covered bridge

The schedule of events for the 2022 International Workshop on Agritourism is below for reference. Thank you to all who participated!

Schedule At A Glance

Monday, August 29, 2022
2:00pm - 5:00pmExhibitor & Sponsor Booth Set-up
2:00pm - 5:00pmPoster Set-up
Tuesday, August 30, 2022
8:00am - 5:20pmRegistration Desk Open
8:00am - 5:20pm
6:45pm - 9:00pm
Exhibitor & Sponsor Booths Open; Poster Viewing
8:00am - 9:00amBreakfast with Exhibitors & Sponsors
8:00am - 8:55amGrowing Your Network: An Evidenced-Based Workshop on Enhancing Collaborations in Agritourism (Part 1 of 3) Advance registration required; included with full conference registration, but limited capacity.
9:00am - 10:45amWelcome & Plenary Session: The Importance of Agritourism for Farmer Livelihoods, Rural Vitality, and Consumer Education
Agritourism is important for producers and their communities across the globe. Visitors to farms, ranches, and vineyards benefit from spending time in natural environments and eating farm fresh products. Agritourism provides economic opportunities for farms, contributes to food sovereignty and security, conserves ecosystem services, and supports rural vitality, empowerment of women and youth, and regenerative agriculture. Panelists from Africa, Latin America and North America will share their experiences with agritourism on their farms and in their communities. Erica Campbell, policy manager for the Netflix documentary, Kiss the Ground, will moderate the panel.
10:45am - 11:00amBreak
11:00am - 12:00pmConcurrent Sessions
12:00pm - 1:40pmLunch
1:40pm - 5:20pmConcurrent Sessions
2:40pm - 3:00pmBreak
4:00pm - 4:20pmBreak
5:20pm - 6:00pmTime On Your Own
6:00pm - 7:00pmCocktail Reception - Sponsored by Quebec Government Office in Boston - and Poster Session with Presenters
7:00pmGroup Photo
7:00pm - 9:00pmFarm to Table Dinner Event with Exhibitors & Sponsors
Wednesday, August 31, 2022
8:00am - 11:20amRegistration Desk Open
8:00am - 11:20amExhibitor & Sponsor Booths Open; Poster Viewing
8:00am - 9:00amBreakfast with Exhibitors & Sponsors
8:00am - 8:55amGrowing Your Network: An Evidenced-Based Workshop on Enhancing Collaborations in Agritourism (Part 2 of 3) Advance registration required; included with full conference registration, but limited capacity.
9:00am - 11:20amConcurrent Sessions
10:00am - 10:20amBreak
11:20am - 12:00pmPick Up Box Lunches and Prepare to Depart for Mobile Workshops
Buses depart from outside of Hotel Lobby promptly at 12:00pm (noon).
12:00pm - 5:00pmMobile Workshops
View descriptions. Advance registration required; included with in person conference registration, but limited capacity.
5:00pmMobile Workshops Return to Hotel
EveningTime On Your Own
Thursday, September 1, 2022
8:00am - 4:00pmRegistration Desk Open
8:00am - 5:30pmExhibitor & Sponsor Booths Open; Poster Viewing
8:00am - 9:00amBreakfast
8:00am - 8:55amGrowing Your Network: An Evidenced-Based Workshop on Enhancing Collaborations in Agritourism (Part 3 of 3) Advance registration required; included with full conference registration, but limited capacity.
9:00am - 11:20amConcurrent Sessions
10:00am - 10:20amBreak
11:20am - 1:00pmLunch & Keynote Address: Cultivating the Future of Agritourism
1:00pm - 4:00pmConcurrent Sessions
2:40pm - 3:00pmBreak
4:00pm - 5:30pmClosing Plenary Session: The Future of Agritourism
The 2022 International Workshop on Agritourism is a rich opportunity for agritourism operators, agricultural service providers and educators, tourism professionals, researchers, and others to connect and share our experiences, research, and expertise. This closing plenary is an opportunity to reflect on the impact of this event and discuss next steps for the future of agritourism and the role of the international agritourism network. We’ll also share some exciting announcements about regional collaboration and upcoming events.
5:30pmConference Adjourns; Exhibitor & Sponsor Booths Tear-down

Full Schedule, Monday, August 29, 2022

2:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.Registration Desk Open
Hotel Lobby
2:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.Exhibitor & Sponsor Booth Set-up
Various Locations
Stop by the registration desk to confirm your exhibit booth location before setting up!
2:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.Poster Set-up


Full Schedule, Tuesday, August 30, 2022

7:45 a.m. - 9:00 a.m.Breakfast with Exhibitors & Sponsors
Adirondack Ballroom
8:00 a.m. - 5:20 p.m.Registration Desk Open
Hotel Lobby
8:00 a.m. - 5:20 p.m.Exhibitor & Sponsor Booths Open; Poster Viewing
Various Locations
8:00 a.m. - 8:55 a.m.Growing Your Network: An Evidenced-Based Workshop on Enhancing Collaborations in Agritourism (Part 1 of 3)
Vermont Conference Room A&B
The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has drastically changed collaborations and the way we network. We are excited to offer an in-conference networking workshop as the world eases back into the conference routine. Sponsored by a National Science Foundation grant on interdisciplinary collaborations, this three day workshop led by team science expert Dr. Marissa Shuffler and rural development expert Dr. Lori Dickes will focus on evidenced-based best practices for enhancing collaborations and personal networks to grow your network and make the most of your conference experience. The workshop will offer both in-person and virtual elements to best support attendees.
9:00 a.m. - 10:45 a.m.Welcome & Plenary Session: The Importance of Agritourism for Farmer Livelihoods, Rural Vitality, and Consumer Education
Adirondack Ballroom
Erica Campbell, Policy Manager, Kiss The Ground
Mario Fuentes, General Manager, My Trip to Ecuador
Beth Kennett, owner, Liberty Hill Farm
Sponsored By: Cornell Cooperative
Agritourism is important for producers and their communities across the globe. Visitors to farms, ranches, and vineyards benefit from spending time in natural environments and eating farm fresh products. Agritourism provides economic opportunities for farms, contributes to food sovereignty and security, conserves ecosystem services, and supports rural vitality, empowerment of women and youth, and regenerative agriculture. Panelists from Africa, Latin America and North America will share their experiences with agritourism on their farms and in their communities. Erica Campbell, policy manager for the Netflix documentary, Kiss the Ground, will moderate the panel.
10:45 a.m. - 11:00 a.m.Break
Montpelier Ballroom
11:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.Connecting Agritourism Internationally and Building Association Growth
Green Mountain A
Suzi Spahr, Executive Director, NAFDMA International Agritourism Association
Jacqui Taylor Africa it is our time!, CEO & Founder, Agritourism Africa, Rural Tourism Africa
Pandurang Taware, Committee Member, Maharashtra Agri & Rural Tourism Development Committee, Department of Tourism, Government of Maharashtra
Robert Copley, Director, Farmer Copleys Farm Shop
Throughout the world, many agritourism organizations exist and work diligently to share best practices, resources, and provide networking opportunities to their members and the agritourism farm providers in their networks. As food production continues its global reach and agritourism trends cross international boundaries, there is much we can learn as an industry from each other. The workshop will explore ways we can share resources and network with best practices across the globe. In addition, this workshop can explore ways individual associations can support their members in their own countries and regions. Each panelist will be asked to provide a brief summary of the association they represent and the ways in which they provide services to their members. The moderator will then begin asking a series of questions about connectivity between associations, exploring opportunities for current and future association development. During this time, audience members will be asked to provide questions on notecards which will be provided to the moderator (ensuring the audience has an opportunity to explore the topic as well, with the panel.) Outcomes will include learnings for each individual association to acquire ways to develop growth in their own country or region, the associations to idea generate on new ways to network across the industry, and an overall development of better relationship building within the space.
11:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.Hospitality and Customer Service on the Farm
Vermont Conference Room A&B
11:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.How to Create a Successful Economic Stream through Agritourism for Working Farms
Green Mountain B
Lylee Rauch-Kacenski, Communications Manager, Center for an Agricultural Economy
Jon Ramsay, Executive Director, Center for an Agricultural Economy
Sara Schlosser, Owner, Sandiwood Farm
Kelly Nottermann, Owner, Snug Valley Farm
Melanie Webb, Owner, Stony Pond Farm
Join Kelly Nottermann of Snug Valley Farm, Sara Schlosser of Sandiwood Farm, and Melanie Webb of Stony Pond Farm, as they share their experiences of creating economic streams through agritourism. The three farms have very different business models, but have each figured out how to bring the public to their land and expand their revenue streams, while giving people a chance to experience the working landscape and beauty of Vermont agriculture. Kelly, Sara, and Melanie will each share the story of how they got started in farming, how they incorporate agritourism into their business model, and what they have learned and how they have pivoted strategies due to the Covid-19 pandemic. They will highlight the success they have had, as well as challenges they encounter along the way. The three farmers will be joined by staff from the Center for an Agricultural Economy for an interactive brainstorming session to explore best practices for hosting successful on-farm events. Participants will have a chance to reflect on their own farm or agritourism business, and translate what they have learned to their own land and business model.
11:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.Policies and Regulations
Lake Champlain Salon A&B
National, state, and local regulation of agritourism
Alexia Kulwiec, Farm-to-Consumer Legal Defense Fund, Executive Director
Background Information: Economic viability can be very difficult for small farms today, both because of competition and challenging regulatory policies. Agritourism has become a vital revenue stream to supplement farm income and provides opportunity for the public to better understand how their food is grown, or simply enjoy the great outdoors. Yet for a small farm, the myriad of laws and regulations, at the national, state and local government level can be challenging to find, interpret and apply correctly. This presentation is intended to touch on regulation of agritourism and steps to prevent regulatory problems that can arise. One important regulation gaining popularity in the United States are Agritourism laws that protect farms for injury incurred from risks inherent in agritourism, such as tipping on uneven land or contact with farm animal. This presentation will address generally that protect farms and what requirements are typically necessary for these laws to apply, such as printed warning to customers or proper training for staff. The presentation will touch upon additional relevant laws such as zoning, tax treatment, difference in agricultural and non agricultural wages, local ordinances, and right-to-farm laws. Methods: Law is difficult to teach as a "hands on" workshop but can be done in a manner to encourage increased participation. I will present using a visual presentation such as power point, and welcome questions during as well as after the presentation. Along the way, I will encourage audience members to share their own experiences in dealing with the regulatory landscape of agritourism. I will provide examples of local regulation, and will even ask questions of participants intended to illicit experiences and understanding of the material. Objectives and results: The objective will be to introduce the challenges included in the regulatory environment and propose methods of researching regulations and ensuring compliance. Given the multi jurisdictional nature of the conference, it is not feasible to ensure that participants can learn all they need to know regarding regulation, but instead what to look for. Program evaluation: I welcome immediate participant feedback, program evaluations, and other suggestions from participants. Conclusion: Again, the idea is to provide participants with an idea of what regulations should be considered, and some tools to prevent problems with regulatory agencies.

Cultivating local farm economies: Helping agritourism operators navigate planning and zoning challenges
Garrett Ziegler, Michigan State University Extension, Food Systems and Sustainable Tourism Educator
Wendy Wieland, Michigan State University Product Center/ MSU Extension Phil Hallstedt, HH Cherries (and flowers!), Founder
Throughout Michigan, many farmers are turning to Agritourism as a way to diversify their farm incomes and create sustainable livelihoods for their families. They are creating more innovative and authentic farm-based experiences that go beyond the traditional u-pick or farm stand. These experiences include hosting farm dinners, educational workshops using farm products, farm stays/lodging, live music, and much more. While farms have seen growing popularity for these experiences, this growth has caused growing tension and conflict between farmers, neighbors, community members and local planning and zoning officials. In an effort to help alleviate this conflict and bring clarity to all sides of the issue, MSU Extension developed the Cultivating Local Farm Economies Program which provided perspective and education to both the farming community and local planning and zoning officials. This program, originally developed in 2018/19, was hosted as a series of workshops taking place around Michigan and was later adapted to a webinar series in 2021 to cover emerging issues of conflict in agritourism in Michigan. It had the following objectives: Provide a basic understanding of agriculture in Michigan and importance of agritourism innovation for farm sustainability and rural economic development; Provide a basic understanding of the Michigan Right to Farm act and local planning and zoning regulations in Michigan; Highlight specific regulations and issues encountered when agritourism activities include value-added food processing/production; Examine farm stays as an emerging agritourism issue case study. This program not only increased participants' understanding and knowledge of key concepts in agritourism and local planning and zoning, but it also provided a space for conflicts to be resolved between the two “sides” of this issue. It has also led to several local townships in Michigan revisiting masterplans and local zoning ordinances to include definitions for agritourism and create pathways for farmers to navigate these important aspects of their agritourism activities and developments. State and local laws governing zoning and land use are different from state to state, but this workshop will provide background and lessons learned from our experience developing and implementing this program that will be beneficial for all farmers and TA providers. We will feature a case study from a farmer in Northern Michigan who has been working with his local zoning board to identify ways to provide farm stays at his cherry orchard and facilitate a discussion on best practices for working with, instead of against, local regulatory officials.

Developing tourism-related research and technical assistance to support the burgeoning wine industry in Oklahoma, USA
Stacy Tomas, National Extension Tourism Network, Associate Professor of Professional Practice
Wine tourism is gaining popularity across the US and is increasingly seen as a strategy to develop rural areas and highlight the cultural and agricultural aspects of a region. Wineries exist in every state in the US, while some areas are more well-known for their wine and wine tourism than others. In developing wine regions, such as the south-central US, most wineries are small-scale in terms of their size and production. Small wineries tend to be family-owned, and thus one or two people that are not usually wine-industry experts make all managerial decisions. In most cases, owners are in charge of all decision making as well as all related activities, from grape growing to wine making, from accounting to marketing, and employee and tasting room management. As such, these small wineries, often with limited staff, are responsible for not only creating the wine product, but the wine tourism experience, and marketing to customers, which leave the operations stretched thin to spend ample time in all areas. Thus, there is a need for not only industry- and region-specific research, but also technical assistance to support these small wineries. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the development of multiple wine tourism-related initiatives to provide research and technical assistance support to the burgeoning wine industry in Oklahoma, USA. These initiatives included (1) the development of a needs assessment of Oklahoma wine producers, as it relates to wine, visitors, agritourism and marketing to help guide the future direction of the industry; (2) visitor studies at wine-related events to identify visitor demographics, visitor knowledge and perceptions of OK wineries and wine, and to investigate wine demand and consumption patterns and preferences; (3) a detailed web-scraping analysis of 925 wineries in the south-central US to develop a comparison of OK wineries to those wineries in surrounding states; and (4) the development of a “hospitality training for wineries” curriculum to assist in the wine owners in providing training for their tasting room staff. The development of these initiatives and related outcomes and deliverables will be discussed, as well as suggested strategies to assist smaller wineries to more efficiently and effectively market their wine and wineries to potential tourists as well as create memorable experiences for guests. While these initiatives and related findings are from Oklahoma, the results and strategies may be of interest to others working to promote and develop burgeoning wineries in other rural regions.
1:40 p.m. - 2:40 p.m.Reading the Agritourism Operation — Tools for Whole-Farm Planning and Risk Management
Green Mountain C
Doolarie (Dee) Singh-Knights, Associate Professor and Extension Specialist, West Virginia University
Agriculture in West Virginia (WV) and across the US continue to experience dramatic changes. These changes in traditional agriculture combined with changing visitors’ travel patterns ('staycations'; demand for more family time; culinary and heritage tourism niches; and increasing interest in knowing where their food comes from) have led farmers to explore agritourism and farm-based education as an emerging agribusiness opportunity, to help diversify farm income and improve cash flows. Most farms are ideally positioned to capitalize on this opportunity as they have the ‘raw ingredients’ to support travelers’ interest in experiential travel. However, these operations still face many risks to building sustainable agribusinesses that are difficult to overcome given their size, financial capabilities, and limited knowledge in adding a ‘hospitality enterprise’ to their farm-diversification portfolio.

Farm operators pursuing sustainability goals generally have three objectives: farm profitability, environmental stewardship, and strong community connections. Helping farmers navigate how to add an agritourism enterprise to their portfolio so that it contributes to their sustainability objectives requires a whole-farm business planning and risk management approach. Planning is one of the most important aspects of managing any business, yet many consider it to be unrealistic for agribusinesses due to their complexity and the inherent uncertainties associated with agriculture. To the contrary, it is imperative that farm families adopt a whole- farm planning and risk mitigation approach as they develop strategies for the future success of their business, particularly in light of their small size, limited resources and narrow profit margins.

Whole-farm planning and risk management for agritourism operations is challenging because of the myriad of factors and whole-farm interactions that impact profitability, environmental stewardship and community connections. The WV University Extension Service continues to offer whole-farm business planning and risk management training through the WV Agritourism Initiative. The overall statewide risk management program responds to an expressed need for continued risk-management education among aspiring, beginning and mid-level producers with social and resource disadvantages. This presentation will focus on best-practices we have garnered with participants in the Agritourism Initiative course and builds on the original ‘Reading the Farm’ professional development guide developed by NESARE (Northeast Sustainable Agriculture, Research and Education). The goal of the ‘Reading the Agritourism Operation’ program is to enhance the ability of agriculture service providers and agritourism operators to understand agritourism operations as holistic systems so they can help improve the sustainability of agritourism operations through whole-farm planning and risk management.

This presentation walks participants through the Agribusiness Risk Priority Matrix, which is a process-based tool to help users engage in effective whole-farm risk analysis by understanding whole-farm interactions, prioritizing risks and selecting the right set of risk management strategies to help meet sustainability goals. The Risk Priority Matrix will help lay the foundation for developing appropriate risk management action plans that will enable agritourism operators to build profitable and viable agritourism enterprises with strong community connections through improved whole-farm business planning and risk mitigation.
1:40 p.m. - 2:40 p.m.Supporting Farm Viability through Agritourism
Green Mountain A
How agritourism has improved the quality of life of farmers in Ecuador
Mario Fuentes, My Trip to Ecuador, General Manager
This presentation will focus in showing how agritourism has helped small farmers in Ecuador, specifically around Guayas province, to increase their family income in a sustainable way. With world price of cocoa beans dropping in 2012 to almost half of what it was, the small cocoa farmers had to look for different ways of income and one of the options they discovered is that they could open their farms for tourism to show about the cacao growing and harvesting process and create chocolate making experiences for international guests. Very few farms decided to open and contacted different tour operators in Guayaquil to include the farms in their portfolio of tours. Guayaquil is the major city in Ecuador and receives most of the travelers that goes to the Galapagos Islands, who usually try to come early and have a free day to tour. The cacao farms became one of their favorite options to do, with even a higher demand than city tours of the city. The cacao tours consist in picking up travelers form their hotels, taking them to a cacao farm, start showing the growing process of the tree since it is planted as a seed until the harvest of the beans, the fermentation and the drying process and finally guest have the chance of making their own chocolate from the scratch. Cacao tours are such a sustainable income because the farm doesn’t get affected at all by visitors who basically just watch, touch, smell, just harvest one cacao pod per group and use some of the dry seeds for making chocolate. It represents a great income for the family that owns the farm and creates a wonderful experience for the international guests. After seeing the results, other non-cacao farms have also opened their doors and have been successful. All of them, cacao and non-cacao have improved their family lifestyle thanks to the income provided by the agritourism. Their kids now go to college, better access to internet and education, better constructions for their homes and even afford to go on holidays to different places. Now, in 2021 there are options all over Guayas province for agritourism, some people will be looking to see a very small family owned farm, others will be leaning towards a high end farm, or a big production farm, there is basically options for everyone, all of them, creating lifetime experiences.

Community-based sustainable tourism in practice: Co-creating experiential learning programs with a range of specialists in Crete, Greece
Nikki Rose, Crete's Culinary Sanctuaries Educational Network, Founder and Director
Overview of the benefits of Community-Based Sustainable Tourism as a means for communities to help preserve their distinctive cultural and natural heritage. Over 4,000 years of agricultural production in Crete, Greece has created a knowledge-base that is unique and beneficial to the local and global community. The Mediterranean Diet of Greece-Crete is on UNESCO's Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

Sustainable agritourism development in Florida: Challenges and opportunities for promoting regenerative agriculture and the SDGs
Brooke Hansen, University of South Florida, Director, Sustainable Tourism
With COVID-19 contributing to the worst year on record for global tourism in 2020, and other pressing global issues such as climate change, there has been some deep reflection in the industry about how to build back better. With popularity in agritourism increasing steadily, there is an opportunity to promote sustainable agritourism that supports climate-friendly agriculture, increases local food production, and promotes equity, inclusion, and the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Florida has 100 million visitors per year and over 45,000 farms but relatively few agritourism operations compared to other states, with only 250 listed as agritourism operations by the Florida Agritourism Association. In Florida, where tourism is the number one industry and agriculture number two, the multiple threats of the pandemic, climate change, sea level rise, and relentless frequent algae blooms along the coast are prompting a call to action among diverse stakeholders to pursue sustainable agritourism. These efforts align with the United Nations Sustainable Development goals and the Tourism for SDGs platform ( Some scholars have noted the great potential to achieve the SDGs through agritourism (Ghidouche et al, 2021). A sustainable agritourism action plan for the state of Florida has a number of corollary benefits aside from increasing tourism opportunities. With severe red tide outbreaks along the Gulf Coast beaches in 2018 and 2021, it is clear there needs to be more tourism development in inland areas. As most tourists are not clamoring to see large chemically reliant monocropped farms, there is an opportunity to support small and medium sized farmers engaging in regenerative practices that provide an opportunity to educate people about sustainable farming. There are growing numbers of farmers in Florida who are producing diverse crops and helping to address climate change (SDG 13 Climate Action) by sequestering carbon in the ground with methods such as no-till and continuous cover cropping. The reasons for agritourism underdevelopment in Florida and potential for sustainable agritourism expansion are explored through a research project that assessed the scope of regenerative agriculture in the state and surveyed farmers and producers about their position on agritourism expansion. Recommendations will be shared about how the sector can be encouraged to focus on regenerative principles.
1:40 p.m. - 2:40 p.m.Understanding and Enhancing Diversity in Agritourism: Innovative research and outreach in entrepreneurship, marketing, and networking
Green Mountain B
Kynda Curtis, Professor, Utah State University
Sue Slocum, Associate Professor, George Mason University
Jason Entsminger, Associate Director, Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development
Claudia Gil Arroyo, Agriculture and Natural Resources Agent, Rutgers University
This workshop is designed to support and encourage research and outreach to members of socially disadvantaged groups as entrepreneurs in agritourism activities, such as craft beverage production (wine, beer), farm stays, urban gardens, and local tourism supply chains. Socially disadvantaged groups participating in tourism have been under researched, in part because of the social differences between these and mainstream communities where “external agents have not been able to adequately manage the agritourism implementation processes and the experiences have not been successful” (Pérez-Olmos, & Aguilar-Rivera, 2021, p. 2). COVD-19 has disproportionally affected minority- and women-owned enterprises, and social climates are calling for a more equitable distribution of economic resources to include women and others from socially disadvantaged groups (Baum, & Mooney, 2020). As far back as 1994, Phillip recognized both “prejudice” and “discrimination” in tourism policies (p. 486), which are still prevalent today. Agritourism is well situated to support both urban and rural communities (Slocum & Curtis, 2017), where many socially disadvantaged group members may live in urban food desserts, practice tradition agriculture on indigenous reservations, or maintain traditional cooking methods through local foraging.

However, more academic research and outreach is needed to support these under-represented groups. Both supply-side and demand challenges exist, as well as institutionalized discrimination that may hinder financial, marketing or educational resources. Therefore, the goal of this session is to encourage innovative research and outreach into women and minority involvement in agritourism through scholarly networking and the creation of working groups for researchers and practitioners. It is hoped that these alliances will encourage critical research and outreach, as well as support increased access to academic knowledge through the dissemination of research outputs.

Workshop presenters and additional speakers will engage in a roundtable discussion of current issues and obstacles to research and outreach on agritourism entrepreneurship with socially disadvantaged groups. After the discussion, speakers and audience members will, based upon interest and expertise, break out into working groups focused on addressing one of the identified issues or obstacles. These working groups will establish a plan of action and communication for the group post-conference.
1:40 p.m. - 2:40 p.m.Understanding Success in Agritourism
Lake Champlain Salon A&B
What farmers perceive as success within agri-tourism: The case of the Western Cape, South Africa
Christelle Van Zyl, North-West University / Noordwes-Universiteit, Doctoral Student
Engelina Du Plessis, North-West University, School for Tourism Management Director
Peet Van der Merwe, North-West University, Lecturer
Success is measured in different ways, based on a person's perception. For example, a business can be classified as successful when it (a) is profitable; (b) has a certain number or customers; (c) receives repeat customers; (d) satisfies the customer’s wants and needs; (e) high employee satisfaction; (f) meet business goals; (g) wins awards; and more. Therefore, a business’s success is very subjective, and can differ based on which person in the business is asked to describe the success. This research focuses on the agri-tourism sector and how farmers perceive the success of their agri-tourism business. This perceived success was measured through the most outstanding achievement presented by the farm. The aim of this research is to understand how South African farmers, based in the Western Cape, view success and what they see as important within their agri-tourism business to classify it as successful. Through a qualitative research approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with South African farmers, living in the Western Cape, who are successfully managing an agri-tourism business. These in-depth interviews were conducted at the end of 2021, and thus after several nationwide lockdowns and three Covid-19 waves in the country. As the pandemic had a significant impact on the tourism industry, it influenced several farmers’ perception on success. The most important outstanding achievement that farmer’s listed was a sense of pride in their work. Their agri-tourism businesses were still operating after they did everything themselves (e.g., planning, physical restorations, financial inputs, marketing, cleaning, management, etc.). This was followed by customer satisfaction (receiving positive reviews and feedback from clients/repeat clients) and providing a constant quality of products (regardless of external factors such as drought, pandemic, and politics). Other achievements that farmers mentioned include receiving recognition (win awards), positive brand recognition, financial success, employee’s satisfaction, and still being operational after the Covid-19 pandemic. While each of these achievements are subjective to a specific person, there were clear patterns of what most farmers look at when measuring their success. Only a few farmers mentioned profitability as their agri-tourism businesses most outstanding achievement. Each farmer will have their own set of goals for their agri-tourism business. It is important for each farmer to clearly identify and describe these goals before developing their products/services. These goals will significantly impact how they measure their success and their achievements.

Agritourism performance in Tuscany: the role of location, agripreneur and agritourism characteristics
Shpresim Domi, Agricultural University of Tirana, Lecturer and researcher, PhD
Giovanni Belletti, University of Firenze
The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of agritourism location, agritourism characteristics and agripreuners characteristics on performance. To empirically investigate the proposed hypothesis, quantitative data from a survey to 292 Tuscany agritourism farms, together with qualitative information gathered from 8 personal interviews, are considered. To empirically investigate the proposed hypothesis, we considered the case of Tuscany. Tuscany is a well-known region in Italy and internationally about the level of agritourism development. A questionnaire containing four sections about factors of the conceptual model, was delivered to the 4380 agritoursim farms in Tuscany, via email (online survey). Quantitative data from a survey to 292 Tuscany agritourism farms, together with qualitative information gathered from 8 personal interviews, are considered. To test the outlined hypothesis multiple linear regression is employed with robust standard errors. The models fit the data well, there are no influential cases an outliers. The depended construct performance is operationalized in economic terms, customer satisfaction and average expenses per visitor on the farm. Location is operationalized in terms of Location typology and Distance from attractions. As regard to the location typology, it is investigated if matters for agritourism performance, their location into one of the three rural areas (1) disadvantaged areas , (2) intermediate areas, (3) and advantaged areas. Referring to the variable distance from attractions, is considering if an agritourism is surrounded by one or more attractions (up to four scale). Agritourism characteristics are operationalized in terms of the type of the offer (i.e., agritourism offer at least one of the hospitality services, or offer at least one of the hospitality services plus at least one of the food services and/or recreational activities), and size (number of employee). Agripreuners’ characteristics are specified by considering their age and gender. It resulted that if an agritourism is located into intermediate rural areas and/or at advantaged areas, will have a better economic performance (i.e., achieving objectives of profits and revenues), than those which are located into rural areas with development problems. Agritourism farms that are surrounded by two attractions (e.g., art city and landscapes), perform better than those which are close to one attraction. However, when it raises the number of attractions that surrounds an agritourism, the effects on performance are non-significant. It resulted that those agritourism farms that offer a combination of hospitality services, food services and/or recreational activities, perform better in terms of customer satisfaction, than those which offer only on of these types of services. Agritourism that have a number of employee that falls into 3-5 employee, perform better in terms of the average expenses per visitor in the farm, than those which have 1-2, and those with more than 5 employee. Agritourism managed by young agripreuners (up to 24 years old), perform better, in terms of average expenses per visitor on the farm, then those who have an age that falls into 25-40 years old, while there is no difference compared to those managed by 41-64 and over 64 years old. Results indicate that there is no significant difference found in the agripreuners’ gender (i.e. male female) and their effects on agritourism performance. It resulted that those agritorusims that are managed by agripreuners who have had a previous experience into trade, industry, perform better in terms of customer satisfaction, than those who were previously in agriculture and tourism activities. This study is innovative through investigating the role of location typology, distance from attractions, agripreuners' previous experiences, and type of the offer on agritourism performance. The quantitative evidence of this study may help agripreuners to be aware of the most important determinants of performance, and consequently, to better manage their agritourism. When deciding the place where to start the agritourism activities, this study suggests advantaged areas, with a close distance to the attractions. Thus, location matters. Agritourism farms should specifically be focused on offering a combination of the hospitality services, food services and recreational activities, which in turn, will attract new customers. Results related to the age and gender on performance, confirm controversial conclusions of previous studies. The market oriented nature of the agritourism impose managers’ background, mostly related to the trade and industry. This conclusion has also policy implications, when designing a strategy to foster the agritourism development.

South African farmers' motivation for offering agri-tourism products
Christelle Van Zyl, North-West University / Noordwes-Universiteit, Doctoral Student
Peet Van der Merwe, North-West University, Lecturer
There are many types of tourism, each offering many advantages and challenges. Both must be considered before deciding to enter the tourism industry. Agri-tourism, a niche form of tourism that involves tourists visiting working farms for entertainment and education, has become more popular over the years. South African farmers are also actively involved in this form of tourism. While research is still limited in South Africa, there are clear advantages to offering agri-tourism on a farm. For example, it generates an additional income for the farmer; creates job opportunities; utilizes farm resources; uplifts the local community; and more. This research focused on the supply side of agri-tourism and explored the different motives behind South African farmers’ decision to offer agri-tourism on their farm. A quantitative research approach was followed through developing a standardized questionnaire that farmers around the country were asked to complete. Both online and physical questionnaires were gathered. Based on the questionnaires of 557 respondents from all nine provinces of South Africa, 148 respondents indicated that they were currently offering agri-tourism product(s) on their farm. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted, which identified two factors, namely, preservation of culture and heritage and economic advantages. These factors were also found in the literature, based on research in other country around the world. While there are many reasons for developing and managing an agri-tourism product on a farm, the mean values of this research indicated that South African farms’ decision were mainly based on the economic advantages that agri-tourism has to offer.
2:40 p.m. - 3:00 p.m.Break
Montpelier Ballroom
3:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m.Creative Solutions for Agritourism
Green Mountain B
Agritourism organization advances two century farms
Brad Gritt, Gritt's Farm, General Manager
Doug Joyer, Waldoch Farm, General Manager
Program/project description and background — Validating success of organization structure by highlighting the growth both farms have experienced. 2. Objectives of program/project — provide information and evidence of how national organizations facilitate growth and development. Topics Covered in Presentation: How to keep good staff around for the long term; a. How often do you have the opportunity to talk with people having similar business experiences? 2. Hosting thousands of people in a day and providing a good experience; a. Flow of Farm, Number of cars parked in an acre, and emergency plan. 3. Benchmarking System. a. Allows for comparison across like-sized farms and regions; b. Shows growth opportunities and areas that need improved. 4. Best Practices. a. Farm Tours, Virtual Workshops/Roundtables; b. Events fuel discussion centered around finding solutions; c. Culture of Organization that facilitates sharing. 5. Marketing and Promotion strategies. a. Ties to best practices; b. Members follow members for inspiration.

Regenerative tourism: Opportunities for agri-tourism operations
Nicole Vaugeois, Vancouver Island University, AVP Research
While sustainable tourism practices have been numerous and impactful, there are now active calls to action to go further by incorporating principles of the regenerative design to tourism. Regenerative efforts are intended to restore things to a better, higher or more worthy state and to radically change practices for the better. Regenerative tourism will require a deepened commitment by tourism operations to restore and ultimately regenerate the living systems that support tourism activity. This movement is being led by regenerative agriculture which has taken a more holistic approach than conventional agriculture aimed at increasing biodiversity, enriching soils, and improving watersheds leading to better health and vitality for farming communities. Agritourism operations are in a unique and potentially impactful position to incorporate concepts of regenerative agriculture and tourism into their operations. This session will describe the concepts of regenerative agriculture and regenerative tourism contrasting them to conventional and sustainable practices. Examples of Agritourism operations that are practicing regenerative principles will be profiled highlighting in particular, the important role that these operations play in educating society about the value of farming. Participants will be presented with, and asked to provide input on, a definition and conceptual model of regenerative Agritourism resulting in an identification of future research and practice priorities.

Partnering with not-for-profits to promote agritourism venue
Dani Baker, The Enchanted Edible Forest at Cross Island Farms, Farmer, Author
The "Enchanted Edible Foresst Garden" occupies one acre of the 102 acre highly diversified certified organic Cross Island Farms. Among the farm's offerings are annual vegetables, fruits, herbs, edible flowers, pork, beef, goat, eggs, workshops, tours, rustic camping, volunteer and intern hosting and special events. In the seventh year of the farm's operation, co-owner Dani Baker began planning and planting the "Enchanted Edible Forest Garden," a landscaped venue incorporating permaculture principles. In the spring of 2022 her book, "The Homescale Forest Garden; How to Plan,Plant andTend a Resilient Edible Landscape" will be published by Chelsea Green Publishing. The landscaped garden includes two ponds, native stone patios, a bridge, trellis, seating, a bandstand wired for sound and a tent for shelter. During the third year of the garden's development the farm began partnering with local not-for-profit organizations to host fundraiser benefit events in the garden venue. A local hospital, art museum, community foundation, nature center, and public telivision station are among the partner organizations. This presentation will describe the process of planning a number of these events, the means of promoting them, and the resulting benefits to the not-for-profits and the farm. The presentation will be illustrated by a powerpoint displaying promotional materials and publicity, photographs of the garden and of the events taking place in it. Attendees will leave with ideas about how to promote their agritourism venues using these strategies.
3:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m.Supporting Agritourism Development
Green Mountain A
20 years of rural tourism in Belarus: Main stages and tendencies
Valeria Klitsounova, Phd, Associate Professor of Belarusian State University,Chair of the Board of Belarusian Association of Agro and Ecotourism Certified Trainer of National Association of Interpretation(Speaker)Belarusian Association of Agro- and Ecotourism, Chair of the Board
Darya Pukas, Belarusian Association of Agro- and Ecotourism "Country Escape", Project Manager
Rural tourism is absolutely new tourism branch in Belarus, our country was probably the last European country who started to develop rural tourism. But during these 20 years it has showed incredible growth and now around 3000 homestays work in the country. There are certain reasons for such quick development of this tourism branch. First of all, it is a successful combination of available resources: natural resources, intangible heritage and, of course, people with great creative potential who wanted to open their own small business. While in many European countries the development of rural tourism was initiated by the government (top-bottom approach), in Belarus this initiative came from the bottom – from people. A lot to this process contributed Belarusian Association “Country Escape”. It has not only provided consultancy and educational services to homestay owners, but also united people and participated a lot in legislation formation in this sphere. Another impetus was the adoption of a special presidential decree in 2006 which regulates the process of homestays registration and the list of provided services. The process of rural tourism development can be divided into 3 stages: •Stage 1. "Infrastructure and quantity" (2002 - 2010) •Stage 2. "Tourism product and partnership" (2011-2013) •Stage 3. "Creativity, Experience, Innovation" (2014-2020). These stages have initiated the appearance of certain trends which characterizes rural tourism in Belarus. Among them are: creativity and innovation, ecological products, youth participation, accessibility, gastronomy, thematic festivals, cooperation with tour operators, trade of farm products through farmsteads and in-house production. These trends are constantly changing - new ones are added, existing ones are expanded. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused certain changes as well. Homestay owners organize more outdoor events (weddings, corporate parties), more people prefer to spend holidays in rural area in small companies, etc.

Selected agritourism case studies in South Africa
Program/project description and background: Farms in Africa are competing in a very hostile agricultural environment. Agritourism, as has not yet been fully recognised as a diversification strategy that could offer both financial and non-financial benefits to the broader farming community in Africa. Subsistence and small-scale farming, very common in rural areas all over Africa, provide very small profit margins. In South Africa a political agenda in terms of redistribution of farm land to disadvantaged communities, frequent droughts, and a critical need to up-skill farm labourers are reshaping agricultural practices. Methods used: A qualitative explorative case study approach was followed through a content analysis of a selection of agritourism enterprise cases listed on the website of Agritourism Africa, a not-for-profit entity which serves as an information hub highlighting tourism experience on farms across Africa. Case narratives and reflections were constructed by describing each case study according to a number of themes described in a typology for defining agritourism by Phillip et al. (2010; 2014) These themes are: tourist interaction; type of accommodation; leisure/recreation activities that are available on the farm (that may not be directly related to farming but could address the leisure/recreational needs of different family members, and actual farm activities that visitors can observe or participate in. Lastly a critical evaluation of the proposed or promised visitor experience, as stated on the web sites of the agritourism cases, was compared to the key characteristics of existing agritourism frameworks and typologies – published in scientific/academic literature (Arroyo, Barbieri, & Rich (2013); Chase, Stewart, Schilling, Smith, & Walk (2018); Flanigan, Blackstock, & Hunter (2014); Flanigan, Hunter, & Blackstock (2015), Phillip, Hunter, & Blackstock (2010, 2014). The aim of this study is to determine how these cases fit into the typologies and frameworks. Results and conclusions: The agritourism cases under study were found to follow some of the themes identified in literature but some findings indicated that agritourism practices are very unique to these cases. This research contributes to African agritourism literature, which is currently very limited. A revised typology is suggested that may: drive future empirical research; assist agritourism development planners; support implementation strategies on all levels of government; improve agritourism enterprise practices; assist farm owners who are considering agritourism as a diversification strategy; and create a flexible agritourism framework that may be adapted to be fit-for-purpose in different countries, regions and/or geographic locations.

Developing agritourism in Italy: New trends and farmers’ needs
Emilio Chiodo, University of Teramo, Prof.
Rita Salvatore, University of Teramo, researcher
Andrea Fantini, University of Teramo, Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, Prof.
The paper presents the results of a survey on agritourism companies in Italy and it is part of a broader research project within an international survey on agritourism developed by the IRENA network (International Research Network for Agritourism) and aimed at analyzing agritourism points of contact and divergence across the different geographical contexts. The research has involved the members of the Agritourism association “Agriturist”, the oldest agritourism association in Italy, which associates more than one thousand agritourist companies. This Italian section of the research is aimed at identifying new trends and farmers’ needs with special concern to territorial cohesion and social innovation. The agritourism sector in Italy can be considered as an already mature industry and therefore it could be useful to understand its role within the broader rural development processes in fostering social innovation and cohesion. Against these objectives, the survey investigates a wide range of aspects, starting from basic information on the company: offered products and services, information on visitors, organizational aspects, farm location, family labor, etc. Besides these aspects, the survey also focuses on: farmers’ motivations and goals in developing agritourism, elements of success, farmers’ future plans, barriers and supporting elements at both company and territorial level. From an economic point of view, strategies are compared with the economic results, considering the whole farm revenues and profits, the contribution of agritourism to the whole business as well as the financial impact of the Covid pandemic on farms performances. The survey is still ongoing and is conducted through an online questionnaire provided by Agriturist association to its members. At the moment, about one thousand questionnaires have been sent and one thousand more will be send by the end of the survey.
3:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m.Survey Research on Agritourism
Lake Champlain Salon A&B
Development strategies in Brazilian agritourism: Results of a direct survey
Emilio Chiodo, University of Teramo, Prof.
Andrea Fantini, University of Teramo, Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, Prof.
Rita Salvatore, University of Teramo, researcher
Julia Coelho de Souza, Federal University of Santa Catarina, LACAF (Laboratory for the commercialization of family farming), Ms.
Daniela Pedrassani, Universidade do Contestado, Dr.
The paper presents the results of a survey on agritourism companies in the Santa Catarina State in Brazil and it is part of a broader project within an international survey on agritourism developed by the IRENA network (International Research Network for Agritourism) and aimed at analyzing agritourism points of contact and divergence across the different geographical contexts. This section of the research is focused on the members of the Agritourism association “Acolhida na Colônia”, an association founded in 1999 which involves about two hundred family farmers practicing organic agriculture and agroecology and has the special objective to assess strengths and weaknesses of the Brazilian agritourism model based on family farming and direct organic production selling, according to a relational marketing approach (Fantini et al., 2018). The economic results of the agritourist activity were analyzed in comparison with the whole farm revenues and profits. Also the economic impact of the Covid pandemic has been taken into consideration. The survey was conducted through an online questionnaire using the CATI technique and collected 80 valid questionnaires. The preliminary results show that the respondents average age is 49.8 and 59.2% of them are women. Most of them started the activity in the early 2010s and the average dimension of their agritourism is 33.3 hectares. The highest rated motivations and objectives for the realization of agritourism have been: to increase the company's profits (4.55 over a 5 points scale), to improve the quality of life in the community (4.53), to encourage social interaction with the public (4.46). The actions, which need to be improved in order to help agritourism development, are: support from the public sector (73%), management of social networks (63%) and development of business plans (58%). The Covid pandemic caused an average loss of 41.7% of profit in 2020 compared to 2019, due in particular to the decrease in educational service events (-79.2%), excursions and outdoor recreation (-72.8%) and events and entertainment (-72.4%). Many of the interviewed farmers had significant support from the Association during the pandemic for the direct sale of their products to agritourism customers. The interviews revealed differentiated capacities to react to the Covid crisis, as well as to differentiate the supply of agritourism services. The use of multivariate analysis has been useful to identify different profiles of farmers.

Exploring job characteristics and entrepreneurial goals of agritourism operators in the United States: An age cohort analysis
Will Culler, Clemson Extension, Senior Extension Agent
I have found in my work that agritourism operators come from many backgrounds and bring with them many experiences. The entrepreneurial goals of one agritourism operator may be different than the goals of the next. Likewise, the skillset one agritourism operator brings to the job may be different than the next. A possible way to explain these differences is by examining how these job characteristics and entrepreneurial goals differ by age cohort. (McGehee & Kim, 2004; Nickerson, Black & McCool, 2001; Hernaus & Vokic, 2014; Tew & Barbieri, 2011). It is my hope this knowledge will ultimately assist farm service providers a way to better understand how different formative experiences interact with lifecycle and aging processes to assist in shaping training and resources for farm/rural tourism and recreational enterprises. In their discussion of the state of agritourism research in the U.S., Rich, Standish, Tomas, Barbieri, and Ainely (2010) concluded that a lack of knowledge regarding agritourism is troubling because proper tourism planning at both the farm and destination level depends upon sound research. This study will seek to address this void by further expanding the boundaries of theory used in agriculture and tourism research. As both the demand and offer of recreational activities on farms have increased in recent decades and promise increased growth in the future (Barbeiri et al., 2016; Flanigan, Blackstock & Hunter, 2013; Ollenburg & Buckley 2007; Nickerson, Black & McCool, 2001), investigating generational differences among agritourism operators could prove a unique theoretical platform to examine how job characteristics and entrepreneurial goals are shaped and differ by age cohort for use in both the tourism and agriculture academy. In short, this study will contribute to researchers, practitioners, farm service providers and others in providing needed training and resources to more adequately equip the current and future agritourism provider.

Entrepreneurial motivations of agritourism farmers: An analysis of USA farms and ranches
Temitope Arogundade, Clemson University, Consultant
Olivia McAnirlin, Clemson University, student
Claudia Schmidt, Penn State University, Assistant Professor of Agricultural Economics
Dave Lamie, Clemson University, Professor of Agricultural and Rural Development
Lori Dickes, Clemson University Master of Public Administration Program, Program Director
As agritourism has grown, the dimensions from which we can understand the practice has expanded to include a wide spectrum of interdisciplinary research and application. Barbieri and Mshenga (2008) defined agritourism as any practice developed on a working farm with the purpose of attracting visitors to the farm. As a niche market in the tourism industry, farmers in different regions of the world have developed innovative ideas to encourage tourists to their farms, in large part as a way of diversifying farm income. However, agritourism as an entrepreneurial and potentially innovative venture, has been less explored in the research. Agritourism operations have characteristics of entrepreneurial and innovative behavior in that their activities often involve some type of creation, including new products, services, methods of production, sources of supply, markets and even ways of organizing their farm business. By creating a new domain, agritourism operators are essentially creating and/or opening a new market in the tourism and agriculture industries, generating new meanings and new experiences for tourists. Understanding the motivation(s) of entrepreneurs and their innovative behavior has long been studied in the entrepreneurial literature and is critical for understanding the drivers of innovation. Using the entrepreneurial motivations model of Shane, Locke and Collins (2012) and inspired by Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, this research will explore the entrepreneurial motivations of United States Agritourism famers. Developed by colleagues at the University of Vermont, this research examines the results of an online survey of more than 900 farmers and ranchers from 42 states. The survey provides a comprehensive profile of critical factors for success and areas of weakness for farms and ranches with agritourism operations. This research will specifically explore the motivations for engaging in agritourism activities using an entrepreneurship motivation model. Two primary objectives of this research are: •A summary and classification of primary agritourism motivating, environmental, and cognitive factors across the United States. •A model examining the relationship between motivating factors and profit for agritourism farms and ranches in the U.S. As farmers diversify their enterprises and income sources, they also contribute to community economic diversification. Thus, agritourism activities are potential drivers of rural community and economic development. However, without a better understanding of the unique reasons that farms, and ranchers make these investments, it is difficult to support and invest in ecosystems that further enable this economic activity. This research will begin to understand this on a national scale.
3:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m.From a poorly managed cattle farm to a productive ecological paradise: A case study in rural Amazonia, Ecuador
Green Mountain C
David Goucher, Proprietor, Hollywood Farms
Due to poor land management and other socio-economic factors, cattle farms across the Amazon region of Ecuador are often unproductive and unsustainable. The destruction of primary rainforest continues to add more acreage, rather than addressing the issues at hand, and implement strategies to maximize potential production of farmland by applying science and environmentally friendly practices. An integrated approach to solve these issues involves drastic social change, requiring environmental education coupled with optimized production strategies, alternative production and other income generating activities onsite. This process has been applied on a rural farm in the Amazon region of Ecuador, where a poorly managed cattle farm was transformed to a highly productive, eco-friendly integrated farm over a 10-year period. The transformation required appropriate water management techniques, changing pastures, reforestation, and implementation of novel production and marketing methods. As opposed to solely relying on bovine production, lamb, poultry, and fish production were also added to the farm, along with value added production aspects, namely aging and butchering of meats, allowing for the marketing of produce “from farm to plate” for customers. In addition, organic fruits and vegetable gardens were added, resulting in a totally sustainable farm within a few years, and later a profitable one. The farm now includes agritourism and ecotourism as supplemental income generation activities. This allows for continual touristic infrastructure investment, including trail development and maintenance, promotional materials and merchandise, and employment opportunites for local guides. The farm now offers an area for scientific investigation, involving collaborations with local high schools and national universities. We have identified the return of species to the farm, including the important crystal frog, a biological indicator demonstrating that streams are no longer contaminated. Further scientific studies including soil and water analysis, and species cataloging are underway, comparing the primary rainforest with reforested areas, and active cattle pasture, further demonstrating the ability to produce in an environmentally beneficial manner in the Amazon rainforest.
4:00 p.m. - 4:20 p.m.Break
Montpelier Ballroom
4:20 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.Challenges and Opportunities with Agritourism
Green Mountain A
Opportunities and challenges in agritourism development
Pushpa Malkanthi, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Senior Lecturer
Abstract: Agritourism, a good combination of agriculture sector with the tourism industry is become an gradually popular concept in most of the countries in the world as it creates a specific effort to diversify income generating activities of farmers, finally leading to development of rural areas. Although most of the people in Ratnapura district in Sri Lanka are engaged in agriculture, returns from the sector is not in a satisfactory level. A few farmers have in cooperated tourism in their farm lands. Thus the aim of this study was to assess the main opportunities and challenges in agritourism development in this area. Primary data was collected through focus group discussions. Other than that, key informant interviews and case studies were also used. Data collection was conducted during Match to October 2019. Data was analysis through descriptive statistics. According to study results, challenges and issues which restrict farmers’ access to agritourism activities vary from farmer level to policy level. Traditional and distinctive agricultural activities, delightful Sri Lankan cuisine and culinary arts, rural farm-based accommodation, opportunity of using value added products, local handicraft and cottage industries, cultural events, activities and traditions are among the most promising activities that can be linked with agritourism industry. However, dearth of proper initiatives at policy level directing the promotion of direct participation of farmers in agritourism, dearth of support from responsible organizations, excessive capital cost, poor established linkages, lack of awareness, insufficient facilities to provide a satisfactory service to the visitors, lack of suitable training, marketing problems and poor entrepreneurial behavior of farmers were among the major challenges in developing agritourism among them. As farmers’ awareness on agritourism activities is vital to achieve the best outcomes, actions should be taken to provide proper awareness, training and guidelines on the agritourism industry to farmers as well as other relevant officials. Sufficient attention need be paid to agritourism activities and product development, considering locally available resources to gain maximum benefits and there should be clearly defined products and services. Strong supply chains and dependable networks should be built between the tourism industry and the farming community with the participation of responsible government bodies. Formulation of context-specific agritourism standards and guidelines which are in line with international agritourism standards in order to establish high quality and sustainable agritourism operations are also crucial.

Agritourism in Botswana: Challenges and prospects
Emilio Chiodo, University of Teramo, Prof.
Botswana’s tourism industry is primarily wildlife based and concentrated in the northern parts of the country. The overdependency on wildlife tourism has, of late, become a cause for concern among tourism policy makers and academicians alike. Tourism product diversification has been put on the national agenda yet very little has been done on the ground. Even though Botswana has semi-arid climatic conditions, agriculture is considered one of the pillars of the economy. The key agricultural activities in the country are agronomy and cattle ranching. Can the country take advantage of the farming activities to diversify its tourism product? This study seeks to explore the possibility of developing agritourism as a sustainable alternative to the traditional tourism product in Botswana. Using a qualitative approach, the study seeks to establish the challenges and prospects of agritourism in Botswana by interviewing farmers as well as key informants from tourism and agricultural authorities in the country. Personal observations will also be done to establish the state of the farms and the possibility of developing them as agritourism attractions. The findings of this study will help tourism policy makers to make informed decisions when considering agritourism as a diversification option.

A Tasmanian agritourism journey: Opportunities, challenges and limitations
Tim Parsons, Curringa Farm, Farmer, Owner
1.Program/project description and background. An operator’s view of journey from creation, marketing to delivery. Historical beginnings and evolving products. Defining success by achieving goals then questioning if we ended up in the right place when we “Got there”. Grappling with identity as our traditional family offering of farmstay and farmtour is surpassed by gourmet celebrities arriving from interstate to pursue a lifestyle hobby existence. The marketing journey. Extensive global marketing. As one of the first Tasmanian businesses to venture into Mainland China alone for marketing. Since then Tim has been over 10 times with and without the support of Stage Governments trade mission activities. Local perceptions of Agritourism within rural and urban communities. Agritourism is a bourgeoning industry with community benefits of employment and regional spend, however as some gourmet farmers enter the marketplace, disruption occurs. I will touch on the gap and how traditional products such as ourselves are shaded by entrepreneurial start-ups who may not have the total support of the local farmers they wish to emulate. 2.Objectives of program/project. My objective is to present a Tasmanian journey to the world. Clarity on the challenges of Agritourism through the eyes of a genuine producer. Introducing the challenges we face in delivering an authentic product. I will bring a candid summary of some cultural challenges we have experienced along the way. 3.Methods used. My presentation is an anecdotal life story of our Tasmanian experience. I will speak from the heart about my local and global experiences. Engagement within the Tasmanian and Australian tourism industry gives me wide understanding of the Tasmanian Tourism Industry and its needs. As passionate Tasmanians we see value in contributing to the wider community via Local, regional and Statewide engagement. Tim sits on several industry boards and brings on ground experience to the table as they navigate regional and statewide issues. 4.Results of the program/project. The audience will gain insights to Tasmanian Agritourism as a world player, unique in its offering by the nature of its location and diversity of produce. 5.Strategies used to evaluate the program/project. Anecdotal. 6.Conclusions and lessons learned. Interesting journey climbing to success then managing pitfalls. Matching the needs and perceptions of consumers with the variety of offerings that Agritourism encompasses. Appreciating the long term pioneers of Agritourism who diversified thru necessity and innovation. The need for change whilst retaining the original identity and empathy.
4:20 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.Promoting Edible Rural Landscapes
Green Mountain C
Agritourism in the Teton foodshed
Jennifer Werlin, University of Idaho Extension, Teton County, Extension Educator
The Greater Yellowstone-Teton region is known for its rugged and diverse environment, wildlife, public lands and resorts, recreation, and agricultural roots. With tourism and the service industry large economic drivers in Teton Counties Idaho and Wyoming, development pressure has converted substantial agricultural land. However, a new crop of agriculture is thriving—small and diversified farms and ranches. With limited availability of agriculture and private land, less favorable climatic and soil conditions, and some of the highest land values in the nation in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, the western side of the Tetons in Teton Valley, Idaho hosts much of the farming community. Increasing interest in locally produced food makes Teton Valley’s agricultural heritage an important economic force. Despite an abundance of recreational tourism, little information about agritourism has been aggregated or promoted by regional travel and business development organizations. The shift to a lifestyle amenity-based and tourism economy continues to create pressure on farmers and rural landowners to sell and convert agricultural lands to commercial and residential uses. Agritourism is one opportunity to help farmers in the “Teton Foodshed” diversify their farm enterprises and help sustain the profitability of working farms. This conference presentation highlights current work that the University of Idaho Extension and Teton Food and Farm Coalition are doing to inventory agritourism activities on the western slope of the Tetons in Teton Valley, Idaho/Wyoming. The primary objectives of the project are to identify: 1) what agritourism activities currently exist; 2) who is promoting these activities; and 3) what community opportunities exist to help strengthen the viability of farms and ranches through agritourism? Data collection includes an analysis of farmers’ market Rapid Market Assessment and sales data, an inventory summary of local food guides, social media, internet, county GIS landowner database and USDA agricultural census data, and interviews of agricultural organizations using snowball sampling techniques. In addition, the presentation will highlight results from 2020 and 2021 Internet surveys in Teton Valley and Jackson Hole that gauged local food purchasing behaviors of consumers in light of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as interest in leveraging agritourism activities. Surveys were distributed to residents, farmers market patrons, nonprofit listservs and email lists, social media pages, and economic development organizations. Mixed methods qualitative and qualitative evaluation were utilized. The presentation will conclude with a summary of agritourism activities in the “Teton Foodshed” and recommendations for marketing existing and future agriculture and food system activities.

U-pick by appointment in the "enchanted edible forest garden"
Dani Baker, The Enchanted Edible Forest at Cross Island Farms, Farmer, Author
The "Enchanted Edible Forest Garden" occupies one acre of the 102 acre highly diversified certified organic Cross Island farms. Among the farm's offerings are annual vegetables, fruits, herbs, edible flowers, pork, beef, goat, eggs, workshops, tours, rustic camping, volunteer and intern hosting,and special events. In the seventh year of the farm's operation co-owner Dani Baker began planning and planting the Edible Forest Garden, a landscaped venue incorporatiing permaculture principles. In the spring of 2022, her book "The Home-Scale Forest Garden: How to Plan, Plant and Tend a Resilient Edible Landscape" was published by Chelsea Green Publishing. The landscaped garden includes two ponds, native stone patios, a bridge, trellis, seating, a bandstand wired for sound and a tent for shelter. plus over 300 varieties of edible plants. During the third year of its existance the garden was opened to the public for tours, workshops, U-pick berries and special events. This workshop will focus on the U-Pick operation and describe marketing strategies, clientele, fees and rules. The workshop will conclude with comments about lessons learned over the past 7 seasons and resulting future plans. It will be a powerpoint presentation illustrated by photographs of the garden, promotional materials, and picures of the public participating in the U-pick experience.

4:20 p.m. - 5:20 p.m.Radical Welcoming! Sensing, questioning and reimagining agritourism’s existing arrangements
Green Mountain A
Lori Lobenstine, Design Studio for Social Intervention, Program Design Lead
Mari Omland, Green Mountain Girls Farm, Co-owner
What makes our guests feel welcome…or unwelcome? How do we stay true to our roots while also tending to those with very different ones? This interactive workshop begins with the premise that "ideas are embedded in social arrangements, which in turn produce effects." Together we will explore the physical and social arrangements of agritourism as a rich terrain for inspection and meaningful change. Agritourism has the potential to welcome a wide diversity of visitors and even future neighbors to our communities. But even as we aim to be broadly welcoming, how might our existing ideas and arrangements get in the way? We will unpack the ideas that may be embedded in arrangements of agritourism, from our state mottos to the photos on our websites, booking policies, language accessibility, and other arrangements as generated by workshop participants. Additionally, our facilitator from Green Mountain Girls Farm in Vermont will use her farm as a case study, sharing how they’ve used the framework to inspect how myriad arrangements of everyday farm life—the absence of street lights, the farm dog, the physical expectations—might feel unsafe or unwelcoming to some guests. Participants will get to work in small groups with hands-on tools to explore and prototype ideas for shifting the arrangements within agritourism at large or their businesses in particular. Participants will leave with new ideas, tools, and confidence to create just and vibrant arrangements for both welcoming and hosting diverse audiences. Attention will also be paid to welcoming one another and our guests back into travel, while honoring the complexities of hosting and traveling in this time of multiple pandemics. Session will wrap by highlighting emerging trends and recommendations to enhance agritourism’s welcome to all. The Design Studio for Social Intervention (DS4SI) leads workshops and creativity labs around diversity, equity, and design with participants ranging from farmers to educators, public health professionals, urban designers, municipal workers, and more. Together with Mari Omland of Green Mountain Girls Farm, they are seasoned in international work.
4:20 p.m. - 5:20 p.m.Risk Management in Agritourism: Working together to keep visitors safe
Green Mountain B
Marsha Salzwedel, National Children’s Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety, Project Scientist
Background: Over 70 million people visit farms and ranches annually, and about 24 million of them are children – that’s a lot of people visiting who are unfamiliar with the agricultural environment – and the hazards found there… a lot of people who are easily distracted by the activity and people around them... and a lot of people who are looking for fun and not thinking about “watching the kids” or staying safe. Every day, 33 children are seriously injured on farms and every 3 days, a child dies in an agricultural related incident; about 40% of these children are visitors. Owners or operators of agritourism operations need to think about the safety and health of visitors… and how keeping visitors from harm also helps keep the “bottom line” of agritourism operations healthy. Workshop Description: After a brief introduction to agritourism risk management issues, including sharing survey results on types of operations, common causes of injury on agritourism operations and reducing liability, participants will be introduced to the website “Integrating Safety into Agritourism” ( which can be used to help find and address safety concerns. The participants will then be given real life injury incidents and will work in groups to discuss the incidents and brainstorm prevention strategies. Each group will be asked to share their findings with the entire group, and the discussion will be supplemented with information and resources from the agritourism website. The workshop will wrap up with an interactive discussion on using checklists to help identify risks and hazards on agritourism operations, followed by a discussion on strategies and resources that can be used to mitigate risks and hazards.
4:20 p.m. - 5:20 p.m.Supporting Agritourism Development
Lake Champlain Salon A&B
Factors affecting adoption of agri-tourism by small and medium scale farmers in Sri Lanka
Rohana Mahaliyanaarachchi, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Professor
Agri-tourism has been considered as a booming sub sector of tourism and get more attraction in developing countries in South Asia and South East Asia. However, compared to other countries in these two regions, Sri Lanka has paid less attention towards the development of agri-tourism sector, even though number of isolated researchers, academics and farmers have taken interest and effort to promote agri-tourism among small and medium scale farmers. Considering the pattern of farming, type of crops cultivated and beauty of the nature of the major farming areas, Sri Lanka has a wider potential to promote agri-tourism in the region. The aim of this study is to find out the factors affecting adoption of agri-tourism by small and medium scale farmers in Sri Lanka. This will help policy makers to take decisions in promoting agri-tourism sector in the island. Logistic regression analysis has been to investigate the relationship between ordinal response probability and explanatory variables. The results of the study indicate that adoption of agri-tourism by small and medium scale farmers are affected by the distance of the farm from the urban city, size of the farm, type of the crops cultivated and other tourist attractions located nearby. There is also a significant relationship with government policy on the agri-tourism development in farming areas. Further, farmer’s characteristics as their education level, wealth, knowledge about agri-tourism, and age have a significant positive relationship with adoption of agri-tourism. However, the study shows that young farmers have higher willingness to enter tourism industry through agri-tourism. They are more willing to use agri-tourism as a major or supplementary income source. Limitation of this study is also caused by limited funds available to cover a wider geographical area in farming in the country. Conclusions of this study are infrastructure development of the rural areas without damaging the environment, government involvement in agri-tourism development, increasing knowledge on agri-tourism among the farmers that are important factors of enhancing agri-tourism development in Sri Lanka. Educated farmers as well as wealthy farmers too have enthusiasm to involve in agri-tourism. Young generation in the framing community are also willing to involve in agri-tourism but as main or supplementary income source.

Agritourism support indicators for the United States
Claudia Schmidt, Penn State University, Assistant Professor of Agricultural Economics
Lisa Chase, University of Vermont, Extension Professor
Stacy Tomas, National Extension Tourism Network, Associate Professor of Professional Practice
Stephan Goetz, NERCRD, PSU, Professor
US agritourism sales nearly doubled from 2007 to 2017, from $567 to $949 mn. in nominal dollars. However, only 28,575 farms reported such activity in 2017; and although this was a 22% increase from 2007, they represent less than 1.5% of all farms. While most of the agritourism operators can be found in Texas (5,723 farms), California (1,130 farms) and Colorado (1,056 farms), other states with a high number of agricultural operators have much less operators with agritourism income, such as Missouri (651), Iowa (350) or Wisconsin (630 farms) (US Census, 2017). Previous research has focused on regional economics and identified factors that benefit agritourism cluster development such as travel infrastructure and distances to population centers and outdoor attractions (van Sandt et al, 2018). The goal of our research is to identify factors that support and hinder growth in agritourism activity across states in the U.S., focusing on the regulatory environment and support organizations engaged in policy, financing and business incubation to create sustainable agritourism operations. At the state level we compare agritourism statutes and their definitions of what qualifies as an agritourism activity, “right to farm” regulations/zoning, and others, and the local support structure consisting of local tourism organizations, university extension support, state resources and agritourism associations. Together with information from the 2017 census, Agritourism Support Indicators are developed, which allows us to compare the business environment for agritourism operators across the United States.

Measuring the Educational and Marketing Value of Agritourism
Carla Barbieri, North Carolina State University, Professor
Sara Brune, North Carolina State University, Research Associate
Kathryn T. Stevenson, North Carolina State University, Associate Professor
Whitney Knollenberg, North Carolina State University, Assistant Professor
Caitlin Reilly, North Carolina State University, Former Graduate Research Assistant
Renee Strnad, NC State University - Extension Forestry, PLT State Coordinator
Liz Driscoll, North Carolina State University, 4-H Specialist
Many farmers develop agritourism aiming to educate visitors about local food production and increase their direct sales. Yet, information on the impact of agritourism on visitors’ agricultural literacy and intentions to purchase local foods is limited. The potential for agritourism to instigate interest in local foods is important considering the environmental and economic vulnerability of local food systems, which depend on consumers supporting local foods through purchasing and voting power. To address this timely issue, we investigated the educational and marketing impacts of agritourism. Specifically, we measured changes before-and-after farm visits on: (1) agricultural literacy among fourth to sixth-grade school students, and (2) purchase intentions of and attitudes toward local agricultural products among adults. We surveyed 328 adults and 605 children (aged 8-13) before and after engaging in agritourism between 2018 and 2021 across North Carolina (U.S.). We followed a quasi-experimental design as participants were randomly assigned (on-farm systematic sampling, stratified sampling of schools, random selection of teachers), but without a control group. The adults’ survey instrument queried about attitudes towards local foods, likelihood to buy local foods, and likelihood to increase monthly budget to purchase local foods. The children’s survey instrument queried about knowledge of food and fiber systems, attitudes toward agriculture, and behavior supporting agriculture. Data from adults were collected at 6 agritourism farms (2018-2019). To measure the educational impact across different types of scenarios, data from children were collected while visiting farms with their parents or their teachers (field trips) in 2018-2021. Given the on-set of COVID-19 during data collection, most teacher-lead farm visits were virtual. Results indicate that agritourism positively influences adults’ attitudes towards and intentions to purchase local food, and likelihood to increase monthly budget to buy local food. Results also showed an increase in agricultural knowledge in all six topics assessed after their agritourism experience, although the increase was only statistically significant in three knowledge items. Study results build towards the sustainability of food systems by providing knowledge to enhance the practice of agritourism related to: marketing (promote agritourism to complement traditional strategies seeking to strengthen local food systems); management (emphasize the use of education and marketing tools, such as signs and labels to stimulate visitors’ purchase); and policy (support an integrative approach to educating children and adults about local food systems). Acknowledgments: This project is supported by USDA-NIFA grant 2017-67023-26224 (2017-2022).
5:20 p.m. - 6:00 p.m.Time On Your Own
6:00 p.m. - 7:00 p.m.Cocktail Reception & Poster Session with Presenters; Presentation by Quebec
Mezzanine & Seasons
7:00 p.m.Group Photo
7:00 p.m. - 9:00 p.m.Farm to Table Dinner Event with Exhibitors & Sponsors
Adirondack Ballroom

Full Schedule, Wednesday, August 31, 2022

7:45 a.m. - 9:00 a.m.Breakfast with Exhibitors & Sponsors
Adirondack Ballroom
8:00 a.m. - 11:20 a.m.Registration Desk Open
Hotel Lobby
8:00 a.m. - 11:20 p.m.Exhibitor & Sponsor Booths Open; Poster Viewing
Various Locations
8:00 a.m. - 8:55 a.m.Growing Your Network: An Evidenced-Based Workshop on Enhancing Collaborations in Agritourism (Part 2 of 3)
Vermont Conference Room A&B
The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has drastically changed collaborations and the way we network. We are excited to offer an in-conference networking workshop as the world eases back into the conference routine. Sponsored by a National Science Foundation grant on interdisciplinary collaborations, this three day workshop led by team science expert Dr. Marissa Shuffler and rural development expert Dr. Lori Dickes will focus on evidenced-based best practices for enhancing collaborations and personal networks to grow your network and make the most of your conference experience. The workshop will offer both in-person and virtual elements to best support attendees.
9:00 a.m. - 10:00 a.m.Creative Marketing for Agritourism
Lake Champlain Salon A&B
Three agricultural businesses, three agritourism journeys
Caroline Morrow, Bannikin Travel & Tourism, Tourism Development Specialist
Trevor Jonas Benson, Bannikin Travel & Tourism, CEO
This presentation is geared to agritourism practitioners interested in learning from the experiences of other business owners and to destination managers who want to support agritourism development in their regions. This research project documents and compares the agritourism journeys of three agricultural businesses located in Australia, Italy, and Scotland. To gather learnings relevant to agritourism business owners and destination managers from around the world, case studies are used to highlight the diverse challenges and opportunities producers face when incorporating agritourism into their businesses, along with the approaches they use to overcome challenges and leverage opportunities. Conclusions and insights from a comparative analysis of the cases will also be shared. Although the case study businesses differ in terms of the crops they produce and the visitor experiences they offer, they share a desire to connect people to rural landscapes and agricultural production. Each has its own approach to agritourism development based on local context. Using semi-structured interview responses from the business owners and operators, similarities and differences between their agritourism journeys are highlighted and key takeaways identified. Interview questions focus on the business owners’ definitions of agritourism, the value they place on agritourism, how agritourism fits into their business models, the entrepreneurial challenges and opportunities they face, how they work to overcome challenges and leverage opportunities, future agritourism plans, broader hopes for agritourism growth within context of COVID-19, and key learnings for other businesses and destinations. Complementing the interviews, the research process includes a small survey to gather key business data associated with each case including farm acreage, value of agritourism to the business, visitor numbers, etc. Both datasets inform the comparative analysis of the cases. The highs and lows of the entrepreneurial journeys of local farmers, ranchers, vintners, and other small agritourism business owners provide invaluable lessons and insights for those looking to follow in their footsteps as well as those looking to support the growth of the agritourism industry at the destination-level. Through the case studies and their comparative analysis, this presentation will share the stories of three agritourism businesses to showcase the diverse experiences, contexts, and strategies associated with agritourism development. Regardless of differences in crops, geography or politics, the lessons learned over the years by those on the ground provide valuable insights at both the business-level and destination-level, especially when comparative analysis is also applied.

Expanding an agritourism enterprise with processed products
Shermain HARDESTY, UC Davis
Farm revenues from agritourism are increasing in the United States. While there is growing recognition of the multifunctionality of agritourism, most agritourism operations in California are primarily initiated to improve a farm’s economic viability. The most popular form of agritourism in California involves farm stands selling fresh fruit, vegetables, herbs, flowers and/or Christmas trees. Other forms of agritourism include educational activities (such as tours, demonstrations, youth camps); entertainment/special events (such as farm dinners, corn mazes, hay rides.); outdoor recreation (such as picnicking, fishing and, bird watching); and accommodations (such as bed & breakfast inns, cabins, yurts). While offering a single agritiourism activity such as a farm stand, farm dinners, pony rides, or pumpkin patch will suffice for many farms, each of the five basic forms of agritourism provides opportunities for further vertical integration by producing and marketing processed products such as specialty foods, ciders and juices, oils, dried flowers, wreaths, fibers, soaps and lotions. Producing an expanded array of processed products can generate several direct benefits for the farm, such as enhancing its overall profitability, making the best use of the entire farm production, improving off-season cash flow, and diversifying income sources. Furthermore, expanding into processed products can increase urban residents’ understanding and support of agriculture, and also strengthen the local economy by providing jobs, protecting farmland from conversion and increasing visitor spending at non-agricultural venues. Case studies were developed regarding the expansions of three agritourism operations in California with varying levels of processed product sales. The primary operators were interviewed regarding the following topics: a) their growth path; b) how they acquired the needed processing skills; c) how they obtained the financial capital to obtain processing equipment and infrastructure; d) the food safety and other regulations they faced; e) the marketing they engaged in to sell their new products; f) how they obtained the additional labor needed for processing, selling and managing their expanded offerings; and g) the impacts (positive and negative) on their families, operations and communities attributable to their expansions.

How the Visit NC Farms app and cooperative marketing initiative works to connect millions of potential customers to the farm’s diverse revenue streams
Annie Baggett, North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Agribusiness Developer & Agritourism Marketing Specialist
Julie Schmidt, yellowDog creative, Designer
Victoria Patterson, Visit NC Farms App / NCDA&CS, App Administrator
The Visit NC Farms app aims to connect the 37 million tourists (2020) to North Carolina annually and the 10+ million residents to the common denominator revenue streams of farms and fisheries: pick-your-own, farm stays and lodging, shop local for value-added products, farmers markets, local food, drink and special agriculture-based events. The Itineraries & Trips category, push notifications, suggested seasonal products and a robust filtering system provide enhanced user benefits and real-time content meeting the consumer demand for local farms and local food. Pressures in agriculture, the seasonality of farming, and the COVID pandemic have strained farms. To be resilient, to be sustainable, to thrive, farms need more customers. Farms also need more customers that invest directly in the ways that farms operate so that agribusinesses can command more of the consumer dollar, boosting the farm’s bottom line. Developed to be scale-able, replicate-able and affordable, the Visit NC Farms app is built to serve all of the state’s communities. In research and development, 2014 – 2017, as a public – private partnership with the N.C. Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services with yellowDog : creative as digital designer and Oak City Apps for technical expertise, the pilot launched in Orange County in February, 2018. Strategically developed as an alternative to the “silver bullet” way in which economic development often occurs in rural communities - like working to attract major manufacturing and big business - the Visit NC Farms app focuses on existing community strengths and assets that collectively make up the state’s top agribusiness economy. The power of the Visit NC Farms app is in the collection of assets, one county at a time. The assets add up to a state full of unique local food and farm experiences in an at-your-fingertips cutting edge digital marketing tool. “Early adopter” counties held stakeholder meetings, identified their app administrator, secured funding for the assembly and maintenance of the app’s content, mapped assets and went “live” in June 2019. Expansion has continued with 86 of 100 counties adopting the program through virtual outreach learning sessions that bring community decision-makers together. Back-end analytics track results. Each community receives a detailed monthly report including user downloads, engagement and asset/destination tracking. September 2021: 1563 assets; 8636 active devices; 26,466 app screen views with engagement up 24% and screen views up 27%. The timing is perfect for connecting the consumer to local farms and how those agribusinesses are networked within communities.
9:00 a.m. - 10:00 a.m.Food Systems and Agritourism
Green Mountain B
The role of agritourism in transforming food systems for sustainable socio-economic and environmental outcomes
Jeanette Sutherland, Bannikin Travel & AgriLuxe Marketing, Founder & CEO
The ways in which food is produced, processed, and consumed – referred to by development experts as “food systems” – are driving climate change, food waste, and food-related diseases. In September 2021, the United Nations (UN) convened a Food Systems Summit to increase understanding of the problems to be solved, generate momentum, and set a course to radically transform the world’s food systems. In preparation for the Summit, AgriLuxe Marketing (ALM) - in collaboration with partners - convened an independent dialogue for South Africa to explore the role of agritourism markets in achieving the country's food transformation objectives aligned and as outlined by the UN agenda. The dialogue was guided by data from a 2021 online global traveller survey, conducted by ALM, case studies from 3 agritourism operations, and feedback from other stakeholders including, financial and development institutions, chefs, farmers, academia, and government officials. Among some of the key findings of the independent dialogue, which were outlined in a policy brief submitted to the UN Summit, and which will be presented in this workshop, include: Increasing awareness among consumers regarding health, social, and environmental development challenges are driving demands for food products and services that can best be supplied in the agritourism sub-sector and by small- and medium-scale producers; Research data, including from South Africa’s case studies, show that investments in agritourism initiatives, particularly investments made to increase small-scale producers’ capacities to deliver quality products and services, stand to have a direct and positive impact on food systems; Indigenous systems and practices and other local food products and techniques offer unique selling points and competitive advantages in agritourism markets.

Keeping it local: Crafting beverages on farms
Whitney Knollenberg, North Carolina State University, Assistant Professor
Carla Barbieri, North Carolina State University, Professor
Claudia Gil Arroyo, Rutgers University, Agriculture and Natural Resources Agent
Craft-beverage tourism represents an opportunity for agritourism farmers as it can add value to their offerings and extend the benefits they attain. We posit that the hyperlocal focus of craft-beverage tourism develops resources that in turn stimulate the growth of other resources within the community.

Sustainable gastronomy as a key driver in agritourism development in Eastern Hungary
Katalin Vargane Csoban, University of Debrecen, senior lecturer
Karoly Peto, University of Debrecen, Full Professor
Péter Horváth, University of Debrecen, associate professor
Anett Godane Sőrés, University of Debrecen, senior lecturer
The Eastern part of Hungary still has a strong traditional food culture based on using local and seasonal ingredients. For the last few years we have seen an increasing demand for authentic culinary experiences, which contributed to the emergence of international and domestic gastronomic exhibitions, thematic routes and food festivals in the region. The majority of these events are initiated and organized by local governmental agencies. There are also some initiatives at the national level to encourage small scale producers to sell their agricultural produce locally, however the legislation on food safety hinders agritourism businesses from providing catering on farms. In order to improve the diversity of the services on the farms and the sustainable practices of agribusinesses, it would be vital to support agricultural producers and other stakeholders of agritourism by different mechanisms, such as long term strategies, policies, promotional/public awareness campaigns, financial funding for investing in catering on farms. However, at present there is not a separate gastronomy tourism or agritourism strategy in the region, although the significance of gastronomic heritage in the complex tourism product development is emphasized in the comprehensive national, regional and local documents (e.g. National Tourism Development Strategy 2030, Hajdú-Bihar County Regional Development Programme 2021 - 2025). Principles of sustainability are respected by some hospitality businesses; as they not only use local goods, but also employ local workforce thus stengthen the local communities. This study aims to explore the linkages between gastronomy and sustainable tourism development, as well as to investigate how tradition and innovation in gastronomy may contribute to agritourism development. Through an analysis of the present-day situation of the various aspects of the local gastronomy at the agritourism market in Eastern Hungary, examples of good practice are highlighted and the most important challenges are identified. The research is based on qualitative methods, namely participant observation and focus group interviews of the stakeholders of agritourism. Findings reveal the importance of governmental intervention and the need for long-term planning in agritourism development at the regional and national levels.
9:00 a.m. - 10:00 a.m.How to Start an Agritourism Association in Your State (or Country)
Green Mountain A
Ruth Pepler, Arkansas Agritourism Association, Founding President
Karen Searle, Montana Bunkhouses Working Ranch Vacations LLC
Kelli Hepler, Colorado Agritourism Association, President
Annie Baggett, North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Agribusiness Developer & Agritourism Marketing Specialist
Scottie Jones, Farm Stay USA, Executive Director
State agritourism associations are few and far between in the U.S. even as agritourism operations on farms are increasingly popular, both for the farmer and for the consumer. With an increase in agritourism operations and many farmers now considering this form of diversification for farm viability - be it a farm stand or a farm stay, just to name two – why does it seem so hard to develop state agritourism associations to provide support services for these newest of endeavors? The answer - it’s a hot potato. Few are willing to be responsible for the creation, success, and support of this newfangled association that combines ag and hospitality. Tourism departments want to market agritourism opportunities but are not set up to develop agricultural tourism ‘products’. University Extensions are pseudo state agencies with funding for education, but not association development and leadership. Departments of Ag, for the most part, don’t see agritourism as one of their responsibilities. But, if you leave it to the farmers, who has the time and wherewithal to start an association and run it? Thus, the hot potato gets passed around with little result. Meet a farmer from Arkansas and a rancher from Montana who are approaching their state agritourism associations from the ground up, a marketing consultant/facilitator and original executive director of the Colorado Agritourism Association, and an employee of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture responsible for overseeing the first US agritourism association, created over 15 years ago. Their paths have all been different, but all have the same interest at heart: support farms in a way that helps them to be viable within a travel and hospitality industry they know little about, but one in which they want to participate. This workshop will include examples of the presenters’ state associations: how they started, how they are funded, who took responsibility, who they help and how. Not all states, agencies and farmers are the same, but this group will provide the basic road map to association creation, with handouts and resources. Who needs to be in the room to start? Which agencies? Which farmers? What’s in it for them? Is it best to drive from the bottom up or the top down? Where should you look for funding and what is the ultimate benefit for all the players? Our goal is to help participants know where to start, with mapping in hand, as they head back to their state or their country to form their own agritourism association.
9:00 a.m. - 10:00 a.m.Online Tools to Maximize Agritourism’s Educational Impact
Vermont Conference Room A&B
Philip Ackerman-Leist, UpTunket Farm, Farmer, author, consultant
Given the amount of human and transportation energy invested in agritourism, organizers of such opportunities should seek to maximize the educational return and impact of the experience. This workshop is designed to help agritourism advocates consider how to create an educational experience that begins with registration and can continue far beyond the timeframe of the onsite experience. By “hybridizing” the educational opportunity, organizers can prepare participants by providing information and even guided discussions about culture, farming practices, footways, etc. prior to the onsite experience. This preparation allows for more sophisticated experiences onsite and helps equalize the overall cultural understanding and sensitivity prior to the experience. Such hybridized experiences can also connect organizers and participants, build rapport among participants before arrival, maintain connections following the experience, This workshop will introduce several simple and inexpensive online education platforms that might be utilized, along with other online tools and strategies that can enhance the experience both for organizers and participants. After presenting a series of resources and strategies, each audience member will be asked to summarize an existing or potential agritourism experience they might offer in 3-5 sentences. Participants will then be divided into small groups for a brainstorming exercise and will then present one experience from the group to be vetted by the workshop presenters for potential strategies of enhanced educational engagement through various online tools. A PDF handout of resources will be provided to audience members.
9:00 a.m. - 10:00 a.m.Promoting Traditional Agriculture through Agritourism
Green Mountain C
The role of origin products and networking on agritourism performance: The case of Tuscany
Shpresim Domi, Agricultural University of Tirana, Lecturer and researcher, PhD
Giovanni Belletti, University of Firenze
Recently agritourism has been strongly argued as a tool for rural development and investigating determinants that boost its performance is of paramount importance for policy design. This study examined the impact on agritourism performance of origin products (i.e. products whose specific quality is essentially attributable to geographical origin) and of participation in networks. Quantitative data from a sample of 292 agritourism farms in Tuscany, Italy, together with qualitative information gathered from personal interviews, are considered. To analyse quantitative data, the structural equation modeling methodology is implemented. The core contribution of this study is an empirical examination of the interplay effects of origin products, networking and agritourism performance. The expected positive effects of origin products on agritourism performance are significantly supported by our analysis. Results highlight that those agritourism farms that participates in networks will experience a positive performance. Networking mediates the relationship between origin products and performance. Research and policy implications from these findings are discussed.

Framework for sustainable agritourism development in Zimbabwe
Rudorwashe Baipai, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Mrs
Oliver Chikuta, Botho University, Professor and Dean-Faculty of Hospitality and Sustainable Tourism
The aim of the study was to develop a framework for sustainable agritourism in Zimbabwe. The development of the framework was necessitated by the fact that agricultural resources are being underutilized in the country, at least from a tourism viewpoint, yet the traditional tourism attractions are being overexploited, leading to them being labelled tired products. This article is part of a larger research effort aimed at promoting the utilization of agricultural attractions for tourism in the country and it was extracted from a PhD thesis. Critical Success Factors (CSFs) framework, Stakeholder theory and the Triple Bottom line approach to Sustainable development were adopted as the theoretical underpinnings upon which this study was built. To develop the framework a multiple case study design was adopted. In-depth interviews were conducted with 59 stakeholders who were purposively selected. Thematic content analysis and NVivo 12 were used for data analysis. The results revealed that environmental scanning for enablers, multi-stakeholder engagement, identification of potential farms that meet the requirements for agritourism and identification of CSFs at farm level are the main guiding principles. The relationships amongst these guiding principles were established and these are depicted on the framework by arrows. Providing guidelines for the development of this tourism concept can encourage farmers, policy makers and all other relevant stakeholders to develop necessary planning, development and implementation strategies that results in successful and sustainable agritourism development.

The surprising resilience of domestic coffee and conservation tourism in Honduras
Daniel Baker, Vermont Partners of the Americas / University of Vermont
Jose Luis Flores, MAPANCE
Over the past decade Honduras invested in agriculturally-based coffee and conservation tourism to encourage tourists to explore the countries interior. Investments have included both cultural tourism destinations, as well as physical infrastructure. The Honduras Coffee Institute and the Honduras Institute of Tourism developed a coffee route through six distinct coffee regions. The conservation organization MAPANCE works with coffee farmers to connect them to this network and create sustainable livelihoods around Celaque Moutain, the tallest peak in Honduras. MAPANCE has sought to increase engagement of small-scale traditional coffee farmers with the tourist industry, while also promoting diversification and conservation of natural resources. While the potential for foreign tourist to visit the region was a significant part of the early discussion of the coffee route, data from Celaque National Park demonstrates the interest, economic importance, and resilience of domestic tourism. While foreign tourists numbers grew slowly over the past 6 years, domestic tourism more than tripled between 2015 and 2019 and rebounded quickly in 2021 after Covid restrictions eased, demonstrating the importance of marketing agritourism to domestic audiences in developing countries.
10:00 a.m. - 10:20 a.m.Break
Montpelier Ballroom
10:20 a.m. - 11:20 a.m.Creative Ideas for Collaboration
Vermont Conference Room A&B
Higher education institution (HEI’s) agritourism initiatives: An academe-community partnership, the case of Central Bicol State University of Agriculture, Bicol, Philippines
Jessel Anne Rodriguezi, Central Bicol State University of Agriculture, College Instructor
Cresilda M. Caning, Co-author
This presentation explores how a state university pushes for the growth and development of farm tourism enterprises in the countryside. Agriculture and tourism both play vital roles in a country’s inclusive growth. In the Philippine Development Plan 2017-2022 (PDP) introduced by the National Economic Development Authority (NEDA), these two sectors are among the top priorities of the government to contribute to the country’s primary goal, zero poverty. Farm tourism, according to the International School of Sustainable Tourism, is the business of attracting visitors and travelers to farm areas, generally for educational and recreational purposes that encourages economic activity and can provide both farm and community income. For the past ten years, the Central Bicol State University of Agriculture has been helping farmers develop their farms into a tourism destination. The goal is to illustrate how farms can generate additional income and help develop the community. As a state university, we are guided by our philosophy of being a community of scholars engaged in creating and transmitting knowledge across a broad range of academic disciplines in agriculture and industrial technology. Our experience in farm tourism works reveals the importance of understanding the inherent uniqueness of each farm; there is diversity in the natural resource endowment that needs to be understood; there is a need to establish a community-based farm enterprise, and support coming from both the private and government agencies can help in ensuring the success of any farm-based tourism enterprise.

Finger lakes farm country: The creation and maintenance of a collaborative interdisciplinary online agritourism presence. A case study in rural upstate New York
Arlene Wilson, Finger Lakes Farm Country, Cornell Cooperative Extension, Executive Director
A collaborative approach to marketing and promotion that creates a memorable brand for Agritourism attractions and businesses in the area was the goal of this collaboration. The tourism organizations and Chambers of Commerce have expertise in marketing and promotion, but not in agriculture. Outreach to and inclusion of the Cornell Cooperative Extension association’s in the neighboring counties with strong farming businesses was seen as a natural partnership. Many travelers for agritourism come from a short distance away, especially in the case of rural areas close to urban areas. These travelers are often day-trippers, coming for a singular experience such as a festival, a farm-to-table dinner or a roadside stand. For travelers from farther away, agritourism is typically one of many activities they enjoy on the same trip. Tourism Promotion Agencies [TPA’s] and Finger Lakes Wine Country [FLWC] worked collaboratively to host travel writers and influencers to participate and write about agritourism activities and Finger Lakes Farm Country [FLFC] as an initiative. Cooperative Extensions [the agriculture education/outreach arm of the New York land grant institution, Cornell University] had existing relationships with farmers, fruit growers and livestock managers. Learn how the tourism and agriculture partnerships in rural markets of the Southern Tier of New York State – Chemung, Schuyler, Steuben, Tioga and Yates Counties- developed a vertically integrated approach for marketing, education, and outreach plan to include events, websites, widgets and logo development/branding: Finger Lakes Farm Country

Kingdom farm & food: The successes and challenges of a coordinated agritourism campaign in Vermont’s rural northeast corner
Lylee Rauch-Kacenski, Center for an Agricultural Economy, Communications Manager
Bethany Dunbar, Center for an Agricultural Economy, Community Programs Manager
This presentation will explore how a day-long community celebration of agriculture in 2009 grew into an annual week-long festival with dozens of events hosted across the region. Learn how the events grew into a coordinated agritourism campaign featuring events, a website directory of farms and food producers, and printed materials. Kingdom Farm & Food began as an annual event — Kingdom Farm & Food Days — started by High Mowing Organic Seeds in 2009. High Mowing had been putting on field trial workshops and a huge free meal of local foods and decided to begin working with partners to broaden the event. Over the past decade, the Center for an Agricultural Economy, Sterling College, Pete’s Greens, and others have worked together to coordinate events among partners and at local farms throughout the region. This presentation will give an overview of the successes and challenges of a coordinated Agritourism Campaign in rural Vermont. It will showcase how partnership made the event possible, and how the organizers worked to center the needs of farms and agricultural businesses in an effort to get visitors out to be a part of the working land. The presentation will review some of the successes and difficulties the organizers encountered, including how to make sure the events generate revenue for farms, and support them with more than just visitors and foot traffic. Finally, it will cover how the events morphed into a website, printed materials, and videos to help showcase the businesses in a coordinated effort to increase continued agritourism throughout the region.
10:20 a.m. - 11:20 a.m.Embracing Traditional Knowledge
Lake Champlain Salon A&B
Re-kindling an interest in the culinary and medicinal use of our indigenous plants: An agritourism perspective
Manti Maifadi, Naledi Farm, Farm Owner
There is a singer who sings “I have been to paradise, but I have never been to me”. This singer emphasizes the very point that no matter how far we can go, there is a path that keeps returning us back home, back to self. Our generation is beginning to learn that we need to return home to harvest a plethora of knowledge, ideas and solutions to the biggest challenges facing the world such as hunger, malnutrition, disease etc. Africa is a treasure chest of edible and medicinal plants. Most of these plants grow naturally in our backyards without any human intervention, especially after the rains. These indigenous superfoods do not only offer higher nutritional value than their exotic counterparts and support a resilient and sustainable food source especially in the face of climate change, they also form an important part of our culture connecting us to the past and to our memories. The best thing about indigenous, wild plants is that they are free. In these tough COVID times, with so many people suffering food shortages and health issues, it is these gifts from nature that could offer highly nutritious food-sources. While these indigenous superfoods still form daily staples in rural communities in many parts of the continent, their use and knowledge is slowly disappearing. Through our various agritourism programs which include intergenerational transfer of knowledge, adult and children’s workshops, nature walks, we at Naledi Farm have joined a community of farmers, gardeners, chefs and knowledge holders who are re-kindling an interest in the culinary and medicinal use of our indigenous plants. We believe that food that is picked as fresh as possible and as close to your location as possible is the best for you - and wild foods, tick all of those boxes. Together with other local farmers we have begun to create our own seed banks, so that we always have an adequate and trusted supply of some of our favorites; Thepe (Amaranthus), Spekboom, (Portulacaria Afra) Leshoabe, (Sonchus Nanus), Phefo/Mpepho (Helichrysum) Seruoe (Chenepodium Album).

Entrepreneurial challenges to overcoming indigenous perspectives toward diversity, equity, and inclusion: Concept note
Adityavardhan Pathak, Aditya Agro Farm, Promoter
Cultural Context: The development of Agri-Tourism Centres (ATC) in Maharashtra is intended for promoting rural employment, especially for those engaged in agriculture. Being located near villages and being owned/operated by the villagers, the culture of the village has a profound effect on the culture of the ATC. Traditionally, Indian villages have been conservative (to the point of being orthodox from a cosmopolitan perspective), wherein Male – Female relations are viewed with particular concern. Social proprietaries are extremely focussed upon. Despite statuary requirements enforcing the concept of Male – Female parity in matters of status, pay, etc it is not easily practiced in a society where tradition dictates that the ladies of the house not eat food before their male counterparts! Community Challenges: As an Agripreneur, I would like to introduce the beauty of my rural Maharashtrian culture to the world by attracting international travellers. However, I face the following cultural challenges with respect to Cosmopolitan travellers, especially those from the LGBTQIA community: 1. Clothing considered normal in a cosmopolitan setting like crop tops, etc may cause social discomfiture when travellers explore nearby village(s). Even the idea of going bra-less by ladies will invite immediate and scathing social censure. Cross-dressing may also be instantly ridiculed. Under these circumstances, how to regulate clothing without being too restrictive? 2.Public displays of affection (PDAs) like kissing or cuddling, even amongst married heterosexual couples is not socially encouraged. What response would a same-sex couple evoke, especially when homosexuality was decriminalized recently in 2018?! How to culturally sensitize the travellers without overwhelming them? 3.Traditional portrayal of the LGBTQIA community in mainstream Bollywood movies is quite unflattering, unfortunately creating a tabooed stereotype. In the aforementioned context, what would be an appropriate way to brief LGBTQIA travellers on expected / appropriate cultural-sensitive behaviour for a better experience without being intrusive and making them feel discriminated against, unsafe or unwelcome? 4.Generally, the ATC staff is also the same villagers. How to create the ‘safe space’ feeling inside the ATC while battling the ‘stigma’ of being a ‘Gay Haven’ (social perception, not mine), as word gets around in the village? Hiring outsiders defeats the purpose of creating local employment and promoting local culture. Conclusion: Culturally, a lot of ground needs to be covered for mainstreaming LGBTQIA travellers, especially in rural India. However, a good starting point is having such thread-bare discussions about the challenges at such august forums.

Geographical indication (GI) as a means of conserving traditional knowledge through agritourism: A case of muga silk (antheraea assamensis) in Assam-India
Dr. Niranjan Das, Tezpur University, Researcher
Geographical Indications(GI) is one of the tools of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) that protects name of a good as originating in the territory of a WTO member country, a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristics of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin. Muga Silk has been and continues to be an integral part of Assamese life and tradition. Assam is literally a ‘Silk country’ and silk culture is deep-rooted in the rural life and culture of Assamese people where Muga silk (Antheraea assamensis) is grown. There are 100 per cent of India’s Muga silk production is originated in Assam and hence Assam silk occupies a unique position in the sericulture map of the world. Considering the ecological conditions, food plant distribution, presence of eco-types and species of diverse nature in co-existence, it is speculated that this region is home of origin of Muga (Antheraea assamensis). Muga cloth has 85.8 per cent absorption capacity of ultra-violet ray of sunlight. Muga, the unique golden-yellow silk of Assam was granted the Geographical Indication (GI) registration in 2007. The economy of Assam continues to be primarily agrarian and the agricultural sector is providing employment to more than 50 percent of the rural population. Muga silk is considered as one of the main agricultural produce in the state and is reputed all over the world for its distinctive quality. There are sizeable numbers of Muga rearer in Assam particularly dispersed in Brahmaputra valley. The method of yarn preparation and the production of Muga silk has boost up state economy in terms of revenue generation by selling products as well as attracting tourist to enjoy this venture. The congenial climate and environment has made the region a natural abode of ‘Sericigenous’ insects and their host plants. Muga Silk is an indigenous product of Assam known for its smoothness, durability and eco-friendly nature. It can be used as source for the rural economy of Assam as it has immense Agritourism potentiality. The present research will be highlighted the geo-environmental condition, Agritourism prospect of Muga silk as well as its contribution on livelihood generation in the Brahmaputra valley of Assam. The proposed research also find out the nature of production and limitation, livelihood condition of the community engaged, measures to be taken for future improvement of the Muga silk and the economic benefit sharing through agritourism with the local community.
10:20 a.m. - 11:20 a.m.How to Build Customer Loyalty for Your Agritourism Destination
Green Mountain A
Kate Cartwright, Shelburne Vineyard, Tasting Room & Wine Club Manager
(1) Program / project description and background: Founded in 1999, Shelburne Vineyard is a pioneering champion of the Vermont wine region. Growing vines and making wine in a cold climate has special challenges, and the hybrid grapes we grow have only recently started to gain national and international recognition. Many visitors to Vermont are initially unaware that we make wine in our state, and that Shelburne Vineyard makes particularly high-quality, award-winning wines using sustainable farming and minimal intervention winemaking techniques. It is essential that when a customer walks in the doors of our Tasting Room & Winery, we focus on linking the customer to our working landscape through education, introducing them to so much more than the taste of our wines. The opportunity to turn casual visitors into longtime, loyal fans is one that no agritourism destination can afford to ignore! This session will discuss the strategies and tactics we employ at Shelburne Vineyard to provide many customers with so much more than a wine tasting. (2) Objectives of program / project: - Educate customers and engage them in our story, creating loyalty. - Champion the Vermont wine region. - Help visitors understand cold-climate grape growing. - Help visitors understand the importance of our sustainable farming practices and the care that goes into making our handcrafted wines. (3) Methods used: We will discuss the specific tactics used in our Tasting Room to achieve the objectives stated above. This discussion will cover our staff training techniques, menu development, approach to guided tours, private educational tasting offerings, and Wine Club structure. (4) Interactive component of the workshop: If possible, we will guide participants through a wine & cheese pairing class similar to what we provide to customers who book a private educational tasting. This will give workshop attendees a practical, hands-on example of how we put our strategies into action to achieve our goals, giving them actionable ideas plus tips & tricks they may be able to put into place in their own agritourism enterprise.
10:20 a.m. - 11:20 a.m.Managing Agritourism Amidst Insecurity: A workshop in overcoming international tourist concerns about safety outside the gates
Green Mountain B
Daniel Baker, Vermont Partners of the Americas / University of Vermont
Expanding tourism following conflict and insecurity offers economic opportunities for developing countries, while crime, terrorism and political instability are significant challenges to the development of this industry. Countries often address this issue by encouraging tourists to stay in areas with heightened security, such as designated port areas or downtowns protected by tourism police. These strategies present significant barriers for the development of agritourism by restricting movement of tourists to farms and rural areas. It can also mask the impact of crime and insecurity on the tourism sector. For example, in Honduras while foreign tourist travel into the interior of the country declined precipitously overall tourist numbers remained high, maintained by cruise ship arrivals that encouraged tourists who disembarked to stay within port areas. This workshop will invite representatives from countries that have experienced political violence or high crime rates to discuss the strategies they have used to encouraging tourists to visit their country and to overcome the tendency for tourists to cluster in concentrated areas. Following short presentations by the panelists, the facilitator will encourage attendees to share their own challenges or success in overcoming tourists perceptions of risk traveling to agritourism destinations.
10:20 a.m. - 11:20 a.m.Promoting Local Culture through Agritourism
Green Mountain C
Tourism and cultivated landscapes — valorization of cultivated landscapes in rural tourism
Alexander Plaikner, University of Innsbruck / UMIT TIROL, Msc., Msc.
Johanna Sparber, University of Innsbruck, Research and Teaching Assistant
Marco Haid, UMIT Tirol, Assistant Professor
Due to the uniqueness of rural tourism enterprises and the rural characteristics, agricultural tourism offers the opportunity to experience landscapes, cultural institutions, regional ways of life, customs and the proximity to animals with different leisure activities. Regional development activities ensure the preservation of the landscape, customs and communities. For many farms, tourism provides an essential sideline. For the design of sustainable destinations, in the sense of a constructivist understanding of landscape, the economic success of farms that combine tourism and agriculture forms an essential basis. The proximity of agritourism to unique landscapes offers holidaymakers a high added value. This is particularly the case when holidaymakers are involved in the creation of tourism value. Whether cultivated landscapes trigger passive or active fascination depends on whether the beauty of the landscape or the pursuit of sporting activities is in the foreground. Cultivated landscapes offer a touristic value, and engagement with nature strengthens health from both a cognitive-psychological and a physical point of view. These value elements can be taken into account by businesses when making pricing decisions. For the long-term optimization of regional development, strategic price policy levers and valorization possibilities are analyzed. While critical landscape research deals, among other things, with the conflict between tourism and agriculture, research on potential spillover effects provides an opportunity to link the social constructs. In addition to the recreational value for holidaymakers, a strongly developed biodiversity increases the tourism value-added. While the active holiday experience foregrounds farm work, culture, and landscapes, several quantitative surveys in landscape research reveal that holidaymakers' passively perceived added value through proximity to the natural landscape and the accompanying health effects significantly increases the value of the rural stay. By conducting qualitative interviews with stakeholders from agriculture and tourism, this research aims to identify the added value for holidaymakers through contact with cultivated landscapes. Another focus is identifying spillover effects, especially in knowledge transfer, regional development and marketing. A role is played by implementing important instruments for the care of landscape and environment, followed by economic potentials for the small-scale enterprises involved. Qualitative market research, followed by the evaluation of the results, will form the basis for concrete recommendations for action. This contribution's central conclusion and implication is the analysis and definition of the "valorization of rural tourism" in the frame of reference of the diversity of socio-cultural position and the essentialist understanding of landscape.

Agritourism case studies inclusive of cultural diversity and rural tourism development
Jacqui Taylor Africa it is our time!, Agritourism Africa, Rural Tourism Africa, CEO & Founder
Rural Tourism Development Strategies throughout Africa are meant to ensure a developmental approach to packaging and marketing rural tourism products, activities, experiences and accommodation facilities. Because Africa is a continent, spatial nodes need to be prioritised. Many factors have to be take into consideration, for example, accessibility (plane, train, car); tourism skills shortages; inadequate funding, lack of consensus amongst the African Tourism Council; lack of reliable data; tribal authority compliance etc. The opportunities to create authentic new tourism experiences is realistic and tangible. Unique cultural and heritage experiences, bio-diversity, rural tranquility, indigenous knowledge systems, nature reserves, a culture of Ubuntu amongst others. I will explain via the use of case studies how Rural Tourism can be a productive, income-generating and employment generator for the Youth and African women in particular. Africa is an Agricultural continent which is attracting the interest of investors from around the world, hence what has become know as #africarising

“Deep agritourism” with a museum in the middle
Philip Ackerman-Leist, UpTunket Farm, Farmer, author, consultant
Michael de Rachewiltz, Museum Brunnenburg
Sharon Palmer, Sharon Palmer, RD
Located in the Südtirol/Alto-Adige province of the Italian Alps, Brunnenburg Agricultural Museum extends through the labyrinthine rooms and passageways of a 13th century castle and 17th century farmhouse. For four decades, the museum and the accompanying working farm have presented to visitors not just the tools but also the farming traditions, foodways, culture(s), and even spoken dialect associated with historic agricultural practices in the region. While day visitors pass through the museum throughout the year, other visitors reside amid the museum for weeks or even months as part of themed study tours and semester-long programs—immersed in what might be called “deep agritourism.” These groups help maintain the museum and farm while residing among artifacts that are sometimes relics of bygone traditions but are just as often reminders of farming practices and foodways that begin to make more sense as we face crises stemming from climate change, ecologically-harmful farming practices, and the perils of modern diets. The farm surrounding the museum takes the lessons and traditions of the past and transforms them into contemporary farming practices and products. In fact, the farm was among the first in the region to eliminate all pesticides in its vineyards and orchards. The presenters will share lessons of how the Brunnenburg Agricultural Museum and Farm have been the cornerstones of semester abroad programs, study tours, and cultural events for more than forty years, including recent study tours for dietitians looking to understand centuries-old foodways and the evolution and impacts of farming practices. The particularities of the Brunnenburg programs offer insights into the critical role of agricultural museums in deepening the education offered through different agritourism opportunities.
11:20 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.Pick Up Box Lunches and Prepare to Depart for Mobile Workshops (Buses Depart at 12:00 p.m.)
Adirondack Ballroom
Buses begin loading at 11:30am and depart promptly at noon (12:00pm) from outside the hotel main entrance by lobby.
12:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.Mobile Workshop: Champlain Islands Winery and Vineyard
Snow Farm Winery and Vineyard
Snow Farm Winery and Vineyard is located on a repurposed dairy farm and is owned and operated by the Lane Family. The vineyard was established in 1996 to preserve Vermont’s agricultural land in the face of rapid development by providing an alternative for farmers. The farm is located on one of the Champlain Islands in the middle of Lake Champlain with growing conditions suited for cooler climate vinifera grapes, Pinot Noir and Riesling, as well as the more cold hardy French Hybrids, Vidal Blanc and Baco Noir. The Lane family operates a wine tasting room and a bed and breakfast and organizes a weekly concert series during the summer months which attracts locals and visitors alike. The farm also produces maple products, pork, and llamas. Participants in this mobile workshop will enjoy a walking tour of the vineyard and farm operation and have a chance to discuss the diverse operation with representatives of the Lane Family. Specific questions that will be addressed during the discussion include: opportunities and challenges of operating a multi-generational agritourism enterprise, and hosting large public events such as harvest celebrations, concerts, and weddings. Wine tasting is not included in the tour and is optional. An additional fee of $8 will be charged during the tour for those who would like to participate in wine tasting at Snow Farm Winery.
12:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.Mobile Workshop: Fifth Generation Family Farm, Maple Sugaring Operation and Community Center
Isham Family Farm
The Isham Family Farm is an agritourism destination located just 3.5 miles from the bustling retail center of Williston. The 108-acre farm has sweeping views of Mount Mansfield, Vermont’s highest peak. In operation since 1788, the farm is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and has been conserved by the Vermont Land Trust. Primarily a small working farm and maple sugaring operation, owner and fifth generation sugar maker Mike Isham and his wife Helen Weston, a former music teacher, offer wood-fired maple syrup, pick-your-own blueberries, raspberries, and pumpkins, a corn maze, and Christmas trees and wreaths. The scenic Oak View Hill Trail runs through the property to offer hiking for visitors. Renovation of the 3000 square foot timber frame dairy barn was completed in 2012 to create a seasonal events venue for up to 200 guests. Isham Family Farm now serves as a Community Center for the Champlain Valley, where they host 30-vendor farmers markets with music, weddings, harvest festivals, and performing arts programs. They recently created the “Earth Summer Series” of live opera and theater to help raise environmental awareness and fund youth education on the farm. Stewarding the land, raising environmental awareness, incorporating farming with the performing arts, and giving back to the community fuel life on Isham Family Farm. Mike and Helen will discuss the evolution of the dairy farm into a thriving agritourism operation, the importance of sound environmental practices, school programs and family-oriented activities that entertain and educate visitors about the local food system, how the wedding barn serves as a community center, and how it has helped to fuel the farm’s revenue through special events and farmers markets.
12:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.Mobile Workshop: Innovative Agricultural Education on a Landmark Estate
Shelburne Farms
Shelburne Farms is a vibrant center for agriculture and forestry, with a mission to inspire and cultivate learning for a sustainable future. Our home campus is a 1,400-acre working farm, forest, and National Historic Landmark on the shores of Lake Champlain. The Abenaki, “People of the First Light,” are the First Peoples of this land. Over 140,000 visitors come to Shelburne Farms annually for education programs, overnight stays, walking trails, property tours, dining at our Farm-to-Table restaurant, visiting the Children’s Farmyard, and through partner programs hosted on our campus. Our visitor experiences encourage teachers, students, families, and communities to understand and address the interconnected environmental, social, and economic challenges of our day. Through our many collaborations, our reach extends throughout Vermont and beyond. At this mobile workshop, you’ll take part in hands-on activities and discussions as you explore the Shelburne Farms’ agricultural operations and guest experiences. Dig into our farms’ cycles and systems that give visitors a chance to connect their lives to our farm.
12:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.Mobile Workshop: Italian Farming and Culinary Traditions Vermont Style
Agricola Farm
Agricola Farm is a small, diversified farm that features a blend of Italian farming and culinary traditions with Vermont’s contemporary tastes and husbandry practices. Located in Panton, Vermont, the farm specializes in raising and preparing gourmet meats, with an emphasis on Italian husbandry and curing techniques. The farm raises pigs, sheep, chickens, ducks, and Italian varieties of vegetables and herbs. The farmers sell fresh and processed products at their farmstand and in recent years have supplemented the farm revenue with special Italianesque farm-to-table suppers and seasonal events. Pasta is made following old Italian traditions with eggs from pasture raised ducks and chickens. Participants in this mobile workshop will enjoy hands-on activities such as making pasta and feeding the many farm animals, and they will learn about the philosophy and practices of blending cultures on a diversified farm. The farmers will lead a discussion on the challenges and opportunities in direct marketing, on managing interns, and on how the farm has evolved its income streams over time. Additional discussion will focus on how the farmers have pursued their dream, starting with rented land near an urban center to navigating the purchase and ownership of conserved land from the Vermont Land Trust.
12:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.Mobile Workshop: Regenerative Agriculture and Farm-to-Table Agritourism
Philo Ridge Farm
Philo Ridge Farm is a beautiful regenerative agriculture farm located in the small town of Charlotte, in Vermont’s fertile Champlain Valley. Using innovative, ecologically sustainable practices, we manage four hundred acres of healthy pasture land, forests and diversified produce gardens. We rotationally graze heritage breeds of livestock and grow certified organic fruits, vegetables, and flowers. Everything we harvest is processed and sold in our Restaurant and Market, where we feature a changing menu of seasonal dishes as well as grocery and specialty housewares that showcase Vermont's local artisans and farmers. Everything we do is rooted in our commitment to honoring our natural and human environments; we strive to produce and share nutrient-dense foods, provide an exciting learning environment for our visitors and staff, and strengthen our vibrant local community, all while honoring the integrity of the land. Food brings people together. We love welcoming visitors to our farm and to our table to share our story. Participants in this mobile workshop will learn about the many facets of this integrated farm and agri-entrepreneurship operation through a walking tour. Discussions will delve into the challenges and opportunities of hosting visitors on a working farm and how the different income streams add to overall farm viability. Managers will share insights into staying true to the vision of innovation and regenerative practices as well as the practical aspects and best practices of staffing, training, and operating a restaurant and market on a working farm.
12:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.Mobile Workshop: Regeneration and Inclusivity: Hope-Focused Engagement on a Small, Diversified Farm
Green Mountain Girls Farm
Created in 2009, Green Mountain Girls Farm is steeped in the rich culture of Vermont’s working landscape. Regenerative practices aim to grow food in ways that capture the greatest potential of the sun, rain and natural systems, while enhancing food quality, plant health, soil life and ecosystems. The farm employs no-till and permaculture farming techniques to raise vegetables and fruit. Farm animals include pigs, poultry, and small ruminants which are raised on rotational grazing systems. Green Mountain Girls Farm is a small scale operation in Northfield, Vermont, utilizing less than 20 acres of land, with gross annual sales averaging $120,000, roughly 65% from farmstand and farm shares with the remaining income generated from agritourism receipts. Participants in this workshop will enjoy the height of the growing season, tasting their way around the farm while conversing about the farm’s practices. Participants will engage in an interactive program of sensing, questioning and reimagining agritourism and hope for small farms. Conversation topics will include: What makes farm guests feel welcome or unwelcome? How can our food have a positive impact on climate and communities? How does experiencing simple solutions to heal our planet increase empowerment? This interactive workshop will offer tools for exploring regenerative agritourism and imagining new, vibrant, and inclusive ways of engaging the public on farms.
12:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.Mobile Workshop: University of Vermont Farm Education and Research Centers
University of Vermont Horticulture Farm; University of Vermont Morgan Horse Farm
University of Vermont Horticulture Farm: The UVM Horticulture Research and Education Center (HREC), is the primary field laboratory site for applied teaching, research, and outreach activities on agronomic and horticultural crops. Education and research are conducted on the farm by the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences and Extension faculty, students, and staff. Purchased in 1952, the 97-acre Horticulture Farm is the home of Catamount Educational Farm (a fruit and vegetable production farm), and is used for agricultural research and instruction of UVM classes. The farm is also used by professional plant organizations and gardening groups. For over 50 years, University horticulturists have been testing new and unusual plants for their adaptation to the Vermont environment, especially to our cold winters. In addition, the HREC hosts collections of ornamental plants of significance to the green industry, including legacy plantings of crabapples, rhododendrons and azaleas, flowering shrubs, shade trees, lilacs, and ferns. This tour will include visits to the vegetable fields, orchards, and vineyard, and visitors will meet researchers and students who will discuss the importance of the farm to their studies and programs. University of Vermont Morgan Horse Farm: The UVM Morgan Horse Farm is dedicated to the preservation and improvement of the Morgan Horse through breeding and selection. Designated as a site on the National Register of Historic Places, the farm is also home to significant Morgan history and a variety of educational programs, both for the public and university students. One of the first Vermont farms to open to the public, the Morgan Horse Farm welcomes thousands of visitors from across the globe each year. During the mobile workshop, participants will experience the guided farm tour and meet the UVM Morgan Horses in their ancestral home. Students will host demonstrations of young horse handling and training. The guide will discuss the benefits of welcoming tourists and the considerations of operating a working farm that is public facing, discussing the intersection of education, tourism, and a horse breeding and training farm.
5:00 p.m. - 9:00 p.m.Time On Your Own

Full Schedule, Thursday, September 1, 2022

7:45 a.m. - 9:00 a.m.Breakfast with Exhibitors & Sponsors
Adirondack Ballroom
8:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m.Registration Desk Open
Hotel Lobby
8:00 a.m. - 5:30 p.m.Exhibitor & Sponsor Booths Open; Poster Viewing
Various Locations
8:00 a.m. - 8:55 a.m.Growing Your Network: An Evidenced-Based Workshop on Enhancing Collaborations in Agritourism (Part 3 of 3)
Vermont Conference Room A&B
The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has drastically changed collaborations and the way we network. We are excited to offer an in-conference networking workshop as the world eases back into the conference routine. Sponsored by a National Science Foundation grant on interdisciplinary collaborations, this three day workshop led by team science expert Dr. Marissa Shuffler and rural development expert Dr. Lori Dickes will focus on evidenced-based best practices for enhancing collaborations and personal networks to grow your network and make the most of your conference experience. The workshop will offer both in-person and virtual elements to best support attendees.
9:00 a.m. - 10:00 a.m.Design is key! Selling your experience using Facebook, Instagram & beyond
Lake Champlain Salon A&B
Shannon Roberts, Vancouver Island University, Sessional Professor
Design is key when it comes to delivering high-quality agri-tourism experiences. However, with the increasing importance of creating and maintaining a social media presence, it becomes easy to move past the brick-and-mortar aspects of design too quickly and go straight into selling on social media. While social media can be a wonderful tool to establish and maintain authentic connections with customers, placing focus on building these relationships while in the design stages will increase the selling potential of the experience. Once these relationships are considered and built into the actual design of the experience, farmers and operators will more easily be able to establish, connect, and maintain quality relationships with their customer base. The three outcomes of the workshop are to have participants: 1. Understand that design is key when creating and delivering high-quality agri-tourism experiences; 2. Learn how to create new or redesign existing experiences in a way where they can then foster authentic relationships with their customers; 3. Learn how to create and maintain these authentic relationships by using social media – Facebook, Instagram and beyond – with the goal of increasing their selling potential. In terms of methods, this workshop will use a PowerPoint slide show to guide the audience through an interactive presentation while they are probed to fill out a workbook created specifically for the session. The presentation will highlight examples where farmers and operators are connecting with their customers authentically by using social media. The workbook will help guide participants to reflect on how they can incorporate these strategies into their own experiences. The reflection will continue by having participants form small groups where they can exchange ideas or questions regarding the activity listed in the workbook. Throughout the workshop, there will also be a series of questions asked to the whole group based on the presentation and workbook.
9:00 a.m. - 10:00 a.m.Hospitality and Farm Experiences
Green Mountain A
How much do college students know about GMOs? A pilot study
Stacey Stearns, University of Connecticut (UConn) Extension, Communications Specialist
Aditi Rao, University of Connecticut, PhD Candidate - Department of Communication
Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) crops were first planted in the United States in 1996 (Johnson & O’Connor, 2015). GMOs have become a scientific and a social issue as debates continue worldwide (Wen, Hao, & Han, 2016). Consumer knowledge and acceptance of GMOs has not matched the pace of adoption by the agricultural community (Wunderlich & Gatto, 2015). GMO communication campaigns have not answered the “what’s in it for me” question when educating the public. The majority of campaigns to date only cite the benefits to farmers, and feeding a growing global population (Higgins, 2018). Stockebrand, Sidali and Spiller (2011) found that emotional storytelling helped connect student visitors to the farm tourism experience and food grown at the operation. Student audiences do not show increased purchasing through storytelling communication techniques on the farm. However, it is important to develop relationships with students as future consumers. As part of a larger study, we surveyed 156 undergraduate students in a land grant, research-intensive university to assess their understanding of GMOs and how important are GMO-products to them. We did this by showing students a video on GMOs and compared their scores before and after the stimulus (video). Overall, 79% students reported they know what GMO stands for, and more than half the participants said they never check if the product contains GMOs. We found a significant association between those who know what GMO stands for and those who check if the products contain GMOs (Χ2(8) = 20.80, p < 0.01). Their willingness to consume GMOs decreased post stimulus and the difference in means was significant, t(153) = 2.028, p <.05. The means for Knowledge-based trust, t(155) = 2.29, p <.05, and Identification-based trust, t(154) = 3.31, p <.01, also decreased significantly post stimulus. Interestingly, Women (M =13.23, SD = .68) scored higher on Identification-based trust than did men (M = 12.99, SD = .67). We conclude the video we used for educating students about GMOs was not effective and a more customized approach needs to be adapted to educate undergraduates about GMOs. The students surveyed also reported their professors as their most trusted or reliable source when it came to information about GMOs. Perhaps, making learning about GMOs as part of the curriculum through agritourism opportunities would have more impact on students, and will be the focus of our future work.

What you need to know about cannabis & hospitality
Eli Harrington, Greenbridge Consulting; Vermontijuana Ventures
As cannabis laws continue to change and both adult use and support are at an all-time high, there's both an opportunity and imperative to consider how to incorporate or manage cannabis and hospitality. This presentation will provide real strategies and examples for how to develop a cannabis policy for your business, communicate clearly about cannabis, and multiple ways to take advantage of the new 'green rush' that comes with legal cannabis.

9:00 a.m. - 10:00 a.m.International Research Network for Agritourism — Country Level Agritourism Surveys
Green Mountain B
Dave Lamie, Clemson University, Professor of Agricultural and Rural Development
Lisa Chase, University of Vermont, Extension Professor
Claudia Schmidt, Penn State University, Assistant Professor of Agricultural Economics
Corinne Stewart, ISLE Association, President
Rita Salvatore, University of Teramo, researcher
Lori Dickes, Clemson University Master of Public Administration Program, Program Director
Researchers from the United States and several countries of the European Union are deploying national level surveys to better understand the patterns of development of the agritourism sector, and its successes and challenges. Information from these surveys will be shared and participants will learn how to explore options for engaging with the International Research Network for Agritourism (IRENA) during this workshop. The audience will be engaged in assessing their preparedness for conducting such a project in their country.
9:00 a.m. - 10:00 a.m.Policies and Regulations
Green Mountain C
Regulations governing agritourism
Alexia Kulwiec, Farm-to-Consumer Legal Defense Fund, Executive Director
Background and General Information included in presentation: Economic viability can be very difficult for small farms today, both because of competition and challenging regulatory policies. Agritourism has become a vital revenue stream to supplement farm income and provides opportunity for the public to better understand how their food is grown, or simply enjoy the great outdoors. Yet for a small farm, the myriad of laws and regulations, at the national, state and local government level can be challenging to find, interpret and apply correctly. This presentation is intended to touch on regulation of agritourism and steps to prevent regulatory problems that can arise. Important examples of regulation gaining popularity in the United States are Agritourism laws that protect farms for injury incurred from risks inherent in agritourism, such as tipping on uneven land or contact with a farm animal. This presentation will address generally laws that protect farms and what requirements are typically necessary for these laws to apply, such as printed warnings to customers or proper training for staff. The presentation will touch upon additional relevant laws such as zoning, tax treatment, difference in agricultural and non agricultural wages, local ordinances, and right-to-farm laws. Methods: As a short oral presentation, I will present using a visual presentation such as power point, and welcome questions during as well as after the presentation. If time, I plan to encourage audience members to share their own experiences in dealing with the regulatory landscape of agritourism. Objectives and results: The objective will be to introduce the challenges included in the regulatory environment and propose methods of researching regulations and ensuring compliance. Given the multi jurisdictional nature of the conference, it is not feasible to ensure that participants can learn all they need to know regarding regulation, but instead what to look for. Program evaluation: I welcome immediate participant feedback, program evaluations, and other suggestions from participants. Conclusions: Again, the idea is to provide participants with an idea of what regulations should be considered, and some tools to prevent problems with regulatory agencies.

Evaluation of agritourism policy in India: Qualitative impact analysis
Girish Mude, MIT World Peace University, Pune, India, Research Scholar
Program/project description: One approach for assisting rural agricultural economic development efforts is to encourage diversifying of agriculture related activities. Under tourism sector reforms, in September 2020, the State Government of Maharashtra, India sanctioned its agritourism policy, which aims to promote rural development through agricultural tourism and encourage agri-based enterprises, and provide employment possibilities for rural economy. For many years, this was a long-awaited decision that would benefit local farmers and rural communities. This study aims to assess the impact of this new policy. Objectives: We examined the major views and expectations about a recently framed agritourism policy in the Indian state of Maharashtra, as well as farmers' perceptions of the policy's prospective benefits. Methods used: An in-depth interview with 21 agritourism centre owners / farmers was conducted as part of the qualitative research. Research notes and audio recordings have been translated as per the topics of the study. This study included purposeful sampling. COREQ (Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research) comprehensive checklist is employed for data analysis. Results of the project: After conducting semi-structured interviews in September 2021, the data was analysed in October 2021. Farmers interviewed on the concept of agritourism policy had a wide range of views. They voiced their appreciation for the policy and expressed a strong desire to take benefits of it. Farmers preferred the concept of training, guidance, marketing and promotions their centres through agritourism department of government. Respondents from the study were pleased with the holistic approach, but they were also concerned about direct financial assistance, flexible and simplified procedures, and one-window clearances. Strategies used to evaluate the project: Agritourism would provide producers with an extra revenue stream and a platform for direct consumer marketing. The new policy allows individual farmers, cooperatives, and even colleges and universities to build agritourism centres. In order to implement this policy, agritourism centre owners / farmers are given priorities in various government schemes of farm pond, greenhouse establishment, fruit and vegetable cultivations etc. Additionally, farmers could take advantage of tax benefits and government subsidies for utilities like power and gas. Conclusions: Several countries worldwide have similar enabling policies to aid tourists with accommodation facilities in farms, but Maharashtra has made significant strides in India in this area. Agritourism offers a unique chance to merge components of the tourism and agriculture industries in order to benefit visitors, farmers, and communities economically, educationally, and socially. Farmers across the state had benefited from this new agritourism legislation, as well as rural individuals and communities.

Policies and models for developing agritourism in India
Sarath Sennimalai, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Research Scholar
In the world, the travel and tourism sector occupies a major share in economic growth and India has repeatedly exceeded the growth rate of the global economy for nine years. The tourism sector makes a significant impact on the Indian economy. Simultaneously, tourism enrolled into different types and among those agri-tourism is a new evolving concept. In that demand for agri-tourism, in particular, is growing due to globalization and the increased public interest in farm activities and rural lifestyles. To estimate demand in agri-tourism customer preferences is the foremost important component. However, increasing customer satisfaction by enhancing the tourist experience requires a better understanding of customer needs and preferences. Understanding customer preferences, factors influencing customer preferences and their willingness to pay for agri-tourism services will help agri-tourism marketers, destination managers, policymakers and other significant stakeholders to design strategies to develop and strengthen the status of all the stakeholders involved in an agri-tourism value chain. The main aim of this study was to know about customer preferences towards agri-tourism. The study was taken in farm resorts located in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu, India because it was the prominent one to capture customers’ preferences towards agri-tourism. Around 400 customers have participated in this study with different backgrounds. Factor analysis was used to know about their influencing factors in agri-tourism. For assessing willingness to pay contingent valuation model and discrete choice modelling were used. Results from this study showed that most of the customers belong to middle age with their prime purpose of the trip as leisure rest. Vacation and weekends were the most preferred occasion for agri-tourism followed by season festivals and family functions. Sixty percent of customers selected local food and traditional food as their desired eateries on the farm. Sixty-eight percent of customers preferred service in the farm as working farm, offering accommodation and food with active participation in farm tasks. Customers marked their influencing factors as agricultural features followed by activities and fresh food on the farm. The average willingness to pay for one day and night stay with food and accommodation was Rs.2100. choice modelling revealed that female customers preferred good accommodation, food with many items as their desirable one. Male customers wanted many activities like rural games, exploring agricultural operations and as well an excellent service landscape on the farm. At last, these findings would help the Indian Government for enriching sustainable agri-tourism development.
9:00 a.m. - 10:00 a.m.Risk Management and Biosecurity
Vermont Conference Room A&B
Balance increased marketing exposure with decreased disease exposure: Protecting animals while promoting sales.
Carol Delaney, Animal Health Program, Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry, Livestock Specialist
Anne Trenholm, Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry, Agricultural Resource Development, Agriculture Promotions Coordinator
Does a line of parents and children waiting to pet and kiss goat kids make you smile or grimace? Activity by consumers seeking a direct connection to food producers increased during the pandemic in the Northeast USA. Some livestock producers selling meat, milk, fiber, and animals saw locally increased sales and visits from customers and some operations are making plans to open their doors or increase farm to face interactions with customers. The optimum experience for tourists can involve manual contact with farm animals adding in risk of transmission of disease from humans to animals either by direct contact or through contaminated materials. Onset of human infections after human to animal interaction is commonly discussed concerning pathogens like parasites, Salmonella, E.coli, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Para pox virus, and Ringworm. Less focus has been on the fact that people can infect or bring infective materials on farms for diseases like African Swine Fever, Corona and flu viruses, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This talk will show how the animals on livestock farms that are capitalizing on increased consumer marketing opportunities through agritourism can be safeguarded with simple yet effective protocol. Those actions will demand attention by the farmer hosts including ways to communicate the need for these biosecurity measures to tourists to enlist their understanding and support to maintain livestock health. Presenters from the Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry, both the promotion and animal health divisions, will share their honed educational resources such as safe promotion, scored evaluation sheets, best signage, presentation of livestock with physical and chemical protective measures to maximize healthy outcomes for livestock farm agritourism activities and events. Attendees will walk away with appreciation of risk, memorable preventative actions, and communication tactics to provide the best outcome for preserving animal health whilst using agritourism to augment sales.

Resilience practices of South Tyrolean (Italy) agritourism to mitigate Covid-19 impacts
Giovanna Sacchi, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Assistant Professor
Thomas Streifeneder, Eurac Research, Institute for Regional Development, PD Dr.
Christian Fischer, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Professor
Giulia Grillini, Free University of Bolzano, PhD student
At the crossroad of tourism and agriculture, the peculiar configuration of agritourism represents a unique opportunity in providing several financial, educational, and social benefits to tourists, producers, and local communities. In Italy, this evidence is confirmed by the positive medium/long-term performance of the sector. Between 2007 and 2019, the number of agritourism companies increased by +38.7%, with a total economic value of over €1.5 billion in 2019 (+3.3% compared to 2018 and + 37% compared to 2007). South Tyrol is the second Italian territory for the incidence of agritourism farms (3,605 companies, 14.7% of the total Italian agritourism companies) after the Tuscany region (5,369 companies, 21.8% of the total Italian agritourism companies). In 2020, due to the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) has estimated a loss of over 80 million tourist presences and over €9 billion in expenditure by foreign tourists for the whole tourist sector. It is undoubtedly true that 2020 was marked by a profound crisis that will have societal and economical long-lasting consequences. Nevertheless, some signals of mitigation, adaptation, and transition in both society and the market have also been recorded, especially in the tourist sector. In particular, the Italian agritourism sector has demonstrated a remarkable ability to respond to the crisis, activating alternative supply channels in parallel with organized distribution, adopting new booking systems, focusing on local supply chains, and managing to renew the range of products and services in a very short time. From all these premises, the objective of this study is to better understand the impact of the pandemic on South Tyrolean agritourism companies and to explore trends, perspectives, and resilience activities adopted to mitigate the effects of restrictions. To this purpose, a qualitative methodology including in-depth interviews and focus groups has been implemented among farmers running agritourism businesses to understand which resilience measures, activities, and strategies could be considered the most efficient to advise and orient those companies that did not adopt any alternative service, but also for those farmers that have just recently started their agritourism activity. The findings of this research represent valid information for local administrations and policymakers and will advance the research on resilience, sustainability, rural tourism, small supply chains, and economics in times of crisis.

From ticket to tail: Risk assessment and best practices for novel animal agritourism activities
Catherine Gensler, North Carolina State University, Graduate Research Assistant
Was that a Unicorn?! From Goat Yoga to Goat-To-Meeting, agritourism activities involving animals have expanded beyond just petting zoos. An outbreak of illness from animal interactions can feel like an event as rare as a unicorn, but risks to visitor health and safety during animal interactions are ever-present. Steps to reduce such risk can be taken in multiple areas across a farm, but the risk will never entirely be zero. You have followed every checklist, consulted with your insurance agent, and feel you have your bases covered. Operators ask “Am I doing enough?” “I am doing too much!” “Does this even do anything?” This presentation will review existing and new resources and research surrounding available risk-reduction strategies in common animal interaction scenarios, walk through a risk assessment of novel animal interaction types and present a new risk-assessment tool for farmers to estimate risk-reduction cost-benefit scenarios. Extension educators and farm support professionals will leave with a toolbox of resources and guiding questions for their constituents and stakeholders; Operators will be able to feel confident to assess zoonoses risk on their operation and select appropriate strategies for their audiences, animals, and operations. To estimate the risk of zoonoses from novel animal interaction agritourism activities a quantitative microbial risk assessment model was built using data aggregated from existing scientific literature, as well as the agritourism survey and enteric microbe components of the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAMHS) 2019 Goat Study. The presence of enteric pathogens on an operation was found to vary based on animal access to surface water, the presence of other animals on the operation, and herd size. Further, the range of days and seasons operations are open to visitors varies widely. As such, the risk landscape is not one-size-fits-most. To support operator navigation of determining risk, a risk assessment tool was created to quantify the number of illnesses reduced based on visitor behavior, organism survivability, and operation management practices. Using the tool created, operators can explore risk estimates of animal-only interventions (such as vaccination schemes, housing changes), and visitor-only interventions (such as additional handwashing stations). Presenters aim to share forthcoming pilot evaluation results and impacts from Spring/Summer 2022 pilot testing at this meeting.
10:00 a.m. - 10:20 a.m.Break
Montpelier Ballroom
10:20 a.m. - 11:20 a.m.Brand Building through Special Events on Working Farms
Green Mountain A
Pam Knights, Pam Knights Communications, Owner
Eric Tadlock, Cedar Circle Farm and Education Center, Executive Director
Mike Isham, Isham Family Farm, Farmer & Owner
Special events on working farms are becoming increasingly popular nationally and internationally. From you pick and corn mazes to more complex harvest festivals and weddings, events require an investment of time and resources to create, promote and deliver a successful guest experience. Events offer an opportunity to become an integral part of the community by providing food-inspired educational and recreational on-farm opportunities for locals and tourists. They increase farm revenue and build brand recognition through goodwill, PR and social media. The panel, made up of a branding strategist, a 5th generation farmer, and an executive director of an educational organic farm, share their experiences through stories and compelling visuals, with time between speakers for questions and comments. Presenters include: Pam Knights, Pam Knights Communications: Pam’s professional background is in food, farm and tourism marketing, PR, event development and promotion. For many years, she directed PR and special events for New England Culinary Institute and Vermont Land Trust, before starting PKC in 2000. She has worked with dozens of farms in VT and NH to help build their businesses through brand development and special events. Pam addresses event development and promotion, using Cedar Circle Farm & Education Center and Isham Family Farm, as well as others, as examples. Mike Isham, Isham Family Farm: Also listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the conserved 107-acre property is located just 3.5 miles off I-89 in bustling Williston. The family-friendly Isham Family Farm, once a dairy, is now a thriving you pick berry, maple, and Christmas tree farm. The iconic 3000 sq ft event barn, beautifully restored by Mike, has become a hub for community involvement, with events ranging from a 30-vendor farmers market with music, opera and theatrical performances, fall festivals, and weddings. Farmer Mike shares his family’s story and how agritourism has skyrocketed at his farm. Eric Tadlock, Cedar Circle Farm & Education Center: Over the past 20 years this 40-acre conserved vegetable, berry and flower farm has evolved into a non-profit educational organic farm with a social mission. One of the first agritourism properties in New England, Cedar Circle Farm is home to a farmstand, café, commercial kitchen, and education center. The farm offers programs and events for all ages to include a CSA, cooking and gardening classes, farm tours, festivals, home school programs, and summer day camps. Learn how they have grown their brand and increased revenue through a multitude of educational programs and special events.
10:20 a.m. - 11:20 a.m.Building Equity into Agritourism
Green Mountain B
Ghalegaun tourism model for community integration and sustainability: Implications for Nepalese agritourism development
Kumar Bhatta, Kyushu University Institute of Asian and Oceanian Studies, PhD
Michał Roman, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Associate Professor
Authentic agritourism provides more economic opportunities to the local people than other types of tourism activities. However, authentic agritourism in developing countries, especially in Nepal, is very limited. On the other hand, community-based homestay is getting popular among Nepalese visitors and visitors from abroad. Out of them, Ghalegaun community-based homestay is recognized as a model tourism village in South Asian countries, and people visit Ghalegaun to experience the authentic local heritage. Ghalegaun is located on the top of the hill (2070 m) in Lamjung district, approximately 210 km from the capital city Kathmandu. Many other villages have developed community-based homestays in Nepal; most of them are copying the activities performed in the Ghalegaun. In this regard, by conducting a case study of Ghalegaun tourism village, this study aims to explore the possible attraction and activities in Nepalese agritourism, which contributes to community integration and sustainability. Community-based activities in Ghalegaun (tourism activities and ordinary daily life activities) are directly contributing to sustainability. The following are the main activities in Ghalegaun. i.Community-based agriculture (tea garden, sheep farming) ii.Craft-making activities (handicrafts preparation) iii.One door tourism management policy (operation through community hall) iv.Exploration of local attractions and full utilization of the local resources (developed trekking and hiking routes, restoration of the local temple, maintained historical places…) v.Efforts towards conservation of natural resources (thoroughly practice ecotourism guidelines provided by the Annapurna Conservation Areas Project) vi.Preservation of cultural heritages (developed homestay running guidelines, young every people need to wear traditional dress, serve only traditional food and drink to the tourists…..) vii.Modernized organic agriculture (greenhouse farming for self-sufficiency, using tractors, poultry farming focusing on tourism) viii.Promotional strategies (hosting national and local seminars events like football and volleyball tournament, collaboration with national tourism promotional body, inviting popular artists in the events, performing regular Ghalegaun festival in Nepal new year…). Although all of them are equally important for authentic agritourism development in the Nepalese community, community-based agriculture and craft-making activities are more effective. For the proper resource management, attracting young people to follow the culture and tradition, conserve and preserve the local heritage, tourism development is one of the keywords. Thus, the policymakers should promote agritourism in Nepal by promoting the activities performed in Ghalegaun tourism village.

Equity and the promising practice of agritourism
Trevor Lane, Washington State University Extension, Associate Professor
Sanjay Rajan, Konbit PBC, Founder
There is strong evidence known to preclude socially disadvantaged populations from opportunities to generate more income for farms. With documented evidence, historically underrepresented and socially disadvantaged groups have experienced systemic or direct discrimination in the agriculture industry. The literature revealed negative impacts impeded and continue to impede access to capital or added value. Thus, policy development, education, and awareness are essential to organizational and social change.

Building community, tourism, and agriculture: The story of cooperative farming and tourism in Guatemala
Chadley Hollas, Cultivating Tourism, Researcher and Consultant
Danilo Rodríguez, De la Gente, Director of Operations
Program/project description and background: In the summer of 2016 a graduate student researcher from Texas A&M’s Recreation, Park, and Tourism Sciences department undertook a study with smallholder coffee producers in San Miguel Escobar, Guatemala. In it, they hoped to learn more about the relationship between touristic experiences and the farmers’ views of their selves (Hollas, et al., 2021). After engaging further with the data, and applying recent research within agritourism, it was clear that the experiences of the farmer cooperatives and their tourism partner, De la Gente, was unique. We know that agritourism has a role in heritage and cultural preservation of rural people (LaPan & Barbieri, 2014). However, few examples exist of how both agriculture and tourism can be promoted while improving the viability of both enterprises. In this presentation, we present the case of De la Gente and its partner cooperatives as a model for agritourism across the globe. Objectives of program/project: The project was initially undertaken with the guidance of volunteer tourism scholarship but for this presentation borrows also from the emerging sector of agritourism. Agritourism, in this case, involves culturally-specific culinary workshops, farm tours, farm volunteer experiences, and other immersion programs all centered around the agricultural production and processing of coffee. By exploring the experiences of coffee farmers with agritourism from three perspectives, the farmer, the tourism promoter, and the researcher (the co-presenters), this presentation will illuminate the potential for agritourism that promotes tourism while also preserving and enhancing the value of agricultural production. Methods used: The initial project used photo elicitation methodology (Carlsson, 2001; Conran, 2011) to elicit the emotive experiences (Collier, 1967) of farmers in the tourism setting in twelve in-depth interviews. This presentation will utilize excerpts from these interviews along with the lived experiences of the co-presenters to show the benefits of responsibly managed agritourism. Results of the program/project: The work of De la Gente and its partner farmer cooperatives acts in contrast to the perils of volunteer tourism (Bandyopadhyay, 2019; Butcher and Smith, 2015) in the agricultural setting and can serve as a model for agritourism that both promotes agricultural production and sustains the critical rural livelihood.
10:20 a.m. - 11:20 a.m.Developing Agritourism in Europe
Green Mountain C
Sustainable alpine tourism, where mountaineering villages meet the farm
Oliver Tamme, Federal Institute of Agricultural Economics Rural and Mountain Research, Researcher
Erika Quendler, Federal Institute of Agricultural Economics Rural and Mountain Research (BAB), Researcher
In Austria about 85% of all the overnight stays are attributed to the area of its mountain regions. While parts of the Alpine Region (particularly in Western Austria) are representing one of the most intensively visited tourist places across Europe concern for sustainable mountain tourism has risen within the activities of the Alpine Convention. One of the initiatives aiming at nurturing the specificities of the mountain environment and oriented at sustainable tourism pathways is the concept of ‘Mountaineering Villages’. It seeks to promote low-intensity tourism strategies in high mountain areas, benefitting from unique mountaineering options. Due to its close interrelation with landscape development and land use, linkages to agriculture and local development of agritourism activities are an important element in these local initiatives. Spreading from a number of committed communities, at present 22 villages in Austria and starting pilots in Italy, Switzerland, Slovenia and Germany are engaged in this concept. Beyond its original focus on landscape, today’s tourist industry increasingly is assessed due to its role in the economic and social well-being of the region. At the same time as contributing to raise household income and survival of farms in these mountain areas, this type of agritourism has created new potential in terms of recreation activities. In mountainous areas this relatively small niche of agritourism has evolved out of the compatibility of the farming landscape with other outdoor activities such as climbing, hiking, skiing, and has gone so far as to stimulate the entrepreneur to find additional ways to attract people to the region. Due to the topography these activities are obviously anchored in authentic experience, and, in most cases, heavily defined by the link and experiences to be gained from farm specificities. This presentation focuses on this link of agricultural activities, agritourism and community strategies oriented at sustainable mountain development. Following considerations on the concept of agritourism and Mountaineering Villages, we analyze the available empirical evidence of the initiative through the form of several case studies. The contribution will particularly look at (i) the extent to which the development of agritourism in the Alpine Region has inspired the birth of the concept of Mountaineering Villages and its feedback loops on the former; (ii) the diversity and core elements of success of its offer; as well as (iii) the interface between agricultural livelihood and mountain tourism to contribute to a community development that is sustainable and resilient.

An empirical impact assessment of agritourism activities on mountain farm sustainability: The case of the Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino Euroregion
Christian Fischer, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Professor
Thomas Streifeneder, Eurac Research, Institute for Regional Development, PD Dr.
Giovanna Sacchi, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Assistant Professor
Giulia Grillini, Free University of Bolzano, PhD student
Agritourism is generating considerable interest in terms of potential benefits, not only to farmers' income, but also to the local community, environment, and quality of life of the farmers themselves. The research aim is to empirically quantify sustainability differences between agritourism and non-agritourism farms based on data collected through a farm survey in the Tyrol/Austria–South Tyrol/Italy–Trentino Euroregion. Furthermore, the analysis investigates how agritourism activities change farms from the economic, social and environmental point of view and how it affects the traditional farming and operational activities. Italy and Austria are two countries in Europe with a well-established and successful agritourism sector. Trentino-South Tyrol, in particular, is the first region in Italy in terms of agritourism density (farms per square kilometre) and the second one for the total number of agritourism farms. Data are collected through an online survey to be conducted in the winter/spring of 2022. Treatment effects comparing agritourism farms (treatment group) to non-agritourism farms (control group) will be estimated. To overcome the self-selection biases in observational studies that may arise due to a non-random assignment of the treatment, the Propensity Score Matching method will be used for data analysis. The investigation covers aspects such as farm finances (e.g. income and investments), farm production and output, farm family life (e.g. quality of life, role of women, farmer identity), community and neighbour relations, animal welfare and sustainability of agricultural practices (e.g. use of natural resources, use of agro-chemicals, habitat preservation). The results of this study will help to better understand public farm support requirements and consequences in the context of rural and agricultural development initiatives and policies.

Conditions for the development of agritourism in Poland
Michał Roman, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Associate Professor
Kumar Bhatta, Kyushu University Institute of Asian and Oceanian Studies, PhD
The presentation aims to present trends in agritourism development in Poland. The growth of agritourism can be divided into three stages. The first one, at the beginning of agritourism, involved renting ordinary rooms of a low or even very poor standard with no additional services and amenities, most often offered by farmers whose living conditions were below standard. The second development stage took place when sanitary standards and living conditions in the buildings with guest rooms were raised.
10:20 a.m. - 11:20 a.m.Growing Partnerships: Farms, Education, Experience
Vermont Conference Room A&B
Jennifer Rothman, Yellow Farmhouse Education Center, Executive Director
Stone Acres Farm and Yellow Farmhouse Education Center have partnered to support the mission and goals of each organization. Stone Acres is a 68-acre for-profit vegetable farm that also hosts weddings, events, and dinners on the property. The Yellow Farmhouse is a non-profit education center that resides on the farm property and uses the space for education programs for children, school groups, teachers, and adults. This workshop will share some of the successful partnerships that help to serve both missions, such as gleaning programs with school groups, and programming for children attending weddings and dinners, along with many more. We will discuss the factors that go into successful partnerships, how to identify what success looks like for each partner, and also the challenges faced as both organizations navigate their own goals. The workshop leaders will walk through examples of successes in visitor experiences and discuss ideas that didn't come to fruition - and why. There will be time within the workshop for participants to brainstorm ideas for their own spaces, and to use the collective wisdom of other participants in the session to create plans for new partners that will bring program ideas to life and to greater success. The session will start with a review of the partnership between Yellow Farmhouse and Stone Acres as well as introduce ideas for thinking outside of the box when it comes to creating new partnerships. Then we will break into smaller groups for an interactive activity that will generate ideas and help brainstorm solutions for participants. We will come back together to share with each other the ideas that were generated and will create a document in real time to distribute virtually to all who attend that includes the ideas and solutions generated by the groups. Participants will leave with new options for partnerships that lead to successful events and experiences that support all involved.
10:20 a.m. - 11:20 a.m.Promoting Regional Culinary Identities
Lake Champlain Salon A&B
Promoting Quebec's culinary identity
Carl-Éric Guertin, ÉCONOMUSÉE Network Society, Executive director
Context: The ÉCONOMUSÉE® Network Society (ENS), an organization whose mission is to preserve, perpetuate and promote traditional know-how, has made culinary identity one of its priorities in order to stimulate pride and contribute to the preservation of intangible cultural heritage. More specifically, its approach aims to create bonds of attachment between consumers and artisans; to contribute to changing consumer purchasing behavior; to increase the attractiveness of the various regions of Quebec to tourists; to work to distinguish them from each other by their culinary identity to be more attractive and, above all, to preserve and pass on this knowledge to future generations to ensure their perpetuation. Origin of the project: For more than 5 years, the ENS, in collaboration with partners such as regional biofood roundtables and destination management organisations and with the financial support from the Quebec’s Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAPAQ), has carried out awareness and education activities with consumers and stakeholders regarding culinary heritage and identity. This began in 2017 in three tourism regions by holding small workshops bringing together citizens, artisan processors, chefs, indigenous chefs, elected officials, historians, development agents, tourism specialists, indigenous and others interested in the subject. Each time, over a local meal, the participants were encouraged to reflect and discuss what distinguishes them regionally from a culinary point of view. Subsequently, the ENS conducted an extensive study that identified seven keys to success in highlighting elements related to culinary identity and organized two provincial symposiums on this theme. In a structured approach, a diagnostic mandate on the culinary identity and development of agrotourism and culinary tourism for the Destination management organisation of the Outaouais region was realized in 2020. The Project: The ENS, with its experience and proven methodology, is leading a project with 12 other Quebec regions to position each of the participating regions as a culinary destination, based on their regional specificities, history and culinary practices. The objectives of the project are to: * To guide and equip regional stakeholders in their efforts to structure and develop the sector, with the help of a diagnosis and recommendations on possible strategies to enhance the value of the region in culinary tourism. * Increase the attractiveness of the regions and the consumption of culinary experiences by visitors inside and outside Quebec. The process begins with research on the historical and current portrait of the culinary scene, the identification of local identity products related to harvesting, traditional recipes and customary practices. The work is done by a historian and an ethnologist. A series of one-on-one interviews with key regional actors are then conducted. Workshops at the sub-regional (counties) level are conducted to bring stakeholders together to discuss the culinary identity of the region while building on the research previously conducted. All these consultations are led by a journalist specialized in agri-food. The merging of the research and the consultations leads to a report in which directions and actions to enhance the culinary identity of each region are proposed. It is up to each region to implement the orientations and actions to promote their culinary identity, and position itself as a culinary destination.

Taste our place: A Montana culinary and agritourism marketing strategy
Susan Joy, Montana Department of Commerce, Made in Montana program manager
Taste our Place is a marketing strategy launched in August 2018 by Made in Montana, a program of the Montana Office of Tourism and Business Development (MOTBD) at the Department of Commerce. The objectives of Taste our Place are to promote establishments serving meals that include Montana ingredients, encourage access to ingredients through distribution networks, and market to non-resident visitors through a logo, advertising, and outreach. Made in Montana staff partnered with the Montana Department of Agriculture to identify producers and supply networks. Made in Montana staff worked with tourism partners such as Convention and Visitor Bureaus (CVBs), Visitor Information Centers (VICs), and Tourism Regions to identify potential establishments for outreach activities. In 15 months (August 2018-October 2019), Taste our Place outreach events occurred in four of the seven Montana tourism regions, 100 establishments opted into an online and searchable database, we purchased four billboard advertisements, completed a social media campaign, and placed advertisements in the four busiest Montana airports. Taste our Place was well received in rural and agriculture communities as strategy to market a culinary tourism experience or agritourism experience to visitors. In the outreach phase of the strategy, we realized that our application process to join the program was cumbersome and not in line with the workflow of restaurants and lodging properties. We also learned that we needed to work internally with the MOTBD marketing team to reach non-resident visitors planning a trip to Montana through the site. COVID 19 impacted not only the outreach strategy of the program but also the restaurants and lodging properties we worked with to join and participate. The 2020 marketing strategy for Taste our Place changed from in-person outreach events and content activities to digital and social media placements encouraging locals to support their hometown establishments. Future Taste our Place marketing strategies include closer partnership with Montana Department of Agriculture, developing products for non-resident visitors to use when planning a trip to Montana through, and additional agritourism content creation with tourism partners to promote Taste our Place in digital spaces.

Amplifying your taste of place through agritourism: Actions & Insights from Agritourism Development Initiatives in Rural Ontario, Canada
Rebecca Mackenzie, Culinary Tourism Alliance, President & CEO
Valerie Keast, Culinary Tourism Alliance, Director, Business Development
The Culinary Tourism Alliance will showcase the process and outcomes of two recent community development projects in rural Ontario that supported each destination's unique approach to growing agritourism. Highlighting the development of the Agritourism Strategies for Peterborough & Kawarthas and the Town of Essex, we’ll provide delegates with insights on the steps taken by municipal leadership to engage stakeholders at the grassroots level to define agritourism, create meaningful educational tools and resources for operators to access, and develop platforms for partnership development to support new and or enhanced agritourism experiences.
11:20 a.m. - 12:45 p.m.Lunch & Keynote Presentation: Cultivating the Future of Agritourism
Adirondack Ballroom
Carla Barbieri, North Carolina State University, Professor
Over the years, farmers and professionals working on agritourism have experienced first-hand and documented the many benefits that visitors bring to farmers and their families, such as increasing profits, securing paid jobs for family members, and having the capacity to retain the family farmland for future generations. We also know that agritourism has the capacity to invigorate rural economies, beautify surrounding landscapes, and conserve wildlife. We offer (or encourage offering) agritourism with the hopes of educating the future generation (youth) and re-connecting local food producers and consumers (adults). In doing so, we further hope to strengthen local foods systems, thus securing the future of agritourism. But are our hopes well-founded? Dr. Barbieri will present evidence, collected through a 4-year project, that agritourism indeed increases children’s agricultural knowledge and their parents’ intentions to purchase and willingness to advocate for local food. Furthermore, she will build upon this evidence to provide marketing, managerial, and policy recommendations to enhance the practice of agritourism in ways that are relevant throughout the globe. Acknowledgments: Findings provided resulted from a project supported by the USDA-NIFA grant 2017-67023-26224 (2017-2022).
12:45 p.m. - 1:00 p.m.Break
Montpelier Ballroom
1:00 p.m. - 2:40 p.m.Creative Solutions for Agritourism Operators
Lake Champlain Salon A&B
Hospitality on the farm — the 5 star customer experience
Scottie Jones, Farm Stay USA, Executive Director
Most farmers know their way around livestock and crops but, when it comes to inviting guests onto their property for an agritourism experience, it's not as likely they know all the ins and outs of customer experience and expectation. This presentation walks through best practices identified at Leaping Lamb Farm in Alsea, Oregon and used in training webinars around the topic of hospitality and customer service. The objective is to allow participants (and trainers) to look at their own offerings and identify strengths and weaknesses of their presentation, the amenities offered, and the setting of expectations for the guest experience. We will cover everything from online presence and first impressions at the farm entrance, to facilities, communication, safety, and how to handle problems when they arise. How do you exceed guest expectations (actually just being a farm has you 50% of the way there)? What does it take to get guests to return again and again? Why is a 5-Star review important (um, free marketing?). And more. It is sometimes hard to see your farm as if for the first time. Hosting guests helps you do that –both the good and the bad. If they enjoy their experience, so will you. Instead of all the fences to be mended, you might instead glimpse what they see – the beauty of your landscapes and the warmth of your welcome.

Camping as agritourism
Cassandra Prenn-Vasilakis, Hipcamp, Government and Community Relations Manager
Hosting overnight guests generates sustainable revenue for landowners, enabling them to keep family and working lands intact amidst generational change and the rising costs of operation and ownership. Hipcamp partners with thousands of landowners in the United States, Australia, and Canada to connect outdoor enthusiasts with new and unique places to stay, camp and get outside - everywhere from 2 acre blueberry farms to 80,000 acre cattle ranches. The majority of the landowners currently partnering with Hipcamp are hosting overnight guests on working lands. For many of them, their most reliable source of income over the past 18 months came from converting land not in agricultural production into tent or RV campsites and providing opportunities for overnight guests to purchase locally-produced goods and participate in farm tours or educational classes. Agriculture and the preservation of rural lands and livelihoods has long been central to the American identity, and growing demand for local food, interest in the experience economy, and enthusiasm for time spent outdoors has led to the growth of agritourism internationally. However, there is no standard definition of agritourism or shared understanding of what types of enterprises may be categorized as agritourism in the United States. The regulations that govern agritourism activities are similarly inconsistent; camping on private land may qualify as agritourism in one jurisdiction but be illegal or require a costly and time intensive permit in another. In this presentation we’ll review case studies of landowners with agritourism operations for whom hosting campsites on private land is an impactful diversification strategy and look at a range of local laws that apply to hosting overnight stays on agricultural land. Camping on agricultural and working lands should be categorized as agritourism, and there should be inclusive and consistent definitions for, and regulations governing, agritourism activities.

Providing agritourism education and support in the virtual world
Audrey Comerford, Oregon State University Extension Service, Agritourism Coordinator
Melissa Fery, Oregon State University Extension Service, Associate Professor (Practice)
The COVID-19 pandemic upended many marketing channels, forcing producers to sell their products by other means. A farmer survey completed by Oregon State University (OSU) Extension Service confirmed that direct-to-consumer sales in 2020 increased from 2019 for 61% of respondents. Survey results also indicated that producers planned to start, continue or expand farm stands, u-pick/cut operations and on-farm pick up in 2021. We anticipate that if customers are visiting farms for direct sales, there will also be opportunity to offer additional agritourism activities. In-person education challenges include COVID-19 safety protocols, lack of resources and available staff and a large geographic area to serve. As there has not been one specific training where Oregon producers can obtain information on operating an agritourism business, we developed an online learning module. It is designed to help producers start or expand agritourism and consider the various risk management needed when opening farms to the public. The self-paced course covers conducting farm direct sales through activities such as farm stands, U-pick, educational tours and entertaining events. The objective of creating the online course entitled “Developing a Successful Agricultural Tourism Business” is to provide farmers and ranchers a streamlined educational program that is easily accessible. Five course sections engage learners through text, supporting resources and case study videos. The curriculum guides participants through topics such as assessing risks, reducing liability, understanding regulations and permitting, determining marketing strategies and providing high-quality customer service. Producers develop an action plan to guide their next steps in the exploration and development of their identified agritourism activities. This pilot program will be launched in March 2022. The online module is pertinent to all 36 counties in Oregon. A select number of participants will also engage with county planning departments for small group virtual consultations to further encourage success and assist them with complex land use laws in the state. The program is evaluated in three ways: 1.Questions are incorporated into the learning module to assess increased understanding; 2.After the group consultation participants will complete a short survey; 3.Interviews with participants to determine implementation of action plan items after course completion. The results, evaluation data, and lessons learned from delivering this virtual learning program will be available by August 2022. We are excited to share about this pilot program and it’s potential to be applied outside of Oregon.

Developing the North Carolina agritourism spotlight virtual tour
Ann Savage, North Carolina State University, Tourism Extension Associate
Laura Lauffer, EmPOWERing Mountain Food Systems, Project Director
Becky Bowen, NC State Extension, Program Manager, Cultivate NC
Greg Traywick, North Carolina Cooperative Extension
Lisa Gonzalez
Kenneth Sherin, North Carolina Cooperative Extension
Jackie Murphy Miller, North Carolina Cooperative Extension
Noah Rannells, North Carolina Cooperative Extension
In 2020-21 team members of North Carolina (NC) Cooperative Extension Local Food Program Team developed 13 NC Agritourism Spotlights that served as informal case studies. These spotlights provide an in-depth look at agritourism operations including the agritourism development, challenges and opportunities. These spotlights were developed as a resource for those interested in adding agritourism ventures to their operations and to assist those supporting agritourism and farm development. Local Food Program Team members reached out to those either in their county, region, or that they have worked with in other projects to interview a variety of agritourism operations across the state. Each spotlight starts off with an enterprise overview, background information of the farm, the development process then moves into pricing, marketing and promotion information of the agritourism components to the farm. The spotlight wraps up with agritourism business concerns and important considerations when adding these activities to your farm business. Each spotlight also includes quotes and words of wisdom from the operators to convey the personality of the operators. Currently, each of the thirteen spotlights are in both front and back pdf form or tri-fold form for ease of distribution. Through the initial spotlight development, a more refined process for development has come about so interested county extension offices can create spotlights of agritourism operations in their area to expand the spotlights available and the geographic representation. The next phase of the project is finding a way to tie together the spotlights via several podcasts or virtual live events to take folks on a “road trip” to meet the farmers and learn more about the agritourism operations. An interactive listing of the spotlights can be found here:

Selecting websites for booking farm stays and experiences
Angela Tweedy, University of Vermont, Post-Award Administrator
Lisa Chase, University of Vermont, Extension Professor
Scottie Jones, Farm Stay USA, Executive Director
Community engagement is a critical component of sustainable food systems, which can be enhanced through agritourism – the practice of opening farms, ranches, vineyards, and aquaculture to visitors for direct sale of products, education, hospitality, entertainment, and outdoor recreation. Agritourism is an important way for farms to diversify their revenue sources and establish new connections within their communities. Consumer interest in farm experiences has steadily grown in recent years (with a dip in 2020 due to COVID-19 travel restrictions). Since restrictions have eased, demand for farm experiences has increased dramatically, as travelers seek safe, outdoor activities. However, developing overnight farm stays and on-farm experiences often requires new skills, such as marketing. For agritourism operators, connecting with their target markets can be difficult for a variety of reasons, especially in remote areas with limited e-connectivity. Additionally, some agritourism operators are not tech savvy and have challenges developing their online presence because of a lack of skills, resources, capacity, and interest. Popular farm stay listing websites – such as Airbnb, VRBO, Yonder, Hipcamp, Tentrr, and Harvest Hosts – can help farmers expand their markets, but each site has different characteristics and pros and cons. Navigating the options can be challenging for agritourism operators seeking to list farm stays and experiences (like tours, workshops, and guided hikes). To address these concerns, University of Vermont Extension conducted research on the options preferred by current hosts and developed a resource to help agritourism operators make informed decisions about listings on websites for booking farm stays and experiences. Whether guests arrive in a camper, are seeking a rustic camping experience, want to stay in an original farmhouse, or are looking for luxurious accommodations and meals, farm hosts have a variety of options for listing their accommodations and experiences and for setting up online reservation systems. This resource will help provide insight into fee structures, listing requirements, insurance and more to help farm hosts navigate a variety of options to add to their online marketing strategy.
1:00 p.m. - 2:40 p.m.Promoting Agritourism Growth
Green Mountain A
Supporting investment decisions for farms interested in diversification through agritourism
Nicole Vaugeois, Vancouver Island University, AVP Research
As more farmers contemplate options to diversify farm operations and remain viable, the interest in agri-tourism is likely to continue to increase. Diversification refers to the re-allocation of some of a farm's productive resources, such as land, capital, farm equipment and labour to other products to non-farming activities (Amanor-Boadu, 2013). Farm diversification decisions are complex but include motivations such as the desire to reduce risk and exposure to farm operations, capitalize on shifts in consumer demands, or respond to government policy, external shocks and, more recently, threats associated to climate change (Sing et al, 2010). Decisions to diversify through agri-tourism requires that farmers understand and make complex decisions about the extent of exposure to tourism that they want their farm operation to have and the potential return on investment. To date, the academic literature has provided limited assistance to aid in navigating these decisions (Vaugeois, 2019). Farmers need to know what the risks associated to different types of agri-tourism activities are, how it will impact their farm operations and what the potential return on investment is. Answers to these questions will enable them to make better risk reward decisions, and enable them to understand the exposure risks associated to tourism so that they can optimize benefits while mitigating impacts. This presentation will describe how the exposure-investment-return continuum developed by Vaugeois (2019) can be used to facilitate decision making with agritourism operations. This continuum was developed in consultation with Agritourism operators in British Columbia in a series of workshops that identified the types of questions that farmers were grappling with at different stages of Agritourism development. The presentation will highlight future research questions on both the demand and supply side and a set of propositions to guide research that results in enhanced decision making for Agritourism operations.

Agritourism growth from peer to peer learning
Caroline A Millar, Scottish Agritourism, Sector Lead
Kay Wilson, Scottish Agritourism, Director
The Scottish Enterprise Agritourism Monitor Farm Programme is resulting in the growth of agritourism businesses, the creation of new businesses and added value to the rural economy. The concept of a “monitor farm” is a farmer who wants to improve productivity and profitability, through opening up the business to other businesses to assist in the decision-making process. Leading to knowledge transfer across the industry. Farmers apply to be “the monitor farmer” for a 3-year period. In 2014, Scottish Enterprise (Scotland’s economic development agency) adapted the model and introduced Scotland’s first Agritourism monitor farm programme with 2 farms and launched a new programme in 2019 with 2 different farms. The aim is to drive and support significant economic growth in agritourism for the monitor farming family and the thirty to forty Scottish businesses who attend monthly meetings. Discussion topics are based on demand by the attendees and on the needs of the monitor farming businesses. In order to benefit as many business owners as possible, the main speakers from each meeting are streamed live on Facebook and the videos are recorded and posted on the programme website for people to access after the meeting, along with a meeting report ( This virtual sharing of knowledge and capturing of outputs means that the investment in skills and knowledge can reach thousands of people who can’t come to a meeting. So far meetings have covered making money from farm tours, developing your brand, first impressions count, attracting and retaining great staff, improving the offering in the farm café, putting the agri into agritourism, scaling up your agritourism business into a multi-million pound enterprise, telling your farming story, how to have a happy family business and have a stress free succession. To measure the impact of the programme participants are assessed at regular intervals with many examples of positive change and growth in agritourism businesses and in their wider communities. Positive outcomes include investment in new facilities, increasing profitability, growing net worth employing new people and improving the quality of the agritourism experience. At a macro level, the programme is leading to an increased profile of the agritourism sector both in Scotland and globally. The presentation will cover case studies of businesses who have benefited from the programme and a summary of the benefits to the Scottish economy.

Regional partnerships and funding for impact
Louis Beland, Eastern Ontario Agri-food Network, Executive Director
The COVID-19 pandemic has created new opportunities and challenges in the local food and agri-tourism sector. It has caused politicians, businesses, and food leaders to consider this sector differently, with a greater awareness of its contributions not only to economic development, but to food security and social well-being. How can communities respond to take best advantage of the strengths in their local agri-food sector? This presentation will share how regional government and agri-food stakeholders can support the development of the agri-tourism and local food sector in the local community through best practices and the successes from others. The Eastern Ontario Agrifood Network (EOAN) will present an overview of how the EOAN has partnered with local municipalities to be the regional agri-food council with a focus on economic development in the agri-food sector, agri-tourism, food security, capacity development, and policy and regulatory affairs. They will share an overview of funding structures, governance, strategy, key programs, and resources that can be used to identify and develop opportunities, the steps that led to their successes, and the challenges that remain. Through this collaboration, the EOAN leveraged a substantial provincial grant for 2 years, implemented consumer awareness campaigns about local food and agri-tourism resources, implemented marketing programs for local operators, work with authorities on local food policies, and collaborated with food security agencies on addressing rural food desserts.

Cultivating Partnerships that Strengthen U.S. Farm Stays and their Association
Penny Leff, Farm Stay USA, board of directors member
Lisa Frank, Farm Stay USA, Development Strategist
Farm Stays, short-term lodging on working farms and ranches, are well-known and well-supported in many European countries as popular holiday destinations for families. However, farm and ranch stays in the United States have been slower to be embraced by visitors, as well as by farmers and ranchers searching for new revenue streams. The U.S. Farm Stay Association (aka Farm Stay USA), founded by Scottie Jones of Leaping Lamb Farm in Oregon, has provided a marketing website and promotional outreach to media for farm stays, and supportive resources for farm stay operators. The board of directors of the non-profit organization is now primarily farm stay operators from different regions of the country. During Covid-19 related travel restrictions, farm stays were seen by many families as safe places to escape cramped stay-at-home conditions because of the ease of social distancing. Many U.S. farm stays found themselves fully booked. Demand for farm and ranch stays grew, but membership by farmers in the U.S. Farm Stay Association lagged because there was no need for additional marketing. Thus, the number of listings on the Farm Stay USA website did not increase. In 2021, international nature tourism promotion organization Yonder noticed the popularity of U.S. farm stays and began a sponsorship with the U.S. Farm Stay Association to help build inventory and thus increase both the supply and demand for this travel niche. This partnership offered US Farm Stay Association members an additional marketing website, a booking option, and expanded access to potential visitors searching for vacations in natural settings. In addition, financial support by Yonder paid for staff time to reach out to new farm and ranch stay operators and encourage their membership in both organizations. The partnership resulted in strong membership growth, new listings by farm stays on both websites, and increased publicity both nationally and internationally. In January 2020, Yonder was forced to reorganize and ended its supportive partnership with the U.S. Farm Stay Association. Farm Stay USA is now in negotiation with other booking platforms that speak similarly, to build mutually beneficial partnerships. The goal is to continue to grow the organization while offering members an OTA or booking strategy that fits their needs and their messaging best. The increased visibility, marketing and insurance offered by these larger companies adds leverage for the less cohesive farm community. During Covid-19 related travel restrictions, farm stays taking sanitation and social distancing precautions were seen by many families as safe places to escape cramped stay-at-home conditions and many US farm stays were fully booked. Demand for farm and ranch stays grew, but membership by farmers in the US Farm Stay Association and thus the number of listings on the US Farm Stay website did not increase. In 2021, international nature tourism promotion organization Yonder noticed the popularity of US farm stays and partnered with the US Farm Stay Association to help increase both the supply and demand of US farm stays. This partnership offered US Farm Stay Association members an additional marketing website, a booking option, and expanded access to potential visitors searching for vacations in natural settings. In addition, financial support by Yonder paid for staff time to reach out to new farm and ranch stay operators and encourage their membership in both organizations. Success was measured by increase in membership and listings and increased visits to websites. The partnership has already resulted in strong membership growth and new listings by farm stays on both websites and increased publicity by US media about US farm and ranch stays. It has also begun to bring US farm stays in an organized way to the awareness of the international travelers who are a target audience of Yonder. The partners are now working together to develop a liability insurance program for farm stay operators, to continue to support farmers and ranchers in developing and operating farm and ranch stays and farm and ranch experiences, and to increase awareness of US farm stays in the international community.

Leveraging farmers market impacts to develop and elevate farm-to-table culinary agritourism in rural Idaho, USA
Colette DePhelps, University of Idaho Extension, Community Food Systems Area Extension Educator
Jenny Ford, Idaho Central Credit Union, Community Development
George Skandalos, Maialina Pizzaria Napoletana, Owner/Chef
The small, rural town of Moscow, Idaho lies at the heart of the Palouse region of north central Idaho in Latah County. While the rolling hills of wheat and lentils surrounding Moscow are stunning, there is no major tourist attraction – natural or built - within an hour and a half driving distance. Except, that is, the 45-year old Moscow Farmers Market, which operates every Saturday from the first week in May to the last week in October. In 2016 and 2018, University of Idaho Extension and Business faculty partnered with the Moscow Chamber of Commerce and Visitor Center and the City of Moscow to conduct economic assessments of the Moscow Farmers Market. In this presentation, we will discuss the reasons for undertaking the assessments, assessment process and findings, community response to the findings and resulting multi-sector collaborations that are integrating culinary agritourism into existing community events. According to 2018 the University of Idaho-led study, the estimated number of visitors to the Moscow Farmers Market during 2018 was 266,205. The total number of annual market visitors, 50% of which reside outside of Latah County, was 10.6 times the population of Moscow (25,146) and 6.7 times the population of Latah County (39,473). Between 2003 and 2018, the Moscow Farmers Market vendors grew 67% and the number of visitors grew 217%. The growth and vibrancy of the market, and its estimated annual economic impact of $6.46 million U.S. dollars, including multiplier effects, is central to the branding of Moscow as a desirable place to live, shop and work. And, with approximately 10,000 adults and 1,500 children visiting the market weekly, downtown Moscow hosts the equivalent of a weekly farm and food festival six months of the year. As the Moscow Farmers Market has grown, so have the number of restaurants, local wineries, breweries and cafes branding themselves as farm-to-table establishments. However, a unified effort to elevate Moscow as a culinary agritourism destination did not exist until fall 2018 when the Moscow Chamber director, City deputy city supervisor, the chef/owner of two prominent farm-to-table restaurants and the UI Extension community food systems educator began working together. We will discuss the opportunities and challenges presented by this collaboration in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting culinary agritourism events, establishment of a state-wide farm-to-table culinary alliance, and, integration of existing non-culinary tourist events, including a new entertainment district, into to Moscow’s local food scene.
1:00 p.m. - 2:40 p.m.The Future of Agritourism
Green Mountain B
Regeneration: Tools and principles for a new agritourism
Katharine Millonzi, Millonzi Consulting, Director
Is regeneration the new sustainable? What does this even mean? Today’s traveler is inundated with a lot of terms - green, sustainable, ecotourism - and of them have some role in defining what it means to travel responsibly. Regenerative travel is the new buzz, and for good reason. Regeneration stands for not just sustaining, but also restoring and improving, ecological and social systems. This presentation will share and explore the seven principles of regeneration as they apply to tourism, especially around on-farm hospitality. Drawing on stories from agritourism operators and regenerative farming ventures worldwide to demonstrate each principle in action, I will share experiences based on the past 10 years of working as a consultant dedicated to helping farms remain viable in a changing world and business environment. The purpose of the talk is to inspire and deepen an understanding of regenerative development, design, and communication - and how, put into practice, these tools continually create value and meaning for property owners, attract guests and restore our ecosystems. The audience will leave with new frameworks for how their agritourism initiative can be part of something bigger in their communities.

The future of agritourism? A review of current trends of touristic commercialization in rural areas
Thomas Streifeneder, Eurac Research, Institute for Regional Development, PD Dr.
Tourism in rural areas has enjoyed increasing demand and experienced new forms of implementation. The expanding quantitative and qualitative development of high-quality agritourism establishments in South Tyrol/Italy is an interesting and exemplary case for the commercialisation of rural tourism. For this scope, we analysed the websites of seventeen high-quality agritourism businesses in this region. We studied, how they conduct the commercialisation of agricultural and touristic features and to what extent offers and services have been commodified. Our findings show in most cases very professionally managed websites that feature high-quality hotel-like facilities. At the same time, they provide significantly less information on farming and related activities. Thus, our results highlight the characteristics of this growing touristic commercialisation of high-quality (commercial) agritourism establishments. Furthermore, we discuss the implications for the objectives of this sector, in which authentic everyday experiences of agriculture and rurality are a crucial feature for the target groups and the perception of farming and the image of the sector.

Development of melitourism social enterprise model
Hanilyn Hidalgo, Central Bicol State University of Agriculture, Associate Professor
Amelia Nicolas, Central Bicol State University of Agriculture (Main Campus), Associate Professor V
Mia Bella Fresnido, Central Bicol State University of Agriculture, Assistant Professor
Presbel Presto, Central Bicol State University of Agriculture, Assistant Professor
Melitourism is a special type of farm tourism that utilizes stingless bees as a tourism product. The Stingless beekeeping industry is already faced with several challenges in the areas of socio-culture, environment, economics, and policy. The development of melitourism sites in the rural communities is expected to fuel the economy of these areas when the local tourism is starting to recover slowly after the pandemic while addressing the declining population of bees and the demand gap for authentic honey in the market. With the right framework, the residents, the local government, and the local businesses will be able to participate and benefit from the melitourism process. To address the multi-dimensional nature of melitourism, the project uses an interdisciplinary approach encompassing four disciplines: entomology, tourism, agribusiness, and community development. This paper aimed at developing a model for melitourism social enterprise. The study made use of an extensive review of literature. The project employs qualitative method to draw out the components and indicators towards the melitourism entrepreneurship model using thematic analysis and in-depth interviews with the stingless beekeepers. We anchored our model from Isenberg Entrepreneurial Ecosytem which consists of six domains: policy, finance, markets, human capital, support and culture. The goal of this project in contributing to a sustainable livelihood in rural communities can be achieved if there is a transformation from a traditional beekeeping venture into a sustainable melitourism enterprise. The research project expects to show evidence of an entrepreneurial ecosystem for sustainable rural-based melitourism. The evidence is reflected in the entrepreneurial ecosystem it may create which includes changes in entrepreneurial competencies, policies, and funding prioritization of local government. These are manifested in innovations and an enabling environment for melitourism. The results showed a comprehensive discussion of ten components: human capital, financial capital, market access, bioecology, technology, ethics, tourism, culture and heritage, policy and social capital. Transitioning from conventional beekeeping to melitourism needs careful planning on the part of the farmers. Simply having the passion for beekeeping is not enough. Bee farmers operate within an entrepreneurial ecosystem wherein they must collaborate with policymakers, local residents, organizations.

Agritourism critical success factors for farms and ranches in the US
Chadley Hollas, Cultivating Tourism, Researcher and Consultant
Lisa Chase, University of Vermont, Extension Professor
Claudia Schmidt, Penn State University, Assistant Professor of Agricultural Economics
Dave Lamie, Clemson University, Professor of Agricultural and Rural Development
Doolarie (Dee) Singh-Knights, West Virginia University, Associate Professor and Extension Specialist
Rachael Callahan, University of California, Statewide Agritourism Coordinator
Mary Stewart, MARStewart Creative Group, Owner
David Conner, University of Vermont, Professor
Lori Dickes, Clemson University Master of Public Administration Program, Program Director
As the agritourism sector continues to rapidly in recent years, its practice has outpaced the research and outreach required to support farms and ranches and their communities. To address these needs, a multi-state team of research and extension faculty are collaborating on a United States Department of Agriculture grant with the goal of identifying critical factors for success for farms and ranches with agritourism. In this context, agritourism is broadly defined to include direct sales, education, hospitality, entertainment, and outdoor recreation. Specific objectives of the project include: 1.Identifying critical factors for success and failure of farms and ranches already engaged in agritourism as well as farms and ranches considering adding new enterprises; 2.Translating these critical factors into best practices with decision aids and tools that can be readily adopted by farms and ranches; 3.Assisting farms and ranches with implementation of best practices that result in improvements in viability, including profitability and quality of life indicators. This three-year project began in July 2018 with interviews of 30 farmers and ranchers with agritourism operations in five states (California, Minnesota, Oregon, Vermont, and West Virginia). We will share findings from the interviews, including information about barriers and resources that are especially relevant for agritourism enterprises as well as demographic and other factors that contribute to or hinder success. Results from the qualitative analysis informed the design of an online survey that was disseminated to farmers and ranchers throughout the US in the winter of 2019-2020. The online survey represents the first major agritourism study with a national scope that allows for aggregation of data and comparisons across states and regions. At the International Workshop on Agritourism, a multi-state team will present findings from interviews of 30 farmers and ranchers in five states as well as from the larger online survey that was implemented in the winter of 2019-2020. Key findings include descriptive data, factors associated with agritourism profitability and other critical success factors will be shared. Presenters will share recent developments of tools and resources that will contribute to the improvement of agritourism enterprises throughout the US, and with relevance for other regions around the world.

Agritourism as a vehicle for facilitating the "leave no one behind" agenda
Felix Kwabena Donkor, University of South Africa, Post-doctoral candidate
Rural livelihoods especially in the global south are argued to bear the brunt of climate impacts due to their environmentally sensitive nature. As climate change and variability become more palpable on rural livelihoods with implications for travel and tourism, it has become imperative to find innovative means of enhancing the agricultural value chain and build resilience. Agritourism has gained currency as a means of enabling farmers also contribute to the tourism sector whilst enhancing their agricultural livelihoods. These livelihoods are crucial to the sustenance of those at the bottom of the pyramid which the Leave No One Behind agenda seeks to reach with the gains of development to build an inclusive and sustainable world. This study employs qualitative methods involving interviews and literature reviews to consider opportunities and constraints in harnessing agritourism as an avenue for promoting the Leave No One Behind.
1:00 p.m. - 2:40 p.m.Traditional Agriculture in Agritourism
Vermont Conference Room A&B
Agri-tourism as a tool for sustainable development in mountainous rural areas: Evidence from Sri Lanka
Maheshwari Elapatha, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Senior Lecturer
Rohana Mahaliyanaarachchi, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Professor
Mountainous areas in Sri Lanka are mainly focused on agriculture and based on cash crops as vegetables and perennial crops as tea. These farms vary from quarter of acre to 20 acre lands and majority of them are small scale farmers (quarter of acre to 2 acres). Sustainable development in rural areas are mainly addressed on environmental, social and economic aspects. However, rural community especially majority who are farmers in this mountainous region in Sri Lanka face big disasters on environmental, social and economic issues. Aim of this study is to find out willingness and awareness of farmers in this region to adopt agri-tourism as an option for sustainable development. Major farming activities in this area are vegetable farming, small tea gardens, floriculture and cut flower production. There are few numbers of upland paddy farmers and fruit farmers as well. Mixed cropping is the main farming system in the area. Majority of the farmers (81%) are not involved in off farming income sources such as off road agri products stalls, farm tours, farm accommodation, value added farm products, etc. Nevertheless, majority of these farmers are willing to practice agri-tourism as an alternative income source while they are facing for high vulnerability to rapid income fluctuation from direct farming activities. They also accept the fact that if they can convert to their farms as agri-tourism farms, they can move towards more sustainable farming practices such as organic agriculture, traditional pest and decease controlling techniques, cultivate under-utilized crops, and use of traditional value addition methods. Majority of them believes that by entering to tourism business which is considered as a more valued sector, the young generation can be kept in the farming system. According to the major findings of the study, farmers expect that government will introduce agri-tourism as a policy decision and regularize it by giving a better recognition. Farmers also perceive that unless government support, they are not powerful enough to compete with big tour operators who have the monopoly of the tour and travel industry in the country. Considering all these findings it can be concluded that farmers are willing to enter into agri-tourism industry if government declares promoting agri-tourism in farming areas as a government policy. Then agri-tourism can be used as a tool for especially environmentally sound, socially benefitted and economically protected sustainable development in these rural areas.

Inuit sheep farming in Kujataa: Sustainable tourism in southwest Greenland through an indigenous framework
Katherine Follansbee, University of Maine, Graduate Student
This project aimed to examine sustainable tourism development as an option for economic independence among Inuit sheep farmers in Southwest Greenland from a local Indigenous lens to contribute locally defined and controlled frameworks of sustainable tourism and development to the existing literature. The area in question is located on the border of the Kujataa UNESCO World Heritage site, and, through an interdisciplinary academic lens and semi-structured interviews, we interrogated the perpetuated hegemonic and capitalist nature of tourism as an extractivist activity that has contributed to the continuance of structural, cultural, and environmental degradation of Indigenous peoples and Indigenous lands. This study intended to directly examine these structures with a solutions-based approach rooted in and guided by local interest, Indgenous frameworks, and anthropological and economic analyses that finds a balance between economic sustainability, sovereignty, and global initiatives. We propose tourism, not as a panacea, but as an economic alternative to mining, which is currently one of Greenland’s most lucrative markets, but perpetuates extractivist economies and the degradation of local and global environmental systems. Through interviews, it was gleaned that Inuit sheep farmers in Southwest Greenland report concerns about the impacts mining will have on agriculture and the surrounding environment, therefore threatening healthy sheep stocks, as well as their qualifications as a UNESCO world heritage site, which is directly contingent upon the continuation of Indigenous sheep farming and is also a large tourism draw. The creation and implementation of an Indigenous and locally defined framework for sustainable tourism is a next step in honoring and respecting the sovereignty of Indigenous peoples around the world, and by co-creating these frameworks both with communities and across disciplines, we are able to better make sense of the complexities surrounding sustainable tourism, sovereignty, self-determined economic systems, and global hegemonic forces that perpetuate colonial frameworks to utilize a solution-based research model with communities at the forefront.

Fostering entrepreneurship in agri-tourism in the developing world: A case in Sri Lanka
Rohana Mahaliyanaarachchi, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Professor
Countries like Sri Lanka is expecting a rapid boom of economic development through enhancing tourism industry in their countries which has a wider potential of its development and innovative improvement. However, policy makers of the country have paid lesser attention for possible high potential areas in tourism in the island as rural tourism, mainly a potential of development of agri- tourism. Sri Lanka has a wide diversification of agriculture as famous cinnamon gardens in southern coastal areas, beautiful tea plantations in midlands and uplands in mountainous region of the island, famous spices gardens with cloves, cardamom, nutmeg, pepper in central hills, paddy and other crops in eastern, northern, north central, and north western provinces as well as coconut in western and southern coastal areas. Along with this beautiful flora and fauna of the country, agri-tourism will be the most entrepreneurial tourism activity in the next decade, if it will be planned properly and given priority by the government tourism policies. Farmers start additional businesses such as agri tourism as an off farm activity which is a portfolio of entrepreneurial intervention. Growth of Sri Lankan individual farms are restricted due to various factors such as limitation of availability of land, small scale farm lands, poor soil conditions, high vulnerabilities to adverse weather patterns and unpredictable changers of government policies. Innovations of non-farm agriculture are therefore, needed to be encouraged through introducing new business activities based on existing farm resources thus channeling farmers into entrepreneurial activities mainly agri-tourism which can be a major sector of country’s future tourism development plans. One of the major constraints for rapid development of the tourism sector in Sri Lanka is heavy shortage of accommodation facilities. The number of hotel rooms for tourists available in the country is about 24,757 at the end of 2018. The provision of tourist accommodation can be enhanced by alternative use of the farm’s land, buildings and other assets . For farm households, the diversification into tourism might present a challenge owing to the combination of two separate, different but interlinked businesses which are farming and agri-tourism. The additional income that generates through agri-tourism by farmers will definitely increase the money circulations in the rural rears and subsequently, it will contribute to the economic development of these areas. Sri Lanka is expecting more development in rural habitats and therefore, promoting entrepreneurship among farming community is inevitable in this regard. Thus agri-tourism entrepreneurship is considered important for enhancement of the family economy of the farmers as well as development of the total tourism sector in the country with less investment.

Tea agronomy as a means of agritourism — a case in small scale tea growers in the Brahmaputra Valley of Assam
Runumi Das, Tezpur University, Assistant Professor
Dr. Niranjan Das, Tezpur University, Researcher
Tea plantations in the state of Assam particularly in Brahmaputra valley, launched by the British colonial regime in the mid-nineteenth century, had considerably transformed the socio-economic profile of the state. Tea is one of the most important agro-based industries in India in terms of employment generation, foreign exchange earnings, and contribution to the national exchequer. Assamese peasants traditionally engaged in tea cultivation in their homestead on a small scale. This model (plantation) was introduced in Indian tea industry during the colonial period by the planters (mostly from England). Until 1950’s, it was thought to be the only way to produce tea on commercial basis where production to sale (an integrated system developed by British) was controlled by the tea planters. Tea cultivation on small holding is a recent development in Indian tea sector. The economic performance of the tea garden determines the well-being of the tea workers and enhancing as a source of livelihood. The area of the study is encompassing the Brahmaputra valley of Assam. ‘Small Tea Growers’ - the term itself denotes that the size is comparatively small than the traditional estate tea gardens. small gardens, having a tea area below 200 hectares, are owned by a single proprietor or partnership firms, where tea is cultivated and the green leaf is taken to a nearby factory for processing. The concept of small tea cultivation in homestead gardens to sell the green leaf to the existing big factories for enhancing farm income was initiated during the seventies. The increase in the number of small tea gardens was rapid in early 90’s and they have been rising continually since then. The number of tea gardens increased specially from 1993 onwards and the numbers continue to grow. Tea cultivation in small holding is seen only as a means for providing some additional earnings to the peasantry and, thus absorbing rural surplus labours. Many ex-tea garden employees, service personnel’s and government employees also taken up small tea cultivation because of their personal satisfaction and as a source of steady income in future. Each of these lush green tea gardens in Assam (about 1200 in number) is a treasure house of exotic beauty of nature with colourful people and their enchanting songs and dances, sprawling bungalows, and residential facilities. Many of these tea gardens have polo fields and golf courses. There are as many as 20 air strips and helipads maintained by the tea garden management. These facilities provided into an attractive package for tourism. The road communication to most of the tea gardens is fairly well maintained, and the rest houses and bungalows with modern facilities located there, are generally kept ready for visitors and guests. Therefore, coordination with the management of the tea gardens effectively performed in promoting tea tourism in the state.

Schule der Alm — a best practice for agritourism and education in and about alpine pastures and traditional agriculture
Birgit Bosio, MCI The Entrepreneurial School, Lecturer
Christoph Engl, MCI The Entrepreneurial School, Lecturer
Monica Nadegger, University of Innsbruck & Management Center Innsbruck, University Assistant & PhD fellow
The “Schule der Alm” is an association of like-minded people wanting to preserve the local agricultural traditions of a non-tourism-intense region in Tyrol, Austria. Opposing the industrialization of agriculture, the project aims at preserving both the traditional craftsmanship as well as alpine mountain meadows which can only be mown by hand and are thus very labour- and time-intensive. The project organizes four 3-day courses during summer to find and encourage volunteers for this work, while, at the same time, educating them and raising awareness for the special characteristics of these alpine landscapes and the people living in and from these landscapes. Various local people like farmers, herb specialists, beekeepers, protected area officers and the local tourism association share their knowledge and craft with the participants/volunteers. The courses include an introduction to traditional alpine agriculture and landscapes: its peculiarities, information of local flora and fauna with a special focus on mountain herbs and flowers as well as old techniques like scything, building dry stone walls, special traditional fencing and irrigation systems. The non-for-profit project is financed by course fees, membership fees and donations. By integrating tourism students into this project, the contribution highlights the results of business plans which were to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the association as well as the touristic product behind it. Based on interviews with members of the association as well as former participants, students carried out a competitive analysis as well as a SWOT analysis and developed new innovative ideas for the future and continuation of this project. The resulting implications suggest an expansion of the existing project into new products as well as regional areas, a better management of members as well as diversifying the financial sources of income. A major lesson learnt for both students and project responsibles was the identification and evaluation of business ideas, which preserve the existing cultural landscape, but at the same time provide a stable financial income source for the local community. The project shows how agriculture, tourism and education can actively work together to preserve local knowledge and crafts in the alps and prevent the extinction of traditional agricultural practices by creating an innovative approach of combining tourism and agriculture. Students helped to develop strategies for diversifying the existing product portfolio in order to guarantee the future of this valuable project.
1:00 p.m. - 2:00 p.m.Navigating Community Development in Agritourism
Green Mountain C
Factors contributing to community conflicts in agritourism (and how to avoid these issues)
Jada Lindblom, UNH Cooperative Extension, Community and Economic Development Field Specialist
Penelope Whitman, UNH Cooperative Extension, Community and Economic Development Field Specialist
Introduction: As farm businesses seek means of income diversification and economic resilience in changing times, many have turned to agritourism activities or event hosting. This move reflects considerable consumer demand: for example, it was estimated that 15% of U.S. couples in 2018 chose a barn, farm or ranch for their wedding venue. However, these shifts in agricultural land uses are accompanied by a plethora of new operational considerations and potential challenges. Local residents may have mixed responses to farm business expansion. Laws and regulations may attempt to mitigate issues, but may be inconsistent or pose challenges or confusion for operators. There is an opportunity for operators to learn from one another’s experiences and proceed in manners that are mindful of resident perspectives and planning considerations, while also confident and communicative about what their unique business can offer visitors and their community. This project examines common complaints related to agritourism enterprises to find opportunities for compromise and resolution. Are issues particular and place-based or common and reoccurring? We will discuss several anonymous examples from New Hampshire to examine opportunities for better outcomes. The discussion will reveal best practices for those interested in starting an agritourism venture. Our research includes informal interviews with planners, business owners, and community members as well as document reviews of N.H. legislation, city ordinances, selectman meeting minutes, etc. The presentation will include comments and feedback from participants of UNHCE January webinar/workshop. Findings: Our community research has uncovered various NIMBY concerns, such as protective attitudes about neighborhoods and rural character and permissible uses as per zoning regulation. It has also revealed a tendency of new enterprise managers to want to go around required planning processes and an all-or-nothing approach to business development. Best practices for new agritourism enterprises include relationship building and partnership exploration within community first; positioning the business as a celebration of the community; careful, honest planning, being realistic about a site’s limitations, and an openness to compromises that assuage community concerns. Conclusion: Planning agritourism enterprises involves careful collaborative planning, including due diligence, honest communication with neighbors, and a realistic assessment of site logistics. UNHCE specialists plan to stay involved in this topic area and continue dialog with town representatives and business owners.

The costs and value of agritourism to Alabama farmers
Chris Clemons, Auburn University, Associate professor
Matt Ulmer, Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Extension Specialist
Agritourism is a burgeoning industry in the state of Alabama, located in the southeastern United States. Prior to this study, information regarding agritourism in Alabama was limited to the data collected by the Census of Agriculture in 2002, 2007, 2012, and 2017. The data from the Census of Agriculture revealed an ebb and flow trend of the agritourism industry in the state in terms of both the number of farms offering agritourism and revenue generated from agritourism. The fluctuating number of agritourism operations and related income in Alabama may reflect an educational need of how to successfully launch an agritourism venture built for long-term sustainability. Gaining insight of the major challenges and benefits of agritourism for Alabama farmers will provide a foundation for creating relevant, impactful programming to support the Alabama agritourism industry. This study explored the costs and value agritourism provides to Alabama farmers. The sample for this study was all members of an agritourism roster compiled by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System (n = 128). A web-based instrument was used to collect data. A total of twenty-three completed responses were collected (n = 23). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The study identified the most demanding tasks Alabama agritourism operators face in terms of time, capital, and personal labor. General farm upkeep was the most demanding activity for Alabama agritourism operators in terms of time, money, and personal labor. Recruiting labor, training staff, and managing risks were also significant costs. Study participants indicated that both financial and social reasons motivated them to initially launch their agritourism operations. Alabama farmers cited nearly the same reasons for continuing their agritourism ventures as for initially entering agritourism. Respondents use agritourism activities to support their agricultural production business by generating more income, maximizing farm resources, and building relationships with their communities. Educational resources developed for Alabama agritourism operators should focus on high-leverage, low input strategies to maximize income and resources, specific ways to make agritourism operations accessible for all guests, and legislation that is pertinent to agritourism operations.

Cooperation in rural tourism — opportunities and challenges for tourism and agriculture
Marco Haid, UMIT Tirol, Assistant Professor
Alexander Plaikner, University of Innsbruck / UMIT TIROL, Msc., Msc.
Johanna Sparber, University of Innsbruck, Research and Teaching Assistant
Cooperation between different stakeholders can be very valuable and successful in sustainable rural tourism if it is carried out effectively. These collaborations can lead to many regional benefits as well as mutual economic and knowledge spillover effects. Another advantage of stakeholder cooperation can be that it leads to active participation in tourism and regional development. Furthermore, it can also contribute to the creation of a competitive image of the region. However, the success of these cooperations is limited in practice; due to several challenges more than half of all cooperations fail sooner or later. This paper deals with cooperation in rural tourism. The aim is to identify and describe opportunities and challenges that can arise in cooperation. In order to answer the research question "What opportunities and challenges arise in cooperation in rural tourism", first a systematic literature review was carried out to describe the state of research. Subsequently, 25 expert interviews were conducted with different stakeholders and actors from three rural tourism regions in Austria. Selected best practice examples provide insight into networks and cooperation in rural tourism. The results show several synergies, especially between tourism and agriculture, and that cooperation offers opportunities for regional development. Despite the advantages of cooperation, there are various challenges such as different objectives or a lack of cooperation between the different actors. Based on the results, recommendations were derived to overcome challenges and exploit potentials. The study concludes that cooperations in rural tourism are predominantly confronted with the same opportunities and challenges. Cooperations often need funding at the beginning, and good communication is an absolute necessity. Digitalisation initiatives have a very high potential in this respect.
2:00 p.m. - 2:40 p.m.Transformational Agritourism
Green Mountain C
Multi- and interdisciplinary approaches to eco-agri-tourism systems analysis
Romeo Ilie, Alpina Carpatica, President & Co-Founder
Elena Gabriela Baciu, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceva, Phd Student
Agri-tourism must be regarded as a human economic, social and cultural activity, which includes both visitors (tourists) and hosts (local farmers). At the same time, the new technologies that add value and greater attractiveness for such tourist services must be taken into consideration. The whole complex of local natural resources, people and technologies is constituted in a system that has to evolve dynamically and balanced regardless of what would be the destabilizing external factors, while ensuring the sustainability of the economic development and the conservation of biodiversity. The research will be based on the analogy that can be made between natural ecosystems, including eco-agri-tourism systems, and classical complex engineering systems, to which the theory of automatic control systems is applied. Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems. A system is a cohesive conglomeration of interrelated and interdependent parts that is either natural or man-made. Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose or nature and expressed in its functioning. In terms of its effects, a system can be more than the sum of its parts if it expresses synergy or emergent behavior. Changing one part of the system usually affects other parts and the whole system, with predictable patterns of behavior. Such references will also be made to dynamic systems, adaptive systems, but also to cybernetic systems. Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that deals with heat and temperature, and their relation to energy, work, radiation, and properties of matter. The behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics which convey a quantitative description using measurable macroscopic physical quantities, but may be explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics. Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially physical chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering, but also in fields as complex as meteorology and ecology for ecosystems studies and research. There are similarities between ecotourism systems and health systems. The values that characterize the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem can reveal significant deviations from normality when external factors/causes act on the ecosystem. In these cases we can speak of an assessment of the state of health of the ecosystem, taking into account the standard values, unanimously accepted, for a "healthy" eco-agri-tourism system. Actantial model. We should consider both the factors that favor agri-tourism, simultaneously with those that prevent / oppose such development. In the literary field it was developed by A.J. Greimas since the 1960s a concept of "actantial model", which implies within the action of a concomitant existence of actors/factors that favor the successful completion of the action or that oppose this decision. Thus, the literary actantial model allows us to break an action down into six facets, or actants: (1) The subject is what wants or does not want to be joined to (2) an object. (3) The sender is what instigates the action, while the (4) receiver is what benefits from it. Lastly, (5) a helper helps to accomplish the action, while (6) an opponent hinders it. The analysis based on this model can lead to interesting conclusions for decision-makers (investors, local farmers, visitors, technologists), by taking into consideration the factors "pro" and "cons" for each action. The last but not the least important approach is the one related to the educational component. In this sense, one can consider applying the principles of environmental learning theory, which can be applied from the perspective of a non-formal educational process, in which those who are educated are "obliged" to learn in the economic, social, and environmental context. which they live, by directly related to it. In these situations, both young people and adults interacting in the construction and exploitation of such ecosystems must guide their actions in close correlation with what they have observed/observe by directly relating to nature.

Proposed methodology for evaluation of forest ecosystems services provided by a Natural park
Elena Gabriela Baciu, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceva, Phd Student
The current research presents a proposal of methodology for evaluating the total value of the services provided by a forest ecosystem in a natural park. A series of research and evaluation methods were applied, respectively: desk research, brainstorming and multi-criteria analysis. Five methods of evaluating the value of the services offered by ecosystems were selected: Shadow pricing, Production function, Hedonic pricing, Travel cost and Contingent Valuation Method.
2:40 p.m. - 3:00 p.m.Break
Montpelier Ballroom
3:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m.Agricultural and Culinary Trails
Lake Champlain Salon A&B
Structuring and highlighting the culinary trails in Quebec
Aurore Lambert, Association de l'Agrotourisme et du Tourisme Gourmand, Development Officer — Plan d’action provincial en tourisme gourmand
With more than 1,800 businesses located all over Quebec, culinary tourism represents a rich tourism product, full of unique experiences. So much so that this sector is part of the provincial government's flagship tourism experiences for local and international visitors. To strengthen the place of Quebec as a renowned culinary destination, the Association de l’Agrotourisme et du Tourisme Gourmand (AATGQ), the sector tourism association recognized by the Ministry of Tourism, led in 2019 and 2020 an exercise to create the first provincial action plan on the future of culinary tourism, in collaboration with numerous stakeholders. As part of this action plan, AATGQ is working on an important project to enhance the quality of the experience provided on Quebec’s culinary trails and routes. This project is linked to an opportunity study performed in 2019, which concluded the definite potential of such an approach. The goal is to have a provincial method and a collective approach to transform our culinary trails and routes into an innovative, high-quality, and distinctive tourism product in Quebec. This structured and standard approach will allow the whole culinary sector to improve the quality of the experiences and the businesses involved while promoting buying local products. Ultimately, this project will be showcased through a dedicated digital platform, allowing us to turn it into an appealing product so that a visitor searching for authenticity, discovery, and learning can discover a territory’s culinary and cultural heritage. To this end, the project is based on a standard model for structuring culinary trails. This innovative model includes criteria and conditions in terms of development, operation and promotion, and quality standards for the participating businesses. The project will also provide a support plan to help companies improve the experience offered and tools designed for regional trail managers to concretely help them develop new quality trails or improve existing ones. This project has been subjected to extensive collaborative work with many partners to ensure the support of the regions of Quebec, and regional and local stakeholders. A consultation process with a committee of experts confirmed that the project corresponded to various regional realities while meeting the need for a common approach.

Agritourism and culinary trails: The road less traveled
David Gillespie, David Gillespie, Owner
M Eleanor McGrath, Springfield Farm, Farmer
For many travellers, there are stops made only for a quick fuel-up and refreshment. It is often just a chance encounter with a small rural community, a mere moment in their journey. How do you engage the visitor along the road less travelled? What if this stop was in your rural region? How do you entice that very traveller to move beyond their focus on the final destination and make your farm, your restaurant, your heritage trail the most beautiful part of their journey? How do you turn this fork in the road into a culinary destination and a tourist draw off an Interstate highway? Join Eleanor McGrath and David Gillespie for a heartfelt presentation and discussion, as farmers, who are making agritourism the way to engage tourists onto the road less travelled. Representing two lesser known regions in Canada that are seeking to establish a vibrant agritourism economy, Eleanor and David will offer a personal account of how to galvanize a region for tourism. They are both farmers of varying scale and experience but have equally experienced the benefits of adding a dimension of agritourism to their own business plan and that of their community. Objectives: Participants will learn tools that will assist them to: · Tell your story – unique or familiar – to engage the tourist. · Identify what is missing in getting your story out on the road: maps, media, lack of support from neighbours and community? · Engaging a community of support whether through organizations, politicians and neighbours. · How to stay focused on The Road Less Travelled. Methods Used: While both presenters are Canadian, they offer different approaches and solutions, due to culturally distinct provinces of Ontario and Quebec, which includes the languages of English and French. From research, frustration, climate change, and a desire to grow, both Eleanor and David will touch on the use of the media, lobby campaigns and friends to grow agritourism in their respective regions. Results, Strategies to persevere!: As Eleanor and David have moved to secure agritourism for their regions, they have experienced political pushback, indifference/or misunderstanding of the economic importance in the mapping, engagement of farms and other businesses in agritourism. Both will speak to how to stay motivated in often a less than encouraging environment for bringing agritourism to The Road Less Travelled. Conclusion and lesson learned: How one man’s vision for an international trail has grown – The road less travelled is the opportunity awaiting all rural communities agritourists!

The making of an international culinary trail
David Gillespie, David Gillespie, Owner
A presentation was made at the First World Congress on Agritourism in Italy in 2018 on a conceptual international culinary trail between Canada and the USA. Since then, an international committee has taken it to its next step which is in its implementation. Using existing trails where possible, it will link them together and be promoted in this manner. The trail will encompass two states (Vermont, New York), two provinces (Quebec, Ontario) and two countries (USA, Canada) as well as the future participation of the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne. Its distance will surpass 1,500 km and be the longest and most integrated culinary trail worldwide. Promoting the trail as an international agritourism destination and a true cross-border collaborative effort by government agencies, organizations and institutions as well as the private sector can help preserve existing farms and value-added enterprises by means of sustainable methods and can supplement their farm income given variable highly volatile commodity prices in traditional agriculture. The trail also offers rural development opportunities to cross-border regions by demonstrating common geographical, agricultural, cultural and historical links all while promoting product diversity to a potentially much larger tourism base given its international scope. Furthermore, this dynamic blend of diversity and commonality on many levels will also be evaluated on the benefits and economic impacts of the trail to ensure continuity.
3:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m.Agritourism Works! Vision Session
Vermont Conference Room A&B
Lee Rankin, Apple Hill Farm, LLC, Founder/Owner
I came to Agritourism through the back door. While following my dream to raise alpacas in the mountains of North Carolina, a mountain lion attacked and killed all but one of the alpacas. I was devastated. In order to continue, I bought 2 llamas to protect on the inside of the fields, 2 donkeys to patrol around the outside of the fields, and more alpacas to replace the herd. I even put meat goats in an unsecured field as an offering if the mountain lion came back. And the farm became a story, a memorable one. People came to visit, and my Agritourism journey began. Agritourism was not part of my original purpose for the farm. It was years before I made time in my busy schedule to step back, get perspective and create my own vision. Knowing my purpose in being open to the public changed everything. It made decisions about what activities and experiences to offer, easy. It increased the value that visitors received when they came, and it transformed my personal satisfaction with my role as a farmer. In this workshop we will look big picture for inspiration from a variety of farms, interact as group in one on one exercises and group sharing, and spend time alone with pen and paper to process our ideas. A vision of what we want to create in a farm is just the first step of many. I believe it is the most important. This workshop is for new and existing farms alike. New farms because it is hard to decide what to do, if you don’t know why you are doing it. And if you have a farm and are already engaged in agritourism, taking the time to redefine your vision will be transformational. Since 2010, Apple Hill Farm has hosted over 75,000 people and guided 8,000 educational walking tours of our farm. We raise alpacas, angora goats, llamas, livestock guardian dogs and a variety of other animals. We have an extensive gift shop of yarn from our animals, socks, scarves, mittens and gloves, local food products and crafts. I am passionate about teaching the importance and gift of Agritourism to new and existing farmers. The world needs us right now!
3:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m.Best Practices and Resources for Preventing Infectious Diseases at Agritourism Operations
Green Mountain B
Carrie Klumb, Minnesota Department of Health, Senior Epidemiologist
Melodee Smith, Clear Spring Farm, North Star Farm Tour, Farm Safety & Health Project, Co-owner, Co-founder, Co-chair
Wendy Wustenberg, Windswept Hill Farm & Studio, North Star Farm Tour, Farm Safety & Health Project, Owner, Co-founder, Co-chair
According to the USDA Agriculture Census, per farm income from agritourism and recreational services in the United States has increased 370% between 2002 and 2017. With the increasing popularity of agritourism and the lack of a professional organization for agritourism operators in Minnesota, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) saw an opportunity. Instead of investigating outbreaks of E.coli or Salmonella associated with agritourism operations, MDH could provide operators with the tools and knowledge they needed to help them prevent an outbreak in the first place. In 2015, MDH began hosting half-day in-person workshops for agritourism operators to offer a one-stop shop to hear from the MDH Zoonotic Diseases Unit, the MDH Environmental Health Division, and the Minnesota Department of Agriculture. This work was funded through the Upper Midwest Agricultural Safety and Health (UMASH) Center, which has become a clearinghouse for agritourism resources. The workshops include food safety and licensing requirements, national best practices for human-animal interactions, and advice from farmers who have implemented these practices on their operation. Meeting with operators before there is an outbreak fosters a relationship built on trust, which is essential in the event an outbreak does occur. It also creates opportunities for collaboration between state agencies and producers. Whether someone is new to agritourism or has been doing it a long time, it is important for operators to understand the added responsibilities that come from opening their farm to the public. This workshop will cover food safety basics and delve into the national best practices to reduce disease transmission in public animal contact venues. Topics covered will include venue design, animal care and management, cleaning and disinfecting, educational messaging, handwashing facilities, and insurance coverage. Minnesota agritourism farm operators will provide a first-hand account of how they took this information and applied it to their operations. They will discuss changes to their bylaws, a new requirement that all member farms complete a self-paced certification program created by MDH, and a new collaboration with MDH that lead to the creation of handwashing posters available in 21 languages. A portable field-tested handwashing station with free digital blueprints and handwashing posters will be on display among other resources. Consultations on layout, design, and visitor flow will be provided to all operators who bring a map or picture of their farm.
3:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m.Developing Your Agritourism Experience
Green Mountain A
Bringing an international agritourism experience home to your agritourism community
Lindsey Pashow, Cornell Cooperative Extension, Agricultural Business Development and Marketing Specialist
Abstract: 1.Program/project description and background: Adirondack View Vineyard and Lavender is a diversified agritourism experience in New York’s Adirondack Mountains. The focus of the operation is lavender production with additional focus in flowers and grapes. Learn how the farm owner experience with a degree in marketing, international travel, and working for Cornell Cooperative Extension/Cornell University, has led to creating a unique agritourism experience for her area. There will be a focus on the four P’s of marketing (price, product, promotion, and place) on how the operation has been developed over the years. 2.Objectives of program/project: •How to find a unique agritourism experience to bring back to your area •Affordable to create •Affordable for your area to experience 3.Methods used: •Looked at many different farm operations over the years. •Learned about the crop and potential methods of growing the crop for my area based on other operations with similar growing conditions. •Follow similar operations on social media to get ideas. •Developed a strong friendship with another lavender operation in which we only share our trade secrets with throughout the year. 4.Results of the program/project: •Created a unique experience for people in our community. •Self Service Farm Store (all products created by owner and family), u-pick lavender 5 weekends (only weekends), Self Service u-pick sunflowers, flowers, and grapes, retail and wholesale some fruit (blueberries and black raspberries) 5.Strategies used to evaluate the program/project: •Track sales throughout the season from May to October. •Evaluate which crops to concentrate on and expand. 6.Conclusion and lessons learned: •Once you find something unique people are going to want to copy the experience. •People want something to do when visiting the farm which leads to sales in the farm store. •Make sure the price point works for your local customers.

It's raining resources!
Vera Simon-Nobes, Farm-Based Education Network/Shelburne Farms, Coordinator
Everyone has a unique story of how they came to the field of agritourism, and the people and resources that guided them to where they are today. The objective of this workshop is to crowdsource tools and that participants know and love, and to share them with the broader conference body and the field through the Farm-Based Education Network. As a resource hub, the FBEN will also share some favorites that farmers, educators, and agritourism professionals have sought out time and again. Our definition of "Resources" is broad: These could be: a relationship with a mentor, a guidebook from a university, a set of self-care practices...What emerges from our participant generated list will be emergent, but what is clear is that we all need inspiration and continued to learning to stay sustained in our work. This participatory workshop will offer that in an engaging way.
4:00 p.m. - 5:30 p.m.Closing Plenary Session: The Future of Agritourism
Adirondack Ballroom
Moderated by Lisa Chase and Philip Ackerman-Leist
Anson Tebbetts, Secretary of the Vermont Agency of Agriculture, Food & Markets
Marie-Claude Francoeur, Quebec Delegate to New England
Pandurang Taware, Agri Tourism India
Jacqui Taylor, Agritourism Africa
Caroline Millar, Scottish Agritourism
Suzi Spahr, NAFDMA International Agritourism Association
Thomas Streifeneder, Eurac Researchm
Sponsored By: Cornell Cooperative
The 2022 International Workshop on Agritourism is a rich opportunity for agritourism operators, agricultural service providers and educators, tourism professionals, researchers, and others to connect and share our experiences, research, and expertise. This closing plenary is an opportunity to reflect on the impact of this event and discuss next steps for the future of agritourism and the role of the international agritourism network. We’ll also share some exciting announcements about regional collaboration and upcoming events.
5:30 p.m.Exhibitor & Sponsor Booths Tear-down; Poster Tear-down
5:30 p.m.Conference Adjourns

Poster List


Agritourism in the Teton foodshed
The Greater Yellowstone-Teton region is known for its rugged and diverse public lands, wildlife, recreation, and agricultural roots. With tourism and the service industry serving as large economic drivers in Teton Counties, Idaho and Wyoming, development pressure has converted substantial agricultural land. However, a new crop of agriculture is thriving—small and diversified farms and ranches. With limited availability of agricultural and private land, less favorable climatic and soil conditions, and some of the highest land values in the nation in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, Teton Valley, on the western side of the Tetons hosts much of the farming community. Increasing interest in locally produced food makes Teton Valley’s agricultural heritage an important economic force. Despite an abundance of recreational tourism, little information about agritourism has been aggregated or promoted by regional travel and business development organizations. The shift to a lifestyle amenity-based and tourism economy continues to create pressure on farmers and rural landowners to sell and convert agricultural lands to commercial and residential uses. Agritourism can help farmers in the “Teton Foodshed” diversify their farm enterprises and help sustain the profitability of working farms. The University of Idaho Extension, Teton County identified a need and spearheaded this project to highlight agritourism activities in the “Teton foodshed” region, primarily in Teton Valley, Idaho/Wyoming. This poster highlights results from online surveys conducted in 2020 and 2021 that gauged local food purchasing behaviors of consumers before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as consumer interest in leveraging agritourism activities.
Presenter: Jennifer Werlin, University of Idaho Extension, Teton County, Extension Educator

Biosecurity training of New England swine farmers concerning visitors: Changing perceptions and behavior
Carol Delaney, Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry, Animal Health Division
Farmers allowing visitors as regular customers, wandering tourists or for planned agritourism events may not understand that this could be one of their most risky behaviors on their farms in terms of animal health. Swine farmers in New Hampshire and Maine volunteered to participate in a larger study funded by Northeast SARE on swine disease surveillance and farm biosecurity practices. The objectives were to collect and summarize swine management practices common in the New England area, provide a surveillance service to assess the presence or status of common swine diseases, and to provide good management and biosecurity training and an evaluation of biosecurity measures utilized practiced on the farms. The progression of activities was a pre-survey, followed by education and training, on-farm visits for disease surveillance and biosecurity evaluation ending with a final survey to collect changes in knowledge and behavior. Among the interesting observations at the beginning f the study was the prevalence of allowing visitors on the farm and, by the end of the project, the change in understanding proper protocol for disease prevention, the change is perception of barriers to implementing biosecurity, and their own assessment of their strength and weakness in biosecurity. Results indicated that farmers were interested in continuing learning and implementing measures to help maintain herd health and implement a biosecurity plan with outside input from professionals. Presenter will share materials and methods implemented and insights learned from farmer trainings, unexpected outcomes from the farm visits and how to creatively support farmers in the future progress towards meeting their on-farm biosecurity goals in light of growing local, national and international travel with destinations to rural areas and visitation of farms.
Presenter: Carol Delaney, Animal Health Program, Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry, Livestock Specialist

Content marketing: Capturing attention through resource sharing
Mary Godnick, Adirondack Harvest, Cornell Cooperative Extension of Essex County
Learn how Adirondack Harvest uses its network of farmers, agricultural producers, and partners to create content that amplifies the efforts of the region. See examples of our successful collective marketing approach that utilizes social media, email marketing, advertising, press outreach, content writing, events and more. Explore what unique questions can agritourism professionals answer, and formats that best serve visitors. Visit to learn more, and sign up for our weekly email newsletter. See this work in action at the 2022 Open Farm Weekend - September 2-5 along the Boquet Valley Cuisine Trail in Keeseville and Essex, NY:
Presenter: Mary Godnick (she/her), Adirondack Harvest, Cornell Cooperative Extension Essex County, Digital Editor

Defining and regulating agritourism: A 50 state analysis
Sