee distribution and shade vegetation have changed and discuss implications for biodiversity, ecosystem services, and livelihoods. Although overall cultivated coffee area has decreased by 8% since 1990, coffee production and agricultural intensification have increased in many places and shifted globally, with production expanding in Asia while contracting in Africa. Ecosystem services such as pollination, pest control, climate regulation, and nutrient sequestration are generally greater in shaded coffee farms, but many coffee-growing regions are removing shade trees from their management. Although it is clear that there are ecological and socioeconomic benefits associated with shaded coffee, we expose the many challenges and future research priorities needed to link sustainable coffee management with sustainable livelihoods.
Mika, Anna M.; Keeton, William S.. (2014) Net carbon fluxes at stand and landscape scales from wood bioenergy harvests in the US Northeast. GCB Bioenergy Pages n/a-n/a;
Link to Publication View Abstract
The long-term greenhouse gas emissions implications of wood biomass (‘bioenergy’) harvests are highly uncertain yet of great significance for climate change mitigation and renewable energy policies. Particularly uncertain are the net carbon (C) effects of multiple harvests staggered spatially and temporally across landscapes where bioenergy is only one of many products. We used field data to formulate bioenergy harvest scenarios, applied them to 362 sites from the Forest Inventory and Analysis database, and projected growth and harvests over 160 years using the Forest Vegetation Simulator. We compared the net cumulative C fluxes, relative to a non-bioenergy baseline, between scenarios when various proportions of the landscape are harvested for bioenergy: 0% (non-bioenergy); 25% (BIO25); 50% (BIO50); or 100% (BIO100), with three levels of intensification. We accounted for C stored in aboveground forest pools and wood products, direct and indirect emissions from wood products and bioenergy, and avoided direct and indirect emissions from fossil fuels. At the end of the simulation period, although 82% of stands were projected to maintain net positive C benefit, net flux remained negative (i.e., net emissions) compared to non-bioenergy harvests for the entire 160-year simulation period. BIO25, BIO50, and BIO100 scenarios resulted in average annual emissions of 2.47, 5.02, and 9.83 Mg C ha−1, respectively. Using bioenergy for heating decreased the emissions relative to electricity generation as did removing additional slash from thinnings between regeneration harvests. However, all bioenergy scenarios resulted in increased net emissions compared to the non-bioenergy harvests. Stands with high initial aboveground live biomass may have higher net emissions from bioenergy harvest. Silvicultural practices such as increasing rotation length and structural retention may result in lower C fluxes from bioenergy harvests. Finally, since passive management resulted in the greatest net C storage, we recommend designation of unharvested reserves to offset emissions from harvested stands.
Pursnani, S.; Srivastava, S.; Ali, S.; Leibert, E.; Rogers, L.. (2014) Risk Factors for and Outcomes of Detention of Patients With TB in New York City An Update: 2002-2009. Chest 145(1) 95-100
Link to Publication View Abstract
Background: One of the most controversial aspects of New York City's highly effective TB control program is the use of public health law and court-ordered detention to treat persistently recalcitrant patients with active TB. We now report on characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing detention for completion of TB treatment due to nonadherence in New York City from 2002 through 2009. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was designed to compare patients undergoing court-ordered detention (n = 79) and time-matched control subjects undergoing TB treatment in outpatient directly observed therapy (DOT) at Bellevue Hospital in New York City. Results: From January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2009, 79 patients underwent court-ordered detention for TB treatment. Compared with patients completing treatment in DOT, univariate analysis found that detainees were younger; more likely to be of minority race/ethnicity; to have a history of substance abuse, tobacco use, homelessness, incarceration, HIV infection; and to be born in the United States. Multivariate analysis adjusting for other variables found smear positivity (OR = 3.93; 95% CI, 1.05-14.75; P = .04), mental illness (OR = 5.80; 95% CI, 1.18-28.51; P = .03), and substance abuse (OR = 9.25; 95% CI, 2.81-30.39; P < .01) to be the strongest independent predictors of likelihood of detention. Of those initially detained, 46 (58%) completed treatment during inpatient detention, 29(37%) completed treatment under outpatient court-ordered DOT, and four died during their hospitalization. Conclusions: The majority of patients undergoing court-ordered detention for TB treatment (95%) successfully completed therapy. Likelihood of detention was most strongly associated with factors expected to be associated with poor adherence, including mental illness and substance abuse.
Russell-Roy, Emily T.; Keeton, William S.; Pontius, Jennifer A.; Kerchner, Charles D.. (2014) Rehabilitation forestry and carbon market access onhigh-graded northern hardwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research; NRC Research Press, Cambridge, MA. Pages 614-627;
2013
Alvez, Juan P.; Schmitt Fo, Abdon Luiz; Farley, Joshua C.; Erickson, Jon D.; Mendez, Ernesto. (2013) Transition from Semi-Confinement to Pasture-Based Dairy in Brazil: Farmers' View of Economic and Environmental Performances. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems; Taylor & Francis, New Haven, CT. Pages null-null;
Link to Publication View Abstract
The production of ecosystem goods and services has increased significantly in the last hundred years, while the capacity of ecosystems to generate supporting and regulating services has decreased. In this context, agriculture and livestock production have become major concerns. At the same time, livestock, particularly dairy cows, play a key role and can serve to improve ecosystems, production, and rural livelihoods. We randomly selected and conducted semi-structural interviews with sixty-one dairy family farmers from four cooperatives in the Encosta da Serra Geral Region of the Atlantic Rainforest in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The goal was to analyze their production and viewpoints about environmental variables after adopting management-intensive grazing (MIG). The overall results showed that when farmers changed from semi-confinement and continuous grazing to MIG, they perceived improvements in production, livelihoods, and ecosystem services. Moreover, according to farmers' insights, MIG could be a tool to increase water and soil quality, animal health, alleviate poverty, and complement Brazilian conservation efforts.
Azaria, D. E.; Troy, A.; Lee, B. H. Y.; Ventriss, C.; Voigt, B.. (2013) Modeling the effects of an urban growth boundary on vehicle travel in a small metropolitan area. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design; Pion Ltd, New Haven, CT. 40(5) 846-864
Link to Publication View Abstract
An integrated land-use - transportation model was used to simulate the impact that an urban growth boundary would have on vehicle miles of travel in a small metropolitan community over a forty-year modeling horizon. The results of the modeling effort indicate that even in an area with low to moderate population growth, there is the potential to reduce vehicle miles of travel per person by as much as 25% from a business-as-usual scenario over aˇforty-year period. The reduction would result primarily from a shift of driving alone to carpooling or walking for many trips. A scenario in which growth is concentrated in a single urban core would also benefit from shorter average trip lengths; a scenario with multiple village centers would not have shorter trip lengths, but would still have significant improvements in total vehicle miles of travel. Keywords: integrated land-use - transportation model, urban growth boundary, vehicle miles of travel
Buchholz, T.; Friedland, A. J.; Hornig, C. E.; Keeton, W. S.; Zanchi, G.; Nunery, J. S.. (2013) Mineral soil carbon fluxes in forests and implications for carbon balance assessments. Global Change Biology Bioenergy
Link to Publication View Abstract
Forest carbon cycles play an important role in efforts to understand and mitigate climate change. Large amounts of carbon (C) are stored in deep mineral forest soils, but are often not considered in accounting for global C fluxes because mineral soil C is commonly thought to be relatively stable. We explore C fluxes associated with forest management practices by examining existing data on forest C fluxes in the northeastern US. Our findings demonstrate that mineral soil C can play an important role in C emissions, especially when considering intensive forest management practices. Such practices are known to cause a high aboveground C flux to the atmosphere, but there is evidence that they can also promote comparably high and long-term belowground C fluxes. If these additional fluxes are widespread in forests, recommendations for increased reliance on forest biomass may need to be reevaluated. Furthermore, existing protocols for the monitoring of forest C often ignore mineral soil C due to lack of data. Forest C analyses will be incomplete until this problem is resolved.
Burrascano, S.; Keeton, W. S.; Sabatini, F. M.; Blasi, C.. (2013) Commonality and variability in the structural attributes of moist temperate old-growth forests: A global review. Forest Ecology and Management 291 458-479
Link to Publication View Abstract
Temperate forests have been fundamentally altered by land use and other stressors globally; these have reduced the abundance of primary and old-growth forests in particular. Despite many regional studies, the literature lacks a global synthesis of temperate old-growth structural characteristics. In this study we compare literature derived data on mature and old-growth moist temperate forests with the aim of: (i) exploring global commonalities; (ii) investigating sources of variability among systems; and (iii) highlighting data gaps and research needs. We compiled a dataset of 147 records from 93 papers, and analyzed a set of structural indicators: basal area, stem density, large living trees, live aboveground biomass, quadratic mean diameter, and coarse woody debris volume. These indicators were contrasted between mature and old-growth age classes at a global level and across continents and broad forest types, testing for significance through Monte-Carlo permutation procedure. We also related structural indicators to age, climatic and geographical descriptors. Our results suggest that all structural indicators vary across systems in relation to geographical, compositional, and climatic influences. However old-growth forests showed global commonalities in structure when compared to mature forests: significantly higher densities of large living trees, higher quadratic mean diameter, and higher amounts of live aboveground biomass and coarse woody debris. Furthermore we found inconsistency in the structural variables reported by different papers; lack of studies on temperate forests in Russia, and Western and Central Asia. The findings improve our understanding of old-growth structure and function, and will help inform sustainable forest management and conservation approaches world-wide. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Butryn, R. S.; Parrish, D. L.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2013) Summer stream temperature metrics for predicting brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution in streams. Hydrobiologia 703(1) 47-57
Link to Publication View Abstract
We developed a methodology to predict brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution using summer temperature metrics as predictor variables. Our analysis used long-term fish and hourly water temperature data from the Dog River, Vermont (USA). Commonly used metrics (e.g., mean, maximum, maximum 7-day maximum) tend to smooth the data so information on temperature variation is lost. Therefore, we developed a new set of metrics (called event metrics) to capture temperature variation by describing the frequency, area, duration, and magnitude of events that exceeded a user-defined temperature threshold. We used 16, 18, 20, and 22A degrees C. We built linear discriminant models and tested and compared the event metrics against the commonly used metrics. Correct classification of the observations was 66% with event metrics and 87% with commonly used metrics. However, combined event and commonly used metrics correctly classified 92%. Of the four individual temperature thresholds, it was difficult to assess which threshold had the "best" accuracy. The 16A degrees C threshold had slightly fewer misclassifications; however, the 20A degrees C threshold had the fewest extreme misclassifications. Our method leveraged the volumes of existing long-term data and provided a simple, systematic, and adaptable framework for monitoring changes in fish distribution, specifically in the case of irregular, extreme temperature events.
Chappell, M. J.; Wittman, H.; Bacon, C. M.; Ferguson, B. G.; Barrios, L. G.; Barrios, R. G.; Jaffee, D.; Lima, J.; Mendez, V. E.; Morales, H.; Soto-Pinto, L.; Vandermeer, J.; Perfecto, I.. (2013) Food sovereignty: an alternative paradigm for poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation in Latin America. F1000Res; F1000Research 2 235
Link to Publication View Abstract
Strong feedback between global biodiversity loss and persistent, extreme rural poverty are major challenges in the face of concurrent food, energy, and environmental crises. This paper examines the role of industrial agricultural intensification and market integration as exogenous socio-ecological drivers of biodiversity loss and poverty traps in Latin America. We then analyze the potential of a food sovereignty framework, based on protecting the viability of a diverse agroecological matrix while supporting rural livelihoods and global food production. We review several successful examples of this approach, including ecological land reform in Brazil, agroforestry, milpa, and the uses of wild varieties in smallholder systems in Mexico and Central America. We highlight emergent research directions that will be necessary to assess the potential of the food sovereignty model to promote both biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction.
De Groot, R. S.; Blignaut, J.; van der Ploeg, S.; Aronson, J.; Elmqvist, T.; Farley, J.. (2013) Benefits of Investing in Ecosystem Restoration. Conservation Biology 27(6) 1286-1293
Link to Publication View Abstract
Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments.
Erickson, D. L.; Lovell, S. T.; Mendez, V. E.. (2013) Identifying, quantifying and classifying agricultural opportunities for land use planning. Landscape and Urban Planning 118 29-39
Link to Publication View Abstract
Worldwide, urbanization is causing a loss of agricultural land as residential and commercial development expands. In many parts of the US, this land use conversion has in some cases resulted in subdivision of farms into large residential parcels. Some of these residential parcels may retain sizeable areas of undeveloped prime agricultural soil. In an uncertain future challenged by population growth, climate change, food insecurity, water shortages, and energy limitations, communities are beginning to explore their ability to feed themselves from local supplies. Addressing this issue will require additional tools for planning land use in a way that could support greater food self-sufficiency at the community level. In this study, a process was developed to identify, quantify and classify agricultural opportunities (AO). AO are simply open lands suitable for some level of agricultural production. The methods outlined here were developed in Chittenden County, Vermont but they can be applied elsewhere. While individual ancillary datasets may be unique to each study area, the general process can be replicated as long as some basic datasets such as classified land cover imagery and prime soils are available. The tools described herein, if employed by planners or geospatial analysts, can generate actionable information. The results of the analyses, as well as the associated participatory community discussions, can aid decision makers when drafting new or revising old policies. Because of their widespread applicability, these tools can serve as decision support aids for policy makers and planners tasked with developing strategies to increase food self-sufficiency. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Farley, J.; Burke, M.; Flomenhoft, G.; Kelly, B.; Murray, D.; Posner, S.; Putnam, M.; Scanlan, A.; Witham, A.. (2013) Monetary and Fiscal Policies for a Finite Planet.. Sustainability 5(6) 2802-2826
Link to Publication View Abstract
Current macroeconomic policy promotes continuous economic growth. Unemployment, poverty and debt are associated with insufficient growth. Economic activity depends upon the transformation of natural materials, ultimately returning to the environment as waste. Current levels of economic throughput exceed the planet’s carrying capacity. As a result of poorly constructed economic institutions, society faces the unacceptable choice between ecological catastrophe and human misery. A transition to a steady-state economy is required, characterized by a rate of throughput compatible with planetary boundaries. This paper contributes to the development of a steady-state economy by addressing US monetary and fiscal policies. A steady-state monetary policy would support counter-cyclical, debt-free vertical money creation through the public sector, in ways that contribute to sustainable well-being. The implication for a steady-state fiscal policy is that any lending or spending requires a careful balance of recovery of money, not as a means of revenue, but as an economic imperative to meet monetary policy goals. A steady-state fiscal policy would prioritize targeted public goods investments, taxation of ecological “bads” and economic rent and implementation of progressive tax structures. Institutional innovations are considered, including common asset trusts, to regulate throughput, and a public monetary trust, to strictly regulate money supply.
Fernandez, M.; Goodall, K.; Olson, M. B.; Mendez, V. E.. (2013) Agroecology and alternative agrifood movements in the United States: towards a sustainable agrifood system.. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37(1) 115-126
Link to Publication View Abstract
The concept of agroecology in the United States is born out of a dialectical process of co-production of knowledge whereby the science of agroecology has shaped and been shaped by alternative agri-food movements, policy, and local practice. This article examines the relationship between agroecology and alternative agri-food movements and identifies opportunities for greater engagement. The article concludes with a discussion of the challenges and opportunities to scaling up agroecology and sustainable agri-food systems.
Fisher, B.; Edwards, D. P.; Wilcove, D. S.. (2013) Logging and conservation: Economic impacts of the stocking rates and prices of commercial timber species. Forest Policy and Economics
Link to Publication View Abstract
Tropical forests vary greatly in their stocking rates of timber and the commercial value of the different tree species they contain. This significantly affects the economics of logging and, consequently, the viability of carbon payments to aid in the conservation or management of the world's forests. In this paper we first develop a conceptual model to investigate how theoretical opportunity costs and the conservation potential of carbon payments vary across forests with stocking rates and species composition. We focus the model on two possible conservation contexts: 1) strict protection of unlogged forests and 2) conservation of selectively logged forests. Results suggest that the type of forest, with regard to both timber volume and species composition, greatly affects the potential of a carbon payment to mitigate forest degradation. Additionally, two complementary insights emerge. First, in forests where timbers of high commercial value represent only a small proportion of total wood volume (and therefore carbon), selective logging may make conservation of the wider landscape more feasible, and cost-effective. Second, in forests where selective logging of highly-prized species has already occurred, engaging in long-term conservation of forest (and hence thwarting conversion to agriculture) may make the conservation of biodiverse landscapes more feasible, and their management more cost-effective.
Fytilis, N.; Rizzo, D. M.; Lamb, R. D.; Kerans, B. L.; Stevens, L.. (2013) Using real-time PCR and Bayesian analysis to distinguish susceptible tubificid taxa important in the transmission of Myxobolus cerebralis, the cause of salmonid whirling disease. International Journal for Parasitology 43(6) 493-501
Link to Publication View Abstract
Aquatic oligochaetes have long been appreciated for their value in assessing habitat quality because they are ubiquitous sediment-dwelling filter feeders. Many oligochaete taxa are also important in the transmission of fish diseases. Distinguishing resistant and susceptible taxa is important for managing fish disease, yet challenging in practice. Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) is the definitive host for the complex life-cycle parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of salmonid whirling disease. We developed two hydrolysis probe-based qualitative real-time PCR (qPCR) multiplex assays that distinguish among tubificid taxa collected from the Madison River, Montana, USA. The first assay distinguishes T. tubifex from Rhyacodrilus spp.; while the second classifies T. tubifex identified by the first assay into two genetic lineages (I and III). Specificity and sensitivity were optimized for each assay; the two assays showed specificity of 94.3% and 98.6% for the target oligochaetes, respectively. DNA sequencing verified the results. The development of these assays allowed us to more fully describe tubificid community composition (the taxa and their abundance at a site) and estimate the relative abundances of host taxa. To relate tubificid relative abundance to fish disease risk, we determined M. cerebralis infection prevalence in samples identified as T. tubifex using similar molecular techniques. Given prior information (i.e., morphological identification of sexually mature worms), Bayesian analysis inferred that the first qPCR assay improved taxonomic identification. Bayesian inference of the relative abundance of T. tubifex, combined with infection assay results, identified sites with a high prevalence of infected T. tubifex. To our knowledge, this study represents both the first assessment of oligochaete community composition using a qPCR assay based on fluorescent probes and the first use of Bayesian analysis to fully characterize the dominant infected taxa in streams where whirling disease is observed. (C) 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fytilis, N.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2013) Coupling self-organizing maps with a Naive Bayesian classifier : Stream classification studies using multiple assessment data. Water Resources Research 49(11) 7747-7762
Link to Publication View Abstract
Organizing or clustering data into natural groups is one of the most fundamental aspects of understanding and mining information. The recent explosion in sensor networks and data storage associated with hydrological monitoring has created a huge potential for automating data analysis and classification of large, high-dimensional data sets. In this work, we develop a new classification tool that couples a Naive Bayesian classifier with a neural network clustering algorithm (i.e., Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM)). The combined Bayesian-SOM algorithm reduces classification error by leveraging the Bayesian's ability to accommodate parameter uncertainty with the SOM's ability to reduce high-dimensional data to lower dimensions. The resulting algorithm is data-driven, nonparametric and is as computationally efficient as a Naive Bayesian classifier due to its parallel architecture. We apply, evaluate and test the Bayesian-SOM network using two real-world hydrological data sets. The first uses genetic data to classify the state of disease in native fish populations in the upper Madison River, MT, USA. The second uses stream geomorphic and water quality data measured at similar to 2500 Vermont stream reaches to predict habitat conditions. The new classification tool has substantial benefits over traditional classification methods due to its ability to dynamically update prior information, assess the uncertainty/confidence of the posterior probability values, and visualize both the input data and resulting probabilistic clusters onto two-dimensional maps to better assess nonlinear mappings between the two.
Galford, Gillian L.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Cerri, Carlos E. P.. (2013) Prospects for land-use sustainability on the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 368(1619)
Link to Publication View Abstract
The Brazilian Amazon frontier shows how remarkable leadership can work towards increased agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability without new greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to initiatives among various stakeholders, including national and state government and agents, farmers, consumers, funding agencies and non-governmental organizations. Change has come both from bottom-up and top-down actions of these stakeholders, providing leadership, financing and monitoring to foster environmental sustainability and agricultural growth. Goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from land-cover and land-use change in Brazil are being achieved through a multi-tiered approach that includes policies to reduce deforestation and initiatives for forest restoration, as well as increased and diversified agricultural production, intensified ranching and innovations in agricultural management. Here, we address opportunities for the Brazilian Amazon in working towards low-carbon rural development and environmentally sustainable landscapes.
Garibaldi, L. A.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Winfree, R.; Aizen, M. A.; Bommarco, R.; Cunningham, S. A.; Kremen, C.; Carvalheiro, L. G.; Harder, L. D.; Afik, O.; Bartomeus, I.; Benjamin, F.; Boreux, V.; Cariveau, D.; Chacoff, N. P.; Dudenhoffer, J. H.; Freitas, B. M.; Ghazoul, J.; Greenleaf, S.; Hipolito, J.; Holzschuh, A.; Howlett, B.; Isaacs, R.; Javorek, S. K.; Kennedy, C. M.; Krewenka, K. M.; Krishnan, S.; Mandelik, Y.; Mayfield, M. M.; Motzke, I.; Munyuli, T.; Nault, B. A.; Otieno, M.; Petersen, J.; Pisanty, G.; Potts, S. G.; Rader, R.; Ricketts, T. H.; Rundlof, M.; Seymour, C. L.; Schuepp, C.; Szentgyorgyi, H.; Taki, H.; Tscharntke, T.; Vergara, C. H.; Viana, B. F.; Wanger, T. C.; Westphal, C.; Williams, N.; Klein, A. M.. (2013) Wild Pollinators Enhance Fruit Set of Crops Regardless of Honey Bee Abundance. Science 339(6127) 1608-1611
Link to Publication View Abstract
The diversity and abundance of wild insect pollinators have declined in many agricultural landscapes. Whether such declines reduce crop yields, or are mitigated by managed pollinators such as honey bees, is unclear. We found universally positive associations of fruit set with flower visitation by wild insects in 41 crop systems worldwide. In contrast, fruit set increased significantly with flower visitation by honey bees in only 14% of the systems surveyed. Overall, wild insects pollinated crops more effectively; an increase in wild insect visitation enhanced fruit set by twice as much as an equivalent increase in honey bee visitation. Visitation by wild insects and honey bees promoted fruit set independently, so pollination by managed honey bees supplemented, rather than substituted for, pollination by wild insects. Our results suggest that new practices for integrated management of both honey bees and diverse wild insect assemblages will enhance global crop yields.
Hu, L.; Savidge, C.; Rizzo, D.; Hayden, N.; Hagadorn, J.; Dewoolkar, M.. (2013) Commonly Used Porous Building Materials: Geomorphic Pore Structure and Fluid Transport. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 25(12) 1803-1812
Jain, M.; Mondal, P.; DeFries, R. S.; Small, C.; Galford, G. L.. (2013) Mapping cropping intensity of smallholder farms: A comparison of methods using multiple sensors. Remote Sensing of Environment 134 210-223
Link to Publication View Abstract
The food security of smallholder farmers is vulnerable to climate change and climate variability. Cropping intensity, the number of crops planted annually, can be used as a measure of food security for smallholder farmers given that it can greatly affect net production. Current techniques for quantifying cropping intensity may not accurately map smallholder farms where the size of one field is typically smaller than the spatial resolution of readily available satellite data. We evaluated four methods that use multi-scalar datasets and are commonly used in the literature to assess cropping intensity of smallholder farms: 1) the Landsat threshold method, which identifies if a Landsat pixel is cropped or uncropped during each growing season, 2) the MODIS peak method, which determines if there is a phenological peak in the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index time series during each growing season, 3) the MODIS temporal mixture analysis, which quantifies the sub-pixel heterogeneity of cropping intensity using phenological MODIS data, and 4) the MODIS hierarchical training method, which quantifies the sub-pixel heterogeneity of cropping intensity using hierarchical training techniques. Each method was assessed using four criteria: 1) data availability, 2) accuracy across different spatial scales (at aggregate scales 250 x 250 m, 1 x 1 km, 5 x 5 km, and 10 x 10 km), 3) ease of implementation, and 4) ability to use the method over large spatial and temporal scales. We applied our methods to two regions in India (Gujarat and southeastern Madhya Pradesh) that represented diversity in crop type, soils, climatology, irrigation access, cropping intensity, and field size. We found that the Landsat threshold method is the most accurate (R-2 >= 0.71 and RMSE <= 0.14), particularly at smaller scales of analysis. Yet given the limited availability of Landsat data, we find that the MODIS hierarchical training method meets multiple criteria for mapping cropping intensity over large spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, the adjusted R-2 between predicted and validation data generally increased and the RMSE decreased with spatial aggregation >= 5 x 5 km (R-2 up to 0.97 and RMSE as low as 0.00). Our model accuracy varied based on the region and season of analysis and was lowest during the summer season in Gujarat when there was high sub-pixel heterogeneity due to sparsely cropped agricultural land-cover. While our results specifically apply to our study regions in India, they most likely also apply to smallholder agriculture in other locations across the globe where the same types of satellite data are readily available. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kennedy, Christina M.; Lonsdorf, Eric; Neel, Maile C.; Williams, Neal M.; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Winfree, Rachael; Bommarco, Riccardo; Brittain, Claire; Burley, Alana L.; Cariveau, Daniel; Carvalheiro, Luísa G.; Chacoff, Natacha P.; Cunningham, Saul A.; Danforth, Bryan N.; Dudenhöffer, Jan-Hendrik; Elle, Elizabeth; Gaines, Hannah R.; Garibaldi, Lucas A.; Gratton, Claudio; Holzschuh, Andrea; Isaacs, Rufus; Javorek, Steven K.; Jha, Shalene; Klein, Alexandra M.; Krewenka, Kristin; Mandelik, Yael; Mayfield, Margaret M.; Morandin, Lora; Neame, Lisa A.; Otieno, Mark; Park, Mia; Potts, Simon G.; Rundlöf, Maj; Saez, Agustin; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Taki, Hisatomo; Viana, Blandina Felipe; Westphal, Catrin; Wilson, Julianna K.; Greenleaf, Sarah S.; Kremen, Claire. (2013) A global quantitative synthesis of local and landscape effects on wild bee pollinators in agroecosystems. Ecology Letters 16(5) 584-599
Link to Publication View Abstract
Bees provide essential pollination services that are potentially affected both by local farm management and the surrounding landscape. To better understand these different factors, we modelled the relative effects of landscape composition (nesting and floral resources within foraging distances), landscape configuration (patch shape, interpatch connectivity and habitat aggregation) and farm management (organic vs. conventional and local-scale field diversity), and their interactions, on wild bee abundance and richness for 39 crop systems globally. Bee abundance and richness were higher in diversified and organic fields and in landscapes comprising more high-quality habitats; bee richness on conventional fields with low diversity benefited most from high-quality surrounding land cover. Landscape configuration effects were weak. Bee responses varied slightly by biome. Our synthesis reveals that pollinator persistence will depend on both the maintenance of high-quality habitats around farms and on local management practices that may offset impacts of intensive monoculture agriculture.
Koliba, C.; Zia, A.. (2013) Complex Systems Modeling in Public Administration and Policy Studies: Challenges and Opportunities for a Meta-Theoretical Research Program.. Emergnent Publications, Litchfield Park, AZ.
Link to Publication View Abstract
There is an argument that says that research in Public Administration is always about social complexity. This argument is true. There is also an argument that says that Public Administration is actually very little informed by complexity. This is equally true. The differences lie in the different takes on complexity. The latter approach understands that comprehension of complexity requires a specific theoretical framework and associated tools to look into the black box of causality. The authors in this edited volume gathered in Rotterdam (The Netherlands, June 2011) to discuss how the complexity sciences can contribute to pertinent questions in the domains of Public Administration and Public Policy. Their contributions are presented in this edited volume. Each contribution is an attempt to answer the Challenge of Making Public Administration and Complexity Theory work-COMPACT, as the title says. Together, they present an overview of the diverse state of the art in thinking about and research in complex systems in the public domain.
Koliba, C.; Zia, A.. (2013) Complex Systems Modeling in Public Administration and Policy Studies: Challenges and Opportunities for a Meta-Theoretical Research Program.. Emergnent Publications, Litchfield Park, AZ.
Link to Publication View Abstract
There is an argument that says that research in Public Administration is always about social complexity. This argument is true. There is also an argument that says that Public Administration is actually very little informed by complexity. This is equally true. The differences lie in the different takes on complexity. The latter approach understands that comprehension of complexity requires a specific theoretical framework and associated tools to look into the black box of causality. The authors in this edited volume gathered in Rotterdam (The Netherlands, June 2011) to discuss how the complexity sciences can contribute to pertinent questions in the domains of Public Administration and Public Policy. Their contributions are presented in this edited volume. Each contribution is an attempt to answer the Challenge of Making Public Administration and Complexity Theory work-COMPACT, as the title says. Together, they present an overview of the diverse state of the art in thinking about and research in complex systems in the public domain.
Koliba, C.; Zia, A.. (2013) Governance Informatics: Using Computer Simulation Models to Deepen Situational Awareness and Governance Design Considerations. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Koliba, C.; Zia, A.. (2013) Governance Informatics: Using Computer Simulation Models to Deepen Situational Awareness and Governance Design Considerations. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Koliba, C.. (2013) Review of 'Cultural Competency for Public Administrators'. Journal of Public Affairs Education 19(2) 377-379
Lucero, D. E.; Morrissey, L. A.; Rizzo, D. M.; Rodas, A.; Garnica, R.; Stevens, L.; Bustamante, D. M.; Carlota Monroy, M.. (2013) Ecohealth Interventions Limit Triatomine Reinfestation following Insecticide Spraying in La Brea, Guatemala. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 88(4) 630-637
Link to Publication View Abstract
In this study, we evaluate the effect of participatory Ecohealth interventions on domestic reinfestation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata after village-wide suppression of the vector population using a residual insecticide. The study was conducted in the rural community of La Brea, Guatemala between 2002 and 2009 where vector infestation was analyzed within a spatial data framework based on entomological and socio-economic surveys of homesteads within the village. Participatory interventions focused on community awareness and low-cost home improvements using local materials to limit areas of refuge and alternative blood meals for the vector within the home, and potential shelter for the vector outside the home. As a result, domestic infestation was maintained at <= 3% and peridomestic infestation at <= 2% for 5 years beyond the last insecticide spraying, in sharp contrast to the rapid reinfestation experienced in earlier insecticide only interventions.
Manukyan, Narine; Eppstein, Margaret J; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Leahy, Kathleen A; Kenny, Michael J; Mukherjee, Shreya; Rizzo, Donna M. (2013) Exploratory Analysis in Time-Varying Data Sets: a Healthcare Network Application. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science 3(7)
Masozera, M.; Erickson, J. D.; Clifford, D.; Coppolillo, P.; Sadiki, H. G.; Mazet, J. K.. (2013) Integrating the Management of Ruaha Landscape of Tanzania with Local Needs and Preferences. Environmental Management 52(6) 1533-1546
Link to Publication View Abstract
Sustainable management of landscapes with multiple competing demands such as the Ruaha Landscape is complex due to the diverse preferences and needs of stakeholder groups involved. This study uses conjoint analysis to assess the preferences of representatives from three stakeholder groups-local communities, district government officials, and non-governmental organizations-toward potential solutions of conservation and development tradeoffs facing local communities in the Ruaha Landscape of Tanzania. Results demonstrate that there is little consensus among stakeholders about the best development strategies for the Ruaha region. This analysis suggests a need for incorporating issues deemed important by these various groups into a development strategy that aims to promote conservation of the Ruaha Landscape and improve the livelihood of local communities.
Mathon, B. R.; Rizzo, D. M.; Kline, M.; Alexander, G.; Fiske, S.; Langdon, R.; Stevens, L.. (2013) Assessing Linkages in Stream Habitat, Geomorphic Condition, and Biological Integrity Using a Generalized Regression Neural Network.. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION 49(2) 415-430
Link to Publication View Abstract
Watershed managers often use physical geomorphic and habitat assessments in making decisions about the biological integrity of a stream, and to reduce the cost and time for identifying stream stressors and developing mitigation strategies. Such analysis is difficult since the complex linkages between reach-scale geomorphic and habitat conditions, and biological integrity are not fully understood. We evaluate the effectiveness of a generalized regression neural network (GRNN) to predict biological integrity using physical (i.e., geomorphic and habitat) stream-reach assessment data. The method is first tested using geomorphic assessments to predict habitat condition for 1,292 stream reaches from the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources. The GRNN methodology outperforms linear regression (69% vs. 40% classified correctly) and improves slightly (70% correct) with additional data on channel evolution. Analysis of a subset of the reaches where physical assessments are used to predict biological integrity shows no significant linear correlation, however the GRNN predicted 48% of the fish health data and 23% of macroinvertebrate health. Although the GRNN is superior to linear regression, these results show linking physical and biological health remains challenging. Reasons for lack of agreement, including spatial and temporal scale differences, are discussed. We show the GRNN to be a data-driven tool that can assist watershed managers with large quantities of complex, nonlinear data.
McLellan, B. C.; Corder, G. D.; Ali, S. H.. (2013) Sustainability of rare earths-an overview of the state of knowledge. Minerals 3(3) 304-17
Link to Publication View Abstract
Rare Earths (RE) have been the focus of much attention in recent years as a consequence of a number of converging factors, prominent among which are: centralization of supply (in China), unique applications in high-end technologies particularly in the low-carbon energy industry, and global demand outstripping availability. Despite this focus, RE supply chain sustainability has not been examined in depth or in any systematic manner. This paper provides an initial review of RE sustainability considerations at present, including current initiatives to understand the research and development needs. The analysis highlights a broad range of areas needing consolidation with future research and calls for collaboration between industry and academia to understand the sustainability considerations of these critical elements in more depth.
Mendez, V. E.; Bacon, C. M.; Cohen, R.. (2013) Agroecology and the transformation of agro-food systems: Transdisciplinary and participatory perspectives.. Invited Special Inaugural Issue of Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37(1) 146
Mendez, V. E.; Bacon, C. M.; Cohen, R.. (2013) Agroecology as a Transdisciplinary, Participatory, and Action-Oriented Approach. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37(1) 3-18
Link to Publication View Abstract
This article traces multiple directions in the evolution of agroecology, from its early emphasis on ecological processes in agricultural systems, to its emergence as a multidimensional approach focusing on broader agro-food systems. This review is timely, as agroecology is being increasingly applied within a diversity of scientific-, policy-, and farmer-based initiatives. We contrast different agroecological perspectives or “agroecologies” and discuss the characteristics of an agroecology characterized by a transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented approach. Our final discussion describes the contents of the special issue, and states our goal for this compilation, which is to encourage future work that embraces an agroecological approach grounded in transdisciplinarity, participation, and transformative action.
Mika, A. M.; Keeton, W. S.. (2013) Factors contributing to carbon fluxes from bioenergy harvests in the U.S. Northeast: an analysis using field data. Global Change Biology Bioenergy 5(3) 290-305
Link to Publication View Abstract
With growing interest in wood bioenergy there is uncertainty over greenhouse gas emissions associated with offsetting fossil fuels. Although quantifying postharvest carbon (C) fluxes will require accurate data, relatively few studies have evaluated these using field data from actual bioenergy harvests. We assessed C reductions and net fluxes immediately postharvest from whole-tree harvests (WTH), bioenergy harvests without WTH, and nonbioenergy harvests at 35 sites across the northeastern United States. We compared the aboveground forest C in harvested with paired unharvested sites, and analyzed the C transferred to wood products and C emissions from energy generation from harvested sites, including indirect emissions from harvesting, transporting, and processing. All harvests reduced live tree C; however, only bioenergy harvests using WTH significantly reduced C stored in snags (P<0.01). On average, WTH sites also decreased downed coarse woody debris C while the other harvest types showed increases, although these results were not statistically significant. Bioenergy harvests using WTH generated fewer wood products and resulted in more emissions released from bioenergy than the other two types of harvests, which resulted in a greater net flux of C (P<0.01). A Classification and Regression Tree analysis determined that it was not the type of harvest or amount of bioenergy generated, but rather the type of skidding machinery and specifics of silvicultural treatment that had the largest impact on net C flux. Although additional research is needed to determine the impact of bioenergy harvesting over multiple rotations and at landscape scales, we conclude that operational factors often associated with WTH may result in an overall intensification of C fluxes. The intensification of bioenergy harvests, and subsequent C emissions, that result from these operational factors could be reduced if operators select smaller equipment and leave a portion of tree tops on site.
Morris, K. S.; Mendez, V. E.; Lovell, S. T.; Olson, M.. (2013) Conventional Food Plot Management in an Organic Coffee Cooperative: Explaining the Paradox. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37(7) 762-787
Link to Publication View Abstract
This research analyzes farmers' motivations for conventional management of subsistence food crops, in contrast to organic management of coffee destined for export. Semistructured interviews, focus groups, and financial analyses were conducted with farmers from a small organic coffee cooperative in western El Salvador. We sought to identify what factors have motivated peasant farmers to manage subsistence crops, primarily maize and beans, with agrochemicals. We found that a combination of environmental, economic, social and political factors have driven agricultural management decisions. The environmental requirements of coffee are distinct, where coffee in a diverse shaded agroecosystem responds better to low-input management than maize grown on steep slopes in nutrient-poor soil. In addition, there are no direct economic incentives for subsistence farmers to manage food crops organically, while the benefit of a price premium does exist for organic coffee. Finally, institutional support for agriculture encourages organic production for export crops and generally overlooks subsistence farming. Our data show that half of the farmers lost money on their food plots, with agrochemicals representing the largest cost. This research suggests that small-scale farmers need support in transitioning to more economically and environmentally sustainable farming practices.
Morris, Katlyn S.; Mendez, V. Ernesto; Olson, Meryl B.. (2013) "Los meses flacos': seasonal food insecurity in a Salvadoran organic coffee cooperative. Journal of Peasant Studies 40(2) 423-446
Link to Publication View Abstract
Central American coffee farmers commonly refer to annual periods of food insecurity as los meses flacos' - the thin months - indicating a recurring season in which they are unable to meet household food needs. Although this is a common phenomenon, little empirical research has documented the seasonal food insecurity that many small-scale coffee farmers face. Household surveys and focus groups were conducted with 29 members of an organic coffee cooperative in western El Salvador to determine the causes of, and responses to, seasonal food insecurity. Ninety-seven percent of households faced food shortages during some period of the year. The two most common proximate causes of food shortages were lack of income-generating opportunities to buy food and running out of staple food crops. Families coped with seasonal food shortages by borrowing money and food, seeking work outside of the community, changing diet, and selling livestock. It is clear that small-scale coffee farmers seek to maintain a balance between coffee, which provides income, and food crops, which provide staple food. Livelihood and income diversification are important coping strategies that should be supported; however, we conclude that efforts to address food insecurity in coffee regions require deeper structural changes to support peasant farmers.
Myers, Samuel S.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Golden, Christopher D.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; H. Redford, Kent; H. Ricketts, Taylor; Turner, Will R.; Osofsky, Steven A.. (2013) Human health impacts of ecosystem alteration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(47) 18753-18760
Link to Publication View Abstract
Human activity is rapidly transforming most of Earth’s natural systems. How this transformation is impacting human health, whose health is at greatest risk, and the magnitude of the associated disease burden are relatively new subjects within the field of environmental health. We discuss what is known about the human health implications of changes in the structure and function of natural systems and propose that these changes are affecting human health in a variety of important ways. We identify several gaps and limitations in the research that has been done to date and propose a more systematic and comprehensive approach to applied research in this field. Such efforts could lead to a more robust understanding of the human health impacts of accelerating environmental change and inform decision making in the land-use planning, environmental conservation, and public health policy realms.
Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin. (2013) Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*. Environmental Research Letters 8(1) 011002
Pearce, A. R.; Rizzo, D. M.; Watzin, M. C.; Druschel, G. K.. (2013) Unraveling associations between cyanobacteria blooms and in-lake environmental conditions in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain, USA, using a modified self-organizing map. 47(24) 14267-74
Link to Publication View Abstract
Exploratory data analysis on physical, chemical, and biological data from sediments and water in Lake Champlain reveals a strong relationship between cyanobacteria, sediment anoxia, and the ratio of dissolved nitrogen to soluble reactive phosphorus. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters of lake sediment and water were measured between 2007 and 2009. Cluster analysis using a self-organizing artificial neural network, expert opinion, and discriminant analysis separated the data set into no-bloom and bloom groups. Clustering was based on similarities in water and sediment chemistry and non-cyanobacteria phytoplankton abundance. Our analysis focused on the contribution of individual parameters to discriminate between no-bloom and bloom groupings. Application to a second, more spatially diverse data set, revealed similar no-bloom and bloom discrimination, yet a few samples possess all the physicochemical characteristics of a bloom without the high cyanobacteria cell counts, suggesting that while specific environmental conditions can support a bloom, another environmental trigger may be required to initiate the bloom. Results highlight the conditions coincident with cyanobacteria blooms in Missisquoi Bay of Lake Champlain and indicate additional data are needed to identify possible ecological contributors to bloom initiation.
Portenga, E. W.; Bierman, P. R.; Rizzo, D. M.; Rood, D. H.. (2013) Low rates of bedrock outcrop erosion in the central Appalachian Mountains inferred from in situ Be-10. Geological Society of America Bulletin 125(1-2) 201-215
Link to Publication View Abstract
Bedrock outcrops are common on central Appalachian Mountain ridgelines. Because these ridgelines define watersheds, the rate at which they erode influences the pace of landscape evolution. To estimate ridgeline erosion rates, we sampled 72 quartz-bearing outcrops from the Potomac and Susquehanna River Basins and measured in situ produced Be-10. Ridgeline erosion rates average 9 +/- 1 m m.y.(-1) (median = 6 m m.y.(-1)), similar to Be-10-derived rates previously reported for the region. The range of erosion rates we calculated reflects the wide distribution of samples we collected and the likely inclusion of outcrops affected by episodic loss of thick slabs and periglacial activity. Outcrops on main ridgelines erode slower than those on mountainside spur ridges because ridgelines are less likely to be covered by soil, which reduces the production rate of Be-10 and increases the erosion rate of rock. Ridgeline outcrops erode slower than drainage basins in the Susquehanna and Potomac River watersheds, suggesting a landscape in disequilibrium. Erosion rates are more similar for outcrops meters to tens of meters apart than those at greater distances, yet semivariogram analysis suggests that outcrop erosion rates in the same physiographic province are similar even though they are hundreds of kilometers apart. This similarity may reflect underlying lithological and/or structural properties common to each physiographic province. Average Be-10-derived outcrop erosion rates are similar to denudation rates determined by other means (sediment flux, fission-track thermochronology, [U-Th]/He dating), indicating that the pace of landscape evolution in the central Appalachian Mountains is slow, and has been since post-Triassic rifting events.
Ricketts, T. H.; Lonsdorf, E.. (2013) Mapping the margin: comparing marginal values of tropical forest remnants for pollination services. Ecological Applications 23(5) 1113-1123
Link to Publication View Abstract
Natural ecosystems benefit human communities by providing ecosystem services such as water purification and crop pollination. Mapping ecosystem service values has become popular, but most are static snapshots of average value. Estimating instead the economic impacts of specific ecosystem changes can better inform typical resource decisions. Here we develop an approach to mapping marginal values, those resulting from the next unit of ecosystem change, across landscapes. We demonstrate the approach with a recent model of crop pollination services in Costa Rica, simulating deforestation events to predict resulting marginal changes in pollination services to coffee farms. We find that marginal losses from deforestation vary from zero to US$700/ha across the landscape. Financial risks for farmers from these losses and marginal benefits of forest restoration show similar spatial variation. Marginal values are concentrated in relatively few forest parcels not identified using average value. These parcels lack substitutes: nearby forest parcels that can supply services in the event of loss. Indeed, the marginal value of forest parcels declines exponentially with the density of surrounding forest cover. The approach we develop is applicable to any ecosystem service. Combined with information on costs, it can help target conservation or restoration efforts to optimize benefits to people and biodiversity.
Rizzo, Donna M; Dewoolkar, Mandar M; Hayden, Nancy J. (2013) Transferable Skills Development in Engineering Students: Analysis of Service-Learning Impact. Springer, Cambridge, U.K.. Pages 65-78;
View Abstract
The practice of engineering, especially the design process, involves many aspects beyond just the technical and includes such critical components as engineering ethics, sustainability and transferable skills such as communication, leadership and mentoring. Engineering educators often struggle with how to best incorporate these nontechnical aspects within their curricula. Service learning offers an opportunity to do this. The disconnect is that students often view engineering as only the technical number crunching and these other nontechnical components as less important. We report on the assessment of student written reflections across two very different service-learning engineering design projects for the purpose of evaluating student attitudes about these service-learning experiences and to assess their awareness and appreciation of transferable-skills development. In the spirit of service-learning pedagogy, we divided the contents of the written reflections into three categories – academic enhancement, civic engagement and personal growth skills. The commonality across both courses centered on academic enhancements and the value of transferable skills (i.e., leadership, teamwork, negotiation skills, mentoring, scheduling, verbal and written communication skills). Assessments show our current service-learning pedagogy improves students’ understanding of the importance of written and oral presentation skills. However, as of yet, many students do not consider leadership, negotiation skills, design setbacks, scheduling and mentoring skills to be part of “real” engineering.
Sales, E.; Mendez, V. E.; Caporal, F. R.; Faria, J. C.. (2013) Agroecological Transition of Conilon Coffee (Coffea canephora) Agroforestry Systems in the State of Esp rito Santo, Brazil. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37(4) 405-429
Link to Publication View Abstract
Coffee is a very important product in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil, and most of it is planted as unshaded coffee monocultures, with few growers managing shaded coffee agroforestry systems (AFS). To analyze the opportunities and challenges associated with coffee agroforestry management, we conducted 58 semistructured interviews with coffee growers. In addition, we conducted a field investigation that tested production of Coffea canephora with the shade trees Australian Cedar (Toona ciliata), Jequitiba (Cariniana legalis), and Teak (Tectona grandis). Of the 58 interviewed farmers, 64% (37) were satisfied with the AFS. One of the main factors that caused satisfaction was obtaining income from sources other than coffee. Unsatisfied farmers mentioned the competition between shade trees and coffee shrubs. Cedar was the shade tree that grew most and reduced coffee production, while the combination with Jequitiba maintained more stable yields. We conclude that the higher the growth rate of trees, the higher the negative impact on the coffee production in the study areas.
Schmitt Filho, A., J. Farley, G. Alarcon, J. Alvez and P. Rebollar. (2013) Integrating Agroecology and PES in Santa Catarina’s Atlantic Forest. Springer, Cambridge, MA. Pages 333-356;
Schmitt Filho., A. L.; Farley, J.; Alvez, J. P.; Alarcon, G.; Rebollar, P. M.. (2013) Integrating Agroecology with Payments for Ecosystem Services in Santa Catarina’s Atlantic Forest. Springer Verlag, Dordrecht, Netherlands. (4) 333-355
Link to Publication View Abstract
There are no longer acceptable trade-offs between agriculture and ecosystem services: Both are essential and at risk. Agroecology may be uniquely capable of providing both. However, there are real costs to promoting agroecology that someone must pay, but any payment scheme must recognize that many of the services provided as well as the resources required to provide them are both public goods. Payments to individual farmers do little to provide these services, especially if they are contingent upon provision. Public sector investments are required. Since the public goods provided by these investments cross political boundaries, payments for these investments should flow from those governments or collective institutions that benefit to those that will provide the services, supplementing resources invested by the latter.
Stevens, L.; Rizzo, D. M.; Lucero, D. E.; Pizarro, J. C.. (2013) Household Model of Chagas Disease Vectors (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Considering Domestic, Peridomestic, and Sylvatic Vector Populations. Journal of Medical Entomology; Entomological Society of America, Bogor, Indonesia. 50(4) 907-915
Link to Publication View Abstract
Disease transmission is difficult to model because most vectors and hosts have different generation times. Chagas disease is such a situation, where insect vectors have 1–2 generations annually and mammalian hosts, including humans, can live for decades. The hemataphagous triatominae vectors (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) of the causative parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) usually feed on sleeping hosts, making vector infestation of houses, peridomestic areas, and wild animal burrows a central factor in transmission. Because of difficulties with different generation times, we developed a model considering the dwelling as the unit of infection, changing the dynamics from an indirect to a direct transmission model. In some regions, vectors only infest houses; in others, they infest corrals; and in some regions, they also infest wild animal burrows. We examined the effect of sylvatic and peridomestic vector populations on household infestation rates. Both sylvatic and peridomestic vectors increase house infestation rates, sylvatic much more than peridomestic, as measured by the reproductive number R0. The efficacy of manipulating parameters in the model to control vector populations was examined. When R0 > 1, the number of infested houses increases. The presence of sylvatic vectors increases R0 by at least an order of magnitude. When there are no sylvatic vectors, spraying rate is the most influential parameter. Spraying rate is relatively unimportant when there are sylvatic vectors; in this case, community size, especially the ratio of houses to sylvatic burrows, is most important. The application of this modeling approach to other parasites and enhancements of the model are discussed.
Tsai, Yushiou; Zia, Asim; Koliba, Christopher; Guilbert, Justin; Bucini, Gabriela; Beckage, Brian. (2013) Impacts of land managers' decisions on landuse transition within Missisquoi Watershed Vermont: An application of agent-based modeling system. IEEE, Bogor, Indonesia. Pages 824-829;
Warren, D. R.; Keeton, W. S.; Bechtold. H. A.; Rosi-Marshall, E. J.. (2013) Comparing streambed light availability and canopy cover in streams with old-growth versus early-mature riparian forests in western Oregon. Aquatic Sciences
Link to Publication View Abstract
Light availability strongly influences stream primary production, water temperatures and resource availability at the base of stream food webs. In headwater streams, light is regulated primarily by the riparian forest, but few studies have evaluated the influence of riparian forest stand age and associated structural differences on light availability. In this study, we evaluated canopy cover and streambed light exposure in four second-order streams within paired reaches of primary old-growth versus second-growth mature riparian forests. Stand age class was used as a proxy here for canopy complexity. We estimated stream canopy cover using a spherical densiometer. Local streambed light exposure was quantified and compared within and between reaches using fluorescein dye photodegradation. Reaches with complex old-growth riparian forests had frequent canopy gaps which lead to greater stream light availability compared to adjacent reaches with simpler second-growth riparian forests. We quantified light exposure at relatively high resolution (every 5 m) and also found greater variability in stream light along the reaches with old-growth riparian forests in three of the four streams. Canopy gaps were particularly important in creating variable light within and between reaches. This work demonstrates the importance of the age, developmental stage, and structure of riparian forests in controlling stream light. The highly variable nature of light on the stream benthos also highlights the value of multiple measurements of light or canopy structure when quantifying stream light.
Wilcove, D. S.; Giam, X.; Edwards, D. P.; Fisher, B.; Koh, L. P.. (2013) Navjot’s nightmare revisited: logging, agriculture, and biodiversity in Southeast Asia. Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Link to Publication View Abstract
In 2004, Navjot Sodhi and colleagues warned that logging and agricultural conversion of Southeast Asia’s forests were leading to a biodiversity disaster. We evaluate this prediction against subsequent research and conclude that most of the fauna of the region can persist in logged forests. Conversely, conversion of primary or logged forests to plantation crops, such as oil palm, causes tremendous biodiversity loss. This loss is exacerbated by increased fire frequency. Therefore, we conclude that preventing agricultural conversion of logged forests is essential to conserving the biodiversity of this region. Our analysis also suggests that, because Southeast Asian forests are tightly tied to global commodity markets, conservation payments commensurate with combined returns from logging and subsequent agricultural production may be required to secure long-term forest protection.
Zia, A.; Koliba, C.; Tian, Y.. (2013) Governance Network Analysis: Experimental Simulations of Alternate Institutional Designs for Intergovernmental Project Prioritization Processes.. Emergent Publications, Litchfield Park, AZ.
Link to Publication View Abstract
There is an argument that says that research in Public Administration is always about social complexity. This argument is true. There is also an argument that says that Public Administration is actually very little informed by complexity. This is equally true. The differences lie in the different takes on complexity. The latter approach understands that comprehension of complexity requires a specific theoretical framework and associated tools to look into the black box of causality. The authors in this edited volume gathered in Rotterdam (The Netherlands, June 2011) to discuss how the complexity sciences can contribute to pertinent questions in the domains of Public Administration and Public Policy. Their contributions are presented in this edited volume. Each contribution is an attempt to answer the Challenge of Making Public Administration and Complexity Theory work-COMPACT, as the title says. Together, they present an overview of the diverse state of the art in thinking about and research in complex systems in the public domain.
Zia, A.. (2013) Post-Kyoto Climate Governance: Confronting the Politics of Scale, Ideology and Knowledge. Routledge, New York, NY. Pages 224;
Zia, Asim; Koliba, Christopher. (2013) The emergence of attractors under multi-level institutional designs: agent-based modeling of intergovernmental decision making for funding transportation projects. AI & SOCIETY; AI & Soc; Springer London, New York, NY. Pages 1-17;
Link to Publication View Abstract
Multi-level institutional designs with distributed power and authority arrangements among federal, state, regional, and local government agencies could lead to the emergence of differential patterns of socioeconomic and infrastructure development pathways in complex social–ecological systems. Both exogenous drivers and endogenous processes in social–ecological systems can lead to changes in the number of “basins of attraction,” changes in the positions of the basins within the state space, and changes in the positions of the thresholds between basins. In an effort to advance the theory and practice of the governance of policy systems, this study addresses a narrower empirical question: how do intergovernmental institutional rules set by federal, state, and regional government agencies generate and sustain basins of attraction in funding infrastructure projects? A pattern-oriented, agent-based model (ABM) of an intergovernmental network has been developed to simulate real-world transportation policy implementation processes across the federal, the state of Vermont, regional, and local governments for prioritizing transportation projects. The ABM simulates baseline and alternative intergovernmental institutional rule structures and assesses their impacts on financial investment flows. The ABM was calibrated with data from multiple focus groups, individual interviews, and analysis of federal, state, and regional scale transportation projects and programs. The results from experimental simulations are presented to test system-wide effects of alternative multi-level institutional designs, in particular different power and authority arrangements between state and regional governments, on the emergence of roadway project prioritization patterns and funding allocations across regions and towns.
2012
Alvez, J. P.; Schmitt F., A. L.; Farley, J.; Alarcon, G.; Fantini, A. C.. (2012) The Potential for Agroecosystems to Restore Ecological Corridors and Sustain Farmer Livelihoods: Evidence from Brazil.. Ecological Restoration 30(4) 288-290
Link to Publication View Abstract
This paper describes how an agroecological management technique (MIG) is helping farmers to farm avoiding the use of new 'slash and burn' practices and using slightly smaller areas. In turn, this mgmt might have the potential of re-establishing forest fragment connectivity (a.k.a. corridors), kickstarting the flow of ecosystem services.
Butchart, S. H. M.; Scharlemann, Joern P. W.; Evans, Mike I.; Quader, Suhel; Arico, Salvatore; Arinaitwe, Julius; Balman, Mark; Bennun, L.; Bertzky, Bastian; Besancon, Charles; Boucher, Timothy M.; Brooks, T. M.; Burfield, Ian J.; Burgess, N.; Chan, Simba; Clay, Rob P.; Crosby, Mike J.; Davidson, Nicholas C.; De Silva, Naamal; Devenish, Christian; Dutson, Guy C. L.; Dia z Fernandez, David F.; Fishpool, Lincoln; Fitzgerald, Claire; Foster, Matt; Heath, Melanie F.; Hockings, Marc; Hoffmann, M.; Knox, D.; Larsen, Frank W.; Lamoreux, J.; Loucks, C.; May, Ian; Molloy, Dominic; Morling, P.; Parr, M.; Ricketts, T.; Seddon, Nathalie; Skolnik, Benjamin; Stuart, Simon N.; Upgren, Amy; Woodley, Stephen. (2012) Protecting Important Sites for Biodiversity Contributes to Meeting Global Conservation Targets. PloS One 7(3) 1-8
Link to Publication View Abstract
Protected areas (PAs) are a cornerstone of conservation efforts and now cover nearly 13% of the world's land surface, with the world's governments committed to expand this to 17%. However, as biodiversity continues to decline, the effectiveness of PAs in reducing the extinction risk of species remains largely untested. We analyzed PA coverage and trends in species' extinction risk at globally significant sites for conserving birds (10,993 Important Bird Areas, IBAs) and highly threatened vertebrates and conifers (588 Alliance for Zero Extinction sites, AZEs) (referred to collectively hereafter as ‘important sites’). Species occurring in important sites with greater PA coverage experienced smaller increases in extinction risk over recent decades: the increase was half as large for bird species with>50% of the IBAs at which they occur completely covered by PAs, and a third lower for birds, mammals and amphibians restricted to protected AZEs (compared with unprotected or partially protected sites). Globally, half of the important sites for biodiversity conservation remain unprotected (49% of IBAs, 51% of AZEs). While PA coverage of important sites has increased over time, the proportion of PA area covering important sites, as opposed to less important land, has declined (by 0.45–1.14% annually since 1950 for IBAs and 0.79–1.49% annually for AZEs). Thus, while appropriately located PAs may slow the rate at which species are driven towards extinction, recent PA network expansion has under-represented important sites. We conclude that better targeted expansion of PA networks would help to improve biodiversity trends.
Cayuela, L.; Galvez-Bravo, L.; de Albuquerque, F. S.; Golicher, D. J.; Gonzalez-Espinosa, M.; Ramirez-Marcial, N.; Rey Benayas, J. M.; Zahawi, R. A.; Meave, J. A.; Benito, B. M.; Garibaldi, C.; Chan, I.; Perez-Perez, R.; Field, R.; Balvanera, P.; Castillo, M. A.; Figueroa-Rangel, B. L.; Griffith, D. M.; Islebe, G. A.; Kelly, D. L.; Olvera-Vergas, M.; Schnitzer, S. A.; Velazquez, E.; Williams-Linera, G.; Brewer, S. W.; Camacho-Cruz, A.; Coronado, I.; de Jong, B.; del Castillo, R.; Granzow-de la Cerda, I.; Fernandez, J.; Fonseca, W.; Galindo-Jaimes, L.; Gillespie, T. W.; Gonzalez-Rivas, B.; Gordon, J. E.; Hurtado, J.; Linares, J.; Letcher, S. G.; Mangan, S. A.; Mendez, V. E.; Meza, V.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Peterson, C. J.; Ruiz-Gutierrez, V.; Snarr, K. A.; Tun Dzul, F.; Valdez-Hernandez, M.; Viergever, K. M.; White, D. A.; Williams, J. N.; Bonet, F. J.; Zamora, R.. (2012) The International Network of Forest Inventory Plots (BIOTREE-NET) in Mesoamerica: advances, challenges and future perspectives.. Ecosistemas 21(1-2) 126-135
Link to Publication View Abstract
Conservation efforts in Neotropical regions are often hindered by lack of data, since for many species there is a vacuum of information, and many species have not even been described yet. The International Network of Forest Inventory Plots (BIOTREE-NET) gathers and facilitates access to tree data from forest inventory plots in Mesoamerica, while encouraging data exchange between researchers, managers and conservationists. The information is organised and standardised into a single database that includes spatially explicit data. This article describes the scope and objectives of the network, its progress, and the challenges and future perspectives. The database includes above 50 000 tree records of over 5000 species from more than 2000 plots distributed from southern Mexico through to Panama. Information is heterogeneous, both in nature and shape, as well as in the geographical coverage of inventory plots. The database has a relational structure, with 12 inter-connected tables that include information about plots, species names, dbh, and functional attributes of trees. A new system that corrects typographical errors and achieves taxonomic and nomenclatural standardization was developed using The Plant List (http://theplantlist.org/) as reference. Species distribution models have been computed for around 1700 species using different methods, and they will be publicly accessible through the web site in the future (http://portal.biotreenet.com). Although BIOTREE-NET has contributed to the development of improved species distribution models, its main potential lies, in our opinion, in studies at the community level. Finally, we emphasise the need to expand the network and encourage researchers willing to share data and to join the network and contribute to the generation of further knowledge about forest biodiversity in Neotropical regions.
Cayuela, L.; Gálvez-Bravo, L.; Pérez Pérez, R.; de Albuquerque, F. S.; Golicher, D. J.; Zahawi, R. A.; Ramírez-Marcial, N.; Garibaldi, C.; Field, R.; Rey Benayas, J. M.; González-Espinosa, M.; Balvanera, P.; Castillo, M. Á.; Figueroa-Rangel, B. L.; Griffith, D. M.; Islebe, G. A.; Kelly, D. L.; Olvera-Vargas, M.; Schnitzer, S. A.; Velázquez, E.; Williams-Linera, G.; Brewer, S. W.; Camacho-Cruz, A.; Coronado, I.; de Jong, B.; del Castillo, R.; Granzow-de la Cerda, Í.; Fernández, J.; Fonseca, W.; Galindo-Jaimes, L.; Gillespie, T. W.; González-Rivas, B.; Gordon, J. E.; Hurtado, J.; Linares, J.; Letcher, S. G.; Mangan, S. A.; Meave, J. A.; Méndez, E. V.; Meza, V.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Peterson, C. J.; Ruiz-Gutierrez, V.; Snarr, K. A.; Tun Dzul, F.; Valdez-Hernández, M.; Viergever, K. M.; White, D. A.; Williams, J. N.; Bonet, F. J.; Zamora, R.. (2012) The Tree Biodiversity Network (BIOTREE-NET): prospects for biodiversity research and conservation in the Neotropics. Biodiviersity & Ecology 4 211-224
Link to Publication View Abstract
Biodiversity research and conservation efforts in the tropics are hindered by the lack of knowledge of the assemblages found there, with many species undescribed or poorly known. Our initiative, the Tree Biodiversity Network (BIOTREE-NET), aims to address this problem by assembling georeferenced data from a wide range of sources, making these data easily accessible and easily queried, and promoting data sharing. The database (GIVD ID NA-00-002) currently comprises ca. 50,000 tree records of ca. 5,000 species (230 in the IUCN Red List) from >2,000 forest plots in 11 countries. The focus is on trees because of their pivotal role in tropical forest ecosystems (which contain most of the world's biodiversity) in terms of ecosystem function, carbon storage and effects on other species. BIOTREE-NET currently focuses on southern Mexico and Central America, but we aim to expand coverage to other parts of tropical America. The database is relational, comprising 12 linked data tables. We summarise its structure and contents. Key tables contain data on forest plots (including size, location and date(s) sampled), individual trees (including diameter, when available, and both recorded and standardised species name), species (including biological traits of each species) and the researchers who collected the data. Many types of queries are facilitated and species distribution modelling is enabled. Examining the data in BIOTREE-NET to date, we found an uneven distribution of data in space and across biomes, reflecting the general state of knowledge of the tropics. More than 90% of the data were collected since 1990 and plot size varies widely, but with most less than one hectare in size. A wide range of minimum sizes is used to define a 'tree'. The database helps to identify gaps that need filling by further data collection and collation. The data can be publicly accessed through a web application at http://portal.biotreenet.com. Researchers are invited and encouraged to contribute data to BIOTREE-NET.
Conner, D.; King, B.; Kolodinsky, J.; Roche, E.; Koliba, C.; Trubek, A.. (2012) You can know your school and feed it too: Vermont farmers' motivations and distribution practices in direct sales to school food services. Agriculture and Human Values 29(3) 321-332
Link to Publication View Abstract
Farm to School (FTS) programs are increasingly popular as methods to teach students about food, nutrition, and agriculture by connecting students with the sources of the food that they eat. They may also provide opportunity for farmers seeking to diversify market channels. Food service buyers in FTS programs often choose to procure food for school meals directly from farmers. The distribution practices required for such direct procurement often bring significant transaction costs for both school food service professionals and farmers. Analysis of data from a survey of Vermont farmers who sell directly to school food services explores farmers' motivations and distribution practices in these partnerships. A two-step cluster analysis procedure characterizes farmers' motivations along a continuum between market-based and socially embedded values. Further bivariate analysis shows that farmers who are motivated most by market-based values are significantly associated with distribution practices that facilitate sales to school food services. Implications for technical assistance to facilitate these sales are discussed.
Courtney, E.; Zencey, E.. (2012) Greening Vermont - The Search for a Sustainable State. Vermont Natural Resources Council/Thistle Hill Publications, New York. Pages 173;
Link to Publication View Abstract
Whatever you call it - climate change, global warming -- weather abnormalities over the past several years reveal that we can no longer accurately predict weather by studying historical patterns. Nor can we continue to delude ourselves into thinking that the planet's resources are infinite. They are finite, and if we don't act to establish a sustainable relationship between humans and nature, these resources will run out sooner rather than later. Greening Vermont: In Search of a Sustainable State (Vermont Natural Resources Council, Thistle Hill Publications) looks back over five decades of Vermont's environmental activism in order to move us all forward into ecological sustainability. This book is a story about people, politics, money and the environment. As Tom Slayton tells us in his Forward: "It is a tale of environmental victories, defeats and, perhaps most significantly, collaborations and compromises that have put Vermont at the forefront of the environmental movement". Greening Vermont is a call to action. Authors Elizabeth Courtney and Eric Zencey advise: "Our ecosystems are out of balance, and if we don't address this issue now, there is no certain sustainable future." Our states are all currently unsustainable. We must fit our economic life into its proper ecological and social context, so Vermonters and the rest of us can enjoy a healthy environment. Greening Vermont illustrates what sustainability will look like and how we can shift our economic and energy resources to achieve that desired state. The book includes fascinating in depth interviews with Vermont movers and shakers from over the years, as well as stunning illustrations of the Vermont countryside.
Edwards, D. P.; Fisher, B.; Wilcove, D. S.. (2012) High Conservation Value or high confusion value? Sustainable agriculture and biodiversity conservation in the tropics. Conservation Letters 5(1) 20-27
Link to Publication View Abstract
Green labeling of products that have been produced sustainably is an emerging tool of the environmental movement. A prominent example is the Forest Stewardship Council, which certifies timber that is harvested to manage and maintain forests defined as having High Conservation Value (HCV). The criteria for HCV are now being applied to four rapidly expanding crops in the tropics: oil palm, soy, sugarcane, and cacao. However, these criteria do not provide adequate protection for biodiversity when applied to agriculture. The only criterion that provides blanket protection to forests is one that protects large expanses of habitat (=20,000500,000 ha, depending on the country). Absent of other HCVs, the collective clearing of forest patches below these thresholds could result in extensive deforestation that would be sanctioned with a green label. Yet such forest patches retain much biodiversity and provide connectivity within the agricultural matrix. An examination of forest fragments in biodiverse countries across the tropics shows that future agricultural demand can be met by clearing only forest patches below a 1,000 ha threshold. We recommend the development of a new HCV criterion that recognizes the conservation value of habitat patches within the agricultural matrix and that protects patches above 1,000 ha.
Farley, J.; Schmitt F., A. L.; Alvez, J. P.; Rebola, P. M.. (2012) The farmer’s viewpoint: Payment for ecosystem services and agroecologic pasture based dairy production. Advances in Animal Biosciences 1(2) 490-491
Farley, J.; Schmitt F., A.; Alvez, J.; Ribiero de Freitas Jr., N.. (2012) How Valuing Nature Can Transform Agriculture. Solutions 2(6) 64-73
Link to Publication View Abstract
Society must increase food production and restore vital ecosystem services or suffer unacceptable consequences. Unfortunately, conventional agriculture may be the single greatest threat to ecosystem function. At the same time, reducing ecologically harmful agricultural inputs or restoring farmlands to native ecosystems threatens food production. We fell into this predicament because we designed agricultural and economic systems that failed to account for ecosystem services, and the path forward requires redesigning both systems. Agroecology—which applies ecological principles to design sustainable farming methods that can increase food production, wean us away from nonrenewable and harmful agricultural inputs, and restore ecosystem services—promises to be an appropriate redesign of agricultural systems. We focus on the example of management-intensive grazing (MIG), which mimics natural grassland-grazer dynamics. Compared to conventional systems, MIG increases pasture growth and cattle production, reduces the use of fertilizers and pesticides, and enhances biodiversity, water quality, nutrient capture, and carbon sequestration. Redesigning economic institutions to reward the provision of ecosystem services and provide the public goods required for the global-scale development and dissemination of agroecology practices still presents a serious challenge. Payments for ecosystem services (PES) are a promising mechanism through which those who benefit from ecosystem services can compensate those who provide them, for mutual gain. Numerous schemes already exist that pay landowners for land uses that sequester carbon, regulate and purify water, and enhance biodiversity, but their effectiveness is debated. We propose a form of PES in which the potential public beneficiaries of ecosystem services at the local, national, and global scales fund the research and development, extension work (i.e., farmer education, usually supported by government agencies), and affordable credit required to scale agroecology up to the level required to provide for a growing global population.
Farley, J.. (2012) Ecosystem Services: The Economics Debate.. Ecosystem Services 1(1) 40-49
Link to Publication View Abstract
The goal of this paper is to illuminate the debate concerning the economics of ecosystem services. The sustainability debate focuses on whether or not ecosystem services are essential for human welfare and the existence of ecological thresholds. If ecosystem services are essential, then marginal analysis and monetary valuation are inappropriate tools in the vicinity of thresholds. The justice debate focuses on who is entitled to ecosystem services and the ecosystem structure that generates them. Answers to these questions have profound implications for the choice of suitable economic institutions. The efficiency debate concerns both the goals of economicactivity and the mechanisms best suited to achieve those goals. Conventional economists pursue Pareto efficiency and the maximization of monetary value, achieved by integrating ecosystem services into the market framework. Ecological economists and many others pursue the less rigorously defined goal of achieving the highest possible quality of life compatible with the conservation of resilient, healthy ecosystems, achieved by adapting economic institutions to the physical characteristics of ecosystem services.The concept of ecosystem services is a valuable tool for economic analysis, and should not be discarded because of disagreements with particular economists’ assumptions regarding sustainability, justice and efficiency.
Farley, J.. (2012) Natural Capital. Berkshire Publishing, Gt Barrington, MA. 5 264-267
Farley, Joshua; Schmitt Filho, Abdon. (2012) Ecosystem Services, Agriculture and Economic Institutions. Meindert Brower, Partner in communications, Bunnik, The Netherlands.
Fisher, B.. (2012) Poverty, Payments and Ecosystem Services in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania.. Springer, New York. Pages 444;
Fisher, B.P.. (2012) Guest Editorial-Conservation and livelihoods: Identifying trade-offs and win-wins. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10(7) 343
Gunn, J. S.; Ganz, D. J.; Keeton, W. S.. (2012) Biogenic vs. geologic carbon emissions and forest biomass energy production. Global Change Biology Bioenergy 4(3) 239-242
Link to Publication View Abstract
In the current debate over the CO2 emissions implications of switching from fossil fuel energy sources to include a substantial amount of woody biomass energy, many scientists and policy makers hold the view that emissions from the two sources should not be equated. Their rationale is that the combustion or decay of woody biomass is simply part of the global cycle of biogenic carbon and does not increase the amount of carbon in circulation. This view is frequently presented as justification to implement policies that encourage the substitution of fossil fuel energy sources with biomass. We present the opinion that this is an inappropriate conceptual basis to assess the atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting of woody biomass energy generation. While there are many other environmental, social, and economic reasons to move to woody biomass energy, we argue that the inferred benefits of biogenic emissions over fossil fuel emissions should be reconsidered.
Kaufman, Z. A.; Welsch, R. L.; Erickson, J. D.; Craig, S.; Adams, L. V.; Ross, D. A.. (2012) Effectiveness of a sports-based HIV prevention intervention in the Dominican Republic: a quasi-experimental study. Aids Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of Aids/Hiv 24(3) 377-385
Link to Publication View Abstract
Previous observational and quasi-experimental studies in sub-Saharan Africa have suggested the effectiveness of youth-targeted HIV prevention interventions using sport as an educational tool. No studies have yet assessed the effect of similar programs in the Caribbean. A quasi-experimental trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a sports-based intervention in six migrant settlements in the Puerto Plata Province of the Dominican Republic. A total of 397 structured interviews were conducted with 140 adolescents prior to, immediately following, and four months following 10-hour interventions using the Grassroot Soccer curriculum. Interview responses were coded, aggregated into composite scores, and analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for baseline differences as well as age, sex, community, and descent. At post-intervention, significant differences were observed between groups in HIV-related knowledge (adjOR = 13.02, 95% CI = 8.26, 20.52), reported attitudes (adjOR = 12.01, 95% CI = 7.61, 18.94), and reported communication (adjOR = 3.13, 95% CI = 1.91, 5.12). These differences remained significant at four-month follow-up, though declines in post-intervention knowledge were observed in the Intervention group while gains in knowledge and reported attitudes were observed in the Control group. Results suggest that this sports-based intervention could play a valuable role in HIV prevention efforts in the Caribbean, particularly those targeting early adolescents. Further evaluation of sports-based interventions should include indicators assessing behavioral and biological outcomes, longer-term follow-up, a larger sample, randomization of study participants, and strenuous efforts to minimize loss-to-follow-up.
Knorn, J.; Kuemmerle, T.; Radeloff, V. C.; Keeton, W. S.; Gancz, V.; Biris, I. A.; Svoboda, M.; Griffiths, P.; Hagatis, A.; Hostert, P.. (2012) Continued loss of temperate old-growth forests in the Romanian Carpathians despite an increasing protected area network. Environmental Conservation 40(2) 182-193
Link to Publication View Abstract
Old-growth forests around the world are vanishing rapidly and have been lost almost completely from the European temperate forest region. Poor management practices, often triggered by socioeconomic and institutional change, are the main causes of loss. Recent trends in old-growth forest cover in Romania, where some of the last remaining tracts of these forests within Europe are located, are revealed by satellite image analysis. Forest cover declined by 1.3% from 2000 to 2010. Romania's protected area network has been expanded substantially since the country's accession to the European Union in 2007, and most of the remaining old-growth forests now are located within protected areas. Surprisingly though, 72% of the old-growth forest disturbances are found within protected areas, highlighting the threats still facing these forests. It appears that logging in old-growth forests is, at least in part, related to institutional reforms, insufficient protection and ownership changes since the collapse of communism in 1989. The majority of harvesting activities in old-growth forest areas are in accordance with the law. Without improvements to their governance, the future of Romania's old-growth forests and the important ecosystem services they provide remains uncertain.
Knorn, J.; Kuemmerle, T.; Radeloff, V. C.; Szabo, A.; Mindrescu, M.; Keeton, W. S.; Abrudan, I.; Griffiths, P.; Gancz, V.; Hostert, P.. (2012) Forest restitution and protected area effectiveness in post-socialist Romania. Biological Conservation 146(1) 204-212
Link to Publication View Abstract
The effectiveness of protected areas can diminish during times of pronounced socio-economic and institutional change. Our goals were to assess the effectiveness of Romanian protected areas at stemming unsanctioned logging, and to assess post-socialist logging in their surrounding landscapes, during a time of massive socio-economic and institutional change. Our results suggest that forest cover remained fairly stable shortly before and after 1990, but forest disturbance rates increased sharply in two waves after 1995 and 2005. We found substantial disturbances inside protected areas, even within core reserve areas. Moreover, disturbances in the matrix surrounding protected areas were even lower than inside protected area boundaries. We suggest that these rates are largely the result of high logging rates, triggered by rapid ownership and institutional changes. These trends compromise the goals of Romania's protected area network, lead to an increasing loss of forest habitat, and more isolated and more fragmented protected areas. The effectiveness of Romania's protected area network in terms of its ability to safeguard biodiversity is therefore most likely decreasing. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koliba, C.; Zia, A.. (2012) "Complexity Friendly" Meso-Level Frameworks for Modeling Complex Governance Systems. Emergent Publications, Litchfield Park, AZ. Pages 119-140;
Koliba, C.. (2012) Administrative Strategies for a Networked World: The Educational Imperative for Intergovernmental Relations in 2020.. Sage Publications, New York, NY. Pages 70-93;
Littlefield, C. E.; Keeton, W. S.. (2012) Bioenergy harvesting impacts on ecologically important stand structure and habitat characteristics. Ecological Applications 22(7) 1892-1909
Link to Publication View Abstract
Demand for forest bioenergy fuel is increasing in the northern forest region of eastern North America and beyond, but ecological impacts, particularly on habitat, of bioenergy harvesting remain poorly explored in the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we evaluated the impacts of bioenergy harvests on stand structure, including several characteristics considered important for biodiversity and habitat functions. We collected stand structure data from 35 recent harvests in northern hardwood-conifer forests, pairing harvested areas with unharvested reference areas. Biometrics generated from field data were analyzed using a multi-tiered nonparametric uni- and multivariate statistical approach. In analyses comparing harvested to reference areas, sites that had been whole-tree harvested demonstrated significant differences (relative negative contrasts, P < 0.05) in snag density, large live-tree density, well-decayed downed coarse woody debris volume, and structural diversity index (H) values, while sites that had not been whole-tree harvested did not exhibit significant differences. Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses suggested that the strongest predictors of structural retention, as indicated by downed woody debris volumes and H index, were silvicultural treatment and equipment type rather than the percentage of harvested volume allocated to bioenergy uses. In general, bioenergy harvesting impacts were highly variable across the study sites, suggesting a need for harvesting guidelines aimed at encouraging retention of ecologically important structural attributes.
Macedo, M. N.; DeFries, R. S.; Morton, D. C.; Stickler, C. M.; Galford, G. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.. (2012) Decoupling of deforestation and soy production in the southern Amazon during the late 2000s. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109(4) 1341-1346
Link to Publication View Abstract
From 2006 to 2010, deforestation in the Amazon frontier state of Mato Grosso decreased to 30% of its historical average (1996-2005) whereas agricultural production reached an all-time high. This study combines satellite data with government deforestation and production statistics to assess land-use transitions and potential market and policy drivers associated with these trends. In the forested region of the state, increased soy production from 2001 to 2005 was entirely due to cropland expansion into previously cleared pasture areas (74%) or forests (26%). From 2006 to 2010, 78% of production increases were due to expansion (22% to yield increases), with 91% on previously cleared land. Cropland expansion fell from 10 to 2% of deforestation between the two periods, with pasture expansion accounting for most remaining deforestation. Declining deforestation coincided with a collapse of commodity markets and implementation of policy measures to reduce deforestation. Soybean profitability has since increased to pre-2006 levels whereas deforestation continued to decline, suggesting that antideforestation measures may have influenced the agricultural sector. We found little evidence of direct leakage of soy expansion into cerrado in Mato Grosso during the late 2000s, although indirect land-use changes and leakage to more distant regions are possible. This study provides evidence that reduced deforestation and increased agricultural production can occur simultaneously in tropical forest frontiers, provided that land is available and policies promote the efficient use of already-cleared lands (intensification) while restricting deforestation. It remains uncertain whether government- and industry-led policies can contain deforestation if future market conditions favor another boom in agricultural expansion.
Manukyan, N.; Eppstein, M. J.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2012) Data-Driven Cluster Reinforcement and Visualization in Sparsely-Matched Self-Organizing Maps. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS ON LEARNING SYSTEMS 23(5) 846-852
Link to Publication View Abstract
A self-organizing map (SOM) is a self-organized projection of high-dimensional data onto a typically 2-dimensional (2-D) feature map, wherein vector similarity is implicitly translated into topological closeness in the 2-D projection. However, when there are more neurons than input patterns, it can be challenging to interpret the results, due to diffuse cluster boundaries and limitations of current methods for displaying interneuron distances. In this brief, we introduce a new cluster reinforcement (CR) phase for sparsely-matched SOMs. The CR phase amplifies within-cluster similarity in an unsupervised, datadriven manner. Discontinuities in the resulting map correspond to between-cluster distances and are stored in a boundary (B) matrix. We describe a new hierarchical visualization of cluster boundaries displayed directly on feature maps, which requires no further clustering beyond what was implicitly accomplished during self-organization in SOM training. We use a synthetic benchmark problem and previously published microbial community profile data to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed methods.
Mendez, V. E.; Castro-Tanzi, S.; Goodall, K.; Morris, K. S.; Bacon, C. M.; Laderach, P.; Morris, W. B.; Georgeoglou-Laxalde, M. U.. (2012) Livelihood and environmental trade-offs of climate mitigation in smallholder coffee agroforestry systems. Routledge, New York, NY. Pages 370-381;
Olson, M. B.; Morris, K. S.; Mendez, V. E.. (2012) Cultivation of maize landraces by small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador. Agricultural Systems 111 63-74
Link to Publication View Abstract
Small-scale shade coffee agroecosystems have been noted for their potential for tree, bird, and insect biodiversity conservation in the tropics. However, there is a lack of research on other productive areas managed by small-scale coffee farmers such as subsistence maize and bean (milpa) plots, which may be sites of important crop biodiversity conservation, particularly through the on-farm cultivation of native landraces. This study empirically examined the factors that influence farmers’ choices between landraces and improved varieties of maize, how seed type interacts with management decisions, and how yields of local maize landraces compare with improved varieties on the farms of small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador. We conducted household interviews and focus groups with the membership of a 29-household coffee cooperative and tracked management and maize yields in the 42 milpa plots managed by these households. Farmers planted both a hybrid improved variety and five local maize landraces. ANOVA and Pearson’s chi-square test were used to compare household characteristics, management, agroecological variables, and yields between plots planted with landraces and plots planted with the improved variety. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the strongest drivers of farmers’ choice between landrace seed and improved seed. Analyses indicated that use of maize landraces was associated with higher household income and steeper plot slope. Landrace maize and improved maize were not managed differently, with the exception of synthetic insecticide use. There was no yield advantage for improved varieties over landraces in the 2009 growing season. Farmers appear to prefer local maize landraces for milpa plots on more marginal land, and continue to cultivate landraces despite the availability of improved seed. The farms of small-scale shade coffee farmers could have substantial conservation potential for crop genetic diversity, and the seed-saving and exchange activities among such farmers should be supported.
Ribeiro de Freitas, N.; Farley, J.. (2012) Restoring Ecosystem Services in Riparian Zones by Promoting Working Forests in São Paulo, Brazil.. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Schaafsma, M.; Morse-Jones, S.; Posen, P.; Swetnam, R. D.; Balmford, A.; Bateman, I. J.; Burgess, N. D.; Chamshama, S. A. O.; Fisher, B.; Green, R. E.; Hepelwa, A. S.; Hernandez-Sirvent, A.; Kajembe, G. C.; Kulindwa, K.; Lund, J. F.; Mbwambo, L.; Meilby, H.; Ngaga, Y. M.; Theilade, I.; Treue, T.; Vyamana, V. G.; Turner, R. K.. (2012) Towards transferable functions for extraction of Non-timber Forest Products: A case study on charcoal production in Tanzania. Ecological Economics 80 48-62
Link to Publication View Abstract
Mapping the distribution of the quantity and value of forest benefits to local communities is useful for forest management, when socio-economic and conservation objectives may need to be traded off. We develop a modelling approach for the economic valuation of annual Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFP) extraction at a large spatial scale, which has 4 main strengths: (1) it is based on household production functions using data of actual household behaviour, (2) it is spatially sensitive, using a range of explanatory variables related to socio-demographic characteristics, population density, resource availability and accessibility, (3) it captures the value of the actual flow rather than the potential stock, and (4) it is generic and can therefore be up-scaled across non-surveyed areas. We illustrate the empirical application of this approach in an analysis of charcoal production in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, using a dataset comprising over 1100 observations from 45 villages. The total flow of charcoal benefits is estimated at USD 14 million per year, providing an important source of income to local households, and supplying around 11% of the charcoal used in Dar es Salaam and other major cities. We discuss the potential and limitations of up-scaling micro-level analysis for NTFP valuation. Crown Copyright (c) 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schwenk, W. S.; Donovan, T. M.; Keeton, W. S.; Nunery, J. S.. (2012) Carbon storage, timber production, and biodiversity: comparing ecosystem services with multi-criteria decision analysis. Ecological Applications 22(5) 1612-1627
Link to Publication View Abstract
Increasingly, land managers seek ways to manage forests for multiple ecosystem services and functions, yet considerable challenges exist in comparing disparate services and balancing trade-offs among them. We applied multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and forest simulation models to simultaneously consider three objectives: (1) storing carbon, (2) producing timber and wood products, and (3) sustaining biodiversity. We used the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) applied to 42 northern hardwood sites to simulate forest development over 100 years and to estimate carbon storage and timber production. We estimated biodiversity implications with occupancy models for 51 terrestrial bird species that were linked to FVS outputs. We simulated four alternative management prescriptions that spanned a range of harvesting intensities and forest structure retention. We found that silvicultural approaches emphasizing less frequent harvesting and greater structural retention could be expected to achieve the greatest net carbon storage but also produce less timber. More intensive prescriptions would enhance biodiversity because positive responses of early successional species exceeded negative responses of late successional species within the heavily forested study area. The combinations of weights assigned to objectives had a large influence on which prescriptions were scored as optimal. Overall, we found that a diversity of silvicultural approaches is likely to be preferable to any single approach, emphasizing the need for landscape-scale management to provide a full range of ecosystem goods and services. Our analytical framework that combined MCDA with forest simulation modeling was a powerful tool in understanding trade-offs among management objectives and how they can be simultaneously accommodated.
Sheil, Douglas; Basuki, Imam; German, Laura; Kuyper, Thomas W.; Limberg, Godwin; Puri, Rajindra K.; Sellato, Bernard; van Noordwijk, Meine; Wollenberg, Eva. (2012) Do Anthropogenic Dark Earths Occur in the Interior of Borneo? Some Initial Observations from East Kalimantan. Forests 3(2) 207-229
Smith, P.; Wollenberg, E.. (2012) Achieving Mitigation Through Synergies With Adaptation. Pages 50-57;
Tallis, H.; Mooney, H.; Andelman, S.; Balvanera, P.; Cramer, W.; Karp, D.; Polasky, S.; Reyers, B.; Ricketts, T.; Running, S.; Thonicke, K.; Tietjen, B.; Walz, A.. (2012) A Global System for Monitoring Ecosystem Service Change. Bioscience 62(11) 977-986
Link to Publication View Abstract
Earth's life-support systems are in flux, yet no centralized system to monitor and report these changes exists. Recognizing this, 77 nations agreed to establish the Group on Earth Observations (GEO). The GEO Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) integrates existing data streams into one platform in order to provide a more complete picture of Earth's biological and social systems. We present a conceptual framework envisioned by the GEO BON Ecosystem Services Working Group, designed to integrate national statistics, numerical models, remote sensing, and in situ measurements to regularly track changes in ecosystem services across the globe. This information will serve diverse applications, including stimulating new research and providing the basis for assessments. Although many ecosystem services are not currently measured, others are ripe for reporting. We propose a framework that will continue to grow and inspire more complete observation and assessments of our planet's life-support systems.
Troy, Austin; Azaria, Dale; Voigt, Brian; Sadek, Adel. (2012) Integrating a traffic router and microsimulator into a land use and travel demand model. Transportation Planning and Technology; Routledge, Bogor, Indonesia. 35(8) 737-751
Link to Publication View Abstract
Abstract This paper describes one of the first known attempts at integrating a dynamic and disaggregated land-use model with a traffic microsimulator and compares its predictions of land use to those from an integration of the same land-use model with a more traditional four-step travel demand model. For our study area of Chittenden County, Vermont, we used a 40-year simulation beginning in 1990. Predicted differences in residential units between models for 2030 broken down by town correlated significantly with predicted differences in accessibility. The two towns with the greatest predicted differences in land use and accessibility are also the towns that currently have the most severe traffic bottlenecks and poorest route redundancy. Our results suggest that this particular integration of a microsimulator with a disaggregated land-use model is technically feasible, but that in the context of an isolated, small metropolitan area, the differences in predicted land use are small. This paper describes one of the first known attempts at integrating a dynamic and disaggregated land-use model with a traffic microsimulator and compares its predictions of land use to those from an integration of the same land-use model with a more traditional four-step travel demand model. For our study area of Chittenden County, Vermont, we used a 40-year simulation beginning in 1990. Predicted differences in residential units between models for 2030 broken down by town correlated significantly with predicted differences in accessibility. The two towns with the greatest predicted differences in land use and accessibility are also the towns that currently have the most severe traffic bottlenecks and poorest route redundancy. Our results suggest that this particular integration of a microsimulator with a disaggregated land-use model is technically feasible, but that in the context of an isolated, small metropolitan area, the differences in predicted land use are small.
Vermeulen, S. J.; Aggarwal, P. K.; Ainslie, A.; Angelone, C.; Campbell, B. M.; Challinor, A. J.; Hansen, J. W.; Ingram, J. S. I.; Jarvis, A.; Kristjanson, P.; Lau, C.; Nelson, G. C.; Thornton, P. K.; Wollenberg, E.. (2012) Options for support to agriculture and food security under climate change. Environmental Science & Policy 15(1) 136-144
Link to Publication View Abstract
Agriculture and food security are key sectors for intervention under climate change. Agricultural production is highly vulnerable even to 2C (low-end) predictions for global mean temperatures in 2100, with major implications for rural poverty and for both rural and urban food security. Agriculture also presents untapped opportunities for mitigation, given the large land area under crops and rangeland, and the additional mitigation potential of aquaculture. This paper presents a summary of current knowledge on options to support farmers, particularly smallholder farmers, in achieving food security through agriculture under climate change. Actions towards adaptation fall into two broad overlapping areas: (1) accelerated adaptation to progressive climate change over decadal time scales, for example integrated packages of technology, agronomy and policy options for farmers and food systems, and (2) better management of agricultural risks associated with increasing climate variability and extreme events, for example improved climate information services and safety nets. Maximization of agriculture's mitigation potential will require investments in technological innovation and agricultural intensification linked to increased efficiency of inputs, and creation of incentives and monitoring systems that are inclusive of smallholder farmers. Food systems faced with climate change need urgent, broad-based action in spite of uncertainties. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vermeulen, S. J.; Zougmore, R.; Wollenberg, E.; Thornton, P. K.; Nelson, G. C.; Kristjanson, P.; Kinyangi, J.; Jarvis, A.; Hansen, J. W.; Challinor, A. J.; Campbell, B.; Aggarwal, P. K.. (2012) Climate change, agriculture and food security: a global partnership to link research and action for low-income agricultural producers and consumers. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4(1) 128-133
Link to Publication View Abstract
To achieve food security for many in low-income and middle-income countries for whom this is already a challenge, especially with the additional complications of climate change, will require early investment to support smallholder farming systems and the associated food systems that supply poor consumers. We need both local and global policy-linked research to accelerate sharing of lessons on institutions, practices and technologies for adaptation and mitigation. This strategy paper briefly outlines how the Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) of the Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centres (CGIAR) is working across research disciplines, organisational mandates, and spatial and temporal levels to assist immediate and longer-term policy actions.
Wollenberg, E.; Tapio-Bistroem, M. L.; Grieg-Gran, M.. (2012) Climate change mitigation and agriculture: designing projects and policies for smallholder farms. Routledge, New York, NY. Pages 3-27;
Zencey, E.. (2012) The Other Road to Serfdom and the Path to Sustainable Democracy. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. Pages 340;
Link to Publication View Abstract
Our planet is finite. Our political and economic systems were designed for an infinite planet. These difficult truths anchor the perceptive analysis offered in The Other Road to Serfdom and the Path to Sustainable Democracy. With wit, energy, and a lucid prose style, Eric Zencey identifies the key elements of "infinite planet" thinking that underlie our economics and our politics--and shows how they must change. Zencey's title evokes F. A. Hayek, who argued that any attempt to set overall limits to free markets--any attempt at centralized planning--is "the road to serfdom." But Hayek's argument works only if the planet is infinite. If Hayek is right that planning and democracy are irreducibly in conflict, Zencey argues, then on a finite planet, "free markets operated on infinite planet principles are just the other road to serfdom." The alternative is ecological economics, an emergent field that accepts limits to what humans can accomplish economically on a finite planet. Zencey explains this new school of thought and applies it to current political and economic concerns: the financial collapse, terrorism, population growth, hunger, the energy and oil industry's social control, and the deeply rooted dissatisfactions felt by conservative "values" voters who have been encouraged to see smaller government and freer markets as the universal antidote. What emerges is a coherent vision, a progressive and hopeful alternative to neoconservative economic and political theory--a foundation for an economy that meets the needs of the 99% and just might help save civilization from ecological and political collapse.
Zia, A.; Glantz, M. H.. (2012) Risk Zones: Comparative Lesson Drawing and Policy Learning from Flood Insurance Programs. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis 14(2) 143-159
Link to Publication View Abstract
Risk insurance mechanisms have been proposed as proactive policy options to enhance the resilience of communities for coping with extreme events. Many risk insurance mechanisms require designation of "risk zones" to legalize governmental interventions. After a three-day workshop and ensuing interviews, "wicked" challenges were identified in the designation of risk zones: risk thresholds; land value; damage-reduction; land-use planning; forecast uncertainty; map accuracy; modifiable-areal-unit problem; winners and losers; single versus multiple hazards; and cross-jurisdictional administrative boundaries. A total of 56 peer-reviewed studies are synthesized that evaluate these "wicked" challenges in flood insurance programs and derive deliberative heuristics for designating risk zones in publicly sponsored insurance mechanisms.
Zia, A.. (2012) Land Use Adaptation to Climate Change: Economic Damages from Land-Falling Hurricanes in the Atlantic and Gulf States of the USA, 1900–2005. Sustainability 4 917-932
Link to Publication View Abstract
Global climate change, especially the phenomena of global warming, is expected to increase the intensity of land-falling hurricanes. Societal adaptation is needed to reduce vulnerability from increasingly intense hurricanes. This study quantifies the adaptation effects of potentially policy driven caps on housing densities and agricultural cover in coastal (and adjacent inland) areas vulnerable to hurricane damages in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal regions of the U.S. Time series regressions, especially Prais-Winston and Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models, are estimated to forecast the economic impacts of hurricanes of varying intensity, given that various patterns of land use emerge in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal states of the U.S. The Prais-Winston and ARMA models use observed time series data from 1900 to 2005 for inflation adjusted hurricane damages and socio-economic and land-use data in the coastal or inland regions where hurricanes caused those damages. The results from this study provide evidence that increases in housing density and agricultural cover cause significant rise in the de-trended inflation-adjusted damages. Further, higher intensity and frequency of land-falling hurricanes also significantly increase the economic damages. The evidence from this study implies that a medium to long term land use adaptation in the form of capping housing density and agricultural cover in the coastal (and adjacent inland) states can significantly reduce economic damages from intense hurricanes. Future studies must compare the benefits of such land use adaptation policies against the costs of development controls implied in housing density caps and agricultural land cover reductions.
2011
Abell, R.; Thieme, M.; Ricketts, T. H.; Olwero, N.; Ng, R.; Petry, P.; Dinerstein, E.; Revenga, C.; Hoekstra, J. M.. (2011) Concordance of freshwater and terrestrial biodiversity. Conservation Letters 4(2) 127-136
Link to Publication View Abstract
Efforts to set global conservation priorities have largely ignored freshwater diversity, thereby excluding some of the world's most speciose, threatened, and valuable taxa. Using a new global map of freshwater ecoregions and distribution data for about 13,300 fish species, we identify regions of exceptional freshwater biodiversity and assess their overlap with regions of equivalent terrestrial importance. Overlap is greatest in the tropics and is higher than expected by chance. These high-congruence areas offer opportunities for integrated conservation efforts, which could be of particular value when economic conditions force conservation organizations to narrow their focus. Areas of low overlap-missed by current terrestrially based priority schemes-merit independent freshwater conservation efforts. These results provide new information to conservation investors setting priorities at global or regional scales and argue for a potential reallocation of future resources to achieve representation of overlooked biomes.
Alvez, J.; Matthews, A. G.; Schmitt F., A.; Farley, J.. (2011) Sustainability indicators for cattle farms. Cadernos de Agroecologia 6(1)
Balmford, A.; Fisher, B.; Green, R. E.; Naidoo, R.; Strassburg, B.; Turner, R. K.; Rodrigues, A. S. L.. (2011) Bringing Ecosystem Services into the Real World: An Operational Framework for Assessing the Economic Consequences of Losing Wild Nature. Environmental & Resource Economics 48(2) 161-175
Link to Publication View Abstract
Policy action to halt the global loss of biodiversity and ecosystems is hindered by the perception that it would be so costly as to compromise economic development, yet this assumption needs testing. Inspired by the recent Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, the leaders of the G8+5 nations commissioned a similar assessment of the economics of losing biodiversity, under the Potsdam Initiative on Biodiversity. Here, we propose a conceptual framework for such a global assessment which emphasizes several critical insights from the environmental economics and valuation literature: contrasting counterfactual scenarios which differ solely in whether they include specific conservation policies; identifying non-overlapping benefits; modeling the production, flow, use and value of benefits in a spatially-explicit way; and incorporating the likely costs as well as possible benefits of policy interventions. Tackling these challenges, we argue, will significantly enhance our ability to quantify how the loss of benefits derived from ecosystems and biodiversity compares with the costs incurred in retaining them. We also summarise a review of the current state of knowledge, in order to assess how quickly this framework could be operationalized for some key ecosystem services.
Conner, D. S.; King, B.; Koliba, C.; Kolodinsky, J.; Trubek, A.. (2011) Mapping Farm-to-School Networks Implications for Research and Practice. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition 6 133-125
Link to Publication View Abstract
In this article, the contemporary Farm-to-School movement is described as a system comprised of discrete actors operating at varying levels of geographic scale, social sector, and network function. Drawing on a literature review and case study research, the authors present and analyze a Farm-to-School network in Vermont as a series of relationships between network actors predicated on the flow of financial resources, whole and processed foods, information, and regulatory authority. Furthermore, the utility for using this map to critically examine the leverage points that may drive positive change within and across the system is discussed.
Conte, M.; Nelson, E.; Carney, K.; Fissore, C.; Olwero, N.; Plantinga, A.; Stanley, W.; Ricketts, T.. (2011) Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration and Storage. Oxford University Press, New York. Pages 111-128;
Costanza, R.; Kubiszewski, I.; Roman, J.; Sutton, P.. (2011) Changes in ecosystem services and migration in low-lying coastal areas over the next 50 years. Migration and Global Environmental Change
Link to Publication View Abstract
This paper examines the history and current status of ecosystem services in low-lying coastal areas (LLCAs), their potential changes because of wider environmental and social shifts, and the potential impacts of these changes on human migration. We synthesised information from a number of sources on the status and value of ecosystem services in LLCAs, including information about key ecosystems that are likely to be particularly vulnerable to environmental change. We created maps of ecosystem and human population changes in LLCAs and then estimated changes in ecosystem services. Estimating the impacts of these potential changes depends on the future scenario one assumes. For our analysis four scenarios were developed for future ecosystem and ecosystem services conditions in 2060, based on the four SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios) scenarios with additional reference to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Great Transition Initiative scenarios. The two axes of the SRES scenarios are global vs. regional and material economy vs. environment foci. This allowed an assessment of the plausible range of future uncertainty about ecosystem services in LLCAs and the potential for changes in ecosystem services to drive human migration.
Daily, G. C.; Kareiva, P.; Polasky, S.; Ricketts, T.; Tallis, H.. (2011) Mainstreaming Natural Capital into Decisions. Oxford University Press, New York. Pages 3-14;
Daly, H.; Farley, J.. (2011) Ecological Economics: Principles and Applications. Island Press, Washington, D.C.. Pages 454;
De Oliveira, Jose Antonio Puppim; Ali, Saleem H.. (2011) Gemstone mining as a development cluster: A study of Brazil's emerald mines. Resources Policy 36(2) 132-141
Link to Publication View Abstract
For many centuries, emeralds have bejeweled the rich and famous all over the world. Emeralds have also made many millionaires overnight, sometimes by chance, as in some of the cases reported in this study. On the other hand, even though emerald mining has brought some economic benefits, many of these have remained at the top of the production chain. In many cases mining activities have caused a number of negative social and environmental impacts locally. Working conditions in small mines are very poor in general: with bad ventilation, high temperatures, long working hours, lack of safety, informal working contracts and no health or life insurance. Environmental impacts can be significant, such as widespread deforestation, erosion of abandoned mines, and soil and water pollution in streams. The economic and social public benefits can be minimal. Even when taxes on gem mining are relatively low, much of the mining local activity is informal and the high value-added formal activities take place outside the mining regions. This study aims to understand the dynamics of emerald mining and its impact on local development using the concept of clusters. The research analyzes three case studies in Brazil: Campos Verdes/Santa Terezinha (Goias state), Nova Era/Itabira (Minas Gerais state) and Carnaiba/Campo Formoso (Bahia state). Emerald mining regions attract many migrants, increasing the demand for public services (infrastructure, health, education, etc.), but local governments are unable to provide for them because the activity produces little tax revenue. In the end, there is a growing mismatch between demand and supply of public services, leading to a series of social and environmental problems. However, working with the concept of cluster can help to shed light on policies to improve the local benefits of gem mining, by organizing the miners and their supporting organizations to allow investments that bring long term benefits locally. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edwards, D. P.; Fisher, B.; Giam, X. L.; Wilcove, D. S.. (2011) Underestimating the costs of conservation in Southeast Asia. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9(10) 544-545
Edwards, D. P.; Fisher, B.; Wilcove, D. S.. (2011) Green labelling being misused. Nature 475(7355) 174-174
Eppstein, M. J.; Grover, D. K.; Marshall, J. S.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2011) An agent-based model to study market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Energy Policy 39(6) 3789-3802
Link to Publication View Abstract
A spatially explicit agent-based vehicle consumer choice model is developed to explore sensitivities and nonlinear interactions between various potential influences on plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) market penetration. The model accounts for spatial and social effects (including threshold effects, homophily, and conformity) and media influences. Preliminary simulations demonstrate how such a model could be used to identify nonlinear interactions among potential leverage points, inform policies affecting PHEV market penetration, and help identify future data collection necessary to more accurately model the system. We examine sensitivity of the model to gasoline prices, to accuracy in estimation of fuel costs, to agent willingness to adopt the PHEV technology, to PHEV purchase price and rebates, to PHEV battery range, and to heuristic values related to gasoline usage. Our simulations indicate that PHEV market penetration could be enhanced significantly by providing consumers with ready estimates of expected lifetime fuel costs associated with different vehicles (e.g., on vehicle stickers), and that increases in gasoline prices could nonlinearly magnify the impact on fleet efficiency. We also infer that a potential synergy from a gasoline tax with proceeds is used to fund research into longer-range lower-cost PHEV batteries. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Erickson, Daniel L.; Lovell, Sarah Taylor; Mendez, V. Ernesto. (2011) Landowner willingness to embed production agriculture and other land use options in residential areas of Chittenden County, VT. Landscape and Urban Planning 103(2) 174-184
Link to Publication View Abstract
Throughout the world, urbanization is causing a loss of agricultural land as residential and commercial development expand. In Chittenden County, Vermont, U.S.A., this land use conversion has resulted in subdivision of farms into large residential parcels. Some of these residential parcels retain sizeable areas of undeveloped prime agricultural soil, yet the land is effectively removed from agricultural production. This study explored landowner willingness to enroll a portion of their land in a cooperative land management (CLM) scheme. Our results show support for embedding production agriculture and other cooperative land use options in residential parcels. Almost half of the respondents (45.6%) indicated they would enroll a portion of their land in a CLM program, while another 28.4% said "maybe". A cluster analysis partitioned the respondents into five clusters based on the following variables: percent agricultural land on parcel, parcel size, years in residence, and the population density of the town where the parcel is located. Willingness to participate in the CLM program and different land use options (livestock grazing, vegetables, fruit, field crops, biofuel, maple sugaring, wildflowers, medicinal plants, wildlife corridor, and recreational trails) varied across the clusters. A cluster containing a high percentage of agricultural land ("farms") had the highest support for production agriculture options, while a cluster of long term residents (old timers) had the lowest. These results are encouraging for farmers seeking access to affordable farmland and for planning efforts seeking increased regional landscape multifunctionality. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fisher, B.; Bradbury, R. B.; Andrews, J. E.; Ausden, M.; Bentham-Green, S.; White, S. M.; Gill, J. A.. (2011) Impacts of species-led conservation on ecosystem services of wetlands: understanding co-benefits and tradeoffs. Biodiversity and Conservation 20(11) 2461-2481
Link to Publication View Abstract
Biodiversity conservation organisations have recently begun to consider a wider ecosystem services context for their activities. While the literature suggests the potential of 'win-win' situations where biodiversity conservation and the delivery of ecosystem services overlap, empirical evidence is wanting. Here we explore the role that species-led management for the benefit of biodiversity in cultural landscapes can play in the delivery of wider ecosystem services. We use UK lowland wetlands as a case study and show how successful delivery of species-led conservation through management interventions relies on practices that can affect greenhouse gas fluxes, water quality and regulation, and cultural benefits. In these wetlands, livestock grazing has potentially large effects on water and greenhouse gas related services, but there is little scope to alter management without compromising species objectives. Likewise, there is little potential to alter reedbed management without compromising conservation objectives. There is some potential to alter woodland and scrub management, but this would likely have limited influence due to the relatively small area over which such management is practiced. The management of water levels potentially has large effects on provision of several services and there does appear to be some scope to align this objective with biodiversity objectives. A comprehensive understanding of the net costs and benefits to society of these interventions will require fine-grained research integrating ecological, economic and social science research. However, a less analytic understanding of the potential costs and benefits can highlight ways by which land management principally to achieve biodiversity conservation objectives might be modified to enhance delivery of other ecosystem services.
Fisher, B.; Edwards, D. P.; Giam, X. L.; Wilcove, D. S.. (2011) The high costs of conserving Southeast Asia's lowland rainforests. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9(6) 329-334
Link to Publication View Abstract
Mechanisms that mitigate greenhouse-gas emissions via forest conservation have been portrayed as a cost-effective approach that can also protect biodiversity and vital ecosystem services. However, the costs of conservation - including opportunity costs - are spatially heterogeneous across the globe. The lowland rainforests of Southeast Asia represent a unique nexus of large carbon stores, imperiled biodiversity, large stores of timber, and high potential for conversion to oil-palm plantations, making this region one where understanding the costs of conservation is critical. Previous studies have underestimated the gap between conservation costs and conversion benefits in Southeast Asia. Using detailed logging records, cost data, and species-specific timber auction prices from Borneo, we show that the profitability of logging, in combination with potential profits from subsequent conversion to palm-oil production, greatly exceeds foreseeable revenues from a global carbon market and other ecosystem-service payment mechanisms. Thus, the conservation community faces a massive funding shortfall to protect the remaining lowland primary forests in Southeast Asia.
Fisher, B.; Edwards, D. P.; Larsen, T. H.; Ansell, F. A.; Hsu, W. W.; Roberts, C. S.; Wilcove, D. S.. (2011) Cost-effective conservation: calculating biodiversity and logging trade-offs in Southeast Asia. Conservation Letters 4(6) 443-450
Link to Publication View Abstract
The Sundaland Biodiversity Hotspot of Southeast Asia is widely regarded as one of the most imperiled biodiversity hotspots due to high degrees of endemism coupled with extensive logging and forest conversion to oil palm. The large financial returns to these activities have made it difficult to conserve much of the region's lowland primary forest, suggesting a large trade-off between economic interests and biodiversity conservation. Here, we provide an empirical examination of the magnitude of this trade-off in Borneo. By incorporating both financial values and biodiversity responses across logging regimes, we show that selectively logged forests represent a surprisingly low-cost option for conserving high levels of biodiversity. In our study, the standing value of timber dropped from similar to$10,460 ha-1 to similar to$2,010 ha-1 after two logging rotations, yet these forests retained over 75% of bird and dung beetle species found in primary unlogged forest. We suggest that the conservation of selectively logged forests represents a highly cost-efficient opportunity to enlarge existing protected areas, improve connectivity between them, and to create new, large protected areas.
Fisher, B.; Lewis, S. L.; Burgess, N. D.; Malimbwi, R. E.; Munishi, P. K.; Swetnam, R. D.; Turner, R. K.; Willcock, S.; Balmford, A.. (2011) Implementation and opportunity costs of reducing deforestation and forest degradation in Tanzania. Nature Climate Change 1(3) 161-164
Link to Publication View Abstract
The Cancun Agreements provide strong backing for a REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) mechanism whereby developed countries pay developing ones for forest conservation(1). REDD+ has potential to simultaneously deliver cost-effective climate change mitigation and human development(2-5). However, most REDD+ analysis has used coarse-scale data, overlooked important opportunity costs to tropical forest users(4,5) and failed to consider how to best invest funds to limit leakage, that is, merely displacing deforestation(6). Here we examine these issues for Tanzania, a REDD+ country, by comparing district-scale carbon losses from deforestation with the opportunity costs of carbon conservation. Opportunity costs are estimated as rents from both agriculture and charcoal production (the most important proximate causes of regional forest conversion(7-9).). As an alternative we also calculate the implementation costs of alleviating the demand for forest conservation thereby addressing the problem of leakage by raising agricultural yields on existing cropland and increasing charcoal fuel-use efficiency. The implementation costs exceed the opportunity costs of carbon conservation (medians of US$6.50 versus US$3.90 per Mg CO(2)), so effective REDD+ policies may cost more than simpler estimates suggest. However, even if agricultural yields are doubled, implementation is possible at the competitive price of similar to US$12 per Mg CO(2).
Fisher, B.; Naidoo, R.. (2011) Concerns About Extrapolating Right Off the Bat. Science 333(6040) 287-287
Fisher, B.; Polasky, S.; Sterner, T.. (2011) Conservation and Human Welfare: Economic Analysis of Ecosystem Services. Environmental & Resource Economics 48(2) 151-159
Fisher, B.; Turner, R. K.; Burgess, N. D.; Swetnam, R. D.; Green, J.; Green, R. E.; Kajembe, G.; Kulindwa, K.; Lewis, S. L.; Marchant, R.; Marshall, A. R.; Madoffe, S.; Munishi, P. K. T.; Morse-Jones, S.; Mwakalila, S.; Paavola, J.; Naidoo, R.; Ricketts, T.; Rouget, M.; Willcock, S.; White, S.; Balmford, A.. (2011) Measuring, modeling and mapping ecosystem services in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. Progress in Physical Geography 35(5) 595-611
Link to Publication View Abstract
In light of the significance that ecosystem service research is likely to play in linking conservation activities and human welfare, systematic approaches to measuring, modeling and mapping ecosystem services ( and their value to society) are sorely needed. In this paper we outline one such approach, which we developed in order to understand the links between the functioning of the ecosystems of Tanzania's Eastern Arc Mountains and their impact on human welfare at local, regional and global scales. The essence of our approach is the creation of a series of maps created using field-based or remotely sourced data, data-driven models, and socio-economic scenarios coupled with rule-based assumptions. Here we describe the construction of this spatial information and how it can help to shed light on the complex relationships between ecological and social systems. There are obvious difficulties in operationalizing this approach, but by highlighting those which we have encountered in our own case-study work, we have also been able to suggest some routes to overcoming these impediments.
Galford, G. L.; Melillo, J. M.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Mustard, J. F.; Cronin, T. W.; Cerri, C. E. P.; Cerri, C. C.. (2011) Historical carbon emissions and uptake from the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon. Ecological Applications 21(3) 750-763
Link to Publication View Abstract
Tropical ecosystems play a large and complex role in the global carbon cycle. Clearing of natural ecosystems for agriculture leads to large pulses of CO(2) to the atmosphere from terrestrial biomass. Concurrently, the remaining intact ecosystems, especially tropical forests, may be sequestering a large amount of carbon from the atmosphere in response to global environmental changes including climate changes and an increase in atmospheric CO(2). Here we use an approach that integrates census-based historical land use reconstructions, remote-sensing-based contemporary land use change analyses, and simulation modeling of terrestrial biogeochemistry to estimate the net carbon balance over the period 1901-2006 for the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, which is one of the most rapidly changing agricultural frontiers in the world. By the end of this period, we estimate that of the state's 925 225 km(2), 221 092 km(2) have been converted to pastures and 89 533 km(2) have been converted to croplands, with forest-to-pasture conversions being the dominant land use trajectory but with recent transitions to croplands increasing rapidly in the last decade. These conversions have led to a cumulative release of 4.8 Pg C to the atmosphere, with similar to 80% from forest clearing and 20% from the clearing of cerrado. Over the same period, we estimate that the residual undisturbed ecosystems accumulated 0.3 Pg C in response to CO2 fertilization. Therefore, the net emissions of carbon from Mato Grosso over this period were 4.5 Pg C. Net carbon emissions from Mato Grosso since 2000 averaged 146 Tg C/yr, on the order of Brazil's fossil fuel emissions during this period. These emissions were associated with the expansion of croplands to grow soybeans. While alternative management regimes in croplands, including tillage, fertilization, and cropping patterns promote carbon storage in ecosystems, they remain a small portion of the net carbon balance for the region. This detailed accounting of a region's carbon balance is the type of foundation analysis needed by the new United Nations Collaborative Programmme for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD).
Garibaldi, L. A.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Kremen, C.; Morales, J. M.; Bommarco, R.; Cunningham, S. A.; Carvalheiro, L. G.; Chacoff, N. P.; Dudenhoeffer, J. H.; Greenleaf, S. S.; Holzschuh, A.; Isaacs, R.; Krewenka, K. M.; Mandelik, Y.; Mayfield, M. M.; Morandin, L. A.; Potts, S. G.; Ricketts, T. H.; Szentgyoergyi, H.; Viana, B. F.; Westphal, C.; Winfree, R.; Klein, A. M.. (2011) Stability of pollination services decreases with isolation from natural areas despite honey bee visits. Ecology Letters 14(10) 1062-1072
Link to Publication View Abstract
Sustainable agricultural landscapes by definition provide high magnitude and stability of ecosystem services, biodiversity and crop productivity. However, few studies have considered landscape effects on the stability of ecosystem services. We tested whether isolation from florally diverse natural and semi-natural areas reduces the spatial and temporal stability of flower-visitor richness and pollination services in crop fields. We synthesised data from 29 studies with contrasting biomes, crop species and pollinator communities. Stability of flower-visitor richness, visitation rate (all insects except honey bees) and fruit set all decreased with distance from natural areas. At 1 km from adjacent natural areas, spatial stability decreased by 25, 16 and 9% for richness, visitation and fruit set, respectively, while temporal stability decreased by 39% for richness and 13% for visitation. Mean richness, visitation and fruit set also decreased with isolation, by 34, 27 and 16% at 1 km respectively. In contrast, honey bee visitation did not change with isolation and represented > 25% of crop visits in 21 studies. Therefore, wild pollinators are relevant for crop productivity and stability even when honey bees are abundant. Policies to preserve and restore natural areas in agricultural landscapes should enhance levels and reliability of pollination services.
Harrison, D. M.; Noordewier, T.. (2011) Empirical Evidence on Mortgage Choice as a Screening Mechanism for Default Risk. Journal of Housing Research 20(1) 1-18
Link to Publication View Abstract
Despite the enormously important role played by credit in modern market-based economies, the marketing literature offers little theoretical or empirical insight into how consumers choose among available credit products. This paper examines one of the most critical credit decisions made by consumers: selecting between a fixed-rate mortgage (FRM) and an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM). To understand this selection process, the authors test a theoretical model in which a borrower's mortgage choice (i.e., ARM vs. FRM) is contingent upon transaction default costs, where the latter are defined as costs associated with the borrower's defaulting on a mortgage (e.g., damage to the borrower's credit rating, search and legal costs stemming from having to purchase a new home, etc.). The model predicts that when a borrower's transaction costs of default are sufficiently small (high), high default risk borrowers will select fixed (adjustable) rate mortgages, and low default risk borrowers will select adjustable (fixed) rate mortgages. The authors empirically test this transaction cost-contingent hypothesis using a sample of 1,003 mortgage loans, finding evidence consistent with the proposed interaction. In contrast to traditional transaction cost studies, which focus on whether (or how well) alternative buyer-seller "governance" modes match the underlying attributes of the transactions, this research demonstrates that transaction cost reasoning is applicable to consumer product choice as well.
Hayden, N.; Rizzo, D.; Dewoolkar, M. M.; Neumann, M. D.; Lathem, S. A.; Sadek, A. W.. (2011) Incorporating a Systems Approach into Civil and Environmental Engineering Curricula: Effect on Course Redesign, and Student and Faculty Attitudes. Advances in Engineering Education 2(4) 1-27
Link to Publication View Abstract
This paper presents a brief overview of the changes made during our department level reform (DLR) process (Grant Title: A Systems Approach for Civil and Environmental Engineering Education: Integrating Systems Thinking, Inquiry-Based Learning and Catamount Community Service-Learning Projects) and some of the effects of these changes on our students and ourselves. The overall goal of the reform has been to have students learn and apply a systems approach to engineering problem solving such that when they become practicing engineers they will develop more sustainable engineering solutions. We have integrated systems thinking into our programs in the following ways; 1) new material has been included in key courses (e.g., the first-year introductory and senior design courses), 2) a sequence of three related environmental and transportation systems courses have been included within the curricula (i.e., Introduction to Systems, Decision Making, and Modeling), and 3) service-learning (SL) projects have been integrated into key required courses as a way of practicing a systems approach. A variety of assessment methods were implemented as part of the reform including student surveys, student focus groups, faculty interviews, and assessment of student work. Student work in five classes demonstrate that students are learning the systems approach, applying it to engineering problem solving, and that this approach helps meet ABET outcomes. Initial student resistance to changing the curriculum has decreased post implementation (e.g., graduating class 2010), and many students are able to define and apply the concept of sustainability in senior design project. Student self-assessments show support of SL projects and that the program is influencing student understanding of the roles and responsibilities of engineers in society.
Hirsch, P. D.; Adams, W. M.; Brosius, J. P.; Zia, A.; Bariola, N.; Dammert, J. L.. (2011) Acknowledging Conservation Trade-Offs and Embracing Complexity. Conservation Biology 25(2) 259-264
Link to Publication View Abstract
There is a growing recognition that conservation often entails trade-offs. A focus on trade-offs can open the way to more complete consideration of the variety of positive and negative effects associated with conservation initiatives. In analyzing and working through conservation trade-offs, however, it is important to embrace the complexities inherent in the social context of conservation. In particular, it is important to recognize that the consequences of conservation activities are experienced, perceived, and understood differently from different perspectives, and that these perspectives are embedded in social systems and preexisting power relations. We illustrate the role of trade-offs in conservation and the complexities involved in understanding them with recent debates surrounding REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation), a global conservation policy designed to create incentives to reduce tropical deforestation. Often portrayed in terms of the multiple benefits it may provide: poverty alleviation, biodiversity conservation, and climate-change mitigation; REDD may involve substantial trade-offs. The gains of REDD may be associated with a reduction in incentives for industrialized countries to decrease carbon emissions; relocation of deforestation to places unaffected by REDD; increased inequality in places where people who make their livelihood from forests have insecure land tenure; loss of biological and cultural diversity that does not directly align with REDD measurement schemes; and erosion of community-based means of protecting forests. We believe it is important to acknowledge the potential trade-offs involved in conservation initiatives such as REDD and to examine these trade-offs in an open and integrative way that includes a variety of tools, methods, and points of view.
Huang, G.; Zhou, W.; Ali, S.. (2011) Spatial patterns and economic contributions of mining and tourism in biodiversity hotspots: A case study in China. Ecological Economics 70(8) 1492-1498
Link to Publication View Abstract
Mining activities and tourism are both growing fast in biodiversity intense areas globally. However, the dynamic and interactions between mining and tourism when they both occur in biodiversity hotspots, and how they together may impact the economy and environment in these biodiversity rich areas, remain unclear. This paper examined how the two industries interact in terms of their economic contributions and spatial patterns in a biodiversity hotspot, Yunnan, China. We used correlation analyses to measure the relationships between mining activities, tourism visits and local gross domestic productions. We also employed a distancebased technique to investigate the nature of any dependency between mining and tourism sites. Results showed that mining activities tend to be in relatively fluent areas while tourism tends to occur in less developed areas. Our results showed that the location of tourism and mining sites are likely to be close to one another but the two industries usually perform better economically when they are apart from each other. These findings can provide insights on how mining and tourism together may impact the economy and environment in biodiversity rich areas, and provide important information for managers and planners on balancing mining and tourism development in these areas.
Jarvis, A.; Lau, C.; Cook, S.; Wollenberg, E.; Hansen, J. W.; Bonilla, O.; Challinor, A. J.. (2011) AN INTEGRATED ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPING AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH: SYNERGIES AND TRADE-OFFS. Experimental Agriculture 47(2) 185-203
Link to Publication View Abstract
Global rood security is under threat by climate change, and the impacts fall disproportionately on resource-poor small producers. With the goal of making agricultural and food systems more climate-resilient this paper presents an adaptation and mitigation framework. A road map for bather agricultural research is proposed, based on the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security We propose a holistic, integrated approach that takes into account trade-offs and feedbacks between interventions. We divide the agenda into four research areas, three tackling risk management, accelerated adaptation and emissions mitigation, and the fourth facilitating adoption of research outputs. After reviewing specific technical, agronomic and policy options for reducing climate change vulnerability, we acknowledge that science and good-faith recommendations do not necessarily translate into effective and timely actions. We therefore outline impediments to behavioural change and propose that future research overcomes these obstacles by linking the right institutions, instruments and scientific outputs. Food security research must go beyond its focus on production to also examine food access and utilization issues. Finally, we conclude that urgent action is needed despite the uncertainties, trade-offs and challenges.
Kareiva, P.; Tallis, H.; Ricketts, T.; Daily, G. C.; Polasky, S.. (2011) Natural Capital: Theory and Practice of Mapping Ecosystem Services. Oxford University Press, New York. Pages 392;
Link to Publication View Abstract
In 2005, The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) provided the first global assessment of the world's ecosystems and ecosystem services. It concluded that recent trends in ecosystem change threatened human wellbeing due to declining ecosystem services. This bleak prophecy has galvanized conservation organizations, ecologists, and economists to work toward rigorous valuations of ecosystem services at a spatial scale and with a resolution that can inform public policy.The editors have assembled the world's leading scientists in the fields of conservation, policy analysis, and resource economics to provide the most intensive and best technical analyses of ecosystem services to date. A key idea that guides the science is that the modelling and valuation approaches being developed should use data that are readily available around the world. In addition, the book documents a toolbox of ecosystem service mapping, modeling, and valuation models that both TheNature Conservancy and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) are beginning to apply around the world as they transform conservation from a biodiversity only to a people and ecosystem services agenda. The book addresses land, freshwater, and marine systems at a variety of spatial scales and includesdiscussion of how to treat both climate change and cultural values when examining tradeoffs among ecosystem services.
Keeton, W. S.; Whitman, A. A.; McGee, G. C.; Goodale, C. L.. (2011) Late-Successional Biomass Development in Northern Hardwood-Conifer Forests of the Northeastern United States. Forest Science 57(6) 489-505
Link to Publication View Abstract
Managing the contribution of forest ecosystems to global carbon cycles requires accurate predictions of biomass dynamics in relation to stand development. Our study evaluated competing hypotheses regarding late-successional biomass dynamics in northern hardwood-conifer forests using a data set spanning the northeastern United States, including 48 mature and 46 old-growth stands. Continuous data on dominant tree ages were available for 29 of these and were used as an indicator of stand development. Aboveground live biomass was significantly (P < 0.001) different between mature (195 Mg/ha) and old-growth (266 Mg/ha) sites. Aboveground biomass was positively (P < 0.001) and logarithmically correlated with dominant tree age; this held for live trees (r(2) = 0.52), standing dead trees (r(2) = 0.36), total trees (r(2) = 0.63), and downed woody debris (r(2) = 0.24). In a Classification and Regression Tree analysis, stand age class was the strongest predictor of biomass, but ecoregion and percent conifer accounted for similar to 25-33% of intraregional variability. Biomass approached maximum values in stands with dominant tree ages of similar to 350-400 years. Our results support the hypothesis that aboveground biomass can accumulate very late into succession in northern hardwood-conifer forests, recognizing that early declines are also possible in secondary forests as reported previously. Empirical studies suggest a high degree of variability in biomass development pathways and these may differ from theoretical predictions. Primary forest systems, especially those prone to partial disturbances, may have different biomass dynamics compared with those of secondary forests. These differences have important implications for both the quantity and temporal dynamics of carbon storage in old-growth and recovering secondary forests. FOR. SCI 57(6):489-505.
Koliba, C. J.; Mills, R. M.; Zia, A.. (2011) Accountability in Governance Networks: An Assessment of Public, Private, and Nonprofit Emergency Management Practices Following Hurricane Katrina. Public Administration Review 71(2) 210-220
Link to Publication View Abstract
What is the most effective framework for analyzing complex accountability challenges within governing networks? Recognizing the multiscale and intersector (public, private, and nonprofit) characteristics of these networks, an accountability model is advanced organized around democratic (elected representatives, citizens, and the legal system), market (owners and consumers), as well as administrative (bureaucratic, professional and collaborative) relationships. This concept draws from 2005 events following Hurricane Katrina. Multiple failures of governing networks to plan for and respond to Katrina include a breakdown in democratic, market, and administrative accountability as well as a pervasive confusion over trade-offs between accountability types emerging from crises. This essay offers several useful recommendations for emergency management planners as well as for those who teach and research.
Koliba, C.; Campbell, E.; Zia, A.. (2011) Performance Management Systems Of Congestion Management Networks: Evidence from Four Cases. Public Performance & Management Review 34(4) 520-548
Link to Publication View Abstract
The central research question in this article asks how performance management systems are employed in interorganizational governance networks designed to mitigate traffic congestion. Congestion management networks (CMNs) adopt performance management systems across regionally bound networks of state, regional, and local actors; and within these networks, performance data are often assumed to be directing policy strategy and tool selection. Drawing on existing frameworks for categorizing performance measures and policy strategies used within congestion management networks, the authors present data from case studies of four regional networks. The CMNs studied here were indelibly shaped by the funded mandates of the U.S. Department of Transportation with guidance from the major transportation reauthorization bills since the early 1990s. No uniform performance management system exists in the regional CMSs that were studied. Rather, the CMNs' performance management systems are a construct of discrete and overlapping performance management subsystems. Making comparisons more difficult, CMN performance measures are tied to multiple policy domains (including economic, environmental health, and quality of life). Left unanswered are questions relating to the collection and analysis of performance data in terms of administrative and political drivers and the extent to which congestion management is ultimately the policy frame that drives action in these networks. Some suggestions are offered that may eventually lead to answering some of these questions through further empirical inquiry and modeling.
Koliba, C.; Zia, A.; Lee, B. H. Y.. (2011) Governance Informatics: Managing the Performance of Inter-Organizational Governance Networks. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal 16(1)
Link to Publication View Abstract
This article introduces an informatics approach to managing the performance of inter-organizational governance networks that are designed to create, implement and evaluate public policies and the range of activities undertaken by practicing public administrators. We label this type of information flow process management “governance informatics” and lay out a range of theoretical constructs that may be used to collect, categorize, and analyze performance in inter-organizational governance networks. We discuss how governance informatics may be able to assess and re-design the accountability and transparency regimes of information flows in inter-organizational governance networks. The integration of a governance informatics-driven performance management system into an existing regional transportation planning network is presented as an application of the framework.
Koliba, C.. (2011) Performance Management In Governance Networks-Critical Concepts And Practices. Public Performance & Management Review 34(4) 515-519
Kraft, C. E.; Warren, D. R.; Keeton, W. S.. (2011) Identifying the spatial pattern of wood distribution in northeastern North American streams. Geomorphology 135(1-2) 1-7
Link to Publication View Abstract
The spatial distribution of instream wood influences important ecological processes but has proven challenging to describe quantitatively. We present a modified version of a previously described metric used to quantify the spatial extent and pattern of instream wood distribution, then apply this approach in evaluating the distribution of wood habitat in forested northeastern North American streams. This revised metric, a 'binned neighbor-K analysis', provides greater resolution in evaluating the presence of aggregated, periodic, or segregated wood distributions in stream ecosystems. We employed this metric in evaluating the distribution of wood within 17 streams in two regions of northeastern North America. Our results indicate that the binned neighbor-K approach more accurately represents the spatial extent at which wood accumulates in streams by identifying recurring intervals in streams within which instream wood is not present and by more accurately quantifying the spatial extent of wood aggregations and periodically repeating occurrences of accumulated wood. We also used this metric to quantify the overall extent of wood 'organization' in streams, which revealed similarities and differences in instream wood distribution patterns in the two regions evaluated. Wood distribution patterns in both study regions were generally consistent with our expectations of increased organization at an intermediate stream size (up to 10 m bankfull width), then in larger streams (>10 m) wood was less organized. These observed patterns result from landscape and ecosystem influences upon wood accumulation and movement in streams. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kubiszewski, I.; Noordewier, T.; Costanza, R.. (2011) Perceived credibility of Internet encyclopedias. Computers & Education 56(3) 659-667
Link to Publication View Abstract
A vast amount of information is now available online, produced by a variety of sources with a range of editorial oversight procedures. These range from very centralized information with multiple layers of review, to no oversight at all. Determining which information is credible can pose a real challenge. An experiment was designed to determine whether certain webpage characteristics affect academics' and students' perception of the credibility of information presented in an online article. The experiment looked at five peripheral cues: (1) presence or absence of an identifiable author, (2) presence or absence of references. (3) presence or absence of a biased sponsor, (4) presence or absence of an award, and (5) whether the article is designated as appearing in Encyclopedia Britannica, Wikipedia, or Encyclopedia of Earth. The results indicate that compared to Encyclopedia Britannica, article information appearing in both Encyclopedia of Earth and Wikipedia is perceived as significantly less credible. They also show that the presence of a biased sponsor has a significant negative effect on perceived credibility. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuemmerle, T.; Olofsson, P.; Chaskovskyy, O.; Baumann, M.; Ostapowicz, K.; Woodcock, C. E.; Houghton, R. A.; Hostert, P.; Keeton, W. S.; Radeloff, V. C.. (2011) Post-Soviet farmland abandonment, forest recovery, and carbon sequestration in western Ukraine. Global Change Biology 17(3) 1335-1349
Link to Publication View Abstract
Land use is a critical factor in the global carbon cycle, but land-use effects on carbon fluxes are poorly understood in many regions. One such region is Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, where land-use intensity decreased substantially after the collapse of socialism, and farmland abandonment and forest expansion have been widespread. Our goal was to examine how land-use trends affected net carbon fluxes in western Ukraine (57 000 km2) and to assess the region's future carbon sequestration potential. Using satellite-based forest disturbance and farmland abandonment rates from 1988 to 2007, historic forest resource statistics, and a carbon bookkeeping model, we reconstructed carbon fluxes from land use in the 20th century and assessed potential future carbon fluxes until 2100 for a range of forest expansion and logging scenarios. Our results suggested that the low-point in forest cover occurred in the 1920s. Forest expansion between 1930 and 1970 turned the region from a carbon source to a sink, despite intensive logging during socialism. The collapse of the Soviet Union created a vast, but currently largely untapped carbon sequestration potential (up to similar to 150 Tg C in our study region). Future forest expansion will likely maintain or even increase the region's current sink strength of 1.48 Tg C yr-1. This may offer substantial opportunities for offsetting industrial carbon emissions and for rural development in regions with otherwise diminishing income opportunities. Throughout Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, millions of hectares of farmland were abandoned after the collapse of socialism; thus similar reforestation opportunities may exist in other parts of this region.
Lonsdorf, E.; Ricketts, T.; Kremen, C.; Winfree, R.; Greenleaf, S.; Williams, N.. (2011) Crop Pollination. Oxford University Press, New York. Pages 168-187;
Main-Knorn, M.; Moisen, G. G.; Healey, S. P.; Keeton, W. S.; Freeman, E. A.; Hostert, P.. (2011) Evaluating the Remote Sensing and Inventory-Based Estimation of Biomass in the Western Carpathians. Remote Sensing 3(7) 1427-1446
Link to Publication View Abstract
Understanding the potential of forest ecosystems as global carbon sinks requires a thorough knowledge of forest carbon dynamics, including both sequestration and fluxes among multiple pools. The accurate quantification of biomass is important to better understand forest productivity and carbon cycling dynamics. Stand-based inventories (SBIs) are widely used for quantifying forest characteristics and for estimating biomass, but information may quickly become outdated in dynamic forest environments. Satellite remote sensing may provide a supplement or substitute. We tested the accuracy of aboveground biomass estimates modeled from a combination of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery and topographic data, as well as SBI-derived variables in a Picea abies forest in the Western Carpathian Mountains. We employed Random Forests for non-parametric, regression tree-based modeling. Results indicated a difference in the importance of SBI-based and remote sensing-based predictors when estimating aboveground biomass. The most accurate models for biomass prediction ranged from a correlation coefficient of 0.52 for the TM- and topography-based model, to 0.98 for the inventory-based model. While Landsat-based biomass estimates were measurably less accurate than those derived from SBI, adding tree height or stand-volume as a field-based predictor to TM and topography-based models increased performance to 0.36 and 0.86, respectively. Our results illustrate the potential of spectral data to reveal spatial details in stand structure and ecological complexity.
Morse-Jones, S.; Luisetti, T.; Turner, R. K.; Fisher, B.. (2011) Ecosystem valuation: some principles and a partial application. Environmetrics; Environmetrics 22(5) 675-685
Link to Publication View Abstract
Understanding the economic value of nature and the services it provides to humanity has become increasingly important for local, national and global policy, and decision-making. However, problems arise in that it is difficult to obtain meaningful values for goods and services that ecosystems provide which have no formal market, or are characteristically intangible. Additional problems occur when economic methods are applied inappropriately and when the importance of ecosystem maintenance for human welfare is underestimated. In this article, we provide clarification to practitioners on important considerations in ecosystem services valuation. We first review and adapt definitions of ecosystem services in order to make an operational link to valuation methods. We make a distinction between intermediate and final ecosystem services and also identify non-monetary ways to incorporate regulatory and support services into decision-making. We then discuss the spatially explicit nature of ecosystem service provision and benefits capture, and highlight the issues surrounding the valuing of marginal changes, nonlinearities in service benefits, and the significance of non-convexities (threshold effects). Finally, we argue for a sequential decision support system that can lead to a more integrated and rigorous approach to ecosystem valuation and illustrate some of its features in a coastal ecosystem management context. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Negra, C.; Wollenberg, E.. (2011) LESSONS FROM REDD+ FOR AGRICULTURE. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security, Copenhagen, Denmark. Pages 113-122;
Pearce, A. R.; Rizzo, D. M.; Mouser, P. J.. (2011) Subsurface characterization of groundwater contaminated by landfill leachate using microbial community profile data and a nonparametric decision-making process. Water Resources Research 47
Link to Publication View Abstract
Microbial biodiversity in groundwater and soil presents a unique opportunity for improving characterization and monitoring at sites with multiple contaminants, yet few computational methods use or incorporate these data because of their high dimensionality and variability. We present a systematic, nonparametric decision-making methodology to help characterize a water quality gradient in leachate-contaminated groundwater using only microbiological data for input. The data-driven methodology is based on clustering a set of molecular genetic-based microbial community profiles. Microbes were sampled from groundwater monitoring wells located within and around an aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate. We modified a self-organizing map (SOM) to weight the input variables by their relative importance and provide statistical guidance for classifying sample similarities. The methodology includes the following steps: (1) preprocessing the microbial data into a smaller number of independent variables using principal component analysis, (2) clustering the resulting principal component (PC) scores using a modified SOM capable of weighting the input PC scores by the percent variance explained by each score, and (3) using a nonparametric statistic to guide selection of appropriate groupings for management purposes. In this landfill leachate application, the weighted SOM assembles the microbial community data from monitoring wells into groupings believed to represent a gradient of site contamination that could aid in characterization and long-term monitoring decisions. Groupings based solely on microbial classifications are consistent with classifications of water quality from hydrochemical information. These microbial community profile data and improved decision-making strategy compliment traditional chemical groundwater analyses for delineating spatial zones of groundwater contamination.
Polasky, S.; Caldarone, G.; Duarte, T. K.; Goldstein, J.; Hannahs, N.; Ricketts, T.; Tallis, H.. (2011) Putting Ecosystem Service Models to Work: Conservation, Management and Tradeoffs. Oxford University Press, New York. Pages 249-263;
Pringle, J. M.; Blakeslee, A. M. H.; Byers, J. E.; Roman, J.. (2011) Asymmetric dispersal allows an upstream region to control population structure throughout a species’ range. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108(37) 15288-15293
Link to Publication View Abstract
In a single well-mixed population, equally abundant neutral alleles are equally likely to persist. However, in spatially complex populations structured by an asymmetric dispersal mechanism, such as a coastal population where larvae are predominantly moved downstream by currents, the eventual frequency of neutral haplotypes will depend on their initial spatial location. In our study of the progression of two spatially separate, genetically distinct introductions of the European green crab (Carcinus maenas) along the coast of eastern North America, we captured this process in action. We documented the shift of the genetic cline in this species over 8 y, and here we detail how the upstream haplotypes are beginning to dominate the system. This quantification of an evolving genetic boundary in a coastal system demonstrates that novel genetic alleles or haplotypes that arise or are introduced into upstream retention zones (regions whose export of larvae is not balanced by import from elsewhere) will increase in frequency in the entire system. This phenomenon should be widespread when there is asymmetrical dispersal, in the oceans or on land, suggesting that the upstream edge of a species’ range can influence genetic diversity throughout its distribution. Efforts to protect the upstream edge of an asymmetrically dispersing species’ range are vital to conserving genetic diversity in the species.
Pucko, Carolyn; Beckage, Brian; Perkins, Timothy; Keeton, William S.. (2011) Species shifts in response to climate change: Individual or shared responses?1,2. The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society; Torrey Botanical Society, New York. 138(2) 156-176
Link to Publication View Abstract
Individual species are expected to shift their distributions in response to global climate change. Species within existing communities may respond to climate change individualistically, resulting in the formation of novel communities, or may instead shift as intact communities. We examined whether montane plant communities in the northeastern United States have shifted their elevational range as intact assemblages or individualistically in response to recent regional climatic and environmental change. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) to examine changes in plant community composition and species distributions using vegetation surveys repeated five times between 1964 and 2006 across an elevational gradient (549–1158 m) on Camels Hump Mountain, Vermont, USA, in conjunction with an analysis of local climate change. We found evidence that species elevational distributions and community compositions have shifted in response to a 0.49 °C per decade warming. These species responses were complex and largely individualistic at some elevations, while at other elevations species in a given community tended to respond similarly. The magnitude of community compositional change was largely dependent on location with respect to the ecotone between northern hardwood and boreal forests. While climate change likely contributed to the large shifts in species within NMDS space, these shifts may also be a response to invasive earthworms at low elevations and to prolonged exposure to acid deposition at high elevations. Though we found evidence of shared species responses within communities, future species responses may become increasingly divergent as the magnitude of climate change increases causing species-specific environmental thresholds to be reached and as the synergistic effects of multiple anthropogenic perturbations rise.
Roman, J.. (2011) Listed : Dispatches from America's Endangered Species Act. Harvard University Press , Cambridge, MA. Pages 360;
Link to Publication View Abstract
The first listed species to make headlines after the Endangered Species Act was passed in 1973 was the snail darter, a three-inch fish that stood in the way of a massive dam on the Little Tennessee River. When the Supreme Court sided with the darter, Congress changed the rules. The dam was built, the river stopped flowing, and the snail darter went extinct on the Little Tennessee, though it survived in other waterways. A young Al Gore voted for the dam; freshman congressman Newt Gingrich voted for the fish. A lot has changed since the 1970s, and Joe Roman helps us understand why we should all be happy that this sweeping law is alive and well today. More than a general history of endangered species protection, Listed is a tale of threatened species in the wild—from the whooping crane and North Atlantic right whale to the purple bankclimber, a freshwater mussel tangled up in a water war with Atlanta—and the people working to save them. Employing methods from the new field of ecological economics, Roman challenges the widely held belief that protecting biodiversity is too costly. And with engaging directness, he explains how preserving biodiversity can help economies and communities thrive. Above all, he shows why the extinction of species matters to us personally—to our health and safety, our prosperity, and our joy in nature.
Roman, J.. (2011) Why Whales? On learning from nature and the Endangered Species Act. Harvard Magazine (May-June 2011) 41-44
Surdi, J.; Schmitt F., A.; Farley, J.; Alvez, J.; Sa Tschumi, H.. (2011) The flow of ecosystem services in family farming of Encosta da Serra Catarinense. Cadernos de Agroecologia 6(2)
Link to Publication View Abstract
Considering the predominance of family farming in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, a more sustainable livestock production has proved crucial. The objective of this study was to understand dairy farmer’s awareness about ecosystem services. Sixty dairy farmers working under the Voisin system were randomly selected through structured interviews. Results revealed that farmers perceived that soils were more structured, moist and covered under Voisin system. In addition, the annual silage production and supplementation decreased due to the improvement of naturalized pasture. Farmers also observed an increase in carrying capacity. After the adoption of the Voisin system, farmers began to deliver water through water-tanks in the paddocks, decreasing animal access to water sources. Thus, it was observed that pasture-based milk production improved the farm environment, causing an apparent increase in the flow of services of this pastoral agroecosystems.
Swetnam, R. D.; Fisher, B.; Mbilinyi, B. P.; Munishi, P. K. T.; Willcock, S.; Ricketts, T.; Mwakalila, S.; Balmford, A.; Burgess, N. D.; Marshall, A. R.; Lewis, S. L.. (2011) Mapping socio-economic scenarios of land cover change: A GIS method to enable ecosystem service modelling. Journal of Environmental Management 92(3) 563-574
Link to Publication View Abstract
We present a GIS method to interpret qualitatively expressed socio-economic scenarios in quantitative map-based terms. (i) We built scenarios using local stakeholders and experts to define how major land cover classes may change under different sets of drivers; (ii) we formalised these as spatially explicit rules, for example agriculture can only occur on certain soil types; (iii) we created a future land cover map which can then be used to model ecosystem services. We illustrate this for carbon storage in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania using two scenarios: the first based on sustainable development, the second based on 'business as usual' with continued forest woodland degradation and poor protection of existing forest reserves. Between 2000 and 2025 4% of carbon stocks were lost under the first scenario compared to a loss of 41% of carbon stocks under the second scenario. Quantifying the impacts of differing future scenarios using the method we document here will be important if payments for ecosystem services are to be used to change policy in order to maintain critical ecosystem services. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Van den Belt, M.; Forgie, V.; Farley, J.. (2011) Valuation of Coastal Ecosystem Services.. Academic Press, Waltham. 12 35-54
Link to Publication View Abstract
Valuation is about tradeoffs between alternative options, regardless of whether these tradeoffs are consciously made or not. Natural capital contributes substantially to societal and individual well-being by sustaining economies, generating life support functions and innumerable amenities, and assimilating waste. Societies that rely on the market system for resource allocation generally underestimate the contribution of natural capital to human welfare. Valuation exercises are about making these contributions more visible and thereby generate a better understanding of the way we assess, negotiate, measure, and use tradeoffs. Short-term, enduring, localized, individual tradeoffs are more easily perceived and estimated, and markets in many cases automatically calculate a monetary value or the market system can be simulated to provide a value. Tradeoffs and, therefore, valuation of more systemic ecosystem services, provided free by natural capital, require capturing long-term, risky and uncertain, global, and co-evolving community-oriented perceptions, and are much more difficult to make explicit. This chapter aims to cover a valuation continuum and first presents the approaches that fall in the realm of neoclassical economics valuation tools by providing examples of valuation from an ecological economics perspective.
Vermeulen, S. J.; Wollenberg, E. K.. (2011) Benefits of tropical crops for food security. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108(9) E31-E30; author reply E31
Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Ken; Johnson, Gary; Voigt, Brian. (2011) Scientific instruments for climate change adaptation: estimating and optimizing the efficiency of ecosystem service provision. Economía Agraria y Recursos Naturales (Agricultural and Resource Economics) 11(1) 83-98
Zia, A.; Hirsch, P.; Songorwa, A.; Mutekanga, D. R.; O'Connor, S.; McShane, T.; Brosius, P.; Norton, B.. (2011) Cross-Scale Value Trade-Offs in Managing Social-Ecological Systems: The Politics of Scale in Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Ecology and Society 16(4)
Link to Publication View Abstract
Management of social-ecological systems takes place amidst complex governance processes and cross-scale institutional arrangements that are mediated through politics of scale. Each management scenario generates distinct cross-scale trade-offs in the distribution of pluralistic values. This study explores the hypothesis that conservation-oriented management scenarios generate higher value for international and national scale social organizations, whereas mixed or more balanced management scenarios generate higher value for local scale social organizations. This hypothesis is explored in the management context of Ruaha National Park (RNP), Tanzania, especially the 2006 expansion of RNP that led to the eviction of many pastoralists and farmers. Five management scenarios for RNP, i.e., national park, game reserve, game control area, multiple use area, and open area, are evaluated in a multicriteria decision analytical framework on six valuation criteria: economic welfare; good governance; socio-cultural values; social equity; ecosystem services; and biodiversity protection; and at three spatial scales: local, national, and international. Based upon this evaluation, we discuss the politics of scale that ensue from the implementation of management alternatives with different mixes of conservation and development goals in social-ecological systems.
Zia, A.; Koliba, C.. (2011) Accountable Climate Governance: Dilemmas of Performance Management across Complex Governance Networks. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis 13(5) 479-497
Link to Publication View Abstract
How can accountability be institutionalized across complex governance networks that are dealing with the transboundary pollution problem of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions at multiple spatial, temporal and social scales? To address this question, we propose an accountability framework that enables comparison of the democratic, market and administrative anchorage of actor accountability within and across governance networks. A comparative analysis of performance measures in a sample of climate governance networks is undertaken. This comparative analysis identifies four critical performance management dilemmas in the areas of strategy, uncertain science, integration of multiple scales, and monitoring and verification of performance measures.
2010
Ahrends, A.; Burgess, N. D.; Milledge, S. A. H.; Bulling, M. T.; Fisher, B.; Smart, J. C. R.; Clarke, G. P.; Mhoro, B. E.; Lewis, S. L.. (2010) Predictable waves of sequential forest degradation and biodiversity loss spreading from an African city. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(33) 14556-14561
Link to Publication View Abstract
Tropical forest degradation emits carbon at a rate of similar to 0.5 Pg.y(-1), reduces biodiversity, and facilitates forest clearance. Understanding degradation drivers and patterns is therefore crucial to managing forests to mitigate climate change and reduce biodiversity loss. Putative patterns of degradation affecting forest stocks, carbon, and biodiversity have variously been described previously, but these have not been quantitatively assessed together or tested systematically. Economic theory predicts a systematic allocation of land to its highest use value in response to distance from centers of demand. We tested this theory to see if forest exploitation would expand through time and space as concentric waves, with each wave targeting lower value products. We used forest data along a transect from 10 to 220 km from Dar es Salaam (DES), Tanzania, collected at two points in time (1991 and 2005). Our predictions were confirmed: high-value logging expanded 9 km.y(-1), and an inner wave of lower value charcoal production 2 km.y(-1). This resource utilization is shown to reduce the public goods of carbon storage and species richness, which significantly increased with each kilometer from DES [carbon, 0.2 Mg.ha(-1); 0.1 species per sample area (0.4 ha)]. Our study suggests that tropical forest degradation can be modeled and predicted, with its attendant loss of some public goods. In sub-Saharan Africa, an area experiencing the highest rate of urban migration worldwide, coupled with a high dependence on forest based resources, predicting the spatiotemporal patterns of degradation can inform policies designed to extract resources without unsustainably reducing carbon storage and biodiversity.
Aronson, J.; Blignaut, J. N.; de Groot, R. S.; Clewell, A.; Lowry, P. P.; Woodworth, P.; Cowling, R. M.; Renison, D.; Farley, J.; Fontaine, C.; Tongway, D.; Levy, S.; Milton, S. J.; Rangel, O.; Debrincat, B.; Birkinshaw, C.. (2010) The road to sustainability must bridge three great divides. Ecological Economics Reviews 1185 225-236
Link to Publication View Abstract
The world's large and rapidly growing human population is exhausting Earth's natural capital at ever-faster rates, and yet appears mostly oblivious to the fact that these resources are limited. This is dangerous for our well-being and perhaps for our survival, as documented by numerous studies over many years. Why are we not moving instead toward sustainable levels of use? We argue here that this disconnection between our knowledge and our actions is largely caused by three "great divides": an ideological divide between economists and ecologists; an economic development divide between the rich and the poor; and an information divide, which obstructs communications between scientists, public opinion, and policy makers. These divides prevent our economies from responding effectively to urgent signals of environmental and ecological stress. The restoration of natural capital (RNC) can be an important strategy in bridging all of these divides. RNC projects and programs make explicit the multiple and mutually reinforcing linkages between environmental and economic well-being, while opening up a promising policy road in the search for a sustainable and desirable future for global society. The bridge-building capacity of RNC derives from its double focus: on the ecological restoration of degraded, overexploited natural ecosystems, and on the full socio-economic and ecological interface between people and their environments.
Bateman, I. J.; Fisher, B.; Fitzherbert, E.; Glew, D.; Naidoo, R.. (2010) Tigers, markets and palm oil: market potential for conservation. Oryx 44(2) 230-234
Link to Publication View Abstract
Increasing demand for cooking oil and biofuels has made palm oil, > 80% of which is grown in South-east Asia, the dominant globally traded vegetable oil However, this region is host to some of the world's most biodiverse and threatened tropical forests Strategic engagement with commercial operations is increasingly recognized to be an essential part of the solution for raising funds for conservation initiatives, raising consumer consciousness and potentially stemming environmental degradation Linking market incentives towards conservation is also of critical importance because it is becoming widely recognized that conservation needs to begin to address the wider countryside (outside protected areas) where human-wildlife interactions are frequent and impacts are large. Using the Sumatran tiger Panthera tigris sumatrae as both a threatened species in its own right and emblematic for wider species diversity, we show that western consumers are willing to pay a significant premium for products using palm oil grown in a manner that reduces impacts on such species. Results suggest that the price premium associated with a 'tiger-friendly' accreditation may provide a useful additional tool to raise conservation funds and, within the right institutional context, serve as an inducement to address the problem of habitat and species loss
Besaw, L. E.; Rizzo, D. M.; Bierman, P. R.; Hackett, W. R.. (2010) Advances in ungauged streamflow prediction using artificial neural networks. Journal of Hydrology 386(1-4) 27-37
Link to Publication View Abstract
In this work, we develop and test two artificial neural networks (ANNs) to forecast streamflow in ungauged basins. The model inputs include time-lagged records of precipitation and temperature. In addition, recurrent feedback loops allow the ANN streamflow estimates to be used as model inputs. Publically available climate and US Geological Survey streamflow records from sub-basins in Northern Vermont are used to train and test the methods. Time-series analysis of the climate-flow data provides a transferable and systematic methodology to determine the appropriate number of time-lagged input data. To predict streamflow in an ungauged basin, the recurrent ANNs are trained on climate-flow data from one basin and used to forecast streamflow in a nearby basin with different (more representative) climate inputs. One of the key results of this work, and the reason why time-lagged predictions of steamflow improve forecasts, is these recurrent flow predictions are being driven by time-lagged locally-measured climate data. The successful demonstration of these flow prediction methods with publicly available USGS flow and NCDC climate datasets shows that the ANNs, trained on a climate-discharge record from one basin, prove capable of predicting streamflow in a nearby basin as accurately as in the basin on which they were trained. This suggests that the proposed methods are widely applicable, at least in the humid, temperate climate zones shown in this work. A scaling ratio, based on a relationship between bankfull discharge and basin drainage area, accounts for the change in drainage area from one basin to another. Hourly streamflow predictions were superior to those using daily data for the small streams tested due the loss of critical lag times through upscaling. The ANNs selected in this work always converge, avoid stochastic training algorithms, and are applicable in small ungauged basins. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Blakeslee, A. M. H.; McKenzie, C. H.; Darling, J. A.; Byers, J. E.; Pringle, J. M.; Roman, J.. (2010) A hitchhiker's guide to the Maritimes: anthropogenic transport facilitates long-distance dispersal of an invasive marine crab to Newfoundland. Diversity and Distributions 16(6) 879-891
Link to Publication View Abstract
Aim To determine timing, source and vector for the recent introduction of the European green crab, Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus, 1758), to Newfoundland using multiple lines of evidence. Location Founding populations in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, Canada and potential source populations in the north-west Atlantic (NWA) and Europe. Methods We analysed mitochondrial and microsatellite genetic data from European and NWA populations sampled during 1999-2002 to determine probable source locations and vectors for the Placentia Bay introduction discovered in 2007. We also analysed Placentia Bay demographic data and shipping records to look for congruent patterns with genetic analyses. Results Demographic data and surveys suggested that C. maenas populations are established and were in Placentia Bay for several years (c. 2002) prior to discovery. Genetic data corroboratively suggested central/western Scotian Shelf populations (e.g., Halifax) as the likely source area for the anthropogenic introduction. These Scotian Shelf populations were within an admixture zone made up of genotypes from both the earlier (early 1800s) and later (late 1900s) introductions of the crab to the NWA from Europe. Placentia Bay also exhibited this mixed ancestry. Probable introduction vectors included vessel traffic and shipping, especially vessels carrying ballast water. Main conclusions Carcinus maenas overcame considerable natural barriers (i.e., coastal and ocean currents) via anthropogenic transport to become established and abundant in Newfoundland. Our study thus demonstrates how non-native populations can be important secondary sources of introduction especially when aided by human transport. Inference of source populations was possible owing to the existence of an admixture zone in central/western Nova Scotia made up of southern and northern genotypes corresponding with the crab's two historical introductions. Coastal vessel traffic was found to be a likely vector for the crab's spread to Newfoundland. Our study demonstrates that there is considerable risk for continued introduction or reintroduction of C. maenas throughout the NWA.
Costanza, R.; Batker, D.; Day, J. W.; Feagin, R. A.; Martinez, M. L.; Roman, J.. (2010) The Perfect Spill: Solutions for Averting the Next Deepwater Horizon. Solutions 1(5) 42-43
Costanza, R.; Farley, J.. (2010) What Should Be Done With the Revenues From a Carbon-Cap-and-Auction System?. Solutions 1(1) 33
Cox, G.; Woods, A.; Holmes, T.; Porter, W.; Erickson, J. D.. (2010) Survey of Public Priorities as a Guide for Future Sustainable Investment Strategies in the Northern Forest. Adirondack Journal of Environmental Studies 16
Curzon, M. T.; Keeton, W. S.. (2010) Spatial characteristics of canopy disturbances in riparian old-growth hemlock - northern hardwood forests, Adirondack Mountains, New York, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 40(1) 13-25
Link to Publication View Abstract
Gap dynamics in temperate, late-successional forests influence important riparian functions, including organic matter recruitment and light environments over streams. However, controls on gap dynamics specific to riparian forests are poorly understood. We hypothesized that (i) gaps are larger and more frequent nearer streams, (ii) gaps cluster at within-stand scales, and (iii) tree damage type and gap fraction vary among riparian landforms. All gaps within four 6-9 ha plots in riparian old-growth eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere) - northern hardwood forest in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, USA, were mapped and measured. We recorded species, damage type, and diameter at breast height for gapmakers and dominant perimeter trees. Spatial distribution was assessed with Ripley's K. Spatial autocorrelation in gap area and tree damage type were assessed using Moran's I. Linear regression analysis defined relationships between proximity to streams and gap area and frequency. Expanded gap fraction ranged from 28.3% to 47.6%. Gaps were randomly distributed at scales 525 m and clustered at scales of 63-122 in. Distribution patterns were not consistent at other scales. Convergent and divergent landforms significantly influenced gap fraction, tree damage type, and species distributions. Positive correlations between convergent topography and gap area suggest ail interaction between low-order riparian landforms and gap formation dynamics in late-successional forests.
De Groot, R.; Fisher, B.; Christie, M.; Aronson, J.; Braat, L.; Haines-Young, R.; Gowdy, J.; Maltby, E.; Neuville, A.; Polasky, S.; Portela, R.; Ring, I.. (2010) Integrating the ecological and economic dimensions in biodiversity and ecosystem service valuation. Earthscan, London. Pages 400;
Echelle, A. A.; Hackler, J. C.; Lack, J. B.; Ballard, S. R.; Roman, J.; Fox, S. F.; Leslie, D. M., Jr.; Van Den Bussche, R. A.. (2010) Conservation genetics of the alligator snapping turtle: cytonuclear evidence of range-wide bottleneck effects and unusually pronounced geographic structure. Conservation Genetics 11(4) 1375-1387
Link to Publication View Abstract
A previous mtDNA study indicated that female-mediated gene flow was extremely rare among alligator snapping turtle populations in different drainages of the Gulf of Mexico. In this study, we used variation at seven microsatellite DNA loci to assess the possibility of male-mediated gene flow, we augmented the mtDNA survey with additional sampling of the large Mississippi River System, and we evaluated the hypothesis that the consistently low within-population mtDNA diversity reflects past population bottlenecks. The results show that dispersal between drainages of the Gulf of Mexico is rare (F (STmsat) = 0.43, I broken vertical bar(STmtDNA) = 0.98). Past range-wide bottlenecks are indicated by several genetic signals, including low diversity for microsatellites (1.1-3.9 alleles/locus; H (e) = 0.06-0.53) and mtDNA (h = 0.00 for most drainages; pi = 0.000-0.001). Microsatellite data reinforce the conclusion from mtDNA that the Suwannee River population might eventually be recognized as a distinct taxonomic unit. It was the only population showing fixation or near fixation for otherwise rare microsatellite alleles. Six evolutionarily significant units are recommended on the basis of reciprocal mtDNA monophyly and high levels of microsatellite DNA divergence.
Edwards, D. P.; Fisher, B.; Boyd, E.. (2010) Protecting degraded rainforests: enhancement of forest carbon stocks under REDD. Conservation Letters 3(5) 313-316
Link to Publication View Abstract
The likely Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) mechanism includes strategies for the enhancement of forest carbon stocks. Recent concerns have been expressed that such enhancement, or restoration, of forest carbon could be counterproductive to biodiversity conservation, because forests are managed as "carbon farms" with the application of intensive silvicultural management that could homogenize diverse degraded rainforests. Restoration increases regeneration rates in degraded forest compared to naturally regenerating forest, and thus could yield significant financial returns for carbon sequestered. Here, we argue that such forest restoration projects are, in fact, likely to provide a number of benefits to biodiversity conservation including the retention of biodiversity, the prevention of forest conversion to agriculture, and employment opportunities for poor local communities. As with other forms of forest-based carbon offsets, there are possible moral hazard and leakage problems with restoration. However, due to the multiple benefits, we urge that enhancement of forest carbon stocks be detailed as a major component in the future negotiations of REDD+.
Farley, J.; Aquino, A.; Daniels, A.; Moulaert, A.; Lee, D.; Krause, A.. (2010) Global mechanisms for sustaining and enhancing PES schemes. Ecological Economics 69(11) 2075-2084
Link to Publication View Abstract
An international payment for ecosystem service (IPES) schemes may be one of the only mechanisms available to stimulate the provision of vital non-marketed ecosystem services at the global level, as those nations that benefit from global ecosystem services (GES) cannot readily force other sovereign nations to provide them. Currently, international trade offers trillions of dollars in incentives for countries to convert natural capital into marketable goods and services, and few payments to entice countries to conserve natural capital in order to sustain critical non-marketed ecosystem services. We examine the biophysical characteristics of climate change and biodiversity to understand the obstacles to developing effective IPES schemes. We find that none of the existing schemes for providing GES are adequate, given the scale of the problem. A cap and auction scheme for CO(2) emissions among wealthy nations could fund IPES and simultaneously deter carbon emissions. To disburse funds, we should adapt Brazil's ICMS ecologic, and apportion available funds to targeted countries in proportion to how well they meet specific criteria designed to measure the provision of GES. Individual countries can then develop their own policies for increasing provision of these services, ensured of compensation if they do so. Indirect IPES should include funding for freely available technologies that protect or provide GES, such as the low carbon energy alternatives that will be essential for curbing climate change. Markets rely on the price mechanism to generate profits, which rations technology to those who can afford it, reducing adoption rates, innovation and total value. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Farley, J.; Batker, D.; de la Torre, I.; Hudspeth, T.. (2010) Conserving Mangrove Ecosystems in the Philippines: Transcending Disciplinary and Institutional Borders. Environmental Management 45(1) 39-51
Link to Publication View Abstract
Humans are rapidly depleting critical ecosystems and the life support functions they provide, increasing the urgency of developing effective conservation tools. Using a case study of the conversion of mangrove ecosystems to shrimp aquaculture, this article describes an effort to develop a transdisciplinary, transinstitutional approach to conservation that simultaneously trains future generations of environmental problem solvers. We worked in close collaboration with academics, non-government organizations, local government and local communities to organize a workshop in Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Philippines. The primary objectives of the workshop were to: (1) train participants in the basic principles of ecological economics and its goals of sustainable scale, just distribution and efficient allocation; (2) learn from local community stakeholders and participating scientists about the problems surrounding conversion of mangrove ecosystems to shrimp aquaculture; (3) draw on the skills and knowledge of all participants to develop potential solutions to the problem; and (4) communicate results to those with the power and authority to act on them. We found that the economic and ecological benefits of intact mangroves outweigh the returns to aquaculture. Perversely, however, private property rights to mangrove ecosystems favor inefficient, unjust and unsustainable allocation of the resource-a tragedy of the non-commons. We presented the workshop results to the press and local government, which shut down the aquaculture ponds to conserve the threatened ecosystem. Effective communication to appropriate audiences was essential for transforming research into action. Our approach is promising and can be readily applied to conservation research and advocacy projects worldwide, but should be improved through adaptive management-practitioners must continually build on those elements that work and discard or improve those that fail.
Farley, J.; Batker, D.; de la Torre, I.; Hudspeth, T.. (2010) Conserving Mangrove Ecosystems in the Philippines: Transcending Disciplinary and Institutional Borders. Environmental Management 45(1) 39-51
Link to Publication View Abstract
Humans are rapidly depleting critical ecosystems and the life support functions they provide, increasing the urgency of developing effective conservation tools. Using a case study of the conversion of mangrove ecosystems to shrimp aquaculture, this article describes an effort to develop a transdisciplinary, transinstitutional approach to conservation that simultaneously trains future generations of environmental problem solvers. We worked in close collaboration with academics, non-government organizations, local government and local communities to organize a workshop in Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Philippines. The primary objectives of the workshop were to: (1) train participants in the basic principles of ecological economics and its goals of sustainable scale, just distribution and efficient allocation; (2) learn from local community stakeholders and participating scientists about the problems surrounding conversion of mangrove ecosystems to shrimp aquaculture; (3) draw on the skills and knowledge of all participants to develop potential solutions to the problem; and (4) communicate results to those with the power and authority to act on them. We found that the economic and ecological benefits of intact mangroves outweigh the returns to aquaculture. Perversely, however, private property rights to mangrove ecosystems favor inefficient, unjust and unsustainable allocation of the resource-a tragedy of the non-commons. We presented the workshop results to the press and local government, which shut down the aquaculture ponds to conserve the threatened ecosystem. Effective communication to appropriate audiences was essential for transforming research into action. Our approach is promising and can be readily applied to conservation research and advocacy projects worldwide, but should be improved through adaptive management-practitioners must continually build on those elements that work and discard or improve those that fail.
Farley, J.; Costanza, R.. (2010) Payments for ecosystem services: From local to global. Ecological Economics 69(11) 2060-2068
Link to Publication View Abstract
Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) is becoming increasingly popular as a way to manage ecosystems using economic incentives. The environmental economics approach to PES tries to force ecosystem services into the market model, with an emphasis on efficiency. The ecological economics approach, in contrast, seeks to adapt economic institutions to the physical characteristics of ecosystem services prioritizing ecological sustainability and just distribution and requiring a transdisciplinary approach. This paper summarizes the results of a participatory "atelier" workshop held in Costa Rica. We developed a set of principles (the Heredia Declaration) for PES systems and report on evolving initiatives in several countries. We discuss how the distinction between ecosystem goods (which are stock-flow resources) and ecosystem services (which are fund-service resources) and the physical characteristics of the fund-services affect the appropriate institutional form for PES. We conclude that PES systems represent an important way to effectively manage fund-service resources as public goods, and that this represents a significant departure from conventional market institutions. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Farley, J.. (2010) Conservation Through the Economics Lens. Environmental Management 45(1) 26-38
Link to Publication View Abstract
Although conservation is an inherently transdisciplinary issue, there is much to be gained from examining the problem through an economics lens. Three benefits of such an approach are laid out in this paper. First, many of the drivers of environmental degradation are economic in origin, and the better we understand them, the better we can conserve ecosystems by reducing degradation. Second, economics offers us a when-to-stop rule, which is equivalent to a when-to-conserve rule. All economic production is based on the transformation of raw materials provided by nature. As the economic system grows in physical size, it necessarily displaces and degrades ecosystems. The marginal benefits of economic growth are diminishing, and the marginal costs of ecological degradation are increasing. Conceptually, we should stop economic growth and focus on conservation when the two are equal. Third, economics can help us understand how to efficiently and justly allocate resources toward conservation, and this paper lays out some basic principles for doing so. Unfortunately, the field of economics is dominated by neoclassical economics, which builds an analytical framework based on questionable assumptions and takes an excessively disciplinary and formalistic approach. Conservation is a complex problem, and analysis from individual disciplinary lenses can make important contributions to conservation only when the resulting insights are synthesized into a coherent vision of the whole. Fortunately, there are a number of emerging transdisciplines, such as ecological economics and environmental management, that are dedicated to this task.
Fisher, B.; Bateman, I. J.; Turner, K.. (2010) Valuing Ecosystem Services: benefits, values, space and time.. Routledge, London, U. K.. Pages 256;
Fisher, B.; Kulindwa, K.; Mwanyoka, I.; Turner, R. K.; Burgess, N. D.. (2010) Common pool resource management and PES: Lessons and constraints for water PES in Tanzania. Ecological Economics 69(6) 1253-1261
Link to Publication View Abstract
Research into common pool resources from the field and in the laboratory has provided a series of insights for the successful management of such resources. The consequences of action and inaction in managing common pool resources are often most strongly felt (gains or losses) by local people. Several ecosystem services can be considered CPRs but in some cases the benefits of (mis)management are enjoyed by one group while the costs are levied on another group. Here we discuss some of the key findings of the CPR literature and how these relate to key considerations for using PES as a management tool. We focus on the role that ecosystems play in regulating water flows in two basins in Tanzania where feasibility studies have been conducted for the potential implementation of PES for water. We find that the lessons from CPR research shed light on some of the key implementation problems for PES mechanisms, and provide a useful guide for highlighting important user-resource considerations especially in contexts similar to East Africa, (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Fisher, B.. (2010) African exception to drivers of deforestation. Nature Geoscience 3 375-376
Fisher, B.. (2010) Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein: Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness. Environmental & Resource Economics 47(1) 149-150
Foster, B.; Wang, D.; Keeton, W.S.; Ashton, M.S.. (2010) Implementing sustainable forestry using six management concepts in an adaptive management framework.. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 29 79-108
Link to Publication View Abstract
Certification and principles, criteria and indicators (PCI) describe desired ends for sustainable forest management (SFM) but do not address potential means to achieve those ends. As a result, forest owners and managers participating in certification and employing PCI as tools to achieving SFM may be doing so inefficiently: achieving results by trial-and-error rather than by targeted management practices; dispersing resources away from priority objectives; and passively monitoring outcomes rather than actively establishing quantitative goals. In this literature review, we propose six concepts to guide SFM implementation. These concepts include: Best Management Practices (BMPs)/Reduced Impact Logging (RIL), biodiversity conservation, forest protection, multi-scale planning, participatory forestry, and sustained forest production. We place these concepts within an iterative decision-making framework of planning, implementation, and assessment, and provide brief definitions of and practices delimited by each concept. A case study describing SFM in the neo-tropics illustrates a potential application of our six concepts. Overall our paper offers an approach that will help forest owners and managers implement the ambiguous SFM concept.
Galford, G. L.; Melillo, J. M.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Cronin, T. W.; Cerri, C. E. P.; Mustard, J. F.; Cerri, C. C.. (2010) Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(46) 19649-19654
Link to Publication View Abstract
The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006-2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO2-equivalents (CO2-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24-49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2-0.4 Pg CO2-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier, suggesting that both should be considered in emissions policies. We find that avoided deforestation remains the best strategy for minimizing future greenhouse gas emissions from Mato Grosso.
Galford, G. L.; Melillo, J.; Mustard, J. F.; Cerri, C. E. P.; Cerri, C. C.. (2010) The Amazon Frontier of Land-Use Change: Croplands and Consequences for Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Earth Interactions 14
Link to Publication View Abstract
The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural frontiers in the world. The authors assess changes in cropland area and the intensification of cropping in the Brazilian agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso using remote sensing and develop a greenhouse gas emissions budget. The most common type of intensification in this region is a shift from single-to double-cropping patterns and associated changes in management, including increased fertilization. Using the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, the authors created a green-leaf phenology for 2001-06 that was temporally smoothed with a wavelet filter. The wavelet-smoothed green-leaf phenology was analyzed to detect cropland areas and their cropping patterns. The authors document cropland extensification and double-cropping intensification validated with field data with 85% accuracy for detecting croplands and 64% and 89% accuracy for detecting single-and double-cropping patterns, respectively. The results show that croplands more than doubled from 2001 to 2006 to cover about 100 000 km(2) and that new double-cropping intensification occurred on over 20% of croplands. Variations are seen in the annual rates of extensification and double-cropping intensification. Greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for the period 2001-06 due to conversion of natural vegetation and pastures to row-crop agriculture in Mato Grosso averaged 179 Tg CO(2)-e yr(-1),over half the typical fossil fuel emissions for the country in recent years.
Keeton, W. S.; Chernyavskyy, M.; Gratzer, G.; Main-Knorn, M.; Shpylchak, M.; Bihun, Y.. (2010) Structural characteristics and aboveground biomass of old-growth spruce-fir stands in the eastern Carpathian mountains, Ukraine. Plant Biosystems 144(1) 148-159
Link to Publication View Abstract
Temperate old-growth forests are known to have ecological characteristics distinct from younger forests, but these have been poorly described for the remaining old-growth Picea abies-Abies alba forests in the eastern Carpathian mountains. In addition, recent studies suggest that old-growth forests may be more significant carbon sinks than previously recognized. This has stimulated interest in quantifying aboveground carbon stocks in primary forest systems. We investigated the structural attributes and aboveground biomass in two remnant old-growth spruce-fir stands and compared these against a primary (never logged) mature reference stand. Our sites were located in the Gorgany Nature Reserve in western Ukraine. Overstory data were collected using variable radius plots; coarse woody debris was sampled along line intercept transects. Differences among sites were assessed using non-parametric statistical analyses. Goodness-of-fit tests were used to evaluate the form of diameter distributions. The results strongly supported the hypothesis that old-growth temperate spruce-fir forests have greater structural complexity compared to mature forests, including higher densities of large trees, more complex horizontal structure, and elevated aboveground biomass. The late-successional sites we sampled exhibited rotated sigmoid diameter distributions; these may reflect natural disturbance dynamics. Old-growth Carpathian spruce-fir forests store on average approximately 155-165 Mg ha-1 of carbon in aboveground tree parts alone. This is approximately 50% higher than mature stands. Given the scarcity of primary spruce-fir forests in the Carpathian region, remaining stands have high conservation value, both as habitat for late-successional species and as carbon storage reservoirs.
Kemkes, R. J.; Farley, J.; Koliba, C. J.. (2010) Determining when payments are an effective policy approach to ecosystem service provision. Ecological Economics 69(11) 2069-2074
Link to Publication View Abstract
There are several policy tools available for the provision of ecosystem services. The economic characteristics of the ecosystem service being provided, such as rivalry and excludability, along with the spatial scale at which benefits accrue can help determine the appropriate policy approach. In this paper we provide a brief introduction to ecosystem services and discuss the policy tools available for providing them along with the dimensions, political feasibility and appropriateness of each tool. Throughout the paper we focus primarily on payments as a mechanism for ecosystem service provision. We present a framework for determining the characteristics of an ecosystem service and when payments are a viable policy tool option based on the characteristics. Additionally, we provide examples of when payments do not provide a socially desirable level of ecosystem benefits. We conclude with a summary of policy recommendations, specifically desirable property rights and payment types based on the particular classification of an ecosystem service. We also discuss the advantages of creating monopsony power to reduce transaction costs, delineating and bundling ecosystem services and utilizing existing intermediaries. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Koliba, C.; Meek, J.; Zia, A.. (2010) Governance Networks in Public Administration and Public Policy.. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
Link to Publication View Abstract
What do public administrators and policy analysts have in common? Their work is undertaken within networks formed when different organizations align to accomplish some kind of policy function. To be effective, they must find ways to navigate complexity and generate effective results. Governance Networks in Public Administration and Public Policy describes a variety of trends and movements that have contributed to the complexity of these systems and the challenges that must be faced as a result. Providing a theoretical and empirical foundation in governance networks, the book offers a conceptual framework for describing governance networks and provides a holistic way to conceive their construction. The text details the skills and functions of public administrators in the context of networked relationships and presents the theoretical foundations to analyze governance networks. It identifies the reforms and trends in governing that led to governance networks, explains the roles that various actors take on through networked relationships, highlights the challenges involved in the failure of networked activities, and illustrates how policy tools are mobilized by these relationships. Be a part of building governance networks 2.0! The authors website contains support materials such as PowerPoint presentations, writable case study templates, and other useful items related to building the fields capacity to describe, evaluate, and design governance networks using the framework of this book. You can post case studies of governance networks, draw on others case study materials, and learn about research and educational opportunities. Based on research and real-life experience, the book highlights the interplay between public actors and policy tools. The authors demystify this complex topic of governance networks and explore the practical applications of the conceptual framework. Practical and accessible, the book presents concepts in such a way that readers can engage in these ideas, apply them, and deepen their understanding of the dynamics unfolding around them.
Kubiszewski, I.; Farley, J.; Costanza, R.. (2010) The production and allocation of information as a good that is enhanced with increased use. Ecological Economics 69(6) 1344-1354
Link to Publication View Abstract
Information has some unique characteristics. Unlike most other goods and services, it is neither rival (use by one prevents use by others) nor non-rival (use by one does not affect use by others), but is enhanced with increased use, or 'additive'. Therefore a unique allocation system for both the production and consumption of information is needed. Under the current market-based allocation system, production of information is often limited through the exclusive rights produced by patents and copyrights. This limits scientists' ability to share and build on each other's knowledge. We break the problem down into three separate questions: (1) do markets generate the type of information most important for modern society? (2) are markets the most appropriate institution for producing that information? and (3) once information is produced, are markets the most effective way of maximizing the social value of that information? We conclude that systematic market failures make it unlikely that markets will generate the most important types of information, while the unique characteristics of information reduce the cost-effectiveness of markets in generating information and in maximizing its social value. We then discuss alternative methods that do not have these shortcomings, and that would lead to greater overall economic efficiency, social justice and ecological sustainability. These methods include monetary prizes, publicly funded research from which the produced information is released into the public domain, and status driven incentive structures like those in academia and the "open-source" community. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, M. S.; Drizo, A.; Rizzo, D. M.; Druschel, G. K.; Hayden, N.; Twohig, E.. (2010) Evaluating the efficiency and temporal variation of pilot-scale constructed wetlands and steel slag phosphorus removing filters for treating dairy wastewater. Water Research 44(14) 4077-4086
Link to Publication View Abstract
The performance and temporal variation of three hybrid and three integrated, saturated flow, pilot-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) were tested for treating dairy farm effluent. The three hybrid systems each consisted of two CWs in-series, with horizontal and vertical flow. Integrated systems consisted of a CW (horizontal and vertical flow) followed by a steel slag filter for removing phosphorus. Time series temporal semivariogram analyses of measured water parameters illustrated different treatment efficiencies existed over the course of one season. As a result, data were then divided into separate time period groups and CW systems were compared using ANOVA for parameter measurements within each distinct time period group. Both hybrid and integrated CWs were efficient in removing organics; however, hybrid systems had significantly higher performance ( p < 0.05) during peak vegetation growth. Compared to hybrid CWs, integrated CWs achieved significantly higher DRP reduction ( p < 0.05) throughout the period of investigation and higher ammonia reduction ( p < 0.05) in integrated CWs was observed in late summer. Geochemical modeling demonstrates hydroxyapatite and vivianite minerals forming on steel slag likely control the fate of phosphate ions given the reducing conditions prevalent in the system. The model also demonstrates how the wastewater:slag ratio can be adjusted to maximize phosphorus removal while staying at a near-neutral pH. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lovell, S. T.; DeSantis, S.; Nathan, C. A.; Olson, M. B.; Mendez, V. E.; Kominami, H. C.; Erickson, D. L.; Morris, K. S.; Morris, W. B.. (2010) Integrating agroecology and landscape multifunctionality in Vermont: An evolving framework to evaluate the design of agroecosystems. Agricultural Systems 103(5) 327-341
Link to Publication View Abstract
Agroecosystems cover vast areas of land worldwide and are known to have a large impact on the environment, yet these highly modified landscapes are rarely considered as candidates for landscape design. While intentionally-designed agricultural landscapes could serve many different functions, few resources exist for evaluating the design of these complex landscapes, particularly at the scale of the whole-farm. The objective of this paper is to introduce an evolving framework for evaluating the design of agroecosystems based on a critical review of the literature on landscape rnultifunctionality and agroecology. We consider how agroecosystems might be designed to incorporate additional functions while adhering to agroecology principles for managing the landscape. The framework includes an assessment tool for evaluating farm design based on the extent of fine-scale land use features and their specific functions, to consider the present state of the farm, to plan for future conditions, or to compare alternative futures for the design of the farm. We apply this framework to two farms in Vermont that are recognized locally as successful, multifunctional landscapes. The Intervale Center, an agricultural landscape located within the city limits, serves as an incubator for new farm startups and provides unique cultural functions that benefit the local community. Butterworks Farm, a private operation producing organic yogurt and other food products, achieves important ecological functions through an integrated crop-livestock system. These farms and many others in Vermont serve as models of a framework that integrates landscape multifunctionality and agroecology in the design of the landscape. In the discussion section, we draw from the literature and our work to propose a set of important themes that might be considered for future research. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lovell, S. T.; Mendez, V. E.; Erickson, D. L.; Nathan, C.; DeSantis, S.. (2010) Extent, pattern, and multifunctionality of treed habitats on farms in Vermont, USA. Agroforestry Systems 80(2) 153-171
Link to Publication View Abstract
Agroecosystems can serve as multifunctional landscapes when treed habitats such as woodlots, hedgerows, riparian buffers, windbreaks, and orchards, are conserved on farms. We investigated the extent, pattern, and multifunctionality of on-farm treed habitats for 16 Vermont farms in the Lamoille watershed of the Lake Champlain Basin. The site was selected because the land use pattern is representative of the region, containing a mixture of agriculture and forest in different habitat types. We used a GIS-based approach to delineate treed habitats on farms and conducted semi-structured interviews with farmers to explore their perception of the functions of treed habitats. Through an evaluation of the relationship between farm characteristics and spatial attributes of treed habitats, we found farm size to be an important variable. Larger farms had more land in treed habitats, while the pattern of these habitats was more complex on smaller farms. Average elevation of the farm, an indicator of biophysical conditions, was a stronger predictor of the extent of treed habitats than farm characteristics. From interviews, we found that farmers benefited from alternative forest products, both for direct consumption and sale, including firewood, timber, maple sugar, edible fruits and nuts, and wood crafts. Most farmers also recognized cultural and ecological functions provided by treed habitats. These results have implications for developing policies to promote the conservation of treed habitats, considering the preferences of the landowner or farmer.
McBride, M.; Hession, W. C.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2010) Riparian reforestation and channel change: How long does it take?. Geomorphology 116(3-4) 330-340
Link to Publication View Abstract
Repeated measurements of two small streams in northeastern Vermont document change in channel width and suggest variable rates of widening because of passive reforestation over four decades. Historic data on channel width are available for several tributaries to Sleepers River in Danville, VT, USA from the 1960s. In 2004 and 2008, we re-measured channel dimensions in two of these tributaries, in two reaches of upper Pope Brook and along seven reaches of an unnamed tributary (W12). Four reaches had reforested since 1966; two reaches remained nonforested. The other three reaches have been forested since at least the 1940s. Comparisons between 1966 and 2004 showed that reforested reaches widened significantly, and comparisons between 2004 and 2008 showed continued widening, but at a greater rate. Between 1966 and 2004, reforested reaches widened at an average rate of 4.1 cm/year, while the rate more than doubled for the last four years (8.7 cm/year). Additionally, turbulence data collected during five peak flows in the spring of 2005 showed significantly greater turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the reforested reach than in either the forested or nonforested reach. Our data add supporting information to the conceptual model of stream W12 that describes a process of incision, widening, and recovery of a stream reach transitioning from nonforested to forested riparian vegetation. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mendez, V. E.; Bacon, C. M.; Olson, M. B.; Morris, K. S.; Shattuck, A.. (2010) Agrobiodiversity and Shade Coffee Smallholder Livelihoods: A Review and Synthesis of Ten Years of Research in Central America. Professional Geographer 62(3) 357-376
Link to Publication View Abstract
We used households as the primary unit of analysis to synthesize agrobiodiversity research in small-scale coffee farms and cooperatives of Nicaragua and El Salvador. Surveys, focus groups, and plant inventories were used to analyze agrobiodiversity and its contribution to livelihoods. Households managed high levels of agrobiodiversity, including 100 shade tree and epiphyte species, food crops, and medicinals. Small farms contained higher levels of agrobiodiversity than larger, collectively managed cooperatives. Households benefited from agrobiodiversity through consumption and sales. To better support agrobiodiversity conservation, our analysis calls for a hybrid approach integrating bottom-up initiatives with the resources from top-down projects.
Mendez, V. E.; Bacon, C. M.; Olson, M. B.; Petchers, S.; Herrador, D.; Carranza, C.; Trujillo, L.; Guadarrama-Zugasti, C.; Cordon, A.; Mendoza, A.. (2010) Effects of Fair Trade and organic certifications on small-scale coffee farmer households in Central America and Mexico. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 25(3) 236-251
Link to Publication View Abstract
We provide a review of sustainable coffee certifications and results from a quantitative analysis of the effects of Fair Trade, organic and combined Fair Trade/organic certifications on the livelihood strategies of 469 households and 18 cooperatives of Central America and Mexico. Certified households were also compared with a non-certified group in each country. To analyze the differences in coffee price, volume, gross revenue and education between certifications, we used the Kruskal-Wallis ( K-W) non-parametric test and the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test as a post-hoc procedure. Household savings, credit, food security and incidence of migration were analyzed through Pearson's chi-square test. Our study corroborated the conditions of economic poverty among small-scale coffee farmer households in Central America and Mexico. All certifications provided a higher price per pound and higher gross coffee revenue than non-certified coffee. However, the average volumes of coffee sold by individual households were low, and many certified farmers did not sell their entire production at certified prices. Certifications did not have a discernable effect on other livelihood-related variables, such as education, and incidence of migration at the household level, although they had a positive influence on savings and credit. Sales to certified markets offer farmers and cooperatives better prices, but the contribution derived from these premiums has limited effects on household livelihoods. This demonstrates that certifications will not single-handedly bring significant poverty alleviation to most coffee-farming families. Although certified coffee markets alone will not resolve the livelihood challenges faced by smallholder households, they could still contribute to broad-based sustainable livelihoods, rural development and conservation processes in coffee regions. This can be done by developing more active partnerships between farmers, cooperatives, certifications and environmental and rural development organizations and researchers in coffee regions. Certifications, especially Fair Trade/organic, have proven effective in supporting capacity building and in serving as networks that leverage global development funding for small-scale coffee-producing households.
Mouser, P. J.; Rizzo, D. M.; Druschel, G. K.; Morales, S. E.; Hayden, N.; O'Grady, P.; Stevens, L.. (2010) Enhanced detection of groundwater contamination from a leaking waste disposal site by microbial community profiles. Water Resources Research 46
Link to Publication View Abstract
Groundwater biogeochemistry is adversely impacted when municipal solid waste leachate, rich in nutrients and anthropogenic compounds, percolates into the subsurface from leaking landfills. Detecting leachate contamination using statistical techniques is challenging because well strategies or analytical techniques may be insufficient for detecting low levels of groundwater contamination. We sampled profiles of the microbial community from monitoring wells surrounding a leaking landfill using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Results show in situ monitoring of bacteria, archaea, and the family Geobacteraceae improves characterization of groundwater quality. Bacterial T-RFLP profiles showed shifts correlated to known gradients of leachate and effectively detected changes along plume fringes that were not detected using hydrochemical data. Experimental sediment microcosms exposed to leachate-contaminated groundwater revealed a shift from a beta-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria dominated community to one dominated by Firmicutes and delta-Proteobacteria. This shift is consistent with the transition from oxic conditions to an anoxic, iron-reducing environment as a result of landfill leachate-derived contaminants and associated redox conditions. We suggest microbial communities are more sensitive than hydrochemistry data for characterizing low levels of groundwater contamination and thus provide a novel source of information for optimizing detection and long-term monitoring strategies at landfill sites.
Mulder, K.; Hagens, N.; Fisher, B.. (2010) Burning Water: A Comparative Analysis of the Energy Return on Water Invested. Ambio 39(1) 30-39
Link to Publication View Abstract
While various energy-producing technologies have been analyzed to assess the amount of energy returned per unit of energy invested, this type of comprehensive and comparative approach has rarely been applied to other potentially limiting inputs such as water, land, and time. We assess the connection between water and energy production and conduct a comparative analysis for estimating the energy return on water invested (EROWI) for several renewable and non-renewable energy technologies using various Life Cycle Analyses. Our results suggest that the most water-efficient, fossil-based technologies have an EROWI one to two orders of magnitude greater than the most water-efficient biomass technologies, implying that the development of biomass energy technologies in scale sufficient to be a significant source of energy may produce or exacerbate water shortages around the globe and be limited by the availability of fresh water.
Nunery, J. S.; Keeton, W. S.. (2010) Forest carbon storage in the northeastern United States: Net effects of harvesting frequency, post-harvest retention, and wood products. Forest Ecology and Management 259(8) 1363-1375
Link to Publication View Abstract
Temperate forests are an important carbon sink, yet there is debate regarding the net effect of forest management practices on carbon storage. Few studies have investigated the effects of different silvicultural systems on forest carbon stocks, and the relative strength of in situ forest carbon versus wood products pools remains in question. Our research describes (1) the impact of harvesting frequency and proportion of post-harvest structural retention on carbon storage in northern hardwood-conifer forests, and (2) tests the significance of including harvested wood products in carbon accounting at the stand scale. We stratified Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots to control for environmental, forest structural and compositional variables, resulting in 32 FIA plots distributed throughout the northeastern U.S. We used the USDA Forest Service's Forest Vegetation Simulator to project stand development over a 160 year period under nine different forest management scenarios. Simulated treatments represented a gradient of increasing structural retention and decreasing harvesting frequencies, including a "no harvest" scenario. The simulations incorporated carbon flux between aboveground forest biomass (dead and live pools) and harvested wood products. Mean carbon storage over the simulation period was calculated for each silvicultural scenario. We investigated tradeoffs among scenarios using a factorial treatment design and two-way ANOVA. Mean carbon sequestration was significantly (alpha = 0.05) greater for "no management" compared to any of the active management scenarios. Of the harvest treatments, those favoring high levels of structural retention and decreased harvesting frequency stored the greatest amounts of carbon. Classification and regression tree analysis showed that management scenario was the strongest predictor of total carbon storage, though site-specific variables were important secondary predictors. In order to isolate the effect of in situ forest carbon storage and harvested wood products, we did not include the emissions benefits associated with substituting wood fiber for other construction materials or energy sources. Modeling results from this study show that harvesting frequency and structural retention significantly affect mean carbon storage. Our results illustrate the importance of both post-harvest forest structure and harvesting frequency in carbon storage, and are valuable to land owners interested in managing forests for carbon sequestration. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pearce, Andrea R; Bierman, Paul R; Druschel, Gregory K; Massey, Christine; Rizzo, Donna M; Watzin, Mary C; Wemple, Beverly C. (2010) Pitfalls and successes of developing an interdisciplinary watershed field science course. Journal of Geoscience Education 58(3) 145-154
Link to Publication View Abstract
At the University of Vermont, an interdisciplinary faculty team developed an introductory watershed science field course. This course honed field skills and catalyzed communication across water-related disciplines without requiring specific prerequisites. Five faculty (geology, engineering, geography, natural resources) taught the four-credit course, highlighting interactions between the hydrosphere, biosphere, and solid Earth. The course, based in the Winooski River watershed, followed the river from its headwaters downstream to its outlet in Lake Champlain focusing on data collection and analysis methods, while exploring threats to this freshwater ecosystem. This course was offered as a summer field course in 2007. Student learning was assessed using weekly summative assignments and final presentations incorporating field data and acquired knowledge. Attitude and knowledge surveys, administered before and after this first year, documented increased self-assessed learning, affinity for the field learning environment, and that the course provided training relevant to various disciplines. The fiscally unsustainable summer model, and course evaluations guided major revisions to the course. The second offering, in 2009, met weekly during spring term to provide students with context before a two-week field component. This field component was held immediately after classes ended to avoid the need to pay faculty summer salaries.
Reynolds, T. W.; Farley, J.; Huber, C.. (2010) Investing in human and natural capital: An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia. Ecological Economics 69(11) 2140-2150
Link to Publication View Abstract
Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa. Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ricketts, T. H.; Soares-Filho, B.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Nepstad, D.; Pfaff, A.; Petsonk, A.; Anderson, A.; Boucher, D.; Cattaneo, A.; Conte, M.; Creighton, K.; Linden, L.; Maretti, C.; Moutinho, P.; Ullman, R.; Victurine, R.. (2010) Indigenous lands, protected areas, and slowing climate change. Plos Biology 8(3) e1000331-e1000331
Link to Publication View Abstract
Recent climate talks in Copenhagen reaffirmed the crucial role of reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD). Creating and strengthening indigenous lands and other protected areas represents an effective, practical, and immediate REDD strategy that addresses both biodiversity and climate crises at once.
Roman, J.; Ehrlich, P. E.; Pringle, R.; Avise, J. A.. (2010) Facing extinction: Nine steps to save biodiversity. Solutions 1(1) 32-45
Link to Publication View Abstract
Human history has followed a pattern—which began in Africa but is now global in scope—of exploiting nature and depleting resources. As we have expanded our influence over the world, we have also extinguished species and populations at an alarming rate. Despite attempts to reduce biodiversity loss, the trend is likely to continue: nearly 20% of all humans—more than a billion—now live within biodiversity hotspots, and their growth rate is faster than the population at large. This article presents nine steps to reduce biodiversity loss, with a goal of categorizing human-caused extinctions as wrongs, such as the slave trade and child labor, that are unacceptable to society. These steps include developing a system of parks that highlight the planet’s biological legacy, much as historical landmarks celebrate human history. Legal prohibitions that are fairly and capably enforced will also be essential in protecting rare and declining species. Biodiversity endowments—from national governments, nongovernmental organizations, and private enterprises—can help support parks and native species in perpetuity. Like a good sports team, conservationists need to defend extant wilderness areas, but they also need to play offense by restoring ecosystems, reclaiming keystone and umbrella species, and making human landscapes more hospitable to biodiversity. In the long run, the most effective forms of conservation will be those that engage local stakeholders; the cultivation of sustainable ecosystems and their services must be promoted along with conservation of endangered species and populations. The emerging field of ecological economics can unite these goals by revealing the connections between human well-being and conservation.
Roman, J.; McCarthy, J. J.. (2010) The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin. PloS One 5(10)
Link to Publication View Abstract
It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3x10(4) metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward "whale pump" played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities.
Roman, J.. (2010) Aquatic invasive species. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC.
Shammin, Md R.; Herendeen, Robert A.; Hanson, Michelle J.; Wilson, Eric J. H.. (2010) A multivariate analysis of the energy intensity of sprawl versus compact living in the US for 2003. Ecological Economics 69(12) 2363-2373
Link to Publication View Abstract
We explore the energy intensity of sprawl versus compact living by analyzing the total energy requirements of U.S. households for the year 2003. The methods used are based on previous studies on energy cost of living. Total energy requirement is calculated as a function of individual energy intensities of goods and services derived from economic input-output analysis and expenditures for those goods and services. We use multivariate regression analysis to estimate patterns in household energy intensities. We define sprawl in terms of location in rural areas or in areas with low population size. We find that even though sprawl-related factors account for about 83% of the average household energy consumption, sprawl is only 17-19% more energy intensive than compact living based on how people actually lived. We observe that some of the advantages of reduced direct energy use by people living in high density urban centers are offset by their consumption of other non-energy products. A more detailed analysis reveals that lifestyle choices (household type, number of vehicles, and family size) that could be independent of location play a significant role in determining household energy intensity. We develop two models that offer opportunities for further analysis. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sikor, T.; Stahl, J.; Enters, T.; Ribot, J.C.; Singh, N.M.; Sunderlin, W.D.; Wollenberg, E. (2010) REDD-plus, forest people's rights and nested climate governance. Global Environmental Change 20(3)
Springate-Baginski, O.; Wollenberg, E.. (2010) REDD, forest governance and rural livelihoods: the emerging agenda. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia. Pages VI, 279p.;
Turner, R. K.; Morse-Jones, S.; Fisher, B.. (2010) Ecosystem valuation A sequential decision support system and quality assessment issues. Ecological Economics Reviews 1185 79-101
Link to Publication View Abstract
Understanding the economic value of nature and the services it provides to humanity has become increasingly important for local, national, and global policy and decision making. It has become obvious that quantifying and integrating these services into decision making will be crucial for sustainable development. Problems arise in that it is difficult to obtain meaningful values for the goods and services that ecosystems provide and for which there is no formal market. A wide range of ecosystem services fall into this category. Additional problems arise when economic methods are applied inappropriately and when the importance of ecosystem maintenance for human welfare is underestimated. In this article we identify a place for monetary valuation within the pluralistic approach supported by ecological economics and assess progress to date in the application of environmental valuation to ecosystem service provision. We first review definitions of ecosystem services in order to make an operational link to valuation methods. We then discuss the spatially explicit nature of ecosystem services provision and benefits capture. We highlight the importance of valuing marginal changes and the role for macroscale valuation, nonlinearities in service benefits, and the significance of nonconvexities (threshold effects). We also review guidance on valuation studies quality assurance, and discuss the problems inherent in the methodology as exposed by the findings of behavioral economics, as well as with benefits transfer-the most common way valuation studies are applied in the policy process. We argue for a sequential decision support system that can lead to a more integrated and rigorous approach to environmental valuation and biophysical measurement of ecosystem services. This system itself then needs to be encompassed within a more comprehensive multicriteria assessment dialogue and process.
Westdijk, K.; Koliba, C.; Hamshaw, K.. (2010) Collecting Data to Inform Decision Making and Action:. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 14(2) 5-33
Wu, N.; Gao, J.; Sudebilige; Ricketts, T. H.; Olwero, N.; Luo, Z.. (2010) Evaluation of ecosystem provisioning service and its economic value. Yingyong Shengtai Xuebao 21(2) 409-414
Link to Publication View Abstract
Aiming at the fact that the current approaches of evaluating the efficacy of ecosystem provisioning service were lack of spatial information and did not take the accessibility of products into account, this paper established an evaluation model to simulate the spatial distribution of ecosystem provisioning service and its economic value, based on ArcGIS 9. 2 and taking the supply and demand factors of ecosystem products into account. The provision of timber product in Laojunshan in 2000 was analyzed with the model. In 2000, the total physical quantity of the timber' s provisioning service in Laojunshan was 11. 12 x 10(4) m(3) . a(-1), occupying 3.2% of the total increment of timber stock volume. The total provisioning service value of timber was 6669. 27 x 10(4) yuan, among which, coniferous forest contributed most (90. 41%). Due to the denser distribution of populations and roads in the eastern area of Laojunshan, some parts of the area being located outside of conservancy district, and forests being in scattered distribution, the spatial distribution pattern of the physical quantity of timber' s provisioning service was higher in the eastern than in the western area.
Zia, A.; Todd, A. M.. (2010) Evaluating the effects of ideology on public understanding of climate change science: How to improve communication across ideological divides?. Public Understanding of Science 19(6) 743-761
Link to Publication View Abstract
While ideology can have a strong effect on citizen understanding of science, it is unclear how ideology interacts with other complicating factors, such as college education, which influence citizens' comprehension of information. We focus on public understanding of climate change science and test the hypotheses: [H(1)] as citizens' ideology shifts from liberal to conservative, concern for global warming decreases; [H(2)] citizens with college education and higher general science literacy tend to have higher concern for global warming; and [H(3)] college education does not increase global warming concern for conservative ideologues. We implemented a survey instrument in California's San Francisco Bay Area, and employed regression models to test the effects of ideology and other socio-demographic variables on citizen concern about global warming, terrorism, the economy, health care and poverty. We are able to confirm H(1) and H(3), but reject H(2). Various strategies are discussed to improve the communication of climate change science across ideological divides.
2009
Ali, S. H.. (2009) Islam and Education: Conflict and Conformity in Pakistan's Madrassahs. Oxford University Press, New Haven, CT.
Link to Publication View Abstract
Islamic educational institutions have come under intense public scrutiny in recent years because of their perceived linkage to militancy. However, much of the research thus far has relied upon anecdotal accounts and investigative journalism. In particular, Pakistani madrassahs (or seminaries), have been the focus of much media coverage. Islam and Education aims to provide an empirically-grounded analysis of madrassahs in Pakistan, thereby informing the larger discussion of the role of Islamic education in conflict causality. Unlike earlier works that have focused primarily on the curriculum of madrassahs, this book provides a comprehensive examination of Islamic education as an integrated social movement. The ultimate aim of Islam and Education is to prevent the escalation of existing regional conflict as well as the perceived conflict between Islam and the West, while providing guidance to policymakers regarding their attempt to reform educational institutions.
Ali, S. H.. (2009) PAKISTAN’S MADRASSAS: THE NEED FOR INTERNAL REFORM AND THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE. Brookings Doha Center (August 2009)
Ali, S.. (2009) Better environmental treaties. Issues in Science and Technology (Winter) 9
Ali, S.. (2009) Treasures of the Earth: Need, Greed and a Sustainable Future.. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. Pages 304;
Armitage, D. R.; Plummer, R.; Berkes, F.; Arthur, R. I.; Charles, A. T.; Davidson-Hunt, I. J.; Diduck, A. P.; Doubleday, N. C.; Johnson, D. S.; Marschke, M.; McConney, P.; Pinkerton, E. W.; Wollenberg, E. K.. (2009) Adaptive co-management for social-ecological complexity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(2) 95-102
Link to Publication View Abstract
Building trust through collaboration, institutional development, and social learning enhances efforts to foster ecosystem management and resolve multi-scale society-environment dilemmas. One emerging approach aimed at addressing these dilemmas is adaptive co-management. This method draws explicit attention to the learning ( experiential and experimental) and collaboration ( vertical and horizontal) functions necessary to improve our understanding of, and ability to respond to, complex social-ecological systems. Here, we identify and outline the core features of adaptive co-management, which include innovative institutional arrangements and incentives across spatiotemporal scales and levels, learning through complexity and change, monitoring and assessment of interventions, the role of power, and opportunities to link science with policy.
Baker, D; Koliba, C; Kolodinsky, J; Liang, K; McMahon, E; Patterson, T; Wang, Q. (2009) Moving toward a transdisciplinary approach in the land-grant system: A case study. NACTA Journal 53(2) 34-42
Link to Publication View Abstract
The complexity of problems facing contemporary society requires an approach to knowledge creation that synthesizes solutions from multiple disciplinary perspectives. Traditional disciplinary structures functioning individually can inhibit the integration and application of useful knowledge. In response, many funding agencies and some universities have promoted multi-disciplinary collaboration and even interdisciplinary approaches, where faculty from different disciplines work together as a unit. This article takes the discussion a step further by examining the evolution of the Community Development and Applied Economics (CDAE) department at the University ofVermont. It provides an illustrative case study of a move beyond interdisciplinarity into transdisciplinarity, where faculty coheres as a team in teaching, researching, identifying and solving problems. The experience of this department suggests that the development of a transdiciplinary approach is not easy or simple. It cuts against the grain of the traditional culture of the Academy, which continues to incentivize and place high premiums on traditional disciplinary structures. The article concludes with an examination of the difficulties experienced in the building of a transdiciplinary program. It reveals the importance of maintaining openness to the stakeholder participation and collaboration that is vital in attracting scholars and students accustomed to the security of orthodox disciplinary identities.
Beddoe, R.; Costanza, R.; Farley, J.; Garza, E.; Kent, J.; Kubiszewski, I.; Martinez, L.; McCowen, T.; Murphy, K.; Myers, N.; Ogden, Z.; Stapleton, K.; Woodward, J.. (2009) Overcoming systemic roadblocks to sustainability: The evolutionary redesign of worldviews, institutions, and technologies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(8) 2483-2489
Link to Publication View Abstract
A high and sustainable quality of life is a central goal for humanity. Our current socio-ecological regime and its set of interconnected worldviews, institutions, and technologies all support the goal of unlimited growth of material production and consumption as a proxy for quality of life. However, abundant evidence shows that, beyond a certain threshold, further material growth no longer significantly contributes to improvement in quality of life. Not only does further material growth not meet humanity's central goal, there is mounting evidence that it creates significant roadblocks to sustainability through increasing resource constraints (i.e., peak oil, water limitations) and sink constraints (i.e., climate disruption). Overcoming these roadblocks and creating a sustainable and desirable future will require an integrated, systems level redesign of our socio-ecological regime focused explicitly and directly on the goal of sustainable quality of life rather than the proxy of unlimited material growth. This transition, like all cultural transitions, will occur through an evolutionary process, but one that we, to a certain extent, can control and direct. We suggest an integrated set of worldviews, institutions, and technologies to stimulate and seed this evolutionary redesign of the current socio-ecological regime to achieve global sustainability.
Beddoe, R.; Costanza, R.; Farley, J.; Garza, E.; Kent, J.; Kubiszewski, I.; Martinez, L.; McCowen, T.; Murphy, K.; Myers, N.; Ogden, Z.; Stapleton, K.; Woodward, J.. (2009) Reply to Knecht: Achieving sustainable health. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(28) E81-E81
Besaw, L. E.; Rizzo, D. M.; Kline, M.; Underwood, K. L.; Doris, J. J.; Morrissey, L. A.; Pelletier, K.. (2009) Stream classification using hierarchical artificial neural networks: A fluvial hazard management tool. Journal of Hydrology 373(1-2) 34-43
Link to Publication View Abstract
Watershed managers and planners have long sought decision-making tools for forecasting changes in stream-channels over large spatial and temporal scales. In this research, we apply non-parametric, clustering and classification artificial neural networks to assimilate large amounts of disparate data types for use in fluvial hazard management decision-making. Two types of artificial neural networks (a counter-propagation algorithm and a Kohonen self-organizing map) are used in hierarchy to predict reach-scale stream geomorphic condition, inherent vulnerability and sensitivity to adjustments using expert knowledge in combination with a variety of geomorphic assessment field data. Seven hundred and eighty-nine Vermont stream reaches (+7500 km) have been assessed by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources' geomorphic assessment protocols, and are used in the development of this work. More than 85% of the reach-scale stream geomorphic condition and inherent vulnerability predictions match expert evaluations. The method's usefulness as a QA/QC tool is discussed. The Kohonen self-organizing map clusters the 789 reaches into groupings of stream sensitivity (or instability). By adjusting the weight of input variables, experts can fine-tune the classification system to better understand and document similarities/differences among expert opinions. The use of artificial neural networks allows for an adaptive watershed management approach, does not require the development of site-specific, physics-based, stream models (i.e., is data-driven), and provides a standardized approach for classifying river network sensitivity in various contexts. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Daily, G. C.; Polasky, S.; Goldstein, J.; Kareiva, P. M.; Mooney, H. A.; Pejchar, L.; Ricketts, T. H.; Salzman, J.; Shallenberger, R.. (2009) Ecosystem services in decision making: time to deliver. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(1) 21-28
Link to Publication View Abstract
Over the past decade, efforts to value and protect ecosystem services have been promoted by many as the last, best hope for making conservation mainstream - attractive and commonplace worldwide. In theory, if we can help individuals and institutions to recognize the value of nature, then this should greatly increase investments in conservation, while at the same time fostering human well-being. In practice, however, we have not yet developed the scientific basis, nor the policy and finance mechanisms, for incorporating natural capital into resource- and land-use decisions on a large scale. Here, we propose a conceptual framework and sketch out a strategic plan for delivering on the promise of ecosystem services, drawing on emerging examples from Hawai'i. We describe key advances in the science and practice of accounting for natural capital in the decisions of individuals, communities, corporations, and governments.
Dewoolkar, M. M.; George, L.; Hayden, N. J.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2009) Vertical Integration of Service-Learning into Civil and Environmental Engineering Curricula. International Journal of Engineering Education 25(6) 1257-1269
Link to Publication View Abstract
Department level reform efforts funded by the National Science Foundation were instituted for the civil and environmental engineering (CEE) programs at the University of Vermont. The overall goal of the reform was to educate and have students apply a systems approach to civil and environmental problems. A key strategy for practicing a systems approach was through service-learning (S-L) projects that were introduced into existing courses. The reform began in 2005 and now includes S-L projects in required courses in each of the four years of the programs. Students have worked with community partners (e. g. Vermont towns and non-profit organizations) on inquiry-based, open-ended, real-world S-L projects. Student work and assessments showed that the S-L projects provided ideal platforms for CEE undergraduate students to grasp systems concepts while accomplishing academic goals, civic engagement and improving personal/interpersonal skills. The S-L projects also contributed toward meeting the program accreditation criteria (ABET outcomes 3a-k).
Fisher, B.; Balmford, A.; Green, R. E.; Trevelyan, R.. (2009) Conservation science training: the need for an extra dimension. Oryx 43(3) 361-363
Link to Publication View Abstract
Because of the complex interactions between socio-economic systems and remaining natural systems, conservation biology will need to be better integrated within a wider discipline of conservation science that is inherently integrated with the social sciences. Key to this progress will be the graduate training given to conservation scientists. We surveyed graduate students at the annual Student Conference on Conservation Science at Cambridge University in March 2007 to look at how current conservation science students view this need for integration. Our survey indicates that students want social science training alongside that in biology or ecology and that their current training in social science is inadequate for their future work in conservation.
Fisher, B.; Bolt, K.; Bradbury, R. B.; Gardner, T. A.; Green, J. M. H.; Hole, D. G.; Naidoo, R.. (2009) Two Cultures of Conservation. Conservation Biology 23(5) 1069-1071
Fisher, B.; Turner, R. K.; Morling, P.. (2009) Defining and classifying ecosystem services for decision making. Ecological Economics 68(3) 643-653
Link to Publication View Abstract
The concept of ecosystems services has become an important model for linking the functioning of ecosystems to human welfare. Understanding this link is critical for a wide-range of decision-making contexts. While there have been several attempts to come up with a classification scheme for ecosystem services, there has not been an agreed upon, meaningful and consistent definition for ecosystem services. In this paper we offer a definition of ecosystem services that is likely to be operational for ecosystem service research and several classification schemes. We argue that any attempt at classifying ecosystem services should be based on both the characteristics of the ecosystems of interest and a decision context for which the concept of ecosystem services is being mobilized. Because of this there is not one classification scheme that will be adequate for the many contexts in which ecosystem service research may be utilized. We discuss several examples of how classification schemes will be a function of both ecosystem and ecosystem service characteristics and the decision-making context. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hong, B.; Limburg, K. E.; Erickson, J. D.; Gowdy, J. M.; Nowosielski, A. A.; Polimeni, J. M.; Stainbrook, K. M.. (2009) Connecting the ecological-economic dots in human-dominated watersheds: Models to link socio-economic activities on the landscape to stream ecosystem health. Landscape and Urban Planning 91(2) 78-87
Link to Publication View Abstract
We present an interdisciplinary modeling framework to investigate how human socio-economic activities influence the spatial pattern of urbanization, and how consequent changes inland use affect water quality and stream ecosystem condition. The framework is composed of three submodels considering (1) the social and economic structures based upon a social accounting matrix, (2) land use change and urban sprawl based upon a binary logit regression, and (3) stream ecosystem condition in the catchment area based upon the NAWQA (National Water Quality Assessment) dataset. We applied our integrated model to Dutchess County, New York, USA, as a case study. Our study, in spite of its limitations and uncertainties, demonstrates the importance of a quantitative holistic approach in linking human and natural systems and estimating tradeoffs between economic benefits and environmental quality. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Koliba, C.; Gajda, R.. (2009) “Communities of Practice” as an Analytical Construct: Implications for Theory and Practice. International Journal of Public Administration 32(2) 97-135
Link to Publication View Abstract
The “community of practice” (CoP) has emerged as a potentially powerful unit of analysis linking the individual and the collective because it situates the role of learning, knowledge transfer, and participation among people as the central enterprise of collective action. The authors?uo; surface tensions and highlight unanswered questions regarding CoP theory, concluding that it relies on a largely normative and under-operationalized set of premises. Avenues for theory development and the empirical testing of assertions are provided.
Koliba, C.; Meek, J. W.; Zia, A.. (2009) Gordian Knot or Integrated Theory? Critical Conceptual Considerations for Governance Network Analysis. Rutgers, Newark, NJ. Pages 277-300;
Link to Publication View Abstract
In recent decades, theorists and researchers have begun to shift emphasis away from the analysis and descriptions of government roles and responsibilities to processes of governance unfolding amidst complex networks of individuals, organizations and institutions. Observing this trend, George Frederickson observes that the current status of theory development of network governance is “neither theoretically tidy nor parsimonious,” and “at this point there isn’t a single theory that puts its arms around third party governance” (Frederickson, 2007, p. 11). Despite efforts to define critical characteristics of “policy subsystems,” “policy networks,” “public management networks,” and “governance networks,” we are left to conclude that the development of a theoretical framework through which to describe, evaluate and analyze governance networks is a particularly ambitious undertaking, possessing several kinds of “Gordian knot” dilemmas. In this chapter, the authors frame these challenges in terms of questions concerning the differentiation of macro-level forms (markets, hierarchies and networks), accounting for the possibilities of mixed administrative authorities (combinations of vertical and horizontal relations), multi-sector relationships, and multiple policy functions, and challenges associated with mixed social scales. The current ambiguities around these questions are explored and related propositions for addressing each is offered.
Koliba, C.; Zia, A.. (2009) Dispelling the Myth of the Invisible Hand: An Argument for Democratically Legitimate Inter-Organizational Governance Networks.. Administrative Theory & Praxis 31(3) 417-423
View Abstract
The legitimacy of democratic governments hinges on the capacity of public institutions and their elected and appointed leaders to successfully fulfill their sovereign obligations. Dating back to Alexander Hamilton’s insistence on creating the Department of Treasury, these sovereign obligations have presumably been extended into matters pertaining to the health of the national economy. Since the Great Depression, national economic policies have been designed and implemented with regularity. These policies have ranged from large scale public works projects of the New Deal, to the creation of economic regulation subsystems during the post WWII era, , to the de-regulation and privatization movements of the re-reinventing governments era.. Economic policies have often been framed in terms of certain philosophies, political ideologies and governance theories that run the gamut from Keynesian, Neo-classical, Real Business Cycle, and New Public Management conceptions of government and market relationships. We argue that this recent history needs to be taken into consideration as questions about the implications of the economic crisis for the democratic legitimacy of governments are raised. We conclude that the current economic crisis is leading to the repudiation of certain assumptions concerning markets, democracies, and the role of government. However, we assert that, any critique of neo-classical economic and market theory needs to be grounded in certain assumptions regarding governance and the “polycentric” governance networks that have emerged over the course of the past forty years. We suggest that as a result of an increasing reliance on indirect and third party governance structures (Salamon, 2002), the roles and responsibilities of democratic governments in addressing pressing public problems have been drastically altered. We argue that the question of democratic legitimacy has shifted focus from being a matter solely relevant to governments to being an attribute of governance processes (Cleveland, 1973; Frederickson, 1999). Grounded in a now three decades-old body of literature that views governances processes as unfolding in inter-organizational policy or governance networks (Heclo, 1978; Rhodes, 1997; Milward and Provan, 199-; Agronoff and McGuire, 2003; Sorenson and Torfing, 2008), we suggest that the question of how and to what extent the legitimacy of the public sector thrives or suffers depends on the capabilities of government actors to reassert their capacity to regulate regulatory subsystems, including both market and non-market transactions, to effectively manage contracts, and infuse governance processes with sufficient “democratic anchorage” (Sorensen and Torfing, 2005).
Kuemmerle, T.; Chaskovskyy, O.; Knorn, J.; Radeloff, V. C.; Kruhlov, I.; Keeton, W. S.; Hostert, P.. (2009) Forest cover change and illegal logging in the Ukrainian Carpathians in the transition period from 1988 to 2007. Remote Sensing of Environment 113(6) 1194-1207
Link to Publication View Abstract
Illegal logging is a major environmental and economic problem, and exceeds in some countries the amounts of legally harvested timber. In Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, illegal logging increased and reforestation on abandoned farmland was widespread after the breakdown of socialism, and the region's forest cover trends remain overall largely unclear. Our goal here was to map forest cover change and to assess the extent of illegal logging and reforestation in the Ukrainian Carpathians. We used Landsat TM/ETM+ images and Support Vector Machines (SVM) to derive forest change trajectories between 1988 and 2007 for the entire Ukrainian Carpathians. We calculated logging and reforestation rates, and compared Landsat-based forest trends to official statistics and inventory maps. Our classification resulted in reliable forest/nonforest maps (overall accuracies between 97.1%-98.01%) and high clear cut detection rates (on average 89.4%). Forest cover change was widespread in the Ukrainian Carpathians between 1988 and 2007. We found forest cover increase in peripheral areas, forest loss in the interior Carpathians, and increased logging in remote areas. Overall, our results suggest that unsustainable forest use from socialist times likely persisted in the post-socialist period, resulting in a continued loss of older forests and forest fragmentation. Landsat-based forest trends differed substantially from official forest resource statistics. Illegal logging appears to have been at least as extensive as documented logging during the early 1990s and so-called sanitary clear-cuts represent a major loophole for overharvesting and logging in restricted areas. Reforestation and illegal logging are frequently not accounted for in forest resource statistics, highlighting limitations of these data. Combating illegal logging and transitioning towards sustainable forestry requires better monitoring and up-to-date accounting of forest resources, in the Carpathians and elsewhere in Eastern Europe, and remote sensing can be a key technology to achieve these goals. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lonsdorf, E.; Kremen, C.; Ricketts, T. H.; Winfree, R.; Williams, N.; Greenleaf, S.. (2009) Modelling pollination services across agricultural landscapes. Annals of Botany 103(9) 1589-1600
Link to Publication View Abstract
Crop pollination by bees and other animals is an essential ecosystem service. Ensuring the maintenance of the service requires a full understanding of the contributions of landscape elements to pollinator populations and crop pollination. Here, the first quantitative model that predicts pollinator abundance on a landscape is described and tested. Using information on pollinator nesting resources, floral resources and foraging distances, the model predicts the relative abundance of pollinators within nesting habitats. From these nesting areas, it then predicts relative abundances of pollinators on the farms requiring pollination services. Model outputs are compared with data from coffee in Costa Rica, watermelon and sunflower in California and watermelon in New Jersey-Pennsylvania (NJPA). Results from Costa Rica and California, comparing field estimates of pollinator abundance, richness or services with model estimates, are encouraging, explaining up to 80 % of variance among farms. However, the model did not predict observed pollinator abundances on NJPA, so continued model improvement and testing are necessary. The inability of the model to predict pollinator abundances in the NJPA landscape may be due to not accounting for fine-scale floral and nesting resources within the landscapes surrounding farms, rather than the logic of our model. The importance of fine-scale resources for pollinator service delivery was supported by sensitivity analyses indicating that the model's predictions depend largely on estimates of nesting and floral resources within crops. Despite the need for more research at the finer-scale, the approach fills an important gap by providing quantitative and mechanistic model from which to evaluate policy decisions and develop land-use plans that promote pollination conservation and service delivery.
Mazet, J. A. K.; Clifford, D. L.; Coppolillo, P. B.; Deolalikar, A. B.; Erickson, J. D.; Kazwala, R. R.. (2009) A "One Health" Approach to Address Emerging Zoonoses: The HALI Project in Tanzania. Plos Medicine 6(12)
Mendez, V. E.; Shapiro, E. N.; Gilbert, G. S.. (2009) Cooperative management and its effects on shade tree diversity, soil properties and ecosystem services of coffee plantations in western El Salvador. Agroforestry Systems 76(1) 111-126
Link to Publication View Abstract
We compared how management approaches affected shade tree diversity, soil properties, and provisioning and carbon sequestration ecosystem services in three shade coffee cooperatives. Collectively managed cooperatives utilized less diverse shade, and pruned coffee and shade trees more intensively, than individual farms. Soil properties showed significant differences among the cooperatives, with the following properties contributing to differentiation: N, pH, P, K, and Ca. Higher tree richness was associated with higher soil pH, CEC, Ca, and Mg, and lower K. Higher tree densities were associated with lower N, K, and organic matter. Although we found differences in the incidence of provisioning services (e.g., fruit), all plantations generated products other than coffee. No differences were observed between C-stocks. The history and institutional arrangements of cooperatives can influence management approaches, which affect ecosystem properties and services. Our study corroborates that interdisciplinary investigations are essential to understand the socio-ecological context of tropical shade coffee landscapes.
Moeliono, M.; Wollenberg, E.; Limberg, G.; eds. (2009) The decentralization of forest governance: politics, economics and the fight for control of forests in Indonesian Borneo. Earthscan Publications, London, UK. Pages 320 p.;
Mwakalila, S.; Burgess, N.; Ricketts, T.; Olwero, N.; Swetnam, R. D.; Mbilinyi, B. P.; Marchant, R.; Mtalo, F.; White, S.; Munishi, P. K.; Marshall, A.; Malimbwi, R. E.; Smith, C. M.; Jambiya, G.; Madoffe, S.; Fisher, B.; Kajembe, G.; Morse-Jones, S.; Kulindwa, K.; Green, J. M. H.; Balmford, A.. (2009) Linking Science with Stakeholders to Sustain Natural Capital.. The Arc Journal 23 22-27
Nelson, E.; Mendoza, G.; Regetz, J.; Polasky, S.; Tallis, H.; Cameron, D. R.; Chan, K. M. A.; Daily, G. C.; Goldstein, J.; Kareiva, P. M.; Lonsdorf, E.; Naidoo, R.; Ricketts, T. H.; Shaw, M. R.. (2009) Modeling multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, commodity production, and tradeoffs at landscape scales. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(1) 4-11
Link to Publication View Abstract
Nature provides a wide range of benefits to people. There is increasing consensus about the importance of incorporating these "ecosystem services" into resource management decisions, but quantifying the levels and values of these services has proven difficult. We use a spatially explicit modeling tool, Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST), to predict changes in ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, and commodity production levels. We apply InVEST to stakeholder-defined scenarios of land-use/land-cover change in the Willamette Basin, Oregon. We found that scenarios that received high scores for a variety of ecosystem services also had high scores for biodiversity, suggesting there is little tradeoff between biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. Scenarios involving more development had higher commodity production values, but lower levels of biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. However, including payments for carbon sequestration alleviates this tradeoff. Quantifying ecosystem services in a spatially explicit manner, and analyzing tradeoffs between them, can help to make natural resource decisions more effective, efficient, and defensible.
Pongsiri, M. J.; Roman, J.; Ezenwa, V. O.; Goldberg, T. L.; Koren, H. S.; Newbold, S. C.; Ostfeld, R. S.; Pattanayak, S. K.; Salkeld, D. J.. (2009) Biodiversity Loss Affects Global Disease Ecology. Bioscience 59(11) 945-954
Link to Publication View Abstract
Changes in the type and prevalence of human diseases have occurred during shifts in human social organization, for example, from hunting and gathering to agriculture and with urbanization during the Industrial Revolution. The recent emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases appears to be driven by globalization and ecological disruption. We propose that habitat destruction and biodiversity loss associated with biotic homogenization can increase the incidence and distribution of infectious diseases affecting humans. The clearest connection between biotic homogenization and infectious disease is the spread of nonindigenous vectors and pathogens. The loss of predators and hosts that dilute pathogen transmission can also increase the incidence of vectorborne illnesses. Other mechanisms include enhanced abiotic conditions for pathogens and vectors and higher host-pathogen encounter rates. Improved understanding of these causal mechanisms can inform decisionmaking on biodiversity conservation as an effective way to protect human health.
Ray, D. G.; Seymour, R. S.; Scott, N. A.; Keeton, W. S.. (2009) Mitigating Climate Change with Managed Forests: Balancing Expectations, Opportunity, and Risk. Journal of Forestry 107(1) 50-51
Roman, J.. (2009) Whales and whaling. Univ of California Press, Washington, DC. (2) 975-981
Stovall, J. P.; Keeton, W. S.; Kraft, C. E.. (2009) Late-successional riparian forest structure results in heterogeneous periphyton distributions in low-order streams. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 39(12) 2343-2354
Link to Publication View Abstract
Late-successional riparian forests often regulate autotrophic microhabitats in low-order streams through shading provided by canopies. However, few studies have linked forest structure with periphyton microhabitat in adjoining streams. Our hypotheses were that (1) the heterogeneous horizontal structure in old-growth forests creates more spatially variable below-canopy light environments compared with mature forests and (2) site-specific light availability over streams correlates with spatial distributions of periphyton microhabitat. We surveyed 15 low-order stream reaches in late-successional northern hardwood-hem lock forests in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, USA. We measured forest structure and the below-canopy light environment at all reaches and the periphyton chlorophyll a concentration on artificial substrates in eight reaches. While stand age was not statistically significant, multivariate models of horizontal forest structure (e.g., gap distribution) and topography showed strong relationships (R(2) > 0.70) with the below-canopy light environment across all late-successional forests. Furthermore, metrics of below-canopy light availability explained a small but statistically significant proportion of the variation in chlorophyll a concentration. This variation in chlorophyll a indicates that complex late-successional riparian forests, both mature and old-growth, create a mosaic of heterotrophic (shaded) and autotrophic (lighted) microhabitats along low-order streams. These results reveal important and previously unrecognized links between stream habitat heterogeneity and the horizontal heterogeneous late-successional forest structure.
Strassburg, B.; Turner, R. K.; Fisher, B.; Schaeffer, R.; Lovett, A.. (2009) Reducing emissions from deforestation-The "combined incentives" mechanism and empirical simulations. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 19(2) 265-278
Link to Publication View Abstract
Despite accounting for 17-25% of anthropogenic emissions, deforestation was not included in the Kyoto Protocol. The UN Convention on Climate Change is considering its inclusion in future agreements and asked its scientific board to study methodological and scientific issues related to positive incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation. Here we present an empirically derived mechanism that offers a mix of incentives to developing countries to reduce emissions from deforestation, conserve and possibly enhance their ecosystem's carbon stocks. We also use recent data to model its effects on the 20 most forested developing countries. Results show that at low CO(2) prices (similar to US$ 8/t CO(2)) a successful mechanism could reduce more than 90% of global deforestation at an annual cost of US$ 30 billion. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turner, K.; Fisher, B.. (2009) An ecosystem services approach: income inequality and poverty. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, U.K.. Pages 311;
Voigt, B.; Troy, A.; Miles, B.; Reiss, A.. (2009) Testing an Integrated Land Use and Transportation Modeling Framework for a Small Metropolitan Area. Transportation Research Record (2133) 83-91
Link to Publication View Abstract
This paper describes the implementation of a land use and transportation modeling framework developed for Chittenden County, Vermont, to test for differences in modeled output when employing a dynamically linked travel demand model (TDM) versus an assumption of static regional accessibilities over time. With the use of the land use model UrbanSim, two versions of a 40-year simulation for the county, one with a TDM and one without, were compared. In the first version, UrbanSim was integrated with the TransCAD four-step TDM; this allowed regional accessibilities to be recalculated at regularly scheduled intervals. In the second version, TransCAD was used to compute year 2000 accessibilities; these values were held constant for the duration of the model run. The results indicated some significant differences in the modeled outputs. In particular, although centrally located traffic analysis zones (TAZs) reveal relatively little difference between the two models, the differential within peripheral TAZs is both more pronounced and more heterogeneous. The pattern displayed suggests that some peripheral TAZs have higher modeled development with a TDM because the TDM accounts for the increased proximity of destinations, thereby making them amenable to development. Meanwhile, some peripheral TAZs have lower modeled development with a TDM because they already have good accessibility (e.g., access via Interstate), but the model without the TDM does not account for increased congestion.
Warren, D. R.; Kraft, C. E.; Keeton, W. S.; Nunery, J. S.; Likens, G. E.. (2009) Dynamics of wood recruitment in streams of the northeastern US. Forest Ecology and Management 258(5) 804-813
Link to Publication View Abstract
Wood is an important component of forested stream ecosystems, and stream restoration efforts often incorporate large wood. In most cases, however, stream restoration projects are implemented without information regarding the amount of wood that historically occurred or the natural rates of wood recruitment. This study uses a space-for-time analysis to quantify large wood loading to 28 streams in the northeastern US with a range of in-stream and riparian forest characteristics. We document the current volume and frequency of occurrence of large wood in streams with riparian forests varying in their stage of stand development as well as stream size and gradient. Linear models relating stream wood characteristics to stream geomorphic and forest characteristics were compared using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) model selection. The AIC analysis indicated that the volume and frequency of large wood and wood accumulations (wood jams) in streams was most closely associated with the age of the dominant canopy trees in the riparian forest (best models: log(10)(large wood volume (m(3) 100 m(-1))) = (0.0036 x stand age) - 0.2281, p < 0.001, r(2) = 0.80; and large wood frequency (number per 100 m) = (0.1326 x stand age) + 7.3952, p < 001, r(2) = 0.63). Bankfull width was an important factor accounting for wood volume per unit area (m(3) ha(-1)) but not the volume of wood per length of stream (100 m(-1)). The empirical models developed in this study were unsuccessful in predicting wood loading in other regions, most likely due to difference in forest characteristics and the legacy of forest disturbance. However, these models may be applicable in other streams in the northeastern US or in streams with comparable riparian forests, underlying geology, and disturbance regimes-factors that could alter long-term wood loading dynamics. Our results highlight the importance of understanding region-specific processes when planning stream restoration and stream management projects. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wollenberg, E.; Campbell, B.; Dounias, E.; Gunarso, P.; Moeliono, M.; Sheil, D.. (2009) Interactive Land-Use Planning in Indonesian Rain-Forest Landscapes: Reconnecting Plans to Practice. Ecology and Society 14(1)
Link to Publication View Abstract
Indonesia's 1999-2004 decentralization reforms created opportunities for land-use planning that reflected local conditions and local people's needs. We report on seven years of work in the District of Malinau in Indonesian Borneo that attempted to reconnect government land-use plans to local people's values, priorities, and practices. Four principles are proposed to support more interactive planning between government and local land users: Support local groups to make their local knowledge, experience, and aspirations more visible in formal land-use planning and decision making; create channels of communication, feedback, and transparency to support the adaptive capacities and accountability of district leadership and institutions; use system frameworks to understand the drivers of change and resulting scenarios and trade-offs; and link analysis and intervention across multiple levels, from the local land user to the district and national levels. We describe the application of these principles in Malinau and the resulting challenges.
Zencey, E.. (2009) Fixing Locke: Civil Liberties for a Finite Planet. Routledge, New York, NY. Pages 180-201;
Zencey, Eric. (2009) I left work early to buy snow tires. The North American Review; University of Northern Iowa, New York, NY. 294(6) 6-9
2008
Allnutt, T. F.; Ferrier, S.; Manion, G.; Powell, G. V. N.; Ricketts, T. H.; Fisher, B. L.; Harper, G. J.; Irwin, M. E.; Kremen, C.; Labat, J. N.; Lees, D. C.; Pearce, T. A.; Rakotondrainibe, F.. (2008) A method for quantifying biodiversity loss and its application to a 50-year record of deforestation across Madagascar. Conservation Letters 1(4) 173-181
Link to Publication View Abstract
Madagascar is a top global conservation priority for high rates of deforestation and endemism. Deforestation has been extensive, but impacts of forest loss on biodiversity have not been well quantified, especially for nonvertebrates. We use generalized dissimilarity modeling (GDM) as a basis for estimating forest biodiversity remaining at different points in time. We predict that 9.1% of species in Madagascar have been committed to extinction from deforestation between 1950 and 2000. This quantity is higher than losses expected from random deforestation of the same total area, indicating that deforestation has been biased towards environmentally and biologically distinct areas. In contrast to traditional area-based methods, these techniques allow one to estimate biodiversity loss based on the location of deforestation and thus can inform land-use policies that aim to minimize biodiversity impacts of deforestation or development.
Allnutt, T. F.; Ferrier, S.; Manion, G.; Powell, G. V. N.; Ricketts, T. H.; Fisher, B. L.; Harper, G. J.; Irwin, M. E.; Kremen, C.; Labat, J. N.; Lees, D. C.; Pearce, T. A.; Rakotondrainibe, F.. (2008) A method for quantifying biodiversity loss and its application to a 50-year record of deforestation across Madagascar. Conservation Letters 1(4) 173-181
Link to Publication View Abstract
Madagascar is a top global conservation priority for high rates of deforestation and endemism. Deforestation has been extensive, but impacts of forest loss on biodiversity have not been well quantified, especially for nonvertebrates. We use generalized dissimilarity modeling (GDM) as a basis for estimating forest biodiversity remaining at different points in time. We predict that 9.1% of species in Madagascar have been committed to extinction from deforestation between 1950 and 2000. This quantity is higher than losses expected from random deforestation of the same total area, indicating that deforestation has been biased towards environmentally and biologically distinct areas. In contrast to traditional area-based methods, these techniques allow one to estimate biodiversity loss based on the location of deforestation and thus can inform land-use policies that aim to minimize biodiversity impacts of deforestation or development.
Bacon, C. M.; Mendez, V. E.; Flores Gomez, M. E.; Stuart, D.; Diaz Flores, S. R.. (2008) Are Sustainable Coffee Certifications Enough to Secure Farmer Livelihoods? The Millenium Development Goals and Nicaragua's Fair Trade Cooperatives. Globalizations 5(2) 259-274
Link to Publication View Abstract
In December 2001, green coffee commodity prices hit a 30-year low. This deepened the livelihood crisis for millions of coffee farmers and rural communities. The specialty coffee industry responded by scaling up several sustainable coffee certification programs, including Fair Trade. This study uses household-and community-level research conducted in Nicaragua from 2000 to 2006 to assess the response to the post-1999 coffee crisis. A participatory action research team surveyed 177 households selling into conventional and Fair Trade markets in 2006. In an effort to dialogue with specialty coffee industry and mainstream development agencies, results are framed within the context of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Findings suggest that households connected to Fair Trade cooperatives experienced several positive impacts in education, infrastructure investment, and monetary savings. However, several important livelihoods insecurities, including low incomes, high emigration, and food insecurity, persisted among all small-scale producers.
Balogh-Brunstad, Z.; Keller, C. K.; Bormann, B. T.; O'Brien, R.; Wang, D.; Hawley, G. J.. (2008) Chemical weathering and chemical denudation dynamics through ecosystem development and disturbance. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 22(1)
Link to Publication View Abstract
Mineral weathering and chemical denudation of terrestrial environments are understood by both geochemists and ecologists to be affected by rooted plant growth. We used unique 20-year "sandbox'' experiments to test the predictions of both disciplines regarding the influence of tree growth and harvest on chemical weathering and denudation of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+). Results showed 3 temporal phases: 1) weathering-dominated rapid uptake of mineral nutrients with retention in trees and soil, and low denudation; 2) biocycling-dominated nutrient uptake with slower tree growth, and chemical fluxes reduced to near zero; and 3) denudation-dominated loss of nutrient reserves after harvest by disruption of biotic regulation. Overall, a red pine sandbox used and retained its resources more effectively than a reference non-vascular system. The results suggest that disturbance may be an important factor controlling chemical denudation rates. Temporal variations of the fluxes highlight difficulties of extrapolating weathering and denudation rates over long timescales.
Besaw, L. E.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2008) Counterpropagation neural network for stochastic conditional simulation: an application with Berea sandstone. ICDM Workshops. 2007 7th IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops Pages 449-54;
View Abstract
A neural network trained using the counterpropagation algorithm to produce stochastic conditional simulations is applied and evaluated on a real dataset. This type of network is a non-parametric clustering algorithm not constrained by assumptions (i.e. normal distributions) and is well suited for risk and uncertainty analysis given spatially auto-correlated data. Detailed geophysical measurements from a slab of Berea sandstone are used to allow comparison with a traditional geostatistical method of producing conditional simulations known as sequential Gaussian simulation. Equiprobable simulations and estimated fields of air permeability are generated using an anisotropic spatial structure extracted from a subset of observation data. Results from the counterpropagation network are statistically similar to the geostatistical methods and original reference fields. The combination of simplicity and computational speed make the method ideally suited for environmental subsurface characterization and other earth science applications with spatially auto-correlated variables.
Clark, J. S.; Rizzo, D. M.; Watzin, M. C.; Hession, W. C.. (2008) Spatial distribution and geomorphic condition of fish habitat in streams: An analysis using hydraulic modelling and geostatistics. River Research and Applications 24(7) 885-899
Link to Publication View Abstract
Reach-scale physical habitat assessment scores are increasingly used to make decisions about management. We characterized the spatial distribution of hydraulic habitat characteristics at the reach and sub-reach scales for four fish species using detailed two-dimensional hydraulic models and spatial analysis techniques (semi-variogram analyses). We next explored whether these hydraulic characteristics were correlated with commonly used reach-scale geomorphic assessment (RGA) scores, rapid habitat assessment (RHA) scores, or indices of fish biodiversity and abundance. River2D was used to calculate weighted usable areas (WUAs) at median flows, Q(50), for six Vermont streams using modelled velocity, depth estimates, channel bed data and habitat suitability curves for blacknose dace (Rhinichthys atratulus), brown trout (Salmo trutta), common shiner (Notropis cornutus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) at both the adult and spawn stages. All stream reaches exhibited different spatial distributions of WUA ranging from uniform distribution of patches of high WUA to irregular distribution of more isolated patches. Streams with discontinuous, distinct patches of high score WUA had lower fish biotic integrity measured with the State of Vermont's Mixed Water Index of Biotic Integrity (MWIBI) than streams with a more uniform distribution of high WUA. In fact, the distribution of usable habitats may be a determining factor for fish communities. A relationship between predicted WUAs averaged at the reach scale and RGA or RHA scores was not found. Future research is needed to identify the appropriate spatial scales to capture the connections between usable patches of stream channel habitat. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Costanza, R.; Fisher, B.; Ali, S.; Beer, C.; Bond, L.; Boumans, R.; Danigelis, N. L.; Dickson, J.; Elliott, C.; Farley, J.; Gayer, D. E.; Glenn, L. M.; Hudspeth, T. R.; Mahoney, D. F.; McCahill, L.; McIntosh, B.; Reed, B.; Rizvi, A. T.; Rizzo, D. M.; Simpatico, T.; Snapp, R.. (2008) An Integrative Approach to Quality of Life Measurement, Research, and Policy. SAPIENS 1(1) 17-21
Link to Publication View Abstract
While Quality of Life (QOL) has long been an explicit or implicit policy goal, adequate definition and measurement have been elusive. Diverse “objective” and “subjective” indicators across a range of disciplines and scales, and recent work on subjective well-being (SWB) surveys and the psychology of happiness have spurred renewed interest. Drawing from multiple disciplines, we present an integrative definition of QOL that combines measures of human needs with subjective well-being or happiness. QOL is proposed as a multiscale, multi-dimensional concept that contains interacting objective and subjective elements. We relate QOL to the opportunities that are provided to meet human needs in the forms of built, human, social and natural capital (in addition to time) and the policy options that are available to enhance these opportunities. Issues related to defining, measuring, and scaling these concepts are discussed, and a research agenda is elaborated. Policy implications include strategies for investing in opportunities to maximize QOL enhancement at the individual, community, and national scales.
Darling, John A.; Bagley, Mark J.; Roman, Joe; Tepolt, Carolyn K.; Geller, Jonathan B.. (2008) Genetic patterns across multiple introductions of the globally invasive crab genus Carcinus. Molecular Ecology 17(23) 4992-5007
Link to Publication View Abstract
The European green crab Carcinus maenas is one of the world's most successful aquatic invaders, having established populations on every continent with temperate shores. Here we describe patterns of genetic diversity across both the native and introduced ranges of C. maenas and its sister species, C. aestuarii, including all known non-native populations. The global data set includes sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene, as well as multilocus genotype data from nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci. Combined phylogeographic and population genetic analyses clarify the global colonization history of C. maenas, providing evidence of multiple invasions to Atlantic North America and South Africa, secondary invasions to the northeastern Pacific, Tasmania, and Argentina, and a strong likelihood of C. maenas x C. aestuarii hybrids in South Africa and Japan. Successful C. maenas invasions vary broadly in the degree to which they retain genetic diversity, although populations with the least variation typically derive from secondary invasions or from introductions that occurred more than 100 years ago.
Doris, J. J.; Rizzo, D. M.; Dewoolkar, M. M.. (2008) Forecasting vertical ground surface movement from shrinking/swelling soils with artificial neural networks. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 32(10) 1229-1245
Link to Publication View Abstract
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to estimate vertical ground surface movement when soils expand and contract due to changes in soil moisture content caused by changing climate conditions. Several counterpropagation ANN test cases were investigated to map climate data (i.e. temperature and rainfall) to vertical ground surface movement at field sites in Texas and Australia. Three of the four ANN test cases use a historical time series of climate data to forecast ground surface elevation relative to a specified datum. The fourth ANN test case predicts the rate of ground surface movement, and requires post-processing of the predicted rates to calculate ground surface elevation relative to a specified datum. The counterpropagation network has demonstrated a successful mapping of temperature and rainfall data to vertical ground surface movement at a field site when it is trained with a subset of data from the same field site (test cases 1 and 2). The results of training an ANN on one field site and testing it on another field site (test cases 3 and 4) demonstrate the ability of the ANN to capture trends in vertical ground surface movement. When compared with the predictions from a physics-based method (shrink test-water content method) that requires measurements/ estimates of changes in soil water content, the ANN-based predictions (based on climatic changes) captured the trends in the field measurements of shrinking-swelling soil surface movements equally well. These findings are promising and merit further investigation with data from additional field sites. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Farley, J.; Miles, B.. (2008) Science and Problem Solving in a Political World: Insights from Katrina. IJEES 11(S08) 3-20
Link to Publication View Abstract
While as scientists ecological economists pursue objectivity and empiricism, as problem solvers we strive to move our policy solutions to pressing problems onto the political agenda. To what extent is a rigorous scientific understanding of sustainability issues necessary and sufficient for creating more sustainable policies? If it is not, what are the obligations of scientists who understand the threats to sustainability to act on their understanding? We use a case study of Katrina to show that impartial science alone is inadequate to achieve our ends. Ecological economics and market fundamentalists are those currently receiving the most consideration, which exacerbates the problems as defined by ecological economists. As scientists and problem solvers, ecological economists must empirically study the public policy process to learn how to promote our policy solutions. We therefore assess two schools of thought concerning public policy - the market model and polis model. The market model of the public policy process assumes that policy makers rationally analyze the options available to achieve a specific goal then choose the one that maximizes utility. The polis model in contrast assumes that policy makers are not consistently rational but respond instead to the strategic presentation of situations using stories and symbols more than value-neutral facts. We argue that the polis model is a more accurate empirical interpretation of the policy process, and therefore, to be good scientific problem solvers, ecological economists must rely on emotionally charged stories that explain the significance of their scientific research instead of impartial presentation of empirical evidence.
Farley, J.. (2008) The Role of Prices in Conserving Critical Natural Capital. Conservation Biology 22(6) 1399-1408
Link to Publication View Abstract
Until recent decades, economic decision makers have largely ignored the nonmarket benefits provided by nature, resulting in unprecedented threats to ecological life-support functions. The economic challenge today is to decide how much ecosystem structure can be converted to economic production and how much must be conserved to provide essential ecosystem services. Many economists and a growing number of life scientists hope to address this challenge by estimating the marginal value of environmental benefits and then using this information to make economic decisions. I assessed this approach first by examining the role and effectiveness of the price mechanism in a well-functioning market economy, second by identifying the issues that prevent markets from pricing many ecological benefits, and third by focusing on problems inherent to valuing services generated by complex and poorly understood ecosystems subject to irreversible change. I then focus on critical natural capital (CNC), which generates benefits that are essential to human welfare and have few if any substitutes. When imminent ecological thresholds threaten CNC, conservation is essential and marginal valuation becomes inappropriate. Once conservation needs have been met, remaining ecosystem structure is potentially available for economic production. Demand for this available supply will determine prices. In other words, conservation needs should be price determining, not price determined. Conservation science must help identify CNC and the quantity and quality of ecosystem structure required to ensure its sustained provision.
Fisher, B.; Turner, K.; Zylstra, M.; Brouwer, R.; de Groot, R.; Farber, S.; Ferraro, P.; Green, R.; Hadley, D.; Harlow, J.; Jefferiss, P.; Kirkby, C.; Morling, P.; Mowatt, S.; Naidoo, R.; Paavola, J.; Strassburg, B.; Yu, D.; Balmford, A.. (2008) ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND ECONOMIC THEORY: INTEGRATION FOR POLICY-RELEVANT RESEARCH. Ecological Applications 18(8) 2050-2067
Link to Publication View Abstract
It has become essential in policy and decision-making circles to think about the economic benefits (in addition to moral and scientific motivations) humans derive from well-functioning ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem services has been developed to address this link between ecosystems and human welfare. Since policy decisions are often evaluated through cost -benefit assessments, an economic analysis can help make ecosystem service research operational. In this paper we provide some simple economic analyses to discuss key concepts involved in formalizing ecosystem service research. These include the distinction between services and bene. ts, understanding the importance of marginal ecosystem changes, formalizing the idea of a safe minimum standard for ecosystem service provision, and discussing how to capture the public bene. ts of ecosystem services. We discuss how the integration of economic concepts and ecosystem services can provide policy and decision makers with a fuller spectrum of information for making conservation -conversion trade-offs. We include the results from a survey of the literature and a questionnaire of researchers regarding how ecosystem service research can be integrated into the policy process. We feel this discussion of economic concepts will be a practical aid for ecosystem service research to become more immediately policy relevant.
Fisher, B.; Turner, R. K.. (2008) Ecosystem services: Classification for valuation. Biological Conservation 141(5) 1167-1169
Link to Publication View Abstract
This letter is in response to an article by Ken Wallace titled "Classifications of ecosystem services: problems and solutions" (Biological Conservation 139, 2007). This letter discusses the points we see as problematic with Wallace's framework and sets out our conceptualization of linking ecosystem services with human welfare. In this letter we suggest that utilizing the terms intermediate services, final services and benefits should go a long way to clearing up much of the ambiguity in ecosystem services typologies, especially for economic valuation purposes. As Wallace points out, clearly defining and organizing the concept of ecosystem services is not just a semantic decision, but it is integral to operationalizing something that can clearly illuminate tradeoffs in natural resource management. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fisher, B.. (2008) Deep economy: The wealth of communities and the durable future. Environmental Values 17(3) 422-424
Foster, B.; Wang, D.; Keeton, W.. (2008) An exploratory, post-harvest comparison of ecological and economic characteristics of FSC certified and uncertified northern hardwood stands.. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 26(3) 171-191
Link to Publication View Abstract
As more forest entities worldwide consider pursuing Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification, a critical question remains on whether stand-level management impacts differ between certified and uncertified forests. To begin to answer this question, we measured forest structure on three FSC-certified stands, three uncertified stands, and six adjacent unharvested reference stands (12 stands total) composed primarily of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) on non-industrial private properties in central Vermont, USA. The certified and uncertified partial harvests reduced total tree biomass and live tree carbon storage by one-third compared to reconstructed pre-harvest conditions. Both treatments also contained significantly lower densities of saplings and some mid-size trees compared to non-harvested references due to similar impacts from harvesting. The net present value of merchantable sugar maple over 10 year projections was consistently lower on certified than uncertified stands, but this difference was insignificant at discount rates from 4–8%. The certified stands contained significantly greater total residual volumes of coarse woody debris (standing and downed) than uncertified stands, although the debris was smaller than that found in unmanaged mature forests. Overall, our data suggest that FSC-certified harvested stands in northern hardwood forests have similar sugar maple timber value, aboveground live tree carbon storage value, similar live tree structure, and greater residual coarse woody debris than uncertified harvested stands.
Galford, G. L.; Mustard, J. F.; Melillo, J. M.; Gendrin, A.; Cerri, C. C.; Cerri, C. E. P.. (2008) Wavelet analysis of MODIS time series to detect expansion and intensification of row-crop agriculture in Brazil. Remote Sensing of Environment 112(2) 576-587
Link to Publication View Abstract
Since 2000, the southwestern Brazilian Amazon has undergone a rapid transformation from natural vegetation and pastures to row-crop agricultural with the potential to affect regional biogeochemistry. The goals of this research are to assess wavelet algorithms applied to MODIS time series to determine expansion of row-crops and intensification of the number of crops grown. MODIS provides data from February 2000 to present, a period of agricultural expansion and intensification in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon. We have selected a study area near Comodoro, Mato Grosso because of the rapid growth of row-crop agriculture and availability of ground truth data of agricultural land-use history. We used a 90% power wavelet transform to create a wavelet-smoothed time series for five years of MODIS EVI data. From this wavelet-smoothed time series we determine characteristic phenology of single and double crops. We estimate that over 3200 km(2) were converted from native vegetation and pasture to row-crop agriculture from 2000 to 2005 in our study area encompassing 40,000 km(2). We observe an increase of 2000 km(2) of agricultural intensification, where areas of single crops were converted to double crops during the study period. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hermans, C.; Howarth, R. B.; Noordewier, T.; Erickson, J. D.. (2008) Constructing Preferences in Structured Group Deliberative Processes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Pages 50-79;
Hermans, C.; Howarth, R. B.; Noordewier, T.; Erickson, J. D.. (2008) Constructing Preferences in Structured Group Deliberative Processes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Pages 50-79;
Keeton, W. S.. (2008) Evaluation of tree seedling mortality and protective strategies in riparian forest restoration. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 25(3) 117-123
Link to Publication View Abstract
Riparian forest restoration can be severely constrained by tree seedling mortality. I evaluated the effects of tree shelters and planting density on herbivory and seedling mortality at a restoration site in the Lake Champlain Basin of Vermont. Eighteen experimental units were established along a 5th-order stream and planted with bare-root seedlings of seven species associated with northern hardwood floodplain forests. Two treatments were applied in a factorial design: shelters versus no shelters and high versus low planting density. Mortality and herbivory data were collected over three growing seasons. Survivorship declined to 56.4% after three growing seasons and varied significantly by species. Planting density, presence/absence of shelters, and their interaction had significant effects on survival, browse, or girdling intensity when tested for all species combined. Browse rates were high (44%), whereas girdling rates were low (3.4%). Both browse (P < 0.001) and girdling (P = 0.022) contributed to seedling mortality. High rates of deer browse on seedlings in shelters were due, in part, to the short height (60 cm) of the shelters, suggesting a need for taller shelters. A large portion (39%) of dead seedlings were neither browsed nor girdled, signaling the importance of other mortality agents. An adaptive approach is recommended to compensate for high seedling mortality and the limited effectiveness of protective devices.
Kollat, J. B.; Reed, P. M.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2008) Addressing model bias and uncertainty in three dimensional groundwater transport forecasts for a physical aquifer experiment. Geophysical Research Letters 35(17)
Link to Publication View Abstract
This work contributes a combination of laboratory-based aquifer tracer experimentation and bias-aware Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF) to demonstrate that systematic modeling errors ( or bias) in source loading dynamics and the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity pose severe challenges for groundwater transport forecasting under uncertainty. The impacts of model bias were evaluated using an ammonium chloride tracer experiment conducted in a three dimensional laboratory tank aquifer with 105 near real-time sampling locations. This study contributes a bias-aware EnKF framework that (i) dramatically enhances the accuracy of concentration breakthrough forecasts in the presence of systematic, spatio-temporally correlated modeling errors, (ii) clarifies in space and time where transport gradients are maximally impacted by model bias, and (iii) expands the size and scope of flow- and-transport problems that can be considered in the future.
Kusters, K.; Ruiz Perez, M.; de Foresta, H.; Dietz, T.; Ros-Tonen, M.; Belcher, B.; Manalu, P.; Nawir, A.; Wollenberg, E.. (2008) Will agroforests vanish? The case of Damar agroforests in Indonesia. Human Ecology 36(3) 357-370
Link to Publication View Abstract
Resin producing agroforestry in the Krui area of Sumatra in Indonesia is presented as an environmentally friendly, income generating land-use system which contributes to both development and conservation objectives. We studied the change in household income portfolios in three communities in the Krui area. The studies revealed that in the period 1995-2004 agroforestry remained the main source of income. We predict, however, that due to declining resin productivity per hectare, and rising price and demand for timber, an increasing number of farmers will cut their mature agroforests in the near future. At the same time our data suggests that farmers will continue tree planting activities. In result old agroforests may vanish while new ones will be established.
Loucks, C.; Ricketts, T. H.; Naidoo, R.; Lamoreux, J.; Hoekstra, J.. (2008) Explaining the global pattern of protected area coverage: relative importance of vertebrate biodiversity, human activities and agricultural suitability. Journal of Biogeography 35(8) 1337-1348
Link to Publication View Abstract
Aim Twelve per cent of the Earth's terrestrial surface is covered by protected areas, but neither these areas nor the biodiversity they contain are evenly distributed spatially. To guide future establishment of protected areas, it is important to understand the factors that have shaped the spatial arrangement of the current protected area system. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess the ability of vertebrate biodiversity measures, resource consumption and agricultural potential to explain the global coverage pattern of protected areas. Location Global. Methods For each of 762 World Wildlife Fund terrestrial ecoregions of the world, we measured protected area coverage, resource consumption, terrestrial vertebrate species richness, number of endemic species, number of threatened species, net primary production, elevation and topographic heterogeneity. We combined these variables into 39 a priori models to describe protected area coverage at the global scale, and for six biogeographical realms. Using the Akaike information criterion and Akaike weights, we identified the relative importance and influence of each variable in describing protected area coverage. Results Globally, the number of endemic species was the best variable describing protected area coverage, followed by the number of threatened species. Species richness and resource consumption were of moderate importance and agricultural potential had weak support for describing protected area coverage at a global scale. Yet, the relative importance of these factors varied among biogeographical realms. Measures of vertebrate biodiversity (species richness, endemism and threatened species) were among the most important variables in all realms, except the Indo-Malayan, but had a wide range of relative importance and influence. Resource consumption was inversely related to protected area coverage across all but one realm (the Palearctic), most strongly in the Nearctic realm. Agricultural potential, despite having little support in describing protected area coverage globally, was strongly and positively related to protection in the Palearctic and Neotropical realms, as well as in the Indo-Malayan realm. The Afrotropical, Indo-Malayan and Australasian realms showed no clear, strong relationships between protected area coverage and the independent variables. Main conclusions Globally, the existing protected area network is more strongly related to biodiversity measures than to patterns of resource consumption or agricultural potential. However, the relative importance of these factors varies widely among the world's biogeographical realms. Understanding the biases of the current protected area system may help to correct for them as future protected areas are added to the global network.
McBride, M.; Hession, W. C.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2008) Riparian reforestation and channel change: A case study of two small tributaries to Sleepers River, northeastern Vermont, USA. Geomorphology 102(3-4) 445-459
Link to Publication View Abstract
Measurements of two small streams in northeastern Vermont, collected in 1966 and 2004-2005, document considerable change in channel width following a period of passive reforestation. Channel widths of several tributaries to Sleepers River in Danville, VT, USA, were previously measured in 1966 when the area had a diverse patchwork of forested and nonforested riparian vegetation. Nearly 40 years later, we remeasured bed widths and surveyed large woody debris (LWD) in two of these tributaries, along 500 m of upper Pope Brook and along nearly the entire length (3 km) of an unnamed tributary (W12). Following the longitudinal survey, we collected detailed channel and riparian information for nine reaches along the same two streams. Four reaches had reforested since 1966: two reaches remained nonforested. The other three reaches have been forested since at least the 1940s. Results show that reforested reaches were significantly wider than as measured in 1966, and they are more incised than all other forested and nonforested reaches. Visual observations, cross-sectional surveys, and LWD characteristics indicate that reforested reaches continue to change in response to riparian reforestation. The three reaches with the oldest forest were widest for a given drainage area, and the nonforested reaches were Substantially narrower. Our observations culminated in a conceptual model that describes a multiphase process of incision, widening, and recovery following riparian reforestation of nonforested areas. Results from this case study may help inform stream restoration efforts by providing insight into potentially unanticipated changes in channel size associated with the replanting of forested riparian buffers adjacent to small streams. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Naidoo, R.; Balmford, A.; Costanza, R.; Fisher, B.; Green, R. E.; Lehner, B.; Malcolm, T. R.; Ricketts, T. H.. (2008) Global mapping of ecosystem services and conservation priorities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(28) 9495-9500
Link to Publication View Abstract
Global efforts to conserve biodiversity have the potential to deliver economic benefits to people (i.e., "ecosystem services"). However, regions for which conservation benefits both biodiversity and ecosystem services cannot be identified unless ecosystem services can be quantified and valued and their areas of production mapped. Here we review the theory, data, and analyses needed to produce such maps and find that data availability allows us to quantify imperfect global proxies for only four ecosystem services. Using this incomplete set as an illustration, we compare ecosystem service maps with the global distributions of conventional targets for biodiversity conservation. Our preliminary results show that regions selected to maximize biodiversity provide no more ecosystem services than regions chosen randomly. Furthermore, spatial concordance among different services, and between ecosystem services and established conservation priorities, varies widely. Despite this lack of general concordance, "win-win" areas-regions important for both ecosystem services and biodiversity-can be usefully identified, both among ecoregions and at finer scales within them. An ambitious interdisciplinary research effort is needed to move beyond these preliminary and illustrative analyses to fully assess synergies and trade-offs in conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services.
North, M. P.; Keeton, W. S.. (2008) Emulating Natural Disturbance Regimes: an Emerging Approach for Sustainable Forest Management. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY. Pages 32;
Link to Publication View Abstract
Sustainable forest management integrates ecological, social, and economic objectives. To achieve the former, researchers and practitioners are modifying silvicultural practices based on concepts from successional and landscape ecology to provide a broader array of ecosystem functions than is associated with conventional approaches. One such innovation is disturbance-based management. Under this approach, forest practices that emulate natural ecological processes, such as local disturbance regimes, are viewed as more likely to perpetuate the evolutionary environment and ecosystem functions of the forest matrix. We examine how this concept has been applied in three U.S. forest types: Pacific Northwest temperate coniferous, Western mixed-conifer, and Northeastern northern hardwood forests. In general, stand-level treatments have been widely used and often closely mimic historic disturbance because forest structure and composition guidelines have been well defined from reconstructive research. Disturbance-based landscape management, however, has not yet been closely approximated in the three forest types we examined. Landscape implementation has been constrained by economic, ownership, safety, and practical limitations. Given these constraints we suggest that disturbance-based management concepts are best applied as an assessment tool with variable implementation potential. Silviculture practices can be compared against the frequency, scale, and level of biological legacies characteristic of natural disturbance regimes to evaluate their potential impact on ecosystem sustainability.
O'Faircheallaigh, C.; Trebeck, K.; Haley, S.; Magdanz, J.; Coumans, C.; Howitt, R.; Lawrence, R.; Gibson, G.; Kemp, D.; Anglebeck, B.; Barker, T.; Filer, C.; Burton J.; Banks, G.; McAteer, E.; Ali, S. H.; Anguelovski, I.; Crate, S. A.; Yakovleva, N.. (2008) Earth Matters: Indigenous Peoples, the Extractive Industries and Corporate Social Responsibility. Greenleaf Publishing, Sheffield, United Kingdom . Pages 272;
Link to Publication View Abstract
Indigenous peoples have historically gained little from large-scale resource development on their traditional lands, and have suffered from its negative impacts on their cultures, economies and societies. During recent decades indigenous groups and their allies have fought hard to change this situation: in some cases by opposing development entirely; in many others by seeking a fundamental change in the distribution of benefits and costs from resource exploitation. In doing so they have utilised a range of approaches, including efforts to win greater recognition of indigenous rights in international fora; pressure for passage of national and state or provincial legislation recognising indigenous land rights and protecting indigenous culture; litigation in national and international courts; and direct political action aimed at governments and developers, often in alliance with non-governmental organisations (NGOs). At the same time, and partly in response to these initiatives, many of the corporations that undertake large-scale resource exploitation have sought to address concerns regarding the impact of their activities on indigenous peoples by adopting what are generally referred to as corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies. This book focuses on such corporate initiatives. It does not treat them in isolation, recognising that their adoption and impact is contextual, and is related both to the wider social and political framework in which they occur and to the activities and initiatives of indigenous peoples. It does not treat them uncritically, recognising that they may in some cases consist of little more than exercises in public relations. However, neither does it approach them cynically, recognising the possibility that, even if CSR policies and activities reflect hard-headed business decisions, and indeed perhaps particularly if they do so, they can generate significant benefits for indigenous peoples if appropriate accountability mechanisms are in place. In undertaking an in-depth analysis of CSR and indigenous peoples in the extractive industries, the book seeks to answer the following questions. What is the nature and extent of CSR initiatives in the extractive industries and how should they be understood? What motivates companies to pursue CSR policies and activities? How do specific political, social and legal contexts shape corporate behaviour? What is the relationship between indigenous political action and CSR? How and to what extent can corporations be held accountable for their policies and actions? Can CSR help bring about a fundamental change in the distribution of benefits and costs from large-scale resource exploitation and, if so, under what conditions can this occur? Earth Matters gathers key experts from around the world who discuss corporate initiatives in Alaska, Ecuador, Australia, Canada, Peru, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and Russia. The book explores the great diversity that characterises initiatives and policies under the name of corporate social responsibility , the highly contingent and contextual nature of corporate responses to indigenous demands, and the complex and evolving nature of indigenous corporate relations. It also reveals much about the conditions under which CSR can contribute to a redistribution of benefits and costs from large-scale resource development. Earth Matters will be essential reading for those working in and studying the extractive industry worldwide, as well as those readers looking for a state-of-the-art description of how CSR is functioning in perhaps its most difficult setting.
Ricketts, T. H.; Regetz, J.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Cunningham, S. A.; Kremen, C.; Bogdanski, A.; Gemmill-Herren, B.; Greenleaf, S. S.; Klein, A. M.; Mayfield, M. M.; Morandin, L. A.; Ochieng, A.; Potts, S. G.; Viana, B. F.. (2008) Landscape effects on crop pollination services: are there general patterns? (vol 11, pg 499, 2008). Ecology Letters 11(10) 1121-1121
Link to Publication View Abstract
Pollination by bees and other animals increases the size, quality, or stability of harvests for 70% of leading global crops. Because native species pollinate many of these crops effectively, conserving habitats for wild pollinators within agricultural landscapes can help maintain pollination services. Using hierarchical Bayesian techniques, we synthesize the results of 23 studies – representing 16 crops on five continents – to estimate the general relationship between pollination services and distance from natural or semi-natural habitats. We find strong exponential declines in both pollinator richness and native visitation rate. Visitation rate declines more steeply, dropping to half of its maximum at 0.6 km from natural habitat, compared to 1.5 km for richness. Evidence of general decline in fruit and seed set – variables that directly affect yields – is less clear. Visitation rate drops more steeply in tropical compared with temperate regions, and slightly more steeply for social compared with solitary bees. Tropical crops pollinated primarily by social bees may therefore be most susceptible to pollination failure from habitat loss. Quantifying these general relationships can help predict consequences of land use change on pollinator communities and crop productivity, and can inform landscape conservation efforts that balance the needs of native species and people.
Roman, J.. (2008) Whale communication and culture. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC.
Smith, K. J.; Keeton, W. S.; Twery, M. J.; Tobi, D. R.. (2008) Understory plant responses to uneven-aged forestry alternatives in northern hardwood-conifer forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 38(6) 1303-1318
Link to Publication View Abstract
The understory layer encompasses the majority of plain species diversity ill forested ecosystems and may be sensitive to timber harvest disturbance. We hypothesize that (i) uneven-aged, low-intensity silvicultural systems can maintain understory plant diversity and support late-successional species following harvest disturbance; (ii) retaining and enhancing stand structural complexity can increase understory plant diversity in northern hardwood-conifer forests; and (iii) plant responses are influenced by interactions among canopy structure, soils, and climate processes. Experimental treatments include single-tree selection and group selection, both modified to increase structural retention, and a third technique designed to promote late-successional forest structure and function, structural complexity enhancement. Four replications of each treatment were applied to 2 ha units in Vermont and New York, USA. Understory vegetation was monitered 2 years pre- and 4 years post-treatment. Results show that over time, understory responses were strongly affected by overstory treatment and less influenced by soils and drought. All treatments succeeded at maintaining overall composition and diversity. However, late-successional diversity increased significantly in structural complexity enhancement units compared with group selection units. These results indicate that while conventional uneven-aged systems can maintain understory plant diversity, variations that retain or enhance structural complexity may be effective at retaining late-successional species.
Smith, K. M.; Keeton, W. S.; Donovan, T. M.; Mitchell, B.. (2008) Stand-level forest structure and avian habitat: Scale dependencies in predicting occurrence in a heterogeneous forest. Forest Science 54(1) 36-46
Link to Publication View Abstract
We explored the role of stand-level forest structure and spatial extent of forest sampling in models of avian occurrence in northern hardwood-conifer forests for two species: black-throated blue warbler (Dendroica caerulescens) and ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus). We estimated site occupancy from point counts at 20 sites and characterized the forest structure at these sites at three spatial extents (0.2, 3.0, and 12.0 ha). Weight of evidence was greatest for habitat models using forest stand structure at the 12.0-ha extent and diminished only slightly at the 3.0-ha extent, a scale that was slightly larger than the average territory size of both species. Habitat models characterized at the 0.2-ha extent had low support, yet are the closest in design to those used in many of the habitat studies we reviewed. These results suggest that the role of stand-level vegetation may have been underestimated in the past, which will be of interest to land managers who use habitat models to assess the suitability of habitat for species of concern.
Stevens, L.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2008) Local adaptation to biocontrol agents: A multi-objective datadriven optimization model for the evolution of resistance. Ecological Complexity 5(3) 252-259
Link to Publication View Abstract
Spatial and temporal variability in the application of biological control agents such as parasites or pathogenic bacteria can cause the evolution of resistance in pest organisms. Because biocontrol will be more effective if organisms are not resistant, it is desirable to examine the evolution of resistance under different application strategies. We present a computational method that integrates a genetic algorithm with experimental data for predicting when local populations are likely to evolve resistance to biocontrol pathogens. The model incorporates parameters that can be varied as part of pest control measures such as the distribution and severity of the biocontrol agent (e.g., pathogenic fungi). The model predicts the evolution of pathogen defense as well as indirect selection on several aspects of the organism's genetic system. Our results show that both variability of selection within populations as well as mean differences among populations are important in the evolution of defenses against biocontrol pathogens. The mean defense is changed through the pest organism's genotype and the variance is affected by components of the genetic system, namely, the resiliency, recombination rate and number of genes. The data-driven model incorporates experimental data on pathogen susceptibility and the cost of defense. The results suggest that spatial variability rather than uniform application of biological control will limit the evolution of resistance in pest organisms. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Turner, K.; Georgiou, S.; Fisher, B.. (2008) Valuing Ecosystem Services: The Case of Multi-functional Wetlands. Earthscan, London, UK. Pages 229;
Link to Publication View Abstract
Ecosystem services can be broadly defined as the aspects of ecosystems that provide benefits to people. This book provides guidance on the valuation of ecosystem services, using the case of multifunctional wetlands to illustrate and make recommendations regarding the methods and techniques that can be applied to appraise management options. It provides a review of ecosystem service valuation rationale, including its importance from both a policy and project appraisal perspective, and a useful reference when considering policy and appraisal of ecosystem management options. It shows how legal obligations and other high-level management targets should be taken into account in valuation exercises, thus giving important policy context to the management options. The authors set out what they call an Ecosystem Services Approach to the full appraisal of the role of ecosystem services in the economy and society. Although concentrating on wetlands, the approaches suggested provide an assessment framework that can be applied to other types of ecosystem assets.
Turner, R. K.; Fisher, B.. (2008) Environmental economics - To the rich man the spoils. Nature 451(7182) 1067-1068
Voigt, B.; Troy, A.. (2008) Ecological models: Land use modelling. Elsevier Science, Waltham. Pages 2126-2132;
Warren, D. R.; Keeton, W. S.; Kraft, C. E.. (2008) A comparison of line-intercept and census techniques for assessing large wood volume in streams. Hydrobiologia 598 123-130
Link to Publication View Abstract
Most surveys of large wood in streams are conducted by counting and measuring every piece of large wood within a reach, a technique that is effective but time-consuming. In this study we evaluated an alternative method that takes less time and can be employed in studies in which an estimate of total large wood volume along a stream reach is the primary metric of interest. In first- through third-order streams we estimated in-stream large wood volume and large wood frequency, comparing large wood census estimates to those from a modified a line-intercept technique that has been commonly used in terrestrial forest surveys. Estimates of large wood volume from line transects located in the geographic center of the stream (parallel to stream axis and equidistant from bankfull margins) were highly correlated with those from the wood census (P < 0.001, r(2) = 0.88, Pearson's r = 0.935), but produced slightly greater estimates of large wood volume (regression slope = 1.28, SE = 0.16). Line-intercept estimates of large wood frequency (number per 100 m of stream) were significantly correlated to the wood census counts, but the line-intercept method underestimated frequency by about 50% (P = 0.016). Differences in the estimated large wood volume between line-intercept and wood census surveys were associated with variability in the diameter of the large wood, but unrelated to stream bankfull width, for the range of stream sizes evaluated in this study (approximate to 2 to 11 m). Our results suggest that in small constrained streams, line-intercept surveys are an effective method for estimating in-stream large wood volume and that these estimates better approximate results from whole-stream census techniques where the diameter of in-stream wood is relatively consistent.
Wollenberg, Eva; Iwan, Ramses; Limberg, Godwin; Moeliono, Moira. (2008) Locating social choice in forest comanagement and local governance: the politics of public decision making and interest. Public and Private in Natural Resource Governance: A False Dichotomy? Pages 27;
Wunder, Sven; Campbell, Bruce; Frost, Peter GH; Sayer, Jeffrey A; Iwan, Ramses; Wollenberg, Lini. (2008) When donors get cold feet: the community conservation concession in Setulang (Kalimantan, Indonesia) that never happened. Ecology and Society 13(1) 12
Link to Publication View Abstract
There is consensus that payments for biodiversity services are a promising conservation tool, yet the implementation of applied schemes has been lagging behind. This paper explores some reasons why potential biodiversity buyers may hesitate. It describes the case of an unsuccessful attempt to establish a community conservation concession in the village of Setulang (East Kalimantan, Indonesia) to safeguard a biologically valuable area from predatory logging. Potential biodiversity donors did not engage in this payments-for-environmental-services scheme mainly because of their limited time horizon and uneasiness about the conditionality principle. Other complicating factors included overlapping land claims, and the diagnosis of the externality at hand. We conclude that new investment modalities and attitudes are needed if potential biodiversity buyers are to exploit the advantages of this innovative tool. We also provide some tangible recommendations on factors to consider when designing a compensation scheme for conservation at the community level.
2007
Armsworth, P. R.; Chan, K. M. A.; Daily, G. C.; Ehrlich, P. R.; Kremen, C.; Ricketts, T. H.; Sanjayan, M. A.. (2007) Ecosystem-service science and the way forward for conservation. Conservation Biology 21(6) 1383-1384
Besaw, L. E.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2007) Stochastic simulation and spatial estimation with multiple data types using artificial neural networks. Water Resources Research 43(11)
Link to Publication View Abstract
A novel data-driven artificial neural network ( ANN) that quantitatively combines large numbers of multiple types of soft data is presented for performing stochastic simulation and/or spatial estimation. A counterpropagation ANN is extended with a radial basis function to estimate parameter fields that reproduce the spatial structure exhibited in autocorrelated parameters. Applications involve using three geophysical properties measured on a slab of Berea sandstone and the delineation of landfill leachate at a site in the Netherlands using electrical formation conductivity as our primary variable and six types of secondary data ( e. g., hydrochemistry, archaea, and bacteria). The ANN estimation fields are statistically similar to geostatistical methods ( indicator simulation and cokriging) and reference fields ( when available). The method is a nonparametric clustering/ classification algorithm that can assimilate significant amounts of disparate data types with both continuous and categorical responses without the computational burden associated with the construction of positive definite covariance and cross-covariance matrices. The combination of simplicity and computational speed makes the method ideally suited for environmental subsurface characterization and other Earth science applications with spatially autocorrelated variables.
Costanza, R.; Farley, J.. (2007) Ecological economics of coastal disasters: Introduction to the special issue. Ecological Economics 63(2-3) 249-253
Link to Publication View Abstract
Coastal disasters are increasing in frequency and magnitude-measured in terms of human lives lost, destroyed infrastructure, ecological damage and disrupted social networks. Hurricane Katrina and the Indian ocean tsunami illustrate the severe and widespread impacts of such disasters on human well-being. The proximate cause of most of these disasters is "forces of nature". However, human decisions, driven largely by economic forces, do much to aggravate these natural disasters-for example, coastal mangroves and wetlands protect coastal communities from wave surges and winds, but are rapidly being converted for the production of market goods, and anthropogenic climate change driven by the energy use of our economy may exacerbate coastal disasters in several ways. The goal of economics should be to improve the sustainable well-being of humans. Our well-being is generated in part by the production of market goods and services, but also by the goods and services provided by nature, by social networks and norms, by knowledge and health-in short: built, natural, social and human capital, respectively. in seeking to increase human well-being solely, by maximizing the monetary value of market goods (built capital), our current economic system may be doing more to undermine our sustainable well-being than to improve it, a point made clear by the growing negative impacts of coastal disasters. An economic system should allocate available resources in a way that equitably and efficiently provides for the sustainable well-being of people by protecting and investing in all four types of capital. This is what ecological economics seeks to do. This article introduces ten papers that apply the four capital framework to the analysis of coastal disasters, seeking to understand their impacts and how to mitigate them, how to predict and plan for them, and how to use this information to redesign coastal areas in a more sustainable and desirable way. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Costanza, R.; Fisher, B.; Ali, S.; Beer, C.; Bond, L.; Boumans, R.; Danigelis, N. L.; Dickinson, J.; Elliott, C.; Farley, J.; Gayer, D. E.; Glenn, L. M.; Hudspeth, T.; Mahoney, D.; McCahill, L.; McIntosh, B.; Reed, B.; Rizvi, S. A. T.; Rizzo, D. M.; Simpatico, T.; Snapp, R.. (2007) Quality of life: An approach integrating opportunities, human needs, and subjective well-being. Ecological Economics 61(2-3) 267-276
Link to Publication View Abstract
Enhancing Quality of Life (QOL) has long been an explicit or implicit goal for individuals, communities, nations, and the world. But defining QOL and measuring progress toward meeting this goal have been elusive. Diverse "objective" and "subjective" indicators across a range of disciplines and scales, and recent work on subjective well-being (SWB) surveys and the psychology of happiness have spurred interest. Drawing from multiple disciplines, we present an integrative definition of QOL that combines measures of human needs with subjective well-being or happiness. QOL is proposed as a multi-scale, multi-dimensional concept that contains interacting objective and subjective elements. We relate QOL to the opportunities that are provided to meet human needs in the forms of built, human, social and natural capital (in addition to time) and the policy options that are available to enhance these opportunities. Issues related to defining, measuring, and scaling these concepts are discussed, and a research agenda is elaborated. Policy implications include strategies for investing in opportunities to maximize QOL enhancement at the individual, community, and national scales. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Costanza, R.; Fisher, B.; Mulder, K.; Liu, S.; Christopher, T.. (2007) Biodiversity and ecosystem services: A multi-scale empirical study of the relationship between species richness and net primary production. Ecological Economics 61(2-3) 478-491
Link to Publication View Abstract
Biodiversity (BD) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP) are intricately linked in complex ecosystems such that a change in the state of one of these variables can be expected to have an impact on the other. Using multiple regression analysis at the site and ecoregion scales in North America, we estimated relationships between BD (using plant species richness as a proxy) and NPP (as a proxy for ecosystem services). At the site scale, we found that 57% of the variation in NPP was correlated with variation in BD after effects of temperature and precipitation were accounted for. At the ecoregion scale, 3 temperature ranges were found to be important. At low temperatures (-2.1 degrees C average) BD was negatively correlated with NPP. At mid-temperatures (5.3 degrees C average) there was no correlation. At high temperatures (13 degrees C average) BD was positively correlated with NPP, accounting for approximately 26% of the variation in NPP after effects of temperature and precipitation were accounted for. The general conclusion of positive links between BD and ecosystem functioning from earlier experimental results in micro and mesocosms was qualified by our results, and strengthened at high temperature ranges. Our results can also be linked to estimates of the total value of ecosystem services to derive an estimate of the value of the biodiversity contribution to these services. We tentatively conclude from this that a 1% change in BD in the high temperature range (which includes most of the world's BD) corresponds to approximately a 1/2% change in the value of ecosystem services. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Farley, J.; Baker, D.; Batker, D.; Koliba, C.; Matteson, R.; Mills, R.; Pittman, J.. (2007) Opening the policy window for ecological economics: Katrina as a focusing event. Ecological Economics 63(2-3) 344-354
Link to Publication View Abstract
Ecological economics and its allied trans-disciplinary fields are well established in academia, but so far have failed to have significant influence on policy makers. Public policy research and theory suggest that three process streams must converge in order to shape the political agenda and change policy [Kingdon, J. 1984. Agenda, Alternatives, and Public Policies. Boston: Little, Brown]. First, the "problem" stream emerges when an existing condition is defined as a problem - a discrepancy between current reality and a desired goal - and critical policy makers accept the definition of the problem. The "policy" stream emerges as consensus grows around policy instruments to solve the problem. The "politics" stream emerges as the "national mood" and leading politicians accept the gravity of the problem and are willing to implement the policies required to address it. When these three streams converge, a policy window is created that can move issues onto the political agenda and into formal policy. A focusing event, like Katrina, can bring these three process streams together. However, different strategic representations of the situation may allow entirely different problem definitions and policies to dominate the political agenda. This paper analyzes the extent to which Katrina has opened a policy window for ecological economics. We find that Katrina has strengthened the three streams necessary to create a policy window for ecological economics, but that the dominant economic paradigm currently on the political agenda - market fundamentalism - is strategically presenting Katrina as supporting its own problem stream and policy stream. Key elements of the ecological economic agenda, such as investing in natural capital, are making it on to the political agenda, but overall market fundamentalist policies appear likely to dominate. We argue that ecological economists have failed to galvanize public acceptance for the policy goals of sustainable scale and just distribution, thus failing to effectively communicate their perspectives on problem definition and/or policy solutions to policy makers and the voting public. We conclude with suggestions for how ecological economists can still take advantage of the Katrina window, and better prepare for future windows opening. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Farley, J.; Baker, D.; Batker, D.; Koliba, C.; Matteson, R.; Mills, R.; Pittman, J.. (2007) Opening the policy window for ecological economics: Katrina as a focusing event. Ecological Economics 63(2-3) 344-354
Link to Publication View Abstract
Ecological economics and its allied trans-disciplinary fields are well established in academia, but so far have failed to have significant influence on policy makers. Public policy research and theory suggest that three process streams must converge in order to shape the political agenda and change policy [Kingdon, J. 1984. Agenda, Alternatives, and Public Policies. Boston: Little, Brown]. First, the "problem" stream emerges when an existing condition is defined as a problem - a discrepancy between current reality and a desired goal - and critical policy makers accept the definition of the problem. The "policy" stream emerges as consensus grows around policy instruments to solve the problem. The "politics" stream emerges as the "national mood" and leading politicians accept the gravity of the problem and are willing to implement the policies required to address it. When these three streams converge, a policy window is created that can move issues onto the political agenda and into formal policy. A focusing event, like Katrina, can bring these three process streams together. However, different strategic representations of the situation may allow entirely different problem definitions and policies to dominate the political agenda. This paper analyzes the extent to which Katrina has opened a policy window for ecological economics. We find that Katrina has strengthened the three streams necessary to create a policy window for ecological economics, but that the dominant economic paradigm currently on the political agenda - market fundamentalism - is strategically presenting Katrina as supporting its own problem stream and policy stream. Key elements of the ecological economic agenda, such as investing in natural capital, are making it on to the political agenda, but overall market fundamentalist policies appear likely to dominate. We argue that ecological economists have failed to galvanize public acceptance for the policy goals of sustainable scale and just distribution, thus failing to effectively communicate their perspectives on problem definition and/or policy solutions to policy makers and the voting public. We conclude with suggestions for how ecological economists can still take advantage of the Katrina window, and better prepare for future windows opening. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fisher, B.; Christopher, T.. (2007) Poverty cand biodiversity: Measuring the overlap of human poverty and the biodiversity hotspots. Ecological Economics 62(1) 93-101
Link to Publication View Abstract
In an effort to prioritize conservation efforts, scientists have developed the concept of biodiversity hotspots. Since most hotspots occur in countries where poverty is widespread, the success of conservation efforts depends upon the recognition that poverty can be a significant constraint on conservation, and at the same time conservation is an important component to the alleviation of long-term poverty. In this paper we present five key socioeconomic poverty indicators (access to water, undernourishment, potential population pressure, number living below poverty line and debt service) and integrate them with an ecologically based hotspots analysis in order to illustrate magnitude of the overlap between biological conservation and poverty. The analysis here suggests that the overlap between severe, multifaceted poverty and key areas of global biodiversity is great and needs to be acknowledged. Understanding the magnitude of overlap and interactions among poverty, conservation and macroeconomic processes is crucial for identifying illusive, yet possible, win-win solutions. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fisher, B.; Erickson, J.. (2007) Growth and equity: Dismantling the Kaldor–Kuznets–Solow consensus. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, U.K.. Pages 384;
Fisher, B.. (2007) Authorship in ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5(1) 11-11
Fisher, B.. (2007) CO2 emissions: Getting bang for the buck. Science 318(5858) 1865-1865
Gajda, R.; Koliba, C.. (2007) Evaluating the imperative of intraorganizational collaboration - A school improvement perspective. American Journal of Evaluation 28(1) 26-44
Link to Publication View Abstract
"Collaboration" is a ubiquitously championed concept and widely recognized across the public and private sectors as the foundation on which the capacity for addressing complex issues is predicated. For those invested in organizational improvement, high-quality collaboration has become no less than an imperative. However, evaluators and program stakeholders often struggle to assess the quality of collaborative dynamics and the merits of collaborative structures. In this article, the authors describe an approach to demystifying and assessing interpersonal collaboration and use their consultancy work with school improvement stakeholders to illustrate a multistage collaboration evaluation process. Evaluators in a wide range of organizational settings are encouraged to utilize collaboration theory and the evaluation strategies presented herein to cultivate stakeholder capacity to understand, examine, and capitalize on the power of collaboration.
Grand, J.; Cummings, M. P.; Rebelo, T. G.; Ricketts, T. H.; Neel, M. C.. (2007) Biased data reduce efficiency and effectiveness of conservation reserve networks. Ecology Letters 10(5) 364-374
Link to Publication View Abstract
Complementarity-based reserve selection algorithms efficiently prioritize sites for biodiversity conservation, but they are data-intensive and most regions lack accurate distribution maps for the majority of species. We explored implications of basing conservation planning decisions on incomplete and biased data using occurrence records of the plant family Proteaceae in South Africa. Treating this high-quality database as 'complete', we introduced three realistic sampling biases characteristic of biodiversity databases: a detectability sampling bias and two forms of roads sampling bias. We then compared reserve networks constructed using complete, biased, and randomly sampled data. All forms of biased sampling performed worse than both the complete data set and equal-effort random sampling. Biased sampling failed to detect a median of 1-5% of species, and resulted in reserve networks that were 9-17% larger than those designed with complete data. Spatial congruence and the correlation of irreplaceability scores between reserve networks selected with biased and complete data were low. Thus, reserve networks based on biased data. require more area to protect fewer species and identify different locations than those selected with randomly sampled or complete data.
Hermans, C.; Erickson, J.; Noordewier, T.; Sheldon, A.; Kline, M.. (2007) Collaborative environmental planning in river management: An application of multicriteria decision analysis in the White River Watershed in Vermont. Journal of Environmental Management 84(4) 534-546
Link to Publication View Abstract
Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) provides a well-established family of decision tools to aid stakeholder groups in arriving at collective decisions. MCDA can also function as a framework for the social learning process, serving as an educational aid in decision problems characterized by a high level of public participation. In this paper, the framework and results of a structured decision process using the outranking MCDA methodology preference ranking organization method of enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) are presented. PROMETHEE is used to frame multi-stakeholder discussions of river management alternatives for the Upper White River of Central Vermont, in the northeastern United States. Stakeholders met over 10 months to create a shared vision of an ideal river and its services to communities, develop a list of criteria by which to evaluate river management alternatives, and elicit preferences to rank and compare individual and group preferences. The MCDA procedure helped to frame a group process that made stakeholder preferences explicit and substantive discussions about long-term river management possible. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hermans, C.; Erickson, J.; Noordewier, T.; Sheldon, A.; Kline, M.. (2007) Collaborative environmental planning in river management: An application of multicriteria decision analysis in the White River Watershed in Vermont. Journal of Environmental Management 84(4) 534-546
Link to Publication View Abstract
Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) provides a well-established family of decision tools to aid stakeholder groups in arriving at collective decisions. MCDA can also function as a framework for the social learning process, serving as an educational aid in decision problems characterized by a high level of public participation. In this paper, the framework and results of a structured decision process using the outranking MCDA methodology preference ranking organization method of enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) are presented. PROMETHEE is used to frame multi-stakeholder discussions of river management alternatives for the Upper White River of Central Vermont, in the northeastern United States. Stakeholders met over 10 months to create a shared vision of an ideal river and its services to communities, develop a list of criteria by which to evaluate river management alternatives, and elicit preferences to rank and compare individual and group preferences. The MCDA procedure helped to frame a group process that made stakeholder preferences explicit and substantive discussions about long-term river management possible. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keeton, W. S.; Kraft, C. E.; Warren, D. R.. (2007) Mature and old-growth riparian forests: Structure, dynamics, and effects on adirondack stream habitats. Ecological Applications 17(3) 852-868
Link to Publication View Abstract
Riparian forests regulate linkages between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, yet relationships among riparian forest development, stand structure, and stream habitats are poorly understood in many temperate deciduous forest systems. Our research has (1) described structural attributes associated with old-growth riparian forests and (2) assessed linkages between these characteristics and in-stream habitat structure. The 19 study sites were located along predominantly first-and second-order streams in northern hardwood-conifer forests in the Adirondack Mountains of New York (USA). Sites were classified as mature forest (6 sites), mature with remnant old-growth trees (3 sites), and old-growth (10 sites). Forest-structure attributes were measured over stream channels and at varying distances from each bank. In-stream habitat features such as large woody debris (LWD), pools, and boulders were measured in each stream reach. Forest structure was examined in relation to stand age using multivariate techniques, ANOVA, and linear regression. We investigated linkages between forest structure and stream characteristics using similar methods, preceded by information-theoretic modeling (AIC). Old-growth riparian forest structure is more complex than that found in mature forests and exhibits significantly greater accumulations of aboveground tree biomass, both living and dead. In-stream LWD volumes were significantly (alpha = 0.05) greater at old-growth sites (200 m(3)/ha) compared to mature sites (34 m(3)/ha) and were strongly related to the basal area of adjacent forests. In-stream large-log densities correlated strongly with debris-dam densities. AIC models that included large-log density, debris-dam density, boulder density, and bankfull width had the most support for predicting pool density. There were higher proportions of LWD-formed pools relative to boulder-formed pools at old-growth sites as compared to mature sites. Old-growth riparian forests provide in-stream habitat features that have not been widely recognized in eastern North America, representing a potential benefit from late-successional riparian forest management and conservation. Riparian management practices (including buffer delineation and restorative silvicultural approaches) that emphasize development and maintenance of late-successional characteristics are recommended where the associated in-stream effects are desired.
Keeton, William S; Mote, Philip W; Franklin, Jerry F. (2007) Climate variability, climate change, and western wildfire with implications for the urban–wildland interface. Advances in the Economics of Environmental Resources; Emerald Group Publishing Limited, New York. 6 225-253
Link to Publication View Abstract
Climate change during the next century is likely to significantly influence forest ecosystems in the western United States, including indirect effects on forest and shrubland fire regimes. Further exacerbation of fire hazards by the warmer, drier summers projected for much of the western U.S. by climate models would compound already elevated fire risks caused by 20th century fire suppression. This has potentially grave consequences for the urban–wildland interface in drier regions, where residential expansion increasingly places people and property in the midst of fire-prone vegetation. Understanding linkages between climate variability and change, therefore, are central to our ability to forecast future risks and adapt land management, allocation of fire management resources, and suburban planning accordingly. To establish these linkages we review previous research and draw inferences from our own retrospective work focused on 20th century climate–fire relationships in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). We investigated relationships between the two dominant modes of climate variability affecting the PNW, which are Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Nin˜o/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and historic fire activity at multiple spatial scales. We used historic fire data spanning most of the 20th century for USDA Forest Service Region 6, individual states (Idaho, Oregon, and Washington), and 20 national forests representative of the region’s physiographic diversity. Forest fires showed significant correlations with warm/dry phases of PDO at regional and state scales; relationships were variable at the scale of individual national forests. Warm/dry phases of PDO were especially influential in terms of the occurrence of very large fire events throughout the PNW. No direct statistical relationships were found between ENSO and forest fires at regional scales, although relationships may exist at smaller spatial scales. However, both ENSO and PDO were correlated with summer drought, as estimated by the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and PDSI was correlated with fire activity at all scales. Even moderate (70.31C decadal mean) fluctuations in PNW climate over the 20th century have influenced wildfire activity based on our analysis. Similar trends have been reported for other regions of the western U.S. Thus, forest fire activity has been sensitive to past climate variability, even in the face of altered dynamics due to fire suppression, as in the case of our analysis. It is likely that fire activity will increase in response to future temperature increases, at the same or greater magnitude as experienced during past climate variability. If extreme drought conditions become more prevalent we can expect a greater frequency of large, high-intensity forest fires. Increased vulnerability to forest fires may worsen the current fire management problem in the urban–wildland interface. Adaptation of fire management and restoration planning will be essential to address fire hazards in areas of intermingled exurban development and fire-prone vegetation. We recommend: (1) landscape-level strategic planning of fire restoration and containment projects; (2) better use of climatic forecasts, including PDO and ENSO related predictions; and (3) community-based efforts to limit further residential expansion into fire-prone forested and shrubland areas.
Koliba, C. J.; Lathrop, J.. (2007) Inquiry as intervention - Employing action research to surface intersubjective theories-in-use and support an organization's capacity to learn. Administration & Society 39(1) 51-76
Link to Publication View Abstract
Social science can be practiced as a decidedly action-oriented and applied phenomenon, in particular within the context of organizational change and development. These practices are often prefaced by assumptions concerning the social construction of reality, the role of the researcher as an active agent for change, and the capacity of organizations to learn. This article recounts the attempts of social science researchers to employ an action research process to promote and support organizational learning within a public school setting. Addressing concerns with regard to the methodological challenges of translating individual perceptions into organizational themes or problems, the authors discuss the use of intersubjectively constructed accounts to support organizational learning.
Koliba, C.. (2007) Engagement, Scholarship, and Faculty Work: Trends and Implications for Public Affairs Education. Journal of Public Affairs Education 13(2) 315-333
Link to Publication View Abstract
Building on the assumption that public administration and public affairs education has a role to play in helping students and communities bridge theory and practice, the author provides an overview of the "civic engagement movement" that is informing how higher education institutions, particularly their faculty, carry out their work. Ernest Boyer's effort to "reconsider scholarship" is reviewed in light of current practices shaping contemporary public affairs education. The author explores the current trends affecting faculty work load and performance appraisal. Suggestions for further research and dialogue around the issues raised in this article are provided.
Koliba, C.. (2007) On Sharpening Knives & Governing Networks. Administrative Theory & Praxis 29(2) 321-325
Kremen, C.; Williams, N. M.; Aizen, M. A.; Gemmill-Herren, B.; LeBuhn, G.; Minckley, R.; Packer, L.; Potts, S. G.; Roulston, T.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Vazquez, D. P.; Winfree, R.; Adams, L.; Crone, E. E.; Greenleaf, S. S.; Keitt, T. H.; Klein, A. M.; Regetz, J.; Ricketts, T. H.. (2007) Pollination and other ecosystem services produced by mobile organisms: a conceptual framework for the effects of land-use change. Ecology Letters 10(4) 299-314
Link to Publication View Abstract
Many ecosystem services are delivered by organisms that depend on habitats that are segregated spatially or temporally from the location where services are provided. Management of mobile organisms contributing to ecosystem services requires consideration not only of the local scale where services are delivered, but also the distribution of resources at the landscape scale, and the foraging ranges and dispersal movements of the mobile agents. We develop a conceptual model for exploring how one such mobile-agent-based ecosystem service (MABES), pollination, is affected by land-use change, and then generalize the model to other MABES. The model includes interactions and feedbacks among policies affecting land use, market forces and the biology of the organisms involved. Animal-mediated pollination contributes to the production of goods of value to humans such as crops; it also bolsters reproduction of wild plants on which other services or service-providing organisms depend. About one-third of crop production depends on animal pollinators, while 60-90% of plant species require an animal pollinator. The sensitivity of mobile organisms to ecological factors that operate across spatial scales makes the services provided by a given community of mobile agents highly contextual. Services vary, depending on the spatial and temporal distribution of resources surrounding the site, and on biotic interactions occurring locally, such as competition among pollinators for resources, and among plants for pollinators. The value of the resulting goods or services may feed back via market-based forces to influence land-use policies, which in turn influence land management practices that alter local habitat conditions and landscape structure. Developing conceptual models for MABES aids in identifying knowledge gaps, determining research priorities, and targeting interventions that can be applied in an adaptive management context.
Lamoreux, J. F.; Morrison, J. C.; Ricketts, T. H.; Olson, D. M.; Dinerstein, E.; McKnight, M. W.; Shugart, H. H.. (2007) The multifaceted nature of biodiversity conservation: Reply to Leroux and Schmiegelow. Conservation Biology 21(1) 269-270
Langevin, H. M.; Rizzo, D. M.; Fox, J. R.; Badger, G. J.; Wu, J.; Konofagou, E. E.; Stevens-Tuttle, D.; Bouffard, N. A.; Krag, M. H.. (2007) Dynamic morphometric characterization of local connective tissue network structure in humans using ultrasound. Bmc Systems Biology 1(25)
Link to Publication View Abstract
Background: In humans, connective tissue forms a complex, interconnected network throughout the body that may have mechanosensory, regulatory and signaling functions. Understanding these potentially important phenomena requires non-invasive measurements of collagen network structure that can be performed in live animals or humans. The goal of this study was to show that ultrasound can be used to quantify dynamic changes in local connective tissue structure in vivo. We first performed combined ultrasound and histology examinations of the same tissue in two subjects undergoing surgery: in one subject, we examined the relationship of ultrasound to histological images in three dimensions; in the other, we examined the effect of a localized tissue perturbation using a previously developed robotic acupuncture needling technique. In ten additional non-surgical subjects, we quantified changes in tissue spatial organization over time during needle rotation vs. no rotation using ultrasound and semi-variogram analyses. Results: 3-D renditions of ultrasound images showed longitudinal echogenic sheets that matched with collagenous sheets seen in histological preparations. Rank correlations between serial 2-D ultrasound and corresponding histology images resulted in high positive correlations for semi-variogram ranges computed parallel (r = 0.79, p < 0.001) and perpendicular ( r = 0.63, p < 0.001) to the surface of the skin, indicating concordance in spatial structure between the two data sets. Needle rotation caused tissue displacement in the area surrounding the needle that was mapped spatially with ultrasound elastography and corresponded to collagen bundles winding around the needle on histological sections. In semi-variograms computed for each ultrasound frame, there was a greater change in the area under the semi-variogram curve across successive frames during needle rotation compared with no rotation. The direction of this change was heterogeneous across subjects. The frame-to-frame variability was 10-fold ( p < 0.001) greater with rotation than with no rotation indicating changes in tissue structure during rotation. Conclusion: The combination of ultrasound and semi-variogram analyses allows quantitative assessment of dynamic changes in the structure of human connective tissue in vivo.
Li, Wen Jun; Ali, Saleem H.; Zhang, Qian. (2007) Property rights and grassland degradation: A study of the Xilingol Pasture, Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of Environmental Management 85(2) 461-470
Link to Publication View Abstract
The semi-private property rights arrangement called the Household Production Responsibility System (HPRS) was started in the early 1980s in Xilingol pasture of Inner Mongolia (China), and stimulated the development of stockbreeding. The grassland has been degrading severely with increasing numbers of livestock. Based on a historical review of property rights regimes in Inner Mongolia and empirical surveys in Xilingol pasture during 2001-2003, this paper assesses the implementation of HPRS and its impacts on incomes of households as well as the environmental impact on the grassland. It was found that HPRS does not mitigate the "Tragedy of the Commons", instead it has exacerbated the situation. It was also found that co-management of grassland and livestock among a few households presents a sustainable use of grassland to develop livestock breeding. We conclude with the recommendation that small-scale collective property rights systems should be encouraged in Xilingol pasture of Inner Mongolia. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McBride, M.; Hession, W. C.; Rizzo, D. M.; Thompson, D. M.. (2007) The influence of riparian vegetation on near-bank turbulence: a flume experiment. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 32(13) 2019-2037
Link to Publication View Abstract
Measurements from a fixed-bed, Froude-scaled hydraulic model of a stream in northeastern Vermont demonstrate the importance of forested riparian vegetation effects on near-bank turbulence during overbank flows. Sections of the,prototype stream, a tributary to Sleepers River, have increased in channel width within the last 40 years in response to passive reforestation of its riparian zone. Previous research found that reaches of small streams with forested riparian zones are commonly wider than adjacent reaches with non-forested, or grassy, vegetation; however, driving mechanisms for this morphologic difference are not fully explained. Flume experiments were performed with a 1:5 scale, simplified model of half a channel and its floodplain, mimicking the typical non-forested channel size. Two types of riparian vegetation were placed on the constructed floodplain: non-forested, with synthetic grass carpeting; and forested, where rigid, randomly distributed, wooden dowels were added. Three-dimensional velocities were measured with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter at 41 locations within the channel and floodplain at near-bed and 0.6-depth elevations. Observations of velocity components and calculations of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), Reynolds shear stress and boundary shear stress showed significant differences between forested and non-forested runs. Generally, forested runs exhibited a narrow band of high turbulence between the floodplain and main channel, where TKE was roughly two times greater than TKE in non-forested runs. Compared to non-forested runs, the hydraulic characteristics of forested runs appear to create an environment with higher erosion potential. Given that sediment entrainment and transport can be amplified in flows with high turbulence intensity and given that mature forested stream reaches are wider than comparable non-forested reaches, our results demonstrated a possible driving mechanism for channel widening during overbank flow events in stream reaches with recently reforested riparian zones. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mendez, V. E.; Gliessman, S. R.; Gilbert, G. S.. (2007) Tree biodiversity in farmer cooperatives of a shade coffee landscape in western El Salvador. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 119(1-2) 145-159
Link to Publication View Abstract
Conservation of tropical biodiversity in agricultural landscapes has become more important as the area covered by natural ecosystems decreases. We analyzed the effects of local livelihoods, cooperative types, and selected biophysical variables (elevation, slope, percent shade, distance to the forest, coffee density, and coffee age) on tree biodiversity in shade coffee cooperatives of El Salvador. Tree inventories from 51 quadrats in coffee cooperatives included 2743 individuals from 46 families and 123 identified tree species. Species richness and tree diameters differed among some cooperatives, with greater richness associated with greater stein density; other biophysical variables had little impact on diversity. The amount of shade in the coffee plantations differed among cooperatives, particularly in the wet season. Of the tree species reported in a recent study of a neighboring forest and in the cooperatives (N = 227 species combined), 16% were present at both sites. The three coffee plantations shared 35% of total species reported from all cooperatives. Our research shows that the number of tree species found in a coffee plantation increases with the density of shade trees included in the system. In turn, agroecological management, as influenced by farmer livelihood strategies and cooperative types, directly affects shade canopy composition. Important factors to take into account are the types of farmer organizations present, the cost of maintaining species of conservation concern, and the potential benefits that conservation could bring to the livelihood strategies of farm households. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pongsiri, M. J.; Roman, J.. (2007) Examining the links between Biodiversity and human health: An interdisciplinary research initiative at the US Environmental Protection Agency. Ecohealth 4(1) 82-85
Link to Publication View Abstract
Under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's mission to protect human health and the environment, the agency seeks to conduct research on the structure and function of ecosystems and to improve our understanding of the processes that contribute to the sustained health of the nation's ecosystems and the well-being of human populations. Changes in biodiversity can profoundly impact the ability of ecosystems to provide clean water, energy, food, recreation, and other services that contribute to human well-being. In addition, changes in biodiversity can affect the transmission of infectious disease to humans, particularly vectorborne diseases such as malaria and Lyme disease. The Environmental Protection Agency's new initiative supports interdisciplinary research to characterize the mechanisms that link biodiversity and human health and to use this knowledge to develop integrative tools and approaches for quantifying and predicting these relationships. Research on these links can have an important impact on our view of biodiversity and how we manage resources to protect human and ecosystem health.
Roman, J.; Darling, J. A.. (2007) Paradox lost: genetic diversity and the success of aquatic invasions. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 22(9) 454-464
Link to Publication View Abstract
There is mounting evidence that reduced genetic diversity in invasive populations is not as commonplace as expected. Recent studies indicate that high propagule vectors, such as ballast water and shellfish transplantations, and multiple introductions contribute to the elimination of founder effects in the majority of successful aquatic invasions. Multiple introductions, in particular, can promote range expansion of introduced populations through both genetic and demographic mechanisms. Closely related to vectors and corridors of introduction, propagule pressure can play an important role in determining the genetic outcome of introduction events. Even low-diversity introductions have numerous means of avoiding the negative impact of diversity loss. The interaction of high propagule vectors and multiple introductions reveal important patterns associated with invasion success and deserve closer scrutiny.
Sullivan, S. M. P.; Watzin, M. C.; Keeton, W. S.. (2007) A riverscape perspective on habitat associations among riverine bird assemblages in the Lake Champlain Basin, USA. Landscape Ecology 22(8) 1169-1186
Link to Publication View Abstract
The riverscape perspective recognizes the heterogeneous habitat types within the stream corridor as a single, integrated ecological unit operating across spatial scales. Although there is ample evidence that the riverscape notion is appropriate in understanding the physical phenomena of stream corridors, significantly less attention has focused on its ecological ramifications. To this end, we surveyed riverscape habitat variables and bird community characteristics in the Champlain Valley of Vermont, USA. From the data collected, we used information theoretic methodology (AIC(c)) to model relationships between bird community attributes and key habitat variables across the riverscape. Our models with the greatest support suggest that riverine bird communities respond to a suite of characteristics; representing a variety of riverscape habitats at the in-stream, floodplain, and riparian levels. Channel slope, drainage area, percent conifers, and in-stream habitat condition were among the most influential variables. We found that piscivores are potentially important indicators of riverscape condition, responding to a host of variables across the riverscape. Our results endorse a holistic approach to assessing and managing the mosaic of patches in the riverscape and suggest that a riverscape approach has significant conservation potential.
Todd, J.. (2007) The Future Significance of Ecological Design. Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts
Link to Publication View Abstract
Society is faced with undergoing a fundamental redesign of its infrastructures, if it is to adapt to a post-petroleum and climate-unstable future. Ecology can provide the intellectual template for such a transformation. Through ecological design, adaptive and flexible systems can be created to support the human family and restore ecological services. Examples of ecologically engineered systems for producing energy, growing foods, treating wastes and for environmental restoration will be described. A proposal for a new ecologically based economy for Appalachian areas devastated by mountain top removal and valley fill coal mining will be outlined. The plan involves linking environmental restoration of the region to a natural resource and renewable energy based economy.
Troy, A.; Wang, D.; Capen, D.; O'Neil-Dunne, J.; MacFaden, S.. (2007) Updating the Lake Champlain Basin Land Use Data to Improve Prediction of Phosphorus Loading.. Lake Champlain Basin Program (Technical Report No. 54) 1-116
Van Koppen, B.; Unruh, J.; Souza, W.; Ali, S. H.; Goswami, A.; Nakiganda, A.; Mariyono, J.; Jones, M.; Timmer, C. P.; Balooni, K.; Oglesby, S.. (2007) Experts address the question: In your view, do agricultural subsidies in developed countries benefit or harm the majority of the poor in developing countries?. Natural Resources Forum 31(4) 318-321
Voinov, A.; Farley, J.. (2007) Reconciling sustainability, systems theory and discounting. Ecological Economics 63(1) 104-113
Link to Publication View Abstract
Most definitions of sustainability imply that a system is to be maintained at a certain level, held within certain limits, into the indefinite future. Sustainability denies run-away growth, but it also avoids any decline or destruction. This sustainability path is hard to reconcile with the renewal cycle that can be observed in many natural systems developing according to their intrinsic mechanisms and in social systems responding to internal and external pressures. Systems are parts of hierarchies where systems of higher levels are made up of subsystems from lower levels. Renewal in components is an important factor of adaptation and evolution. If a system is sustained for too long, it borrows from the sustainability of a supersystern and rests upon lack of sustainability in subsystems. Therefore by sustaining certain systems beyond their renewal cycle, we decrease the sustainability of larger, higher-level systems. For example, Schumpeter's theory of creative destruction posits that in a capitalist economy, the collapse and renewal of firms and industries is necessary to sustain the vitality of the larger economic system. However, if the capitalist economic system relies on endless growth, then sustaining it for too long will inevitably borrow from the sustainability of the global ecosystem. This could prove catastrophic for humans and other species. To reconcile sustainability with hierarchy theory, we must decide which hierarchical level in a system we want to sustain indefinitely, and accept that lower level subsystems must have shorter life spans. In economic analysis, inter-temporal discount rates essentially tell us how long we should care about sustaining any given system. Economists distinguish between discount rates for individuals based on personal time preference, lower discount rates for firms based on the opportunity cost of capital, and even lower discount rates for society. For issues affecting even higher-level systems, such as global climate change, many economists question the suitability of discounting future values at all. We argue that to reconcile sustainability with inter-temporal discounting, discount rates should be determined by the hierarchical level of the system being analyzed. (C) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wollenberg, E.; Iwan, R.; Limberg, G.; Moeliono, M.; Rhee, S.; Sudana, M.. (2007) Facilitating cooperation during times of chaos: Spontaneous orders and muddling through in Malinau District, Indonesia. Ecology and Society 12(1)
Link to Publication View Abstract
Adaptive management has become increasingly common where natural resource managers face complex and uncertain conditions. The collaboration required among managers and others to do adaptive management, however, is not always easy to achieve. We describe efforts to work with villagers and government officials in Malinau, East Kalimantan Indonesia, where a weak, uncertain institutional setting and complex shifting political landscape made formal cooperation among these groups for forest management problematic. Through successive trials, the team learned instead to work with and enhance a "spontaneous order" of cooperation using four tactics: (1) continuous physical presence, (2) regular contact with the people who advised and were close to major decision makers, (3) maintenance of multiple programs to fit the needs of different interest groups, and (4) hyperflexibility in resource allocation and schedules.
Wollenberg, E.; Merino, L.; Agrawal, A.; Ostrom, E.. (2007) Fourteen years of monitoring community-managed forests: learning from IFRI's experience. International Forestry Review 9(2) 670-684
Link to Publication View Abstract
Although community managed forests constitute a significant proportion of the worlds' forests, there is little information about their condition or how they are managed. The International Forestry Resources and Institutions (IFRI) network is a research programme established in 1992 to collect interdisciplinary information about forest sustainability and governance. IFRI is unique in terms of the large number of small-scale sites monitored (more than 350 communities and 9000 forest plots) for more than a decade, under the guidance of strong central leadership, a well defined research framework, relative autonomy of network members, and a strong inward focus. These features have enabled IFRI to have particular impacts on new knowledge, policy and local communities, and capacity building. Lessons about how to further strengthen, extend and sustain these impacts include developing more robust agreement about measures of forest sustainability, building network members' capacities to conduct comparative analysis, ensuring the database meets the needs of Multiple users and expanding the membership and outreach of the network.
Zencey, Eric. (2007) Labyrinthitis and Postmodernism. The North American Review; University of Northern Iowa, New York, NY. 292(5) 41-44
Zhang, W.; Ricketts, T. H.; Kremen, C.; Carney, K.; Swinton, S. M.. (2007) Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecological Economics 64(2) 253-260
Link to Publication View Abstract
Agricultural ecosystems are actively managed by humans to optimize the provision of food, fiber, and fuel. These ecosystem services from agriculture, classified as provisioning services by the recent Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, depend in turn upon a web of supporting and regulating services as inputs to production (e.g., soil fertility and pollination). Agriculture also receives ecosystem dis-services that reduce productivity or increase production costs (e.g., herbivory and competition for water and nutrients by undesired species). The flows of these services and dis-services directly depend on how agricultural ecosystems are managed and upon the diversity, composition, and functioning of remaining natural ecosystems in the landscape. Managing agricultural landscapes to provide sufficient supporting and regulating ecosystem. services and fewer dis-services will require research that is policy-relevant, multidisciplinary and collaborative. This paper focuses on how ecosystem services contribute to agricultural productivity and how ecosystem dis-services detract from it. We first describe the major services and dis-services as well as their key mediators. We then explore the importance of scale and economic externalities for the management of ecosystem service provision to agriculture. Finally, we discuss outstanding issues in regard to improving the management of ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
2006
Ali, S. H.; Grewal, A. S.. (2006) The ecology and economy of indigenous resistance: Divergent perspectives on mining in New Caledonia. Contemporary Pacific 18(2) 361-392
Link to Publication View Abstract
Mineral development in remote parts of the world has become a major focus of environmental and social resistance movements. Despite the economic benefits that may accrue for local people, the impact of such projects is increasingly being questioned, particularly by indigenous communities. However, there are ways by which amicable and effective resolutions to development disagreements can be achieved despite cultural differences between the developer and the community. Using qualitative research methods, this article presents a comparative analysis of two mining projects on the Pacific island of New Caledonia where the indigenous Kanak community has shown differentiation in their response to the two projects. Our analysis shows that the project encountering less resistance has more effectively embraced principles of transparency, flexibility, and indigenous ownership. Our analysis suggests that mineral developers operating on indigenous lands should consider the power of process in reaching agreements rather than erroneously assuming that litigation or buyouts are inevitable. Such an approach is likely to reach more sustainable solutions to development in remote indigenous communities.
Ali, S.. (2006) Gold mining and the golden rule: a challenge for producers and consumers in developing countries. Journal of Cleaner Production 14 455-462
Link to Publication View Abstract
The environmental and social impact of gold mining is particularly acute and hence there has been a call on the part of numerous activists to reconsider the necessity of mining this metal when more supplies of gold are above than below ground. This is especially true since gold is eminently recyclable and is primarily used for ornamentation. However, the key issue with regard to the gold industry is that unlike most luxury commodities, the largest areas of gold consumption are found in impoverished developing countries. Cultural factors play an important role in gold consumption and Western anti-mining activists are often tepid on this issue to avoid being blamed for lack of sensitivity. Yet, if developing countries are to accuse developed countries of overconsumption and resulting environmental impacts, they must also evaluate their own consumption patterns of gold. This paper explores the ways in which this issue can be approached as an integrated societal concern. By following these measures, both developed and developing countries can avoid breaking the ‘‘golden rule’’ of personal accountability and reduce the potential for conflict.
Burgess, N. D.; Hales, J. D.; Ricketts, T. H.; Dinerstein, E.. (2006) Factoring species, non-species values and threats into biodiversity prioritisation across the ecoregions of Africa and its islands. Biological Conservation 127(4) 383-401
Link to Publication View Abstract
Biodiversity in Africa, Madagascar and smaller surrounding islands is both globally extraordinary and increasingly threatened. However, to date no analyses have effectively integrated species values (e.g., richness, endemism) 'non-species' values (e.g., migrations, intact assemblages), and threats into a single assessment of conservation priorities. We present such an analysis for the 119 ecoregions of Africa, Madagascar and smaller islands. Biodiversity is not evenly distributed across Africa and patterns vary somewhat among taxonomic groups. Analyses of most vertebrates (i.e., birds, mammals, amphibians) tend to identify one set of priority ecoregions, while plants, reptiles, and invertebrates highlight additional areas. 'Non-species' biological values are not correlated with species measures and thus indicate another set of ecoregions. Combining species and non-species values is therefore crucial for assembling a comprehensive portfolio of conservation priorities across Africa. Threats to biodiversity are also unevenly distributed across Africa. We calculate a synthetic threat index using remaining habitat, habitat block size, degree of habitat fragmentation, coverage within protected areas, human population density, and the extinction risk of species. This threat index is positively correlated with all three measures of biological value (i.e., richness, endemism, non-species values), indicating that threats tend to be focused on the region's most important areas for biodiversity. Integrating biological values with threats allows identification of two distinct sets of ecoregion priority. First, highly imperilled ecoregions with many narrow endemic species that require focused actions to prevent the loss of further habitat leading to the extinction of narrowly distributed endemics. Second, less threatened ecoregions that require maintenance of large and well-connected habitats that will support large-scale habitat processes and associated area-demanding species. By bringing these data together we can be much more confident that our set of conservation recommendations serves the needs of biodiversity across Africa, and that the contribution of different agencies to achieving African conservation can be firmly measured against these priorities. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Campbell, B.; Hagmann, J.; Sayer, J.; Stroud, A.; Thomas, R.; Wollenberg, E.. (2006) What kind of research and development is needed for natural resource management?. Water International 31(3) 343-360
Link to Publication View Abstract
This paper presents a set of principles and operational guide lines for research and development (R&D) to better address natural resource management problems distilled in a series of workshops with more than 150 experts and practitioners. The principles and guidelines, a number of which relate to scaling issues, are illustrated with case studies from Zimbabwe and Indonesia. The former included research on watershed management for improved small-scale irrigation, while the latter focused on work with communities that had confronted logging companies, partly because of the negative impact of logging on water quality. The principles are grouped as follows: (a) learning approaches; (b) systems approaches, and (c) organisational models. Eleven operational guidelines for implementing the approach are suggested, arranged in three clusters: (a) working together; (b) establishing the institutional and organisational framework; and (c) improving the approaches to suit the task. The elements and strategies for two of these cornerstones (collaborative partnerships and scaling-up and scaling-out) are illustrated to indicate the quality needed to achieve appropriate implementation of the R&D approach.
Cianfrani, C. M.; Hession, W. C.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2006) Watershed imperviousness impacts on stream channel condition in southeastern Pennsylvania. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION 42(4) 941-956
Link to Publication View Abstract
Forty-six independent stream reaches in southeastern Pennsylvania were surveyed to assess the relationships between geomorphic and habitat variables and watershed total impervious area (TIA) and to test the ability of the impervious cover model (ICM) to predict the impervious category based on stream reach variables, Ten variables were analyzed using simple and multivariate statistical techniques including scatterplots, Spearman's Rank correlations, principal components analysis (PICA), and discriminant analysis (DA). Graphical analysis suggested differences in the response to TIA between the stream reaches with less than 13 percent TIA and those with greater than 24 percent TIA. Spearman's Rank correlations showed significant relationships for large woody debris and sinuosity when analyzing the entire dataset and for depth diversity and the standard deviation of maximum pool depths when analyzing stream reaches with greater than 24 percent TIA. Classification into the ICM using DA was 49 percent accurate; however, the stream reaches did support the ICM in other ways. These results indicate that stream reach response to urbanization may not be consistent across geographical regions and that local conditions (specifically riparian buffer vegetation) may significantly affect channel response; and the ICM, used in the appropriate context, can aid in the management of stream reaches and watersheds.
Dorioz, J.M.; Wang, D.; Poulenard, J.; Trévisan, D.. (2006) The effect of grass buffer strips on phosphorus dynamics - a critical review and synthesis as a basis for application in agricultural landscapes in France.. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment (117) 4-21
Link to Publication View Abstract
Recommending the use of ‘‘grass buffer strips’’ to control diffuse P transfer has become well accepted among extension advisors, agricultural consultants, planners, and other practitioners that influence the structure of the agricultural landscape. These grassed areas are put in place to capture the P contained in runoff from source fields. They are designed to function as a filter and a sediment trap although it is often unclear what the long-term disposition of the accumulated P may be. The objective of this work was to determine if the available scientific literature justifies the continued recommendation of this approach in the prevention of phosphorus movement from agricultural soils to surface waters. We employed a theoretical analysis of the mechanisms of the buffering effect and the specific behaviour of phosphorus in typical grass buffer strips to establish the critical set of literature applicable to this question. An adequate body of literature exists describing many aspects of P dynamics and the short-term functioning of grass buffer strips over their seasonal cycles. Despite variable results in a diversity of landscape contexts, overall, the use of grass buffer strips appears to provide useful short-term functions in the reduction of P transport to surface waters. Long-term benefits remain questionable given the relatively short-termuse of this approach in P reduction and the lack of long-term experimental results, but this current lack of data is not sufficient to deter the continued incorporation of grass buffer strips in the landscape of French agricultural. Additionally, a more comprehensive conceptual model integrating the shortterm functioning of grass buffer strips with seasonal cycles and the long-term consequences of cumulative storage emerged from our synthesis.
Farber, S.; Costanza, R.; Childers, D. L.; Erickson, J.; Gross, K.; Grove, M.; Hopkinson, C. S.; Kahn, J.; Pincetl, S.; Troy, A.; Warren, P.; Wilson, M.. (2006) Linking ecology and economics for ecosystem management. Bioscience 56(2) 121-133
Link to Publication View Abstract
This article outlines an approach, based on ecosystem services, for assessing the trade-offs inherent in managing humans embedded in ecological systems. Evaluating these trade-offs requires an understanding of the biophysical magnitudes of the changes in ecosystem services that result from human actions, and of the impact of these changes on human welfare. We summarize the state of the art of ecosystem services-based management and the information needs for applying it. Three case studies of Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites-coastal, urban, and agricultural-illustrate the usefulness, information needs, quantification possibilities, and methods for this approach. One example of the application of this approach, with rigorously established service changes and valuations taken front the literature, is used to illustrate the potential for full economic valuation of several agricultural landscape management options, including managing for water quality biodiversity, and crop productivity.
Farley, J.; Daly, H.. (2006) Natural capital: The limiting factor - A reply to Aronson, Blignaut, Milton and Clewell. Ecological Engineering 28(1) 6-10
Florez, J. A.; Guzman, M. A.; Ricketts, T. H.; Vandame, R.. (2006) Café y abejas: conservación y producción. Shaker Verlag GmbH, Germany. Pages 299-330;
Gates, J. E.; Dawe, N. K.; Erickson, J. D.; Farley, J. C.; Geist, V.; Hands, H.; Magee, P.; Trauger, D. L.. (2006) Perspectives on The Wildlife Society's economic growth policy statement and the development process. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(2) 507-511
Link to Publication View Abstract
On 18 September 2004, The Wildlife Society (TWS) published an official policy statement on economic growth and wildlife conservation. We believe this policy statement did not adequately address the issues. Thus, TWS missed an opportunity to lead the natural resource profession in refuting the fallacious rhetoric that "there is no conflict between economic growth and wildlife conservation" through the adoption of a strong policy statement on economic growth. Although we commend TWS Council for adopting a policy statement on economic growth, we believe the final wording contains several weaknesses. Here, we take a closer look at the statement and further evaluate how it might be strengthened in the future.
Herendeen, R. A.. (2006) Prospective/retrospective on strategies. Energy 31(1) 3-9
Link to Publication View Abstract
This contains my goals for, and reactions to, the Panel on 'Strategies' at the Workshop, 'Advances in Energy Studies: Exploring Supplies, Constraints, and Strategies', 23-27 May 2000, Porto Venere, Italy. The very ambitious goals for the four speakers were not fully realized; hence my reactions are also goals for future work. I propose and discuss specific topics and techniques that are appropriately addressed by energy analysts. Several of these stretch in new directions, or, more typically, towards wider purview over global impacts and equity issues. (c) 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hess, G. R.; Bartel, R. A.; Leidner, A. K.; Rosenfeld, K. M.; Rubino, M. J.; Snider, S. B.; Ricketts, T. H.. (2006) Effectiveness of biodiversity indicators varies with extent, grain, and region. Biological Conservation 132(4) 448-457
Link to Publication View Abstract
The use of indicator taxa for conservation planning is common, despite inconsistent evidence regarding their effectiveness. These inconsistencies may be the result of differences among species and taxonomic groups studied, geographic location, or scale of analysis. The scale of analysis can be defined by grain and extent, which are often confounded. Grain is the size of each observational unit and extent is the size of the entire study area. Using species occurrence records compiled by NatureServe from survey data, range maps, and expert opinion, we examined correlations in species richness between each of seven taxa (amphibians, birds, butterflies, freshwater fish, mammals, freshwater mussels, and reptiles) and total richness of the remaining six taxa at varying grains and extents in two regions of the US (Mid-Atlantic and Pacific Northwest). We examined four different spatial units of interest: hexagon (similar to 649 km(2)), subecoregion (3800-34,000 km(2)), ecoregion (8300 - 79,000 km(2)), and geographic region (315,000-426,000 km(2)). We analyzed the correlations with varying extent of analysis (grain held constant at the hexagon) and varying grain (extent held constant at the region). The strength of correlation among taxa was context dependent, varying widely with grain, extent, region, and taxon. This suggests that (1) taxon, grain, extent, and study location explain, in part, inconsistent results of previous studies; (2) planning based on indicator relationships developed at other grains or extents should be undertaken cautiously; and (3) planning based on indicator relationships developed in other geographic locations is risky, even if planning occurs at an equivalent grain and extent. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keeton, W. S.. (2006) Managing for late-successional/old-growth characteristics in northern hardwood-conifer forests. Forest Ecology and Management 235(1-3) 129-142
Link to Publication View Abstract
In the northern hardwood region of North America managing for late-successional forest habitats and functions is an important element of ecosystem management. This study tests the hypothesis that uneven-aged practices can be modified to accelerate rates of late-successional forest development. An approach, termed "structural complexity enhancement" (SCE), is compared against conventional uneven-aged systems modified to increase post-harvest structural retention. Experimental treatments, including controls, were applied to 2 ha units and replicated at two multi-aged northern hardwood forests in Vermont, USA. Structural objectives include vertically differentiated canopies, elevated large snag and downed log densities, variable horizontal density (including small gaps), and re-allocation of basal area to larger diameter classes. The latter objective is achieved, in part, by cutting to a rotated sigmoid diameter distribution. This is generated from a basal area (34 m(2) ha(-1)) and tree size (90 cm dbh) indicative of old-growth structure. Forest structure data have been collected over 2 years pre-treatment and 3 years post-treatment. Fifty-year simulations of stand development were run in NE-TWIGS and FVS comparing treatment and no treatment scenarios. Simulations also tested the sensitivity of large tree development to prescription parameters. Leaf area index retention was spatially variable but significantly (P < 0.001) greater under SCE (91%) compared to conventional treatments (75%). Post-harvest aboveground biomass (P = 0.041), total basal area (P = 0.010), and stem density (P = 0.025) were significantly different among treatments, with SCE generally retaining more structure than conventional treatments. SCE increased coarse woody debris volumes by 140%; there was a 30% increase under conventional treatments. SCE successfully achieved the rotated sigmoid diameter distributions, and sustained these 50 years into the future, resulting in reallocated basal area. Cumulative basal area increments are projected to increase by 3.7 and 5.0 m(2) ha(-1) compared to no treatment scenarios for SCE and conventional treatments, respectively. Basal areas will be significantly (P = 0.025) greater after 50 years in SCE units due to higher residual basal areas. Conventional treatments are projected to produce 10 fewer large trees per hectare (> 50 cm dbh) than would have developed without treatment, whereas SCE is likely to recruit five more large trees per hectare than the no treatment scenario. Large tree recruitment rates were related primarily to the form of residual diameter distributions (P = 0.006) and, possibly, to maximum diameter limits. Late-successional characteristics in northem-hardwood systems can be promoted through a variety of modified uneven-aged silvicultural approaches based on the results. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keller, C.K.; O'Brien, R.; Havig, J.R.; Smith, J.L.; Bormann, B.T.; Wang, D.. (2006) Tree harvest in an experimental sand ecosystem: Plant effects on nutrient dynamics and solute generation.. Ecosystems 9 634-646
Link to Publication View Abstract
The hydrochemical signatures of forested ecosystems are known to be determined by a timevariant combination of physical-hydrologic, geochemical, and biologic processes. We studied subsurface potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and nitrate (NO3) in an experimental red -pine mesocosm to determine how trees affect the behavior of these nutrients in soil water, both during growth and after a harvest disturbance. Solution chemistry was monitored for 2 years at the end of a 15-year period of tree growth, and then for 3 more years after harvest and removal of aboveground biomass. Concentrations were characterized by three distinct temporal patterns that we ascribe to changes in solute generation mechanisms. Prior to harvest, K soilwater concentrations were relatively uniform with depth, whereas Ca soil-water concentrations doubled with depth. Nitrate concentrations were below detection in soil water and discharge (drainage) water. Plant uptake and water/nutrient cycling exerted strong control during this interval. During the 1st year after harvest, K concentrations tripled in shallow soil water, relative to preharvest levels, and showed a strong seasonal peak in discharge that mimicked soil temperature. Summer soil temperatures and annual water flux also increased. Decomposition of labile litter, with complete nitrogen (N) immobilization, characterized this interval. In the third interval (years 2 and 3 after harvest), decomposition shifted from N to carbon (C) limitation, and Ca and NO3 concentrations in discharge spiked to nearly 200 and 400 lM, respectively. Relatively stable ionic strength and carbonate chemistry in discharge, throughout the study period, indicate that carbonic-acid weathering was sustained by belowground decomposition long after the harvest. This stable chemical weathering regime, along with the persistence of N limitation for a long period after disturbance, may be characteristic of early-phase primary-successional systems.
Khagram, S.; Ali, S.. (2006) Environment and Security. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31 395-411
Link to Publication View Abstract
A broadening research program focused on environment and security emerged over the past 30 years. But the meaning and operationalization of environment and security have been an implicit and increasingly explicit part of the scholarly debate. Approaches range from the more specific focus on the linkages between environmental change and violent (deadly) conflict, the possible role of environmental conservation, cooperation, and collaboration in promoting peace, and the broader focus on potential relationships between environmental change and human security (understood as freedom from both violent conflict and physical want). In addition to the different conceptions of environment and security, the type and direction of causal relationships among different factors continue to be a focus of research. With respect to the environment and violent conflict, which constitute the largest explicit research stream on environment and security, the debate has centered on whether and why environmental scarcity, abundance, or dependence might cause militarized conflict. Less research has been conducted on the environmental effects of violent conflict and war or traditional security institutions such as militaries and military-industrial complexes. Rigorous research on the consequences of peace or human security for the environment is virtually nonexistent.
Kobos, P. H.; Erickson, J. D.; Drennen, T. E.. (2006) Technological learning and renewable energy costs: implications for US renewable energy policy. Energy Policy 34(13) 1645-1658
Link to Publication View Abstract
This paper analyzes the relationship between current renewable energy technology costs and cumulative production, research, development and demonstration expenditures, and other institutional influences. Combining the theoretical framework of 'learning by doing' and developments in 'learning by searching' with the fields of organizational learning and institutional economics offers a complete methodological framework to examine the underlying capital cost trajectory when developing electricity cost estimates used in energy policy planning models. Sensitivities of the learning rates for global wind and solar photovoltaic technologies to changes in the model parameters are tested. The implications of the results indicate that institutional policy instruments play an important role for these technologies to achieve cost reductions and further market adoption. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Koliba, C. J.; Campbell, E. K.; Shapiro, C.. (2006) The practice of service learning in local school-community contexts. Educational Policy 20(5) 683-717
Link to Publication View Abstract
In this article, the authors set out to examine the ways in which service learning is practiced, perceived, and sustained in school settings. Drawing on extensive qualitative case studies, the authors highlight three cases of schools at varying levels of integration of service into their curriculum. Their history of offering service learning is summarized. Participant perceptions regarding the role of service learning in student learning and concerns regarding the relationship between service learning and student academic achievement are explored. The authors conclude that service learning is practiced amidst a series of complex, and often times conflicting, assumptions regarding the alms of education and the proper formats through which student achievement should be assessed.
Lamoreux, J. F.; Morrison, J. C.; Ricketts, T. H.; Olson, D. M.; Dinerstein, E.; McKnight, M. W.; Shugart, H. H.. (2006) Global tests of biodiversity concordance and the importance of endemism. Nature 440(7081) 212-214
Link to Publication View Abstract
Understanding patterns of biodiversity distribution is essential to conservation strategies(1), but severe data constraints make surrogate measures necessary(2-4). For this reason, many studies have tested the performance of terrestrial vertebrates as surrogates for overall species diversity, but these tests have typically been limited to a single taxon or region(3-10). Here we show that global patterns of richness are highly correlated among amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, as are endemism patterns. Furthermore, we demonstrate that although the correlation between global richness and endemism is low, aggregate regions selected for high levels of endemism capture significantly more species than expected by chance. Although areas high in endemism have long been targeted for the protection of narrow-ranging species(11,12), our findings provide evidence that endemism is also a useful surrogate for the conservation of all terrestrial vertebrates.
McKenny, H. C.; Keeton, W. S.; Donovan, T. M.. (2006) Effects of structural complexity enhancement on eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) populations in northern hardwood forests. Forest Ecology and Management 230(1-3) 186-196
Link to Publication View Abstract
Managing for stand structural complexity in northern hardwood forests has been proposed as a method for promoting microhabitat characteristics important to eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus). We evaluated the effects of alternate, structure-based silvicultural systems on red-backed salamander populations at two research sites in northwestern Vermont. Treatments included two uneven-aged approaches (single-tree selection and group-selection) and one unconventional approach, termed "structural complexity enhancement" (SCE), that promotes development of late-successional structure, including elevated levels of coarse woody debris (CWD). Treatments were applied to 2 ha units and were replicated two to four times depending on treatment. We surveyed red-backed salamanders with a natural cover search method of transects nested within vegetation plots 1 year after logging. Abundance estimates corrected for detection probability were calculated from survey data with a binomial mixture model. Abundance estimates differed between study areas and were influenced by forest structural characteristics. Model selection was conducted using Akaike Information Criteria, corrected for over-dispersed data and small sample size (QAIC(c)). We found no difference in abundance as a response to treatment as a whole, suggesting that all of the uneven-aged silvicultural systems evaluated can maintain salamander populations after harvest. However, abundance was tied to specific structural habitat attributes associated with study plots within treatments. The most parsimonious model of habitat covariates included site, relative density of overstory trees, and density of more-decayed and less-decayed downed CWD. Abundance responded positively to the density of downed, well-decayed CWD and negatively to the density of poorly decayed CWD and to overstory relative density. CWD volume was not a strong predictor of salamander abundance. We conclude that structural complexity enhancement and the two uneven-aged approaches maintained important microhabitat characteristics for red-backed salamander populations in the short term. Over the long-term, given decay processes as a determinant of biological availability, forestry practices such as SCE that enhance CWD availability and recruitment may result in associated population responses. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mulder, K.; Costanza, R.; Erickson, J.. (2006) The contribution of built, human, social and natural capital to quality of life in intentional and unintentional communities. Ecological Economics 59(1) 13-23
Link to Publication View Abstract
Ecovillages, co-housing communities, and other types of intentional communities (ICs) have proliferated in recent years. There are currently several thousands of these communities worldwide and their numbers are increasing rapidly. We surveyed a subset of these communities to learn more about their characteristics, including their world view or vision, the status of four basic types of capital (built, human, social, and natural), and the quality of life (QoL) they provide for their residents. Survey results indicate that ICs have a better balance between built, human, social, and natural capital than unintentional communities (based on a parallel survey of neighborhoods in Burlington, VT, USA) and that this results in a higher QoL among residents. It is difficult to assess the sustainability of ICs, but the data indicates that within ICs, social capital is substituted for built capital thereby reducing the level of material throughput. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Naidoo, R.; Balmford, A.; Ferraro, P. J.; Polasky, S.; Ricketts, T. H.; Rouget, M.. (2006) Integrating economic costs into conservation planning. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21(12) 681-687
Link to Publication View Abstract
Recent studies that incorporate the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs in conservation planning have shown that limited budgets can achieve substantially larger biological gains than when planning ignores costs. Despite concern from donors about the effectiveness of conservation interventions, these increases in efficiency from incorporating costs into planning have not yet been widely recognized. Here, we focus on what these costs are, why they are important to consider, how they can be quantified and the benefits of their inclusion in priority setting. The most recent work in the field has examined the degree to which dynamics and threat affect the outcomes of conservation planning. We assess how costs fit into this new framework and consider prospects for integrating them into conservation planning.
Naidoo, R.; Ricketts, T. H.. (2006) Mapping the economic costs and benefits of conservation. Plos Biology 4(11) 2153-2164
Link to Publication View Abstract
Resources for biodiversity conservation are severely limited, requiring strategic investment. Understanding both the economic benefits and costs of conserving ecosystems will help to allocate scarce dollars most efficiently. However, although cost-benefit analyses are common in many areas of policy, they are not typically used in conservation planning. We conducted a spatial evaluation of the costs and benefits of conservation for a landscape in the Atlantic forests of Paraguay. We considered five ecosystem services ( i.e., sustainable bushmeat harvest, sustainable timber harvest, bioprospecting for pharmaceutical products, existence value, and carbon storage in aboveground biomass) and compared them to estimates of the opportunity costs of conservation. We found a high degree of spatial variability in both costs and benefits over this relatively small (similar to 3,000 km(2)) landscape. Benefits exceeded costs in some areas, with carbon storage dominating the ecosystem service values and swamping opportunity costs. Other benefits associated with conservation were more modest and exceeded costs only in protected areas and indigenous reserves. We used this cost-benefit information to show that one potential corridor between two large forest patches had net benefits that were three times greater than two otherwise similar alternatives. Spatial cost-benefit analysis can powerfully inform conservation planning, even though the availability of relevant data may be limited, as was the case in our study area. It can help us understand the synergies between biodiversity conservation and economic development when the two are indeed aligned and to clearly understand the trade-offs when they are not.
Palumbi, S. R.; Roman, J.. (2006) The history of whales read from DNA. University of Califonia Press, Berkley, CA. Pages 102-115;
Ricketts, T.; Williams, N.; Mayfield, M. M.. (2006) Connectivity and ecosystem services: crop pollination in fragmented landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.. Pages 712;
Rizzo, D. M.; Mouser, P. J.; Whitney, D. H.; Mark, C. D.; Magarey, R. D.; Voinov, A. A.. (2006) The comparison of four dynamic systems-based software packages: Translation and sensitivity analysis. Environmental Modelling & Software 21(10) 1491-1502
Link to Publication View Abstract
Dynamic model development for describing complex ecological systems continues to grow in popularity. For both academic research and project management, understanding the benefits and limitations of systems-based software could improve the accuracy of results and enlarge the user audience. A Surface Wetness Energy Balance (SWEB) model for canopy surface wetness has been translated into four software packages and their strengths and weaknesses were compared based on 'novice' user interpretations. We found expression-based models such as Simulink and GoldSim with Expressions were able to model the SWEB more accurately; however, stock and flow-based models such as STELLA, Madonna, and GoldSim with Flows provided the user a better conceptual understanding of the ecologic system. Although the original objective of this study was to identify an 'appropriate' software package for predicting canopy surface wetness using SWEB, our outcomes suggest that many factors must be considered by the stakeholders when selecting a model because the modeling software becomes part of the model and of the calibration process. These constraints may include user demographics, budget limitations, built-in sensitivity and optimization tools, and the preference of user friendliness vs. computational power. Furthermore, the multitude of closed proprietary software may present a disservice to the modeling community, creating model artifacts that originate somewhere deep inside the undocumented features of the software, and masking the underlying properties of the model. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roman, J.. (2006) Bon Appetít. Conservation in Practice (January-March 2006) 22-27
Roman, J.. (2006) Diluting the founder effect: cryptic invasions expand a marine invader's range. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 273(1600) 2453-2459
Link to Publication View Abstract
Most invasion histories include an estimated arrival time, followed by range expansion. Yet, such linear progression may not tell the entire story. The European green crab (Carcinus maenas) was first recorded in the US in 1817, followed by an episodic expansion of range to the north. Its population has recently exploded in the Canadian Maritimes. Although it has been suggested that this northern expansion is the result of warming sea temperatures or cold-water adaptation, Canadian populations have higher genetic diversity than southern populations, indicating that multiple introductions have occurred in the Maritimes since the 1980s. These new genetic lineages, probably from the northern end of the green crab's native range in Europe, persist in areas that were once thought to be too cold for the original southern invasion front. It is well established that ballast water can contain a wide array of nonindigenous species. Ballast discharge can also deliver genetic variation on a level comparable to that of native populations. Such gene flow not only increases the likelihood of persistence of invasive species, but it can also rapidly expand the range of long-established nonindigenous species.
Roman, J.. (2006) Whale. Reaktion Books, London, UK. Pages 240;
Rossman, A. J.; Hayden, N. J.; Rizzo, D. M.. (2006) Low-temperature soil heating using renewable energy. Journal of Environmental Engineering-Asce 132(5) 537-544
Link to Publication View Abstract
Data from a pilot study, in which renewable energy was used for low-temperature subsurface heating in a northern climate, suggests that such an approach may be useful for remediating low permeable soils. Low-temperature soil heating is expected to enhance remediation effectiveness by increasing contaminant volatility, diffusion, desorption, and microbiological activity. Direct and indirect solar energy was harvested with a hybrid photovoltaic/wind electric system. The electrical energy generated by the hybrid renewable energy system was distributed to the subsurface using a control system and wire, then converted to heat energy using a resistive element emplaced in, an unsaturated silty layer 2.3 m below grade. Renewable energy system performance, soil temperature, and environmental data were collected. Ambient soil temperatures fluctuated seasonally within the silt layer from 4 to 15 degrees C. The small renewable energy system performed As predicted and injected 441 kWh of energy into the soil over the eight-month study. This energy input translated to increased soil temperatures ranging from 7.7 to 19.4 degrees C and from 3.3 to 4.3 degrees C above ambient at distances 0.3 and 0.9 m from the heating well, respectively. The system supplied sufficient heat to maintain soil temperatures above ambient even in winter in Vermont, where low direct solar energy was available and sustained low ambient temperatures prevail.
Wollenberg, E.; Colchester, M.; Mbugua, G.; Griffiths, T.. (2006) Linking social movements: how international networks can better support community action about forests. International Forestry Review 8(2) 265-272
Link to Publication View Abstract
International networks in community forestry face challenges in linking with local social movements. We examine four efforts of international networks to overcome these challenges and better link with local people in Peru, Brazil, India and Kenya. The examples demonstrate that the networks created effective links by making funds available for meetings and local data collection; providing international analyses that helped people understand their own situation better; sharing strategies for media, policy and letter campaigns; helping to disseminate information about local people's priorities, providing independent assessments and building local people's confidence. Efforts to improve communications technologies required a better understanding of local conditions. Networks will be more relevant to local movements to the extent that they are regularly active at the local level, can respond flexibly to local needs and small-scale events, and work with an array of national partners. The effectiveness of networks in carrying out these tasks may require a careful balance between linking to versus working at the local level.
Wollenberg, E.; Moeliono, M.; Limberg, G.; Iwan, R.; Rhee, S.; Sudana, M.. (2006) Between state and society: Local governance of forests in Malinau, Indonesia. Forest Policy and Economics 8(4) 421-433
Link to Publication View Abstract
Decentralization in post-Soeharto Indonesia has not only changed state and society relations at the local level, but brought increased control over forests at the district level. Local social forces gained more influence because of their close relations with local government and acted to limit the local government. In this article we use the case of Malinau, East Kalimantan Indonesia to show how the new local autonomy over forests played a role in the rise of new local political orders. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zia, A.; Norton, B. G.; Noonan, D. S.; Rodgers, M. O.; DeHart-Davis, L.. (2006) A quasi-experimental evaluation of high-emitter non-compliance and its impact on vehicular tailpipe emissions in Atlanta, 1997-2001. Transportation Research Part D-Transport and Environment 11(1) 77-96
Link to Publication View Abstract
A quasi-experimental evaluation is employed to assess the compliance behavior of high emitters in response to Atlanta's Inspection and Maintenance program between 1997 and 2001 and to predict the impact of compliance behavior on vehicular tailpipe emissions of ozone precursors, such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide. Remote sensing data of a sample of approximately 0.8 million observations of on-road vehicles are matched with IM program data and vehicle registration data to identify the compliant and non-compliant high emitters. A mixed-pool time-series regression analysis is carried out to predict changes in the vehicular tailpipe emissions due to the compliance and non-compliance of the high emitters in the Atlanta airshed. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
2005
Anau, N; Iwan, R; Heist, M van; Limberg, G; Sudana, M; Wollenberg, E; Colfer, CJP. (2005) Negotiating more than boundaries in Indonesia. The equitable forest: diversity, community and resource management Pages 19-41;
View Abstract
The village-to-village coordination in Malinau, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, is the focus of this chapter, since it has received little attention, yet a fundamental to multi-stakeholders processes. This chapter also examines whether the principles guiding more formal and complex multi-stakeholder processes were relevant to intervillage coordination, where fewer people were involved and they lived together with greater familiarity, more of a moral economy and stronger kin obligations. The conditions that facilitate coordination of interests within and among villages and the local people's concepts of conflict and agreement and how these might be changing during the reform period are discussed. The work focused on village boundary demarcation as a means of land use coordination and as a tangible source of conflict about which agreements could be negotiated.
Balmford, A.; Bennun, L.; ten Brink, B.; Cooper, D.; Cote, I. M.; Crane, P.; Dobson, A.; Dudley, N.; Dutton, I.; Green, R. E.; Gregory, R. D.; Harrison, J.; Kennedy, E. T.; Kremen, C.; Leader-Williams, N.; Lovejoy, T. E.; Mace, G.; May, R.; Mayaux, P.; Morling, P.; Phillips, J.; Redford, K.; Ricketts, T. H.; Rodriguez, J. P.; Sanjayan, M.; Schei, P. J.; van Jaarsveld, A. S.; Walther, B. A.. (2005) The convention on biological diversity's 2010 target. Science 307(5707) 212-213
Beard, K. H.; Wang, D.; Waite, C. E.; Decker, K. L. M.; Hawley, G. J.; DeHayes, D. D.; Hughes, J. W.; Cumming, J. R.. (2005) Quantifying ecosystem controls and their contextual interactions on nutrient export from developing forest mesocosms. Ecosystems 8(2) 210-224
Link to Publication View Abstract
The complexity of natural ecosystems makes it difficult to compare the relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors and to assess the effects of their interactions on ecosystem development. To improve our understanding of ecosystem complexity, we initiated an experiment designed to quantify the main effects and interactions of several factors that are thought to affect nutrient export from developing forest ecosystems. Using a replicated 2 x 2 x 4 factorial experiment, we quantified the main effects of these factors and the factor interactions on annual calcium, magnesium, and potassium export from field mesocosms over 4 years for two Vermont locations, two soils, and four different tree seedling communities. We found that the main effects explained 56%-97% of total variation in nutrient export. Abiotic factors (location and soil) accounted for a greater percentage of the total variation in nutrient export (47%-94%) than the biotic factor (plant community) (2%-15%). However, biotic control over nutrient export was significant, even when biomass was minimal. Factor interactions were often significant, but they explained less of the variation in nutrient export (1%-33%) than the main effects. Year-to-year fluctuations influenced the relative importance of the main effects in determining nutrient export and created factor interactions between most of the explanatory variables. Our study suggests that when research is focused on typically used main effects, such as location and soil, and interactions are aggregated into overall error terms, important information about the factors controlling ecosystem processes can be lost.
Bowen, B. W.; Roman, J.. (2005) Gaia's handmaidens: the Orlog model for conservation biology. Conservation Biology 19(4) 1037-1043
Link to Publication View Abstract
The Gaia hypothesis, which proposes that Earth's biota and material environment form a self-regulating system, has been influential in conservation biology, but it has not translated into specific guidelines. Proponents of phylogenetics and ecology often claim primacy over the foundations of conservation biology, a debate that has deep roots in philosophy and science. A more recent claim is that conservation efforts should protect evolutionary processes that will allow diversification. Phylogenetics, ecology, and evolution all have legitimate roles in conservation, when viewed in a temporal perspective. Phylogenetic studies identify the bioheritage of past species radiations, ecology preserves the life-support systems for these lineages in the present, and evolutionary processes allow adaptation of these lineages to novel challenges in the future. The concept of temporal domains in conservation (past, present, future) has an appropriate metaphor in the Norse worldview known as the Orlog. In this body of mythology, three sisters tend the tree of life and fend off a dragon gnawing at the roots. The names of these sisters, Urd, Verdandi, and Skuld, translate to Past, Present, and Future. In Viking mythology, the threads of life cannot persist without the cooperation of these sisters. In the science of conservation biology, they represent the handmaidens of Gaia-three scientific disciplines that can succeed only with a spirit of familial cooperation.
Chokkalingam, Unna; Sabogal, Cesar; Almeida, Everaldo; Carandang, AntonioP; Gumartini, Tini; Jong, Wil; Brienza, Silvio, Jr.; Lopez, AbelMeza; Murniati,; Nawir, AniAdiwinata; Wibowo, LukasRumboko; Toma, Takeshi; Wollenberg, Eva; Zaizhi, Zhou. (2005) Local Participation, Livelihood Needs, and Institutional Arrangements: Three Keys to Sustainable Rehabilitation of Degraded Tropical Forest Lands. Springer New York, Washington, D. C.. Pages 405-414;
Czech, B.; Trauger, D. L.; Farley, J.; Costanza, R.; Daly, H. E.; Hall, C. A. S.; Noss, R. F.; Krall, L.; Krausman, P. R.. (2005) Establishing indicators for biodiversity. Science 308(5723) 791-792
DeFries, R.; Pagiola, S.; Adamowicz, W. L.; Akcakaya, H. R.; Arcenas, A.; Babu, S.; Balk, D.; Confalonieri, U.; Cramer, W.; Falconi, F.; Fritz, S.; Green, R.; Gutierrez-Espeleta, E.; Hamilton, K.; Kane, R.; Latham, J.; Matthews, E.; Ricketts, T.; Yue, T. X.. (2005) Analytical approaches for assessing ecosystem condition and human well-being. Island Press, Washington, D. C.. Pages 917;
Fisher, B.; Costanza, R.. (2005) Regional commitment to reducing emissions - Local policy in the United States goes some way towards countering anthropogenic climate change. Nature 438(7066) 301-302
Gowdy, J.; Erickson, J. D.. (2005) The approach of ecological economics. Cambridge Journal of Economics 29(2) 207-222
Link to Publication View Abstract
This paper discusses the major tenets of ecological economics-including value pluralism, methodological pluralism and multi-criteria policy assessment. Ecological economics offers viable alternatives to the theoretical foundations and policy recommendations of neoclassical welfare economics. A revolution in neoclassical economics is currently taking place, and the core assumptions of welfare economics are being replaced with more realistic models of consumer and firm behaviour. This paper argues that these new theoretical and empirical findings are largely ignored in applied work and policy applications in environmental economics. As the only heterodox school of economics focusing on the human economy both as a social system and as one imbedded in the biophysical universe, and thus both holistic and scientifically based, ecological economics is poised to play a leading role in recasting the scope and method of economic science.
Gowdy, J.; Erickson, J.. (2005) Ecological economics at a crossroads. Ecological Economics 53(1) 17-20
Hoekstra, J. M.; Boucher, T. M.; Ricketts, T. H.; Roberts, C.. (2005) Confronting a biome crisis: global disparities of habitat loss and protection. Ecology Letters 8(1) 23-29
Link to Publication View Abstract
Human impacts on the natural environment have reached such proportions that in addition to an 'extinction crisis', we now also face a broader 'biome crisis'. Here we identify the world's terrestrial biomes and, at a finer spatial scale, ecoregions in which biodiversity and ecological function are at greatest risk because of extensive habitat conversion and limited habitat protection. Habitat conversion exceeds habitat protection by a ratio of 8 : 1 in temperate grasslands and Mediterranean biomes, and 10 : 1 in more than 140 ecoregions. These regions include some of the most biologically distinctive, species rich ecosystems on Earth, as well as the last home of many threatened and endangered species. Confronting the biome crisis requires a concerted and comprehensive response aimed at protecting not only species, but the variety of landscapes, ecological interactions, and evolutionary pressures that sustain biodiversity, generate ecosystem services, and evolve new species in the future.
Jennings, N.; Swidler, S.; Koliba, C.. (2005) Place-based education in the standards-based reform era - Conflict or complement?. American Journal of Education 112(1) 44-65
Link to Publication View Abstract
In this article we discuss the relationship between place-based education and standards-based reforms. Using an initiative in Vermont to include place-based standards into the state's curricular frameworks, we examine state policy makers' and practitioners' views of state standards and place-based curriculum. Furthermore, we explore the ways in which the practitioners view the impact of both of these curricular efforts on their classroom practices. We challenge the common view of incompatibility between state standards and locally responsive curriculum and offer instead a view of complementarity.
Keeton, W. S.; Franklin, J. F.. (2005) Do remnant old-growth trees accelerate rates of succession in mature Douglas-fir forests?. Ecological Monographs 75(1) 103-118
Link to Publication View Abstract
Biological legacies left by natural disturbances provide ecological functions throughout forest stand development, but their influences on processes of ecological succession are not completely understood. We investigated the successional role of one type of biological legacy: remnant old-growth trees persisting in mature Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) forests in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. We tested the hypothesis that remnant old-growth Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock) and Thuja plicata (western red cedar) trees enhance the reestablishment of shade-tolerant conifers by increasing the availability of seed. Reestablishment of shade-tolerant conifers is a key process in late-successional forest development because it leads to vertical differentiation of the canopy and eventual codominance of shade-tolerant species. Two study areas were selected in the southern Washington Cascade Range, USA. Both had an unfragmented, mature forest cover that was regenerated naturally following wildfire. Twelve study sites were selected, including sites with and without remnant T. plicata and T. heterophylla. Overstory structure and composition, microsite variables, and conifer regeneration were systematically sampled using nested belt transects and quadrats. Sites with remnant T. heterophylla and T plicata had significantly higher densities of conspecific seedlings. Multivariate analyses showed remnant T. heterophylla and T. plicata presence and density to be the strongest predictors of seedling densities, although the basal area of mature conspecific trees, relative density, aspect, stand age, and microsite characteristics were important secondary predictors. Microsite variations explained regeneration patchiness. Seedling densities were strongly correlated with proximity to remnant trees, exhibiting a negative exponential decline with distance. Shade-tolerant conifers are likely to reestablish faster at sites with remnant seed trees, but canopy. disturbances are probably necessary for subsequent height growth. Remnant shade-tolerant conifers are an important biological legacy and seed source influencing rates of ecological succession in mature P. menziesii stands. Successional and stand development models should explicitly incorporate this dynamic.
Kier, G.; Mutke, J.; Dinerstein, E.; Ricketts, T. H.; Kuper, W.; Kreft, H.; Barthlott, W.. (2005) Global patterns of plant diversity and floristic knowledge. Journal of Biogeography 32(7) 1107-1116
Link to Publication View Abstract
Aims We present the first global map of vascular plant species richness by ecoregion and compare these results with the published literature on global priorities for plant conservation. In so doing, we assess the state of floristic knowledge across ecoregions as described in floras, checklists, and other published documents and pinpoint geographical gaps in our understanding of the global vascular plant flora. Finally, we explore the relationships between plant species richness by ecoregion and our knowledge of the flora, and between plant richness and the human footprint - a spatially explicit measure of the loss and degradation of natural habitats and ecosystems as a result of human activities. Location Global. Methods Richness estimates for the 867 terrestrial ecoregions of the world were derived from published richness data of c. 1800 geographical units. We applied one of four methods to assess richness, depending on data quality. These included collation and interpretation of published data, use of species-area curves to extrapolate richness, use of taxon-based data, and estimates derived from other ecoregions within the same biome. Results The highest estimate of plant species richness is in the Borneo lowlands ecoregion (10,000 species) followed by nine ecoregions located in Central and South America with >= 8000 species; all are found within the Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests biome. Among the 51 ecoregions with >= 5000 species, only five are located in temperate regions. For 43% of the 867 ecoregions, data quality was considered good or moderate. Among biomes, adequate data are especially lacking for flooded grasslands and flooded savannas. We found a significant correlation between species richness and data quality for only a few biomes, and, in all of these cases, our results indicated that species-rich ecoregions are better studied than those poor in vascular plants. Similarly, only in a few biomes did we find significant correlations between species richness and the human footprint, all of which were positive. Main conclusions The work presented here sets the stage for comparisons of degree of concordance of plant species richness with plant endemism and vertebrate species richness: important analyses for a comprehensive global biodiversity strategy. We suggest: (1) that current global plant conservation strategies be reviewed to check if they cover the most outstanding examples of regions from each of the world's major biomes, even if these examples are species-poor compared with other biomes; (2) that flooded grasslands and flooded savannas should become a global priority in collecting and compiling richness data for vascular plants; and (3) that future studies which rely upon species-area calculations do not use a uniform parameter value but instead use values derived separately for subregions.
Limburg, Karin E.; Stainbrook, Karen M.; Erickson, Jon D.; Gowdy, John M.. (2005) Urbanization consequences: Case studies in the Hudson River watershed. 47 23-37
Link to Publication View Abstract
Parcel by parcel, urban/suburban development is one of the most active converters of land in the Hudson River Valley in New York State. We are taking an integrative approach to understanding the drivers of and responses to urbanization, by Studying how economy drives land use change and how that, in turn, affects downstream indicators of ecosystem state. The ultimate goal of the project is to provide a tool for policymakers, illustrating consequences of different development strategies. In this paper, we discuss synoptic ecological assessments of two major Hudson River tributaries in Dutchess County, the Wappinger Creek and Fishkill Creek watersheds. Physical, chemical, geographic, and biotic indices are compiled, creating a multivariate data set. These data, when set into a geographic information database, provide a spatial response to land use. Application of a regionally calibrated index of biotic integrity showed little relationship to urbanization, although some component metrics indicated a response. Chemical or biogeochemical indicators were more reflective of urbanization gradients. A hierarchy of responses, beginning with physicochemical and moving up to fish assemblages, reflected decreasing responses to urbanization. However, fish densities and the stable isotopic ratios of nitrogen determined in a sentinel species (eastern blacknose dace Rhinichthys atratulus) were significantly affected by urbanization. Longitudinal gradients of elevation were identified as strong drivers of development, potentially confounding relationships of land-use attributes and ecological responses.
Loh, J.; Green, R. E.; Ricketts, T.; Lamoreux, J.; Jenkins, M.; Kapos, V.; Randers, J.. (2005) The Living Planet Index: using species population time series to track trends in biodiversity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 360(1454) 289-295
Link to Publication View Abstract
The Living Planet Index was developed to measure the changing state of the world's biodiversity over time. It uses time-series data to calculate average rates of change in a large number of populations of terrestrial, freshwater and marine vertebrate species. The dataset contains about 3000 population time series for over 1100 species. Two methods of calculating the index are outlined: the chain method and a method based on linear modelling of log-transformed data. The dataset is analysed to compare the relative representation of biogeographic realms, ecoregional biomes, threat status and taxonomic groups among species contributing to the index. The two methods show very similar results: terrestrial species declined on average by 25% from 1970 to 2000. Birds and mammals are over-represented in comparison with other vertebrate classes, and temperate species are over-represented compared with tropical species, but there is little difference in representation between threatened and non-threatened species. Some of the problems arising from over-representation are reduced by the way in which the index is calculated. It may be possible to reduce this further by post-stratification and weighting, but new information would first need to be collected for data-poor classes, realms and biomes.
Mouser, P. J.; Hession, W. C.; Rizzo, D. M.; Gotelli, N. J.. (2005) Hydrology and geostatistics of a Vermont, USA kettlehole peatland. Journal of Hydrology 301(1-4) 250-266
Link to Publication View Abstract
The ability to predict the response of peatland ecosystems to hydrologic changes is imperative for successful conservation and remediation efforts. We studied a 1.25-ha Vermont kettlehole bog for one year (September 2001-October 2002) to identify hydrologic controls, temporal and spatial variability in flow regimes, and to link hydrologic processes to density of the carnivorous plant (Sarracenia purpurea), an ombrotrophic bog specialist. Using a spatial array of nested piezometers, we measured surface and subsurface flow in shallow peat and surrounding mineral soil. Our unique sampling array was based on a repeated measures factorial design with: (1) incremental distances from a central kettlehole pond; (2) equal distances between piezometers; and (3) at three depths from the peat surface. Local flow patterns in the peat were controlled by snowpack storage during winter and spring months and by evapotranspiration and pond water elevation during summer and fall months. Hydraulic head values showed a local reversal within the peat during spring months which was reflected in higher chemical constituent concentrations in these wells. On a regional scale, higher permeable soils diverted groundwater beneath the peatland to a nearby wetland complex. Horizontal water gradient magnitudes were larger in zones where the peatland was perched above regional groundwater and smaller in zones where a hydraulic connection existed between the peatland and the regional groundwater. The density of pitcher plants (S. purpurea) is strongly correlated to the distance from a central pond, [Fe3+], [Na+], [Cl-], and [SO42-]. The pH, conductivity, and [Ca2+] had significant effects of depth and time with horizontal distance correlations between 20 and 26 m. The pH samples had temporal correlations between 27 and 79 days. The link between pitcher plants and ion chemistry; significant effects of peatland chemistry on distance, depth, and time; and spatial and temporal correlations are important considerations for peatland restoration strategies. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mouser, P. J.; Rizzo, D. M.; Roling, W. F. M.; Van Breukelen, B. M.. (2005) A multivariate statistical approach to spatial representation of groundwater contamination using hydrochemistry and microbial community profiles. Environmental Science & Technology 39(19) 7551-7559
Link to Publication View Abstract
Managers of landfill sites are faced with enormous challenges when attempting to detect and delineate leachate plumes with a limited number of monitoring wells, assess spatial and temporal trends for hundreds of contaminants, and design long-term monitoring (LTM) strategies. Subsurface microbial ecology is a unique source of data that has been historically underutilized in LTM groundwater designs. This paper provides a methodology for utilizing qualitative and quantitative information (specifically, multiple water quality measurements and genome-based data) from a landfill leachate contaminated aquifer in Banisveld, The Netherlands, to improve the estimation of parameters of concern. We used a principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce nonindependent hydrochemistry data, Bacteria and Archaea community profiles from 16S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), into six statistically independent variables, representing the majority of the original dataset variances. The PCA scores grouped samples based on the degree or class of contamination and were similar over considerable horizontal distances. Incorporation of the principal component scores with traditional subsurface information using cokriging improved the understanding of the contaminated area by reducing error variances and increasing detection efficiency. Combining these multiple types of data (e.g., genome-based information, hydrochemistry, borings) may be extremely useful at landfill or other LTM sites for designing cost-effective strategies to detect and monitor contaminants.
Rapp, J.; Wang, D.; Capen, D.; Thompson, E.; Lautzenheiser, T.. (2005) Evaluating error in using the National Vegetation Classification System for ecological community mapping in northern New England, USA. Natural Areas Journal 25(1) 46-54
Link to Publication View Abstract
At the landscape scale, representation of reality using ecological community maps is limited by: how well the chosen classification system represents actual vegetation community composition; how effectively aerial photography captures the distinguishing features of each mapping unit within the classification; and how well these mapping units are delineated by photo-interpreters. Three errors deriving from these factors can be defined as classification system error, photo-limitation error, and mapper error. We evaluated the relative importance of these error types for ecological community mapping in a 7283 ha area including the Lake Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (LUNWR). We used the association level of the National Vegetation Classification System (NVC) to classify and map ecological communities through combined aerial-photo interpretation and fieldwork. Map accuracy assessment using an error matrix yielded an overall map accuracy of 46 +/- 9%. Fuzzy set analysis and use of a "goodness-of-fit" table showed that classification system error accounted for 25% of the error, photolimitations for 66% of the error, and mapper error for the remaining 9%. To improve map accuracy, classification system error can be reduced by: (1) refining class definitions to decrease ambiguity, (2) adding new classes to more adequately describe the complex of local vegetation patterns, or (3) using a higher level of classification within the NVC. Photo-limitation error can be reduced by: (1) defining mapping units by aggregating NVC associations into photo-interpretable groups, (2) utilizing aerial photographs with a higher resolution than the 1:15,840 scale photographs used in this study, or (3) mapping primarily using fieldwork.
Ricketts, T. H.; Dinerstein, E.; Boucher, T.; Brooks, T. M.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Hoffmann, M.; Lamoreux, J. F.; Morrison, J.; Parr, M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Rodrigues, A. S. L.; Sechrest, W.; Wallace, G. E.; Berlin, K.; Bielby, J.; Burgess, N. D.; Church, D. R.; Cox, N.; Knox, D.; Loucks, C.; Luck, G. W.; Master, L. L.; Moore, R.; Naidoo, R.; Ridgely, R.; Schatz, G. E.; Shire, G.; Strand, H.; Wettengel, W.; Wikramanayake, E.. (2005) Pinpointing and preventing imminent extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102(51) 18497-18501
Link to Publication View Abstract
Slowing rates of global biodiversity loss requires preventing species extinctions. Here we pinpoint centers of imminent extinction, where highly threatened species are confined to single sites. Within five globally assessed taxa (i.e., mammals, birds, selected reptiles, amphibians, and conifers), we find 794 such species, three times the number recorded as having gone extinct since 1500. These species occur in 595 sites, concentrated in tropical forests, on islands, and in mountainous areas. Their taxonomic and geographical distribution differs significantly from that of historical extinctions, indicating an expansion of the current extinction episode beyond sensitive species and places toward the planet's most biodiverse mainland regions. Only one-third of the sites are legally protected, and most are surrounded by intense human development. These sites represent clear opportunities for urgent conservation action to prevent species loss.
Ricketts, T.; Brooks, T. M.; Hoffmann, M.; Stuart, S.; Balmford, A.; Purvis, A.; Reyers, B.; Wang, J.; Revenga, C.; Kennedy, E. T.; Naeem, S.; Alkemade, R.; Allnutt, T. F.; Bakaar, M.; Bond, W.; Chanson, J.; Cox, N.; Fonseca, G.; Hilton-Taylor, C.; Loucks, C.; Rodrigues, A.; Sechrest, W.; Stattersfield, A.; van Rensvurg, B. J.; Whiteman, C.. (2005) Biodiversity. Island Press, Washiington, D. C.. Pages 917;
Rocha, L. A.; Robertson, D. R.; Roman, J.; Bowen, B. W.. (2005) Ecological speciation in tropical reef fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 272(1563) 573-579
Link to Publication View Abstract
The high biodiversity in tropical seas provides a long-standing challenge to allopatric speciation models. Physical barriers are few in the ocean and larval dispersal is often extensive, a combination that should reduce opportunities for speciation. Yet coral reefs are among the most species-rich habitats in the world, indicating evolutionary processes beyond conventional allopatry. In a survey of mtDNA sequences of five congeneric west Atlantic reef fishes (wrasses, genus Halichoeres) with similar dispersal potential, we observed phylogeographical patterns that contradict expectations of geographical isolation, and instead indicate a role for ecological speciation. In Halichoeres bivittatus and the species pair Halichoeres radiatus/brasiliensis, we observed strong partitions (3.4% and 2.3% divergence, respectively) between adjacent and ecologically distinct habitats, but high genetic connectivity between similar habitats separated by thousands of kilometres. This habitat partitioning is maintained even at a local scale where H. bivittatus lineages are segregated between cold- and warm-water habitats in both Bermuda and Florida. The concordance of evolutionary partitions with habitat types, rather than conventional biogeographical barriers, indicates parapatric ecological speciation, in which adaptation to alternative environmental conditions in adjacent locations overwhelms the homogenizing effect of dispersal. This mechanism can explain the long-standing enigma of high biodiversity in coral reef faunas.
Ruggiero, Peter; Kaminsky, George M; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Voigt, Brian. (2005) Seasonal to interannual morphodynamics along a high-energy dissipative littoral cell. Journal of Coastal Research Pages 553-578;
Silvano, R. A. M.; Udvardy, S.; Ceroni, M.; Farley, J.. (2005) An ecological integrity assessment of a Brazilian Atlantic Forest watershed based on surveys of stream health and local farmers' perceptions: implications for management. Ecological Economics 53(3) 369-385
Link to Publication View Abstract
While ecosystem services provide benefits at various spatial scales, often the decision to conserve an ecosystem lies with the local people. Knowing the perceptions of local landowners of the benefits provided by ecosystem services cannot only help in the design of efficient mechanisms for environmental conservation, but also in achieving the support of these mechanisms by the local stakeholders. In this article we use both standard scientific assessment and the stakeholders' local ecological knowledge in order to acquire information about both the ecological integrity of an Atlantic Forest watershed, and the ecosystem services it provides. In a small-scale case study of the Macabu River watershed in Brazil, we investigated and compared a rapid field assessment of stream ecological integrity with the stakeholders' local environmental perceptions as revealed through interviews. This comparison indicates that the farmers tended to overestimate the ecological integrity of the stream reaches located inside their properties. However, the farmers also showed ecological knowledge about the environment and forests' ecosystem services, such as the maintenance of water supply and suitable climatic conditions. Our results thus indicate that the farmers' perceptions about the environmental impacts and ecological integrity of forest and water are apparently more strongly influenced by direct uses and opportunity costs, representing a market failure of asymmetrical information. Such market failure could be overcome by more fully informing farmers about ecosystem services and possible direct economic advantages of riparian forests. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
WOLLENBERG, EVA; NAWIR, ANI ADIWINATA. (2005) Turning straw into gold: specialization among damar agroforest farmers in pesisir, Sumatra. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 15(4) 317-336
Link to Publication View Abstract
As most nontimber forest products (NTFPs) are of low cash value, their potential for generating significant income appears limited. Low value products can, however, result in significant incomes when people specialize in them. We examine specialization and the conditions under which it occurred for resin production from agroforests in Pesisir Sumatra using data from 223 households. Households with agroforests enjoyed incomes 26% higher than average. Comparison of two villages suggests specialization was associated with access to markets, less suitable land for wet rice cultivation and reliance on damar income for purchasing food staples. In contrast to findings elsewhere, Krui farmers specialized using low value products and minimum inputs. The cultivation of damar in low maintenance agroforests yielded attractive returns. We conclude that low value NTFPs should not be overlooked, as specialization and low input production systems such as agroforests can help to generate significant income from these products.
Yelpaala, K.; Ali, S. H.. (2005) Multiple scales of diamond mining in Akwatia, Ghana: addressing environmental and human development impact. Resources Policy 30(3) 145-155
Link to Publication View Abstract
Ghana is the second largest producer of gold in sub-Saharan Africa, and has experienced a significant increase in national mining production over the last two decades. Between 1983 and 1998, the mining industry brought approximately US $4 billion in foreign direct investment to Ghana. While large-scale gold mining has seen a significant increase, artisanal gold and diamond mining product have grown exponentially. While much research has been conducted on gold mining in Ghana, there is relatively little research on the environmental and human development consequences of diamond mining in the country. Unlike other West African countries such as Sierra Leonne and Liberia, small-scale diamond mining in Ghana has not been linked to conflict but its role in development has also been relatively modest. This paper examines large and small-scale mining in Ghana's largest diamond mining town, Akwatia, and their relative impact on environmental degradation, health, and the livelihood of artisanal miners. We conclude that while an increase in artisanal diamond mining has been a means of employement and income-generation for small-scale miners, there are some human development challenges, related to environmental burden from land degradation and health. GCD is an ailing mining company in Ghana, in desperate need of an injection of capital to keep the mine alive, but botched bidding has slowed the process of de-regulating the company. We also conclude that the de-regulation of GCD may lead to a relatively reduced environmental burden in Akwatia and more revenue for the GCD to invest in the human development needs of communities in the town. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
2004
Burgess, N.; D'Amico Hales, J.; Underwood, E.; Dinerstein, E.; Olsen, D.; Schipper, J.; Ricketts, T.; Itoua, I.; Newman, K.. (2004) Terrestrial Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar: A Conservation Assessment. Island Press, Washington, D. C.. Pages 544;
Link to Publication View Abstract
As part of a global effort to identify those areas where conservation measures are needed most urgently, World Wildlife Fund has assembled teams of scientists to conduct ecological assessments of all five continents. Terrestrial Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar is the latest contribution, presenting in a single volume the first comprehensive assessment of biodiversity patterns, threats to biodiversity, and resulting conservation priorities across the African continent and its islands. Looking at biodiversity and threats in terms of biological units rather than political units, the book offers a comprehensive examination of African biodiversity across all biomes and multiple taxonomic groups. In addition to the seven main chapters, the book includes twenty essays by regional experts that provide more depth on key issues, as well as nine detailed appendixes that present summary data used in the analyses, specific analytical methodologies, and a thorough text description for each of Africa's 119 terrestrial ecoregions. Terrestrial Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar provides a blueprint for conservation action and represents an unparalleled guide for investments and activities of conservation agencies and donor organizations.
Burgess, N.; Ricketts, T.; Balmford, A.; Wild, R.. (2004) The 5th World Parks Congress, Durban. Oryx 38(1) 1-2
Carlson, B.; Wang, D.; Capen, D.; Thompson, E.. (2004) An evaluation of GIS-derived landscape diversity units to guide landscape-level mapping of natural communities. Journal for Nature Conservation (Jena) 12(1) 15-23
Link to Publication View Abstract
As conservation planning increases in scale from specific sites to entire regions, organisations like The Nature Conservancy face a critical need for GIS-based tools to evaluate landscapes on a regional scale. An existing, field-based approach to analyse the diversity of a landscape is by delineating natural community types, which is a time-intensive process. This study evaluated the utility of using an existing, GIS-derived landscape diversity model as a predictive tool for mapping natural communities on a large (8369 ha) upland forest site in the northern Taconic region of Vermont. The GIS model incorporates four geophysical factors: elevation, bedrock type, surficial deposits, and landform. A significant level (alpha = 0.05) of association between eight pairs of landscape diversity unit (LDU) types and natural community types was found. However, the strength of these associations is low (Cramer's V values ltoreq 0.172), suggesting a poor predictive efficiency of landscape diversity units for natural community types. The results suggest that variables in the LDU model are relevant to natural community distribution, but the LDU model alone is not an effective tool to aid in mapping of natural community types of upland forests in Vermont. Until better landscape-level techniques are developed, the role of this type of model is limited to screening the landscape for areas with a particular set of geophysical characteristics, which can help an ecologist interpret the patterns on the landscape, but cannot substitute for a field-based approach to natural community mapping. (C) 2004 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Costanza, R.; Erickson, J.; Fligger, K.; Adams, A.; Adams, C.; Altschuler, B.; Balter, S.; Fisher, B.; Hike, J.; Kelly, J.; Kerr, T.; McCauley, M.; Montone, K.; Rauch, M.; Schmiedeskamp, K.; Saxton, D.; Sparacino, L.; Tusinski, W.; Williams, L.. (2004) Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) for Vermont, Chittenden County and Burlington, from 1950 to 2000. Ecological Economics 51(1-2) 139-155
Link to Publication View Abstract
The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), a version of the Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW), is a significantly more comprehensive approach to assessing economic progress than conventional measures like gross domestic product (GDP). GPI adjusts for income distribution effects, the value of household and volunteer work, costs of mobility and pollution, and the depletion of social and natural capital. 1SEW or GPI have been estimated for several countries around the world and a few Canadian provinces, but we report here on the first multi-scale application at the city, county and state levels in Vermont, USA. We show that it is feasible to apply the GPI approach at these smaller scales and to compare across scales and with the national average. Data limitations and problems still exist, but potential solutions to these problems also exist. All three Vermont scales had significantly higher GPI per capita since 1980 than the national average, indicating the major differences that can exist within countries. The GPI per capita for all Vermont scales was similar to the national average in the 1950-1980 period, but more than twice the national average by 2000. The main factors explaining this difference had to do with Vermont's much better environmental performance than the national average in the post-1980 period. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Costanza, R.; Stern, D.; Fisher, B.; He, L. N.; Ma, C. B.. (2004) Influential publications in ecological economics: a citation analysis. Ecological Economics 50(3-4) 261-292
Link to Publication View Abstract
We assessed the degree of influence of selected papers and books in ecological economics using citation analysis. We looked at both the internal influence of publications on the field of ecological economics and the external influence of those same publications on the broader academic community. We used four lists of papers and books for the analysis: (1) 92 papers nominated by the Ecological Economics (EE) Editorial Board; (2) 71 papers that were published in EE and that received 15 or more citations in all journals included in the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Citation Index; (3) 57 papers that had been cited in EE 15 or more times; and (4) 77 monographs and edited books that had been cited in EE 15 or more times. In all, we analyzed 251 unique publications. For each publication, we counted the total number of ISI citations as well as the total number of citations in EE. We calculated the average number of citations per year to each paper since its publication in both the IST database and in EE, along with the percentage of the total ISI citations that were in EE. Ranking the degree of influence of the publications can be done in several ways, including using the number of I SI citations, the number of EE citations or both. We discuss both the internal and external influence of publications and show how these influences might be considered jointly. We display and analyze the results in several ways. By plotting the ISI citations against the EE citations, we can identify those papers that are mainly influential in EE with some broader influence, those that are mainly influential in the broader literature but have also had influence on EE and other patterns of influence. There are both overlaps and interesting lacunae among the four lists that give us a better picture of the real influence of publications in ecological economics vs. perceptions of those publications' importance. By plotting the number of citations vs. dates of publication, we can identify those publications that are projected to be most influential. Plots of the time series of citations over the 1990-2003 period show a generally increasing trend (contrary to what one would expect for an "average" paper) for the top papers. We suggest that this pattern of increasing citations (and thus influence) over time is one hallmark of a "foundational" paper. Data used in the analysis is available for download from the International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE) web site to allow further analysis by interested readers. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Daly, H.; Farley, J.. (2004) Ecological economics: principles and applications. Island Press, Washington, D.C..
Ferreira, D.; Suslick, S.; Farley, J.; Costanza, R.; Krivov, S.. (2004) A decision model for financial assurance instruments in the upstream petroleum sector. Energy Policy 32(10) 1173-1184
Link to Publication View Abstract
The main objective of this paper is to deepen the discussion regarding the application of financial assurance instruments, bonds, in the upstream oil sector. This paper will also attempt to explain the current choice of instruments within the sector. The concepts of environmental damages and internalization of environmental and regulatory costs will be briefly explored. Bonding mechanisms are presently being adopted by several governments with the objective of guaranteeing the availability of funds for end-of-leasing operations. Regulators are mainly concerned with the prospect of inheriting liabilities from lessees. Several forms of bonding instruments currently available were identified and a new instrument classification was proposed. Ten commonly used instruments were selected and analyzed under the perspective of both regulators and industry (surety, paid-in and periodic-payment collateral accounts, letters of credit, self-guaran tees, investment grade securities, real estate collaterals, insurance policies, pools, and special funds). A multiattribute value function model was then proposed to examine current instrument preferences. Preliminary simulations confirm the current scenario where regulators are likely to require surety bonds, letters of credit, and periodic payment collateral account tools. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harrison, D. M.; Noordewier, T. G.; Yavas, A.. (2004) Do riskier borrowers borrow more?. Real Estate Economics 32(3) 385-411
Link to Publication View Abstract
Conventional wisdom in the mortgage industry holds that loan-to-value (LTV) ratios are positively correlated with mortgage default rates. However, not all empirical studies of mortgage loan performance support this view. This paper offers a theoretical signaling model of why the correlation between LTV ratios and default risk is contingent upon the default costs of the borrower. Specifically, the model proposes that when default costs are high there exists a separating equilibrium in which risky borrowers will self-select into lower LTV loans to reduce the probability of facing a costly default, while safe borrowers will self-select into higher LTV loans as a signal of their enhanced creditworthiness. This adverse selection process gives rise to the possibility of higher default probabilities for lower LTV loans. Conversely, when default costs are low the conventional result, in which risky borrowers select higher LTV loans than safe borrowers, is obtained. Empirical results, based on a sample of 859 single-family residential mortgage loans drawn from the portfolio of a national mortgage lender, are consistent with the separating equilibria predicted by the model.
Herendeen, R. A.; Hill, W. R.. (2004) Growth dilution in multilevel food chains. Ecological Modelling 178(3-4) 349-356
Link to Publication View Abstract
Microalgae can absorb contaminants from the aqueous environment, and harvesting microalgae has been proposed as a method to purify water. However, rapid growth of microalgae (stimulated by increased light, for example) results in lowered tissue concentration of contaminant. This reduction has been observed to propagate to herbivores. Here we investigate (with simulation and supporting analytical argument) the propagation of growth dilution in all trophic levels of a food chain. We are concerned with concentration as well as overall mass of contaminant in each level, for different functional relationships between levels. We find that transient (i.e., prompt) growth dilution occurs for all levels. However, the new steady state concentrations can increase or decrease, depending on functional relationships (e.g., ratio versus prey dependence). These results, which have implications for pollution control, call for experimental testing. (C) 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Herendeen, R. A.. (2004) Bottom-up and top-down effects in food chains depend on functional dependence: an explicit framework. Ecological Modelling 171(1-2) 21-33
Link to Publication View Abstract
Observed stock changes in perturbed ecosystems sometimes, but not always, are smaller than predicted by the trophic cascade hypothesis. These varying outcomes can be explained by (1) using detailed analysis of trophic-level interactions within the standard energy-based linear food-chain model, or (2) invoking web models and/or non-energy interactions between organisms. Previously I developed an analytic approach for the linear chain for a press-type perturbation and applied it to ratio-dependent functional relationships. Here I extend the linear chain analysis to a more general functional relationship which allows independent variation of prey dependence and intra-level interference. I find that different combinations of prey dependence and interference lead to large or small cascading effects. Generally, large top-down effects require weak interference, while large bottom-up effects require both weak interference and strong prey dependence. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Herendeen, R. A.. (2004) Dynamic trophic cascade. Ecological Modelling 177(1-2) 129-142
Link to Publication View Abstract
In a previous article, I developed, and demonstrated with simulations, an analytical approach for predicting and analyzing effects of press (step-function) perturbations on food chains [Ecol. Model. 171 (2004) 21]. The method allows explicit variation of the functional dependence connecting trophic levels. Here I extend that analysis to perturbations sinusoidal in time. The sinusoid partially bridges the gap between the idealized press-type experiment (which assumes initial and final steady states, but is doubtful experimentally) and a totally dynamic situation (which is daunting analytically but closer to reality). I find that the effect of a sinusoidal perturbation is to multiply the previous press result by a factor that diminishes both up and down the food chain. The factor depends on perturbing frequency approximately as 1/(1+(omegatau(i))(2))(1/2), where tau(i) is the characteristic time of affected level i. This frequency-dependent diminution is another potential reason why bottom-up and top-down cascade effects are hard to detect. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Herendeen, R. A.. (2004) Energy analysis and EMERGY analysis - a comparison. Ecological Modelling 178(1-2) 227-237
Herendeen, R. A.. (2004) Personal energy impact of attending a professional meeting. Energy 29(1) 13-17
Link to Publication View Abstract
At a four-day energy workshop in Italy in September, 2002, 44 attendees, about half of the total, completed a questionnaire covering their travel (mode, distance) and monetary expenditures. These have been converted to direct and indirect energy requirements. Average total energy per respondent was 2.9 barrels of oil equivalent, of which 91% resulted from round trip travel of 6100 km. For comparison, global average annual per capita energy consumption is 12 barrels of oil equivalent. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Higgins, J. V.; Ricketts, T. H.; Parrish, J. D.; Dinerstein, E.; Powell, G.; Palminteri, S.; Hoekstra, J. M.; Morrison, J.; Tomasek, A.; Adams, J.. (2004) Beyond Noah: Saving species is not enough. Conservation Biology 18(6) 1672-1673
Imhoff, M. L.; Bounoua, L.; DeFries, R.; Lawrence, W. T.; Stutzer, D.; Tucker, C. J.; Ricketts, T.. (2004) The consequences of urban land transformation on net primary productivity in the United States. Remote Sensing of Environment 89(4) 434-443
Link to Publication View Abstract
We use data from two satellites and a terrestrial carbon model to quantify the impact of urbanization on the carbon cycle and food production in the US as a result of reduced net primary productivity (NPP). Our results show that urbanization is taking place on the most fertile lands and hence has a disproportionately large overall negative impact on NPP. Urban land transformation in the US has reduced the amount of carbon fixed through photosynthesis by 0.04 pg per year or 1.6% of the pre-urban input. The reduction is enough to offset the 1.8% gain made by the conversion of land to agricultural use, even though urbanization covers an area less than 3% of the land surface in the US and agricultural lands approach 29% of the total land area. At local and regional scales, urbanization increases NPP in resource-limited regions and through localized warming "urban heat" contributes to the extension of the growing season in cold regions. In terms of biologically available energy, the loss of NPP due to urbanization of agricultural lands alone is equivalent to the caloric requirement of 16.5 million people, or about 6% of the US population. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Imhoff, M. L.; Bounoua, L.; Ricketts, T.; Loucks, C.; Harriss, R.; Lawrence, W. T.. (2004) Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production. Nature 429(6994) 870-873
Link to Publication View Abstract
The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems(1,2). A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use(3,4). Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere(5), levels of biodiversity(6), energy flows within food webs(7) and the provision of important ecosystem services(8). Here we present a global map showing the amount of net primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial balance sheet of net primary production 'supply' and 'demand' for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production 'imports' and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.
Keeton, William S.; Franklin, Jerry F.. (2004) Fire-related landform associations of remnant old-growth trees in the southern Washington Cascade Range. Canadian Journal of Forest Research; Canadian Science Publishing, New York. 34(11) 2371-2381
Link to Publication View Abstract
The spatial distribution of biological legacies left by natural disturbances is an important source of variability in forest development. We investigated one type of biological legacy: remnant old-growth trees persisting in mature Douglas-fir forests. We hypothesized that persistence varies with topographic heterogeneity influencing fire behavior. Our two study areas are located in the southern Washington Cascade Range, USA. They have an unfragmented, mature forest cover that regenerated following wildfire. We mapped all remnant old-growth trees (live and dead) within 4.2–6.4 km long belt transects. Digital elevation models were used to generate convergent and divergent landform classes. Frequency analysis was used to test for landform associations. Live remnant western hemlock and western redcedar were strongly associated with convergent landforms and aspects that had greater availability of soil moisture. Live remnant Douglas-fir were most abundant, but were not correlated with convergence or divergence, although certain landforms had higher concentrations. Remnant snags were abundant across convergent and divergent landforms. We conclude that species with low fire resistance survive most frequently on landforms that have a dampening effect on fire intensity. Topographic variability may indirectly influence ecological functions associated with biological legacies by affecting the spatial distributions of remnant old-growth trees. (English) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] La distribution spatiale des legs biologiques laissés par les perturbations naturelles est une importante source de variabilité dans le développement de la forêt. Les auteurs ont étudié un type de legs biologique : les vieux arbres rémanents qui persistent dans les forêts matures de douglas. Ils ont fait l'hypothèse que la persistance varie avec l'hétérogénéité topographique qui influence le comportement du feu. Leurs deux zones d'étude sont situées dans la partie sud de la chaîne des Cascades dans l'État de Washington, aux États-Unis. On y retrouve un couvert de forêt mature non fragmentée qui origine d'un feu. Ils ont cartographié tous les vieux arbres rémanents (morts et vivants) le long de transects en bandes de 4,2 à 6,4 km. Des modèles numériques d'altitude ont été utilizés pour générer des classes de modelés convergents et divergents. L'analyse de fréquence a été utilizée pour tester les relations avec les modelés. Les tiges rémanentes encore vivantes de pruche de l'Ouest et de thuya géant sont fortement associées à des modelés convergents et à des orientations qui correspondent à une plus grande disponibilité de l'humidité dans le sol. Les tiges rémanentes encore vivantes de douglas sont très abondantes mais leur présence n'est pas corrélée avec la convergence ou la divergence bien que de plus fortes concentrations soient associées à certains modelés. Les chicots rémanents sont abondants dans les modelés convergents ou divergents. Les auteurs concluons que les espèces qui ont une faible résistance au feu survivent plus fréquemment dans les modelés qui ont pour effet de tempérer l'intensité du feu. La variabilité topographique peut indirectement influencer les fonctions écologiques associées aux legs biologiques en ayant un effet sur la distribution spatiale des vieux arbres rémanents.[Traduit par la Rédaction] (French) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Canadian Journal of Forest Research is the property of Canadian Science Publishing and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Luck, G. W.; Ricketts, T. H.; Daily, G. C.; Imhoff, M.. (2004) Alleviating spatial conflict between people and biodiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(1) 182-186
Link to Publication View Abstract
Human settlements are expanding in species-rich regions and pose a serious threat to biodiversity conservation. We quantify the degree to which this threat manifests itself in two contrasting continents, Australia and North America, and suggest how it can be substantially alleviated. Human population density has a strong positive correlation with species richness in Australia for birds, mammals, amphibians, and butterflies (but not reptiles) and in North America for all five taxa. Nevertheless, conservation investments could secure locations that harbor almost all species while greatly reducing overlap with densely populated regions. We compared two conservation-planning scenarios that each aimed to represent all species at least once in a minimum set of sampling sites. The first scenario assigned equal cost to each site (ignoring differences in human population density); the second assigned a cost proportional to the site's human population density. Under the equal-cost scenario, 13-40% of selected sites occurred where population density values were highest (in the top decile). However, this overlap was reduced to as low as 0%, and in almost all cases to < 10%, under the population-cost scenario, when sites of high population density were avoided where possible. Moreover, this reduction of overlap was achieved with only small increases in the total amount of area requiring protection. As densely populated regions continue to expand rapidly and drive up land values, the strategic conservation investments of the kind highlighted in our analysis are best made now.
Mark, C. D.; Sadek, A. W.; Rizzo, D.. (2004) Predicting experienced travel time with neural networks: a PARAMICS simulation study. Proceedings. The 7th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (IEEE Cat. No.04TH8749) Pages 906-11;
Link to Publication View Abstract
The implementation of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) in recent years has resulted in the development of systems capable of monitoring roadway conditions and disseminating traffic information to travelers in a network. However, the development of algorithms and methodologies specialized in handling large amounts of data for the purpose of real-time control has lagged behind the sensing and communication technological developments in ITS. In this study, data generated by a PARAMICS model of a real-world freeway section are used to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) capable of predicting experienced travel time between two points on the transportation network. Computational experiments demonstrate that the studied ANNs were able to reasonably predict the experienced travel time. Generally, the study shows that the length of the time lag did not have a statistically significant effect on ANN performance, that speed appears to be the most influential input variable, and no statistically significant difference in ANN performance was observed when data from the left lane loop detector was substituted for data from the right lane loop detector
Palumbi, S. R.; Roman, J.. (2004) Counting whales in the North Atlantic - Response. Science 303(5654) 40-40
Ricketts, T. H.; Daily, G. C.; Ehrlich, P. R.; Michener, C. D.. (2004) Economic value of tropical forest to coffee production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(34) 12579-12582
Link to Publication View Abstract
Can economic forces be harnessed for biodiversity conservation? The answer hinges on characterizing the value of nature, a tricky business from biophysical, socioeconomic, and ethical perspectives. Although the societal benefits of native ecosystems are clearly immense,they remain largely unquantified for all but a few services. Here, we estimate the value of tropical forest in supplying pollination services to agriculture. We focus on coffee because it is one of the world's most valuable export commodities and is grown in many of the world's most biodiverse regions. Using pollination experiments along replicated distance gradients, we found that forest-based pollinators increased coffee yields by 20% within approximate to1 km of forest. Pollination also improved coffee quality near forest by reducing the frequency of "peaberries" (i.e., small misshapen seeds) by 27%. During 2000-2003, pollination services from two forest fragments (46 and 111 hectares) translated into approximate to$60,000 (U.S.) per year for one Costa Rican farm. This value is commensurate with expected revenues from competing land uses and far exceeds current conservation incentive payments. Conservation investments in human-dominated landscapes can therefore yield double benefits: for biodiversity and agriculture.
Ricketts, T. H.. (2004) Tropical forest fragments enhance pollinator activity in nearby coffee crops. Conservation Biology 18(5) 1262-1271
Link to Publication View Abstract
Crop pollination by wild bees is an ecosystem service of enormous value, but it is under increasing threat from agricultural intensification. As with many ecosystem services, the mechanisms, scales, and species through which crop pollination is provided are too poorly understood to inform land-use decisions. I investigated the role of tropical forest remnants as sources of pollinators to surrounding coffee crops in Costa Rica. In 2001 and 2002 I observed bee activity and pollen deposition rates at coffee flowers along distance gradients from two fragments and one narrow riparian strip of forest. Eleven eusocial species were the most common visitors: 10 species of native meliponines and the introduced honeybee, Apis mellifera (hereafter Apis). Bee richness, overall visitation rate, and pollen deposition rate were all significantly higher in sites within approximately 100 m of forest fragments than in sites farther away (maximum distance of 1.6 km). Apis visitation rates were constant across the distance gradient, however, and Apis accounted for >90% of all floral visits in distant sites. The gradient from the riparian strip showed a similar drop in bee species richness with distance, but visitation rates were uniformly low along the gradient. Throughout the study area, Apis abundances declined sharply from 2001 to 2002, reducing visitation rates by over 50% in distant sites (where Apis was almost the only pollinator). In near sites, however, overall visitation rates dropped only 9% because native species almost entirely compensated for the Apis decline. Forest fragments (more so than the riparian strip) thus provided nearby coffee with a diversity of bees that increased both the amount and stability of pollination services by reducing dependence on a single introduced pollinator. Exploring the economic links between forest preservation and coffee cultivation may help align the goals of conservation and agriculture within many regions of global conservation priority.
Roman, J.; Palumbi, S. R.. (2004) A global invader at home: population structure of the green crab, Carcinus maenas, in Europe. Molecular Ecology 13(10) 2891-2898
Link to Publication View Abstract
The European green crab, Carcinus maenas, has a native distribution that extends from Norway to Mauritania. It has attracted attention because of its recent invasions of Australia, Tasmania, South Africa, Japan and both coasts of North America. To examine the population structure of this global invader in its native range, we analysed a 502-base-pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene from 217 crabs collected in the North Atlantic and 13 specimens from the Mediterranean. A clear genetic break (11% sequence divergence) occurs between the Mediterranean and Atlantic, supporting the species-level status of these two forms. Populations in the Faeroe Islands and Iceland were genetically distinct from continental populations (F-ST = 0.264-0.678), with Iceland represented by a single lineage also found in the Faeroes. This break is consistent with a deep-water barrier to dispersal in green crabs. Although there are relatively high levels of gene flow along the Atlantic coast of Europe, slight population structure was found between the central North Sea and populations to the south. Analysis of variance, multidimensional scaling, and the distribution of private haplotypes support this break, located between Bremerhaven, Germany, and Hoek van Holland. Similar biogeographical and genetic associations for other species, such as benthic algae and freshwater eels, suggest that the marine fauna of Europe may be generally subdivided into the areas of Mediterranean, western Europe and northern Europe.
Seltzer, Nicole; Wang, Deane. (2004) Importance of Hydric Soils and Near-Lake Areas as Phosphorus Source Areas in the Lake Champlain Basin: Evidence from a Landscape-Level Model. Springer US, Dordrecht, Netherlands. Pages 143-158;
Link to Publication View Abstract
The passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972 made maintaining and improving surface water quality a national goal. Much of the initial effort was levied against point sources of pollution (Puckett, 1995); however, controlling non-point pollution has become a priority as control of the remaining point source problems becomes increasingly less cost-effective. Non-point phosphorus (P) pollution, in particular, has received frequent public attention as it threatens many of our nation’s streams and rivers. Eutrophication, typically caused by high P levels, has been identified as the number one water quality problem in many regions (NYC DEP, 1999; LCBP, 1994).
Todd, John. (2004) Living technologies: Wedding human ingenuity to the wisdom of the wild. Nature’s Operating Instructions: The true biotechnologies. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco Pages 17-31;
Voinov, A.; Bromley, L.; Kirk, E.; Korchak, A.; Farley, J.; Moiseenko, T.; Krasovskaya, T.; Makarova, Z.; Megorski, V.; Selin, V.; Kharitonova, G.; Edson, R.. (2004) Understanding human and ecosystem dynamics in the Kola Arctic: A participatory integrated study. Arctic 57(4) 375-388
Link to Publication View Abstract
The Lake Imandra watershed is located in one of the most developed regions in the Arctic-the Kola Peninsula of Russia. Approximately 300 000 people live on the roughly 27 000 km(2) watershed, making it one of the most densely populated areas of the Arctic. Most of the people are involved in large-scale mineral extraction and processing and the infrastructure needed to support this industry. This paper reports the results of a pilot project staged for the Lake Imandra watershed that has put human dynamics within the framework of ecosystem change to integrate available information and formulate conceptual models of likely future scenarios. The observation period is one of both rapid economic growth and human expansion, with an overall economic decline in the past decade. We are applying the Participatory Integrated Assessment (PIA) approach to integrate information, identify information gaps, generate likely future scenarios, and link scientific findings to the decision-making process. We found an increasingly vulnerable human population in varying states of awareness about their local environment and fully cognizant of their economic troubles, with many determined to attempt maintenance of relatively high population densities in the near future even as many residents of northern Russia migrate south. A series of workshops have involved the citizens and local decision makers in an attempt to tap their knowledge of the region and to increase their awareness about the linkages between the socioeconomic and ecological components.
Wang, Deane; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Trevisan, Dominique; Braun, DavidC; Windhausen, LisaJ; Vansteelant, Jean-Yves. (2004) Using a Landscape Approach to Interpret Diffuse Phosphorus Pollution and Assist with Water Quality Management in the Basins of Lake Champlain (Vermont) and Lac Léman (France). Springer US, Waltham. Pages 159-189;
Link to Publication View Abstract
Diffuse pollution should be recognized as a landscape-level phenomenon. As such, it requires an observational approach consistent with the complex structure and function of the landscape system. We developed a landscape-level approach to study the transfer of phosphorus in rural areas of the Lake Champlain and Lac Léman basins. We began by developing a concept of P dynamics that captured some of the diversity and complexity of P movement through the land (transfer system). Given this initial concept of the diffuse pollution in the landscape, we adopted a synoptic watershed sampling strategy to begin the quantitative description of diffuse P pollution. Data from these types of studies were then analyzed using multiple regression to infer connections between activities on the land and phosphorus flux to surface waters. Our inferences include: 1) land cover determines phosphorus flux during high flow but not during low flows periods, 2) during high flow events, natural wetlands are a significant sink for diffuse phosphorus in surface waters, 3) fluxes and concentrations are higher when the basins are intensively plowed, 4) in the context of plowed areas, agricultural practices as opposed to land cover is a more important determinant of phosphorus flux in watersheds, and 5) the position of elements in the landscape is an important factor controlling diffuse phosphorus pollution. The method and basis for arriving at these conclusions are discussed. We suggest that synoptic sampling of water quality over extensive areas in a landscape, coupled with multiple regression to analyze relationships among P fluxes and landscape variables, is an appropriate tool for determining driving factors, analyzing the diversity of processes, and finding generality in complex landscape systems.
Windhausen, L. J.; Braun, D. C.; Wang, D.. (2004) A Landscape Scale Evaluation Of Phosphorus Retention In Wetlands Of The Laplatte River Basin, Vermont, USA. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY. Pages 217-235;
Link to Publication View Abstract
We used a landscape scale approach to examine phosphorus retention in wetlands of the LaPlatte River basin (13,723 ha), Vermont. Total phosphorus (TP) export from 15 study catchments (149-1,396 ha) was measured on 18 dates, representing a range in seasons and hydrologic conditions. Multiple regression models were developed to relate TP export to 14 possible explanatory variables based on land cover/use, quantified using a geographic information system. Most wetland variables had significant (p < 0.10) negative relationships with TP export on at least 1 date. These relationships were strongest on 2 spring snowmelt events, when 31% of the annual TP export from the LaPlatte River basin occurred. Overall, the percentage of nonagricultural poorly and very poorly drained soils was the best representation of phosphorus sinks in the study catchments. Identifying lands with poorly drained soils and no known sources of phosphorus may be a more functional and simpler method of delineating P sinks in the landscape than identifying wetlands using jurisdictional definitions.
Wollenberg, E., Campbell, B.M., Shackleton, S., Edmunds, D., Shanley, P.. (2004) Collaborative management of forests. IFPRI, Washington, DC.
View Abstract
Governments around the world increasingly seek to manage their forests with the collaboration of the people living nearby. Ministries of forestry or their equivalents usually do this by offering local people access to selected forest products or forest land, income from forest resources, or opportunities for communicating with government forestry officials. In return, the agency obliges local people to cooperate in managing the forests around them by protecting existing forest or by planting trees. Governments claim that the programs devolve control over forests to local people and provide more secure livelihoods, as well as help maintain and regenerate forests. By sharing rights among local groups and the state, the programs also help to reconcile the resource claims of local people with those of the national government. Everybody supposedly wins. Millions of the rural poor now participate in collaborative forest management schemes under a variety of tenurial and organizational arrangements.We examine those arrangements and ask whether local people have indeed gained more access to benefits from and control over forests. Our findings suggest that most co-management projects actually maintain and even extend central government control.Where communities had already managed forests in Orissa and Uttarakhand in India, the government required that they share their incomes with the state forest department. Governments in many countries typically predetermine which species can be planted in reforestation or agroforestry schemes and what types of organizations can be given rights to manage forests.Whereas local people have gained greater legal access to forests and some might have increased their incomes, many have also lost out. For example, game areas and plantations have been frequently established on land used by poorer members of communities for grazing or cultivation. Local people have also not shown a consistent interest in forest management.
Zia, Asim. (2004) Cooperative and non-cooperative decision behaviors in response to the inspection and maintenance program in the Atlanta Airshed, 1997-2001. Journal of Policy Management and Analysis
Link to Publication View Abstract
When confronted with decisions involving the provision of environmental resources, such as clean air, do individuals act cooperatively with societal regulations? This study employs a quasi-experimental design to investigate the cooperative and non-cooperative actions of high-emitting vehicle owners that arose in response to the Inspection and Maintenance (IM) program in the Atlanta airshed. The impact of cooperative and non-cooperative actions of high-emitters on vehicular tail-pipe emissions, such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx), is quantified. Furthermore, the hypothesis that high-emitters have significantly higher odds of residing in lower income neighborhoods as compared to the normal emitters is also tested. A remote sensing sample of approximately 1.42 million vehicles observed on-road between 1997 and 2001 is matched with IM program data and vehicle registration data to identify the cooperative and non-cooperative high-emitters. A mixed-pool time-series regression analysis is undertaken to estimate changes in vehicular tail-pipe emissions due to the actions of high-emitters. The information about the socio-economic and demographic contextual conditions of the sampled vehicle owners is ascertained from 2000 census data. Approximately 42% of the high-emitting vehicle owners are found to be cooperative and 58% non-cooperative. The cooperative actions caused a decrease of 47% in HC emission factors during 1997 and 2001. There is no statistical difference between the CO and NO emission factors of vehicles owned by cooperative and non-cooperative high-emitters. Results also suggest that the high-emitters live in 4.4% lower median household income areas as compared to the normal emitters in the Atlanta airshed. Changes in the current IM program rules and vehicle registration laws could improve air quality. Such changes include disallowing IM test failures from registering anywhere in the state of Georgia and requiring an IM test on every change of vehicle ownership inside the IM program area. Better incentive mechanisms for high-emitters can also be designed. The evidence from this study is expected to aid policy-makers to adapt the incentive mechanisms of IM programs, in particular, and environmental regulations, in general, so that public policies are both more effective and equitable in their societal impacts.
2003
Alcamo, J.; Ash, N. J.; Butler, C. D.; Callicott, J. B.; Capistrano, D.; Carpenter, S.; Castilla, J. C.; Chambers, R.; Chopra, K.; Cropper, A.; Daily, G. C.; Dasgupta, P.; de Groot, R.; Deitz, T.; Duraiappah, A. K.; Gadgil, M.; Hamilton, K.; Hassan, R.; Lambin, E. F.; Lebel, L.; Leemans, R.; Jiyuan, L.; Malingreau, J. P.; May, R. M.; McCalla, A. F.; McMichael, A. J.; Moldan, B.; Mooney, H. A.; Naeem, S.; Nelson, G. C.; Wen-Yuan, N.; Noble, I.; Zhiyun, O.; Pagiola, S.; Pauly, D.; Percy, S.; Pingali, P.; Prescott-Allen, R.; Reid, W. V.; Ricketts, T. H.; Samper, C.; Scholes, R.; Simons, H.; Toth, F. L.; Turpie, J. K.; Watson, R. T.; Wilbanks, T. J.; Williams, M.; Wood, S.; Shidong, Z.; Zurek, M. B.. (2003) Ecosystems and human well-being: A framework for assessment. Island Press, Washington, D. C.. Pages 245;
Campbell, BM; Gunarso, P; Kartawinata, K; Levang, P; Rhee, S; Sheil, D; Sist, P; Wollenberg, E. (2003) Empowering forest dwellers and Managing Forests more sustainably in the landscapes of Borneo. IN: Research towards Integrated Natural Resources Management. Harwood, RR and Kassam, AH eds. CGIAR, Rome
Czech, B.; Allen, E.; Batker, D.; Beier, P.; Daly, H.; Erickson, J.; Garrettson, P.; Geist, V.; Gowdy, J.; Greenwalt, L.; Hands, H.; Krausman, P.; Magee, P.; Miller, C.; Novak, K.; Pullis, G.; Robinson, C.; Santa-Barbara, J.; Teer, J.; Trauger, D.; Willer, C.. (2003) The iron triangle: why The Wildlife Society needs to take a position on economic growth. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31(2) 574-577
Decker, K. L.; Wang, D.; Waite, C.; Scherbatskoy, T.. (2003) Snow removal and ambient air temperature effects on forest soil temperatures in northern Vermont.. Soil Science Society of America Journal 67 1234-1243
Link to Publication View Abstract
We measured deciduous forest soil temperatures under control (unmanipulated) and snow-free (where snow is manually removed) conditions for four winters (at three soil depths) to determine effects of a snow cover reduction such as may occur as a result of climate change on Vermont forest soils. The four winters we studied were characterized as: 'cold and snowy', 'warm with low snow', 'cold with low snow', and 'cool with low snow'. Snow-free soils were colder than controls at 5- and 15-cm depth for all years, and at all depths in the two cold winters. Soil thermal variability generally decreased with both increased snow cover and soil depth. The effect of snow cover on soil freeze-thaw events was highly dependent on both the depth of snow and the soil temperature. Snow kept the soil warm and reduced soil temperature variability, but often this caused soil to remain near 0ºC, resulting in more freeze-thaw events under snow at one or more soil depths. During the 'cold snowy' wnter, soils under snow had daily averages consistently >0ºC, whereas snow-free soil temperatures commonly dropped below -3ºC. During the 'warm' year, temperatures of soil under snow were often lower than those of snow-free soils. The warmer winter resulted in less snow cover to insulate soild from freezing in the biologically active top cm. The possible consequences of increased soil freezing include more root mortatlity and nutrient loss, which would potentially alter ecosystem dynamics, decrease productivity of some tree species, and increase sugar maple (
Edmunds, D.; Wollenberg, E.; eds. (2003) Local forest management: the impacts of devolution policies. Earthscan Publications, London. Pages xvi, 208p.;
Link to Publication View Abstract
Local government is built around careful and illuminating case studies of the effects of devolution policies on the management of forests in several Asian countries. The studies demonstrate that devolution policies - contrary to the claims of governments - have actually increased governmental control over the management of local resources, and a lower cost to the state. The controversial findings show that if local forest users are to exercise genuine control over forest management, they must be better represented in the processes of forming, implementing and evaluating devolution policies. In addition, the guiding principle for policy discussions should be to create sustainable livelihoods for local resource users, especially the poorest among them, rather than reducing the cost of government forest administration.
Herendeen, R. A.. (2003) A push in the right direction. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(7) 350-350
Herendeen, R. A.. (2003) With a little help from facilitators. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(4) 178-178
Kobos, P. H.; Erickson, J. D.; Drennen, T. E.. (2003) Scenario analysis of Chinese passenger vehicle growth. Contemporary Economic Policy 21(2) 200-217
Link to Publication View Abstract
This article reports on a simulation and scenario analysis of Chinese passenger vehicle growth and resulting energy demand and CO2 emissions, Pie model includes provincial level logistic, growth functions with saturation levels representative of neighboring Asian economies, income growth measured in international dollars, and both estimated and literature-based income elasticities. Scenarios explore variation in key, parameters, including income and population growth rates, elasticity income ranges fuel economy, and vehicle saturation. Countrywide base case results estimate growth from 4.22 to 54.33 passenger vehicles per thousand people from 1995 to 2025, Resulting passenger vehicle oil demands and CO2 emissions increase nearly 17-fold.
Mote, P. W.; Parson, E.; Hamlet, A. F.; Keeton, W. S.; Lettenmaier, D.; Mantua, N.; Miles, E. L.; Peterson, D.; Peterson, D. L.; Slaughter, R.; Snover, A. K.. (2003) Preparing for climatic change: The water, salmon, and forests of the Pacific Northwest. Climatic Change 61(1-2) 45-88
Link to Publication View Abstract
The impacts of year-to-year and decade-to-decade climatic variations on some of the Pacific Northwest's key natural resources can be quantified to estimate sensitivity to regional climatic changes expected as part of anthropogenic global climatic change. Warmer, drier years, often associated with El Nino events and/or the warm phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, tend to be associated with below-average snowpack, streamflow, and flood risk, below-average salmon survival, below-average forest growth, and above-average risk of forest fire. During the 20th century, the region experienced a warming of 0.8degreesC. Using output from eight climate models, we project a further warming of 0.5-2.5degreesC (central estimate 1.5degreesC) by the 2020s, 1.5-3.2degreesC (2.3degreesC) by the 2040s, and an increase in precipitation except in summer. The foremost impact of a warming climate will be the reduction of regional snowpack, which presently supplies water for ecosystems and human uses during the dry summers. Our understanding of past climate also illustrates the responses of human management systems to climatic stresses, and suggests that a warming of the rate projected would pose significant challenges to the management of natural resources. Resource managers and planners currently have few plans for adapting to or mitigating the ecological and economic effects of climatic change.
Niebur, C. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Guinness, E. A.; Galford, G. L.. (2003) Lower Missouri River floodplain at arrow rock before and after the great floods of 1993. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, MO. Pages 115-134;
Ricketts, T.; Imhoff, M.. (2003) Biodiversity, urban areas, and agriculture: Locating priority ecoregions for conservation. Conservation Ecology 8(2)
Link to Publication View Abstract
Urbanization and agriculture are two of the most important threats to biodiversity worldwide. The intensities of these land-use phenomena, however, as well as levels of biodiversity itself, differ widely among regions. Thus, there is a need to develop a quick but rigorous method of identifying where high levels of human threats and biodiversity coincide. These areas are clear priorities for biodiversity conservation. In this study, we combine distribution data for eight major plant and animal taxa (comprising over 20,000 species) with remotely sensed measures of urban and agricultural land use to assess conservation priorities among 76 terrestrial ecoregions in North America. We combine the species data into overall indices of richness and endemism. We then plot each of these indices against the percent cover of urban and agricultural land in each ecoregion, resulting in four separate comparisons. For each comparison, ecoregions that fall above the 66th quantile on both axes are identified as priorities for conservation. These analyses yield four "priority sets" of 6-16 ecoregions (8-21% of the total number) where high levels of biodiversity and human land use coincide. These ecoregions tend to be concentrated in the southeastern United States, California, and, to a lesser extent, the Atlantic coast, southern Texas, and the U.S. Midwest. Importantly, several ecoregions are members of more than one priority set and two ecoregions are members of all four sets. Across all 76 ecoregions, urban cover is positively correlated with both species richness and endemism. Conservation efforts in densely populated areas therefore may be equally important (if not more so) as preserving remote parks in relatively pristine regions.
Rizzo, D. M.. (2003) Long-Term Ground Water Modeling. Lewis Publishers, Cambridge, U.K..
Roman, J.; Palumbi, S. R.. (2003) Whales before whaling in the North Atlantic. Science 301(5632) 508-510
Link to Publication View Abstract
It is well known that hunting dramatically reduced all baleen whale populations, yet reliable estimates of former whale abundances are elusive. Based on coalescent models for mitochondrial DNA sequence variation, the genetic diversity of North Atlantic whales suggests population sizes of approximately 240,000 humpback, 360,000 fin, and 265,000 minke whales. Estimates for fin and humpback whales are far greater than those previously calculated for prewhaling populations and 6 to 20 times higher than present-day population estimates. Such discrepancies suggest the need for a quantitative reevaluation of historical whale populations and a fundamental revision in our conception of the natural state of the oceans.
Roman, J.. (2003) Tracking Anthropogenic Change in the North Atlantic Ocean with Genetic Tools. Harvard University, Cambridge, U.K..
Rosenzweig, M. L.; Turner, W. R.; Cox, J. G.; Ricketts, T. H.. (2003) Estimating diversity in unsampled habitats of a biogeographical province. Conservation Biology 17(3) 864-874
Link to Publication View Abstract
Estimating the number of species in a biogeographical province can be problematic. A number of methods have been developed to overcome sample-size limits within a single habitat. We evaluated six of these methods to see whether they could also compensate for incomplete habitat samples. We applied them to the butterfly species of the 110 ecoregions of Canada and the United States. Two of the methods use the frequency of species that occur in a few of the sampled ecoregions. These two methods did not work. The other four methods estimate the asymptote of the species-accumulation curve (the graph of "number of species in a set of samples" versus "number of species occurrences in those samples"). The asymptote of this curve is the actual number of species in the system. Three of these extrapolation estimators produced good estimates of total diversity even when limited to 10% of the ecoregions. Good estimates depend on sampling ecoregions that are hyperdispersed in space. Clustered sampling designs ruin the usefulness of the three successful methods. To ascertain their generality, our results must be duplicated at other scales and for other taxa and in other provinces.
Todd, J.; Brown, E. J. G.; Wells, E.. (2003) Ecological design applied. Ecological Engineering 20(5) 421-440
Link to Publication View Abstract
Over the past three decades ecological design has been applied to an increasingly diverse range of technologies and innovative solutions for the management of resources. Ecological technologies have been created for the food sector, waste conversion industries, architecture and landscape design, and to the field of environmental protection and restoration. The five case studies presented here represent applications of ecological design in five areas: sewage treatment, the restoration of a polluted body of water, the treatment of high strength industrial waste in lagoons, the integration of ecological systems with architecture, and an agriculturally based Eco-Park. Case #1 is an Advanced Ecologically Engineered System (AEES) for the treatment of sewage in Vermont, a cold climate. The facility treated 300 m(3) per day (79,250 gallons per day) of sewage to advanced or tertiary wastewater standards, including during the winter months. A number of commercial byproducts were developed as part of the treatment process. Case #2 involved the treatment of a pond contaminated with 295 m(3) per day (77,930 gallons per day) of toxic leachate from an adjacent landfill. A floating Restorer was built to treat the polluted pond. The Restorer was powered by wind and solar based energy sources. Over the past decade the pond has improved. There has been a positive oxygen regime throughout the water column, bottom sediments have been digested and the quality of the sediment chemistry has improved. The biodiversity of the macrobenthos of the pond has increased as a result of the improved conditions. Case #3 involved the treatment of 37,850 m 3 per day (I million gallons per day) of high strength waste from a poultry processing plant utilizing a dozen AEES Restorers. The technology has resulted in a 74% drop in energy requirements for treatment and has dramatically reduced the need for sludge removal. Currently, sludge degradation is proceeding faster than sludge accumulation. Case #4 includes several examples of buildings that utilize ecologically engineered systems to treat, recycle and permit the reuse of wastewater. The new Lewis Center for Environmental Studies at Oberlin College is a recent example of this trend. Case #5 describes the work that is leading to the creation of an urban, agriculturally based, Eco-Park in Burlington, Vermont. Waste heat from a nearby power station will provide year round climate control in a structure developed for food processing businesses, including a brewery, and for the onsite growth of diverse foods in integrated systems. We also describe a project to amplify the value of waste organic materials through biological conversion to high value products such as fish, flowers, mushrooms, soils amendments, and livestock and fish feeds. An ecologically designed fish culture facility will be an integral part of the Eco-Park complex. The project is intended to demonstrate the economic viability of integrative design in an urban setting and to address the important issue of locally based food production. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wollenberg, E. K.. (2003) Boundary keeping and access to gaharu among Kenyah forest users. Environment and Planning A 35(6) 1007-1023
Link to Publication View Abstract
As people living near forests in many parts of the world receive recognition of resource-management rights, questions arise about where forest boundaries should be set and who should legitimately receive these rights. Drawing on research conducted among forest-dwelling Kenyah communities in Kalimantan, Indonesia, during 1995 to 1998, I show that the realization of resource rights must be understood in the social context of how boundaries are interpreted and negotiated. Access to and control over forest resources is as much a matter of boundary keeping as of boundary setting. The analysis shows that boundary keepers assessed whether someone should be given access based on the potential user's entitlement, identity, and the potential for exchange. Understanding the 'fuzziness' of how seemingly clear boundary rules are applied should provide a more realistic picture of how groups gain and control access to resources in practice.
Wright, E. L.; Erickson, J. D.. (2003) Incorporating catastrophes into integrated assessment: Science, impacts, and adaptation. Climatic Change 57(3) 265-286
Link to Publication View Abstract
Incorporating potential catastrophic consequences into integrated assessment models of climate change has been a top priority of policymakers and modelers alike. We review the current state of scientific understanding regarding three frequently mentioned geophysical catastrophes, with a view toward their implications for integrated assessment modeling. This review finds inadequacies in widespread model assumptions regarding the nature of catastrophes themselves and climate change impacts more generally. The possibility of greatly postponed consequences from near- and medium-term actions suggests that standard discounting practices are inappropriate for the analysis of climate catastrophe. Careful consideration of paleoclimate and geophysical modeling evidence regarding the possibility of changes in ocean circulation suggests a reframing of the source of climate change damages in economic models, placing changes in climate predictability, rather than gradual changes in mean values, at the focus of economic damage assessments. The implications of decreases in predictability for the modeling of adaptation are further discussed.
2002
Bormann, B. T.; Keller, C. K.; Wang, D.; Bormann, F. H.. (2002) Lessons from the sandbox: Is unexplained nitrogen real?. Ecosystems 5(8) 727-733
Link to Publication View Abstract
In their review of 24 studies of forest nitrogen (N) budgets, Binkley and others (2000) found that only one of them supported the conclusion that an N accumulation of more than 25 kg N ha(-1) y(-1) is possible without known symbiotic N-2-fixing plants. They contended that, given how well the N cycle is known, new N accumulation pathways are unlikely. They also concluded that the Hubbard Brook sandbox study (Bormann and others 1993) was insufficiently replicated and had low precision in vegetation and soil estimates. Here we reevaluate and extend the sandbox analysis and place the findings in a broader context. Using multiple methods of estimating vegetation N accumulation in pine sandboxes, we arrived at results that differed from the reported rates but still strongly supported large biomass N accumulation. The original study's conclusions about soil N changes were strengthened when new evidence showed that N accumulated in lower horizons and that the sandboxes were successfully homogenized at the beginning of the experiment. Unexplained ecosystem N accumulation ranged from about 40 to 150 kg ha(-1) y(-1), with 95% confidence intervals that did not include zero. No evidence was found that could balance the sandbox ecosystem N budgets without adding unexplained N. Unreplicated experiments, such as the sandboxes, can explore the possibility that N can accumulate in ways not explainable by mass balance analysis, but they cannot quantify the frequency and extent of the phenomenon. New studies should combine substantive microbiological, mass balance, and process research using multiple direct measures of N-2 fixation.
Boumans, R.; Costanza, R.; Farley, J.; Wilson, M. A.; Portela, R.; Rotmans, J.; Villa, F.; Grasso, M.. (2002) Modeling the dynamics of the integrated earth system and the value of global ecosystem services using the GUMBO model. Ecological Economics 41(3) 529-560
Link to Publication View Abstract
A global unified metamodel of the biosphere (GUMBO) was developed to simulate the integrated earth system and assess the dynamics and values of ecosystem services. It is a 'metamodel' in that it represents a synthesis and a simplification of several existing dynamic global models in both the natural and social sciences at an intermediate level of complexity. The current version of the model contains 234 state variables, 930 variables total, and 1715 parameters. GUMBO is the first global model to include the dynamic feedbacks among human technology, economic production and welfare, and ecosystem goods and services within the dynamic earth system. GUMBO includes modules to simulate carbon, water, and nutrient fluxes through the Atmosphere, Lithosphere, Hydrosphere, and Biosphere of the global system. Social and economic dynamics are simulated within the Anthroposphere. GUMBO links these five spheres across eleven biomes, which together encompass the entire surface of the planet. The dynamics of eleven major ecosystem goods and services for each of the biomes are simulated and evaluated. Historical calibrations from 1900 to 2000 for 14 key variables for which quantitative time-series data was available produced an average R-2 of 0.922. A range of future scenarios representing different assumptions about future technological change, investment strategies and other factors have been simulated. The relative value of ecosystem services in terms of their contribution to supporting both conventional economic production and human well-being more broadly defined were estimated under each scenario, and preliminary conclusions drawn. The value of global ecosystem services was estimated to be about 4.5 times the value of Gross World Product (GWP) in the year 2000 using this approach. The model can be downloaded and run on the average PC to allow users to explore for themselves the complex dynamics of the system and the full range of policy assumptions and scenarios. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Erickson, J. D.; Gowdy, J. M.. (2002) The strange economics of sustainability. Bioscience 52(3) 212-212
Farley, J.; Costanza, R.. (2002) Envisioning shared goals for humanity: a detailed, shared vision of a sustainable and desirable USA in 2100. Ecological Economics 43(2-3) 245-259
Link to Publication View Abstract
Economics has been defined as the science of allocation of scarce resources towards alternative ends. This definition implies that the first step in economic analysis is to determine what ends are desirable for society. Most sectors of the society would agree that sustainability is a desirable end, but there is little agreement as to what a sustainable future would look like. The University of Maryland Institute for Ecological Economics sponsored a democratic future search process designed to create a relatively detailed, shared vision of a sustainable and desirable USA in the year 2100. This paper presents the vision developed at that conference, examines the resources required to achieve the vision, and assesses the suitability of market mechanisms for allocating the required resources towards the desired ends. We find that markets are not efficient mechanisms for allocation in this case, and propose the institutions of a 'strong democracy' as a promising alternative. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Franklin, J. F.; Spies, T. A.; Van Pelt, R.; Carey, A. B.; Thornburgh, D. A.; Berg, D. R.; Lindenmayer, D. B.; Harmon, M. E.; Keeton, W. S.; Shaw, D. C.; Bible, K.; Chen, J. Q.. (2002) Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems with silvicultural implications, using Douglas-fir forests as an example. Forest Ecology and Management 155(1-3) 399-423
Link to Publication View Abstract
Forest managers need a comprehensive scientific understanding of natural stand development processes when designing silvicultural systems that integrate ecological and economic objectives, including a better appreciation of the nature of disturbance regimes and the biological legacies, such as live trees, snags, and logs, that they leave behind. Most conceptual forest development models do not incorporate current knowledge of the: (1) complexity of structures (including spatial patterns) and developmental processes; (2) duration of development in long-lived forests; (3) complex spatial patterns of stands that develop in later stages of seres; and particularly (4) the role of disturbances in creating structural legacies that become key elements of the post-disturbance stands, We elaborate on existing models for stand structural development using natural stand development of the Douglas-fir-western hemlock sere in the Pacific Northwest as our primary example; most of the principles are broadly applicable while some processes (e.g. role of epicormic branches) are related to specific species. We discuss the use of principles from disturbance ecology and natural stand development to create silvicultural approaches that are more aligned with natural processes. Such approaches provide for a greater abundance of standing dead and down wood and large old trees, perhaps reducing short-term commercial productivity but ultimately enhancing wildlife habitat, biodiversity, and ecosystem function, including soil protection and nutrient retention. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V All rights reserved.
Gustafson, S.; Wang, D.. (2002) Effects of agricultural runoff on vegetation composition of a priority conservation Wetland, Vermont, USA. Journal of Environmental Quality 31(1) 350-357
Link to Publication View Abstract
This study examined the effects of agricultural runoff on the vegetation structure of Franklin Bog, a priority conservation area located in a rapidly developing region of northwestern Vermont. Forested and agricultural runoff from the mixed land use watershed created differential vegetation patterns in the wetland, including weedy species introductions. Concentrations of nitro-en and phosphorus were measured in the stream runoff from four forested subwatersheds and two agricultural subwatersheds. Nutrient concentrations were significantly higher for agricultural vs. forested runoff for all measured parameters. Nitrate-and total phosphorus concentrations in agricultural runoff ranged from 0.62 to 1.35 mg L-1 and 0.07 to 0.37 mg L-1, respectively Forested runoff values were less than 0.37 mg L-1 nitrate and 0.09 mg L-1 total phosphorus. Significantly higher proportions of weedy species occurred at impacted vs. reference sites (46 +/- 5%, vs. 23 +/- 4%). Furthermore, significantly higher total percent vegetated cover occurred at impacted vs. reference sites (116 +/- 11% vs. 77 +/- 9%) suggesting nutrient induced plant growth. Of the nine frequently occurring species categorized as bog species' only one was found within impacted sites while all nine were found at the reference sites. This suggests that the wetland's distinctive native flora is being replaced by widespread, vigorous species enhanced by agricultural nonpoint pollution in the watershed of Franklin Bog. Protection of wetlands requires attention to conservation measures throughout the entire watershed.
Herendeen, R. A.; Wildermuth, T.. (2002) Resource-based sustainability indicators: Chase County, Kansas, as example. Ecological Economics 42(1-2) 243-257
Link to Publication View Abstract
We develop three quantitative indicators of the physical/biological aspect of sustainability. They are based on depletion of resources, dependence on outside subsidies, and disruption of natural cycles. We apply the indicators to an agricultural county in Kansas, using energy, water, soil, and nitrogen as numeraires. 9/10 of Chase County is dedicated to range beef cattle grazing and 1/10 to row-cropping and confinement animal feeding. Range production is relatively non-depleting, independent, and non-disrupting. Cropping is more depleting, dependent, and disrupting, but comparable with that in other agricultural areas. We discuss how this pattern, mediated by absentee land-holding and low human population density, trades off against economic income. With the exception of energy, all analyses are only in terms of direct flows (e.g. actual amounts crossing the county boundary). For energy, we also estimate the energy consumed elsewhere to produce imported non-energy goods and services. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B,V. All rights reserved.
Noordewier, T.; Vermont. Dept. of Tourism and Marketing.,; University of Vermont. School of Business Administration.,; University of Vermont. Vermont Tourism Data Center.,. (2002) 2001 national survey of the Vermont visitor : report. Vermont Tourism Data Center, Burlington, VT. Pages 13;
Ricketts, T. H.; Daily, G. C.; Ehrlich, P. R.. (2002) Does butterfly diversity predict moth diversity? Testing a popular indicator taxon at local scales. Biological Conservation 103(3) 361-370
Link to Publication View Abstract
Indicator taxa are often proposed as efficient ways of identifying conservation priorities, but the correlation between putative indicators and other taxa has not been adequately tested. We examined whether a popular indicator taxon. the butterflies, could provide a useful surrogate measure of diversity in a closely related but relatively poorly known group, the moths, at a local scale relevant to many conservation decisions (10(0)-10(1) km(2)). We sampled butterflies and moths at 19 sites representing the three major terrestrial habitats in sub-alpine Colorado: meadows. aspen forests, and conifer forests. We found no correlation between moth and butterfly diversity across the 19 sites, using any of five different diversity measures. Correlations across only meadow sites (to test for correlation within a single, species-rich habitat) were also not significant. Butterflies were restricted largely to meadows, where their host plants occur and thermal environment is favorable. In contrast, all three habitats contained substantial moth diversity, and several moth species were restricted to each habitat. These findings suggest that (1) butterflies are unlikely to be useful indicators of moth diversity at a local scale; (2) phylogenetic relatedness is not a reliable criterion for selecting appropriate indicator taxa, and (3) a habitat-based approach would more effectively conserve moth diversity in this landscape and may be preferable in many situations where indicator taxa relationships are untested. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, D.. (2002) Engaging Citizens in Environmental Decision Making: Burlington, Vermont's EMPACT Project. Journal of Urban Technology 9(2) 95-109
Zencey, E.. (2002) The art of the commonplace: The agrarian essays of Wendell Berry. Nation 275(1) 35-+
Contact UVM © 2014 The University of Vermont - Burlington, VT 05405 - (802) 656-3131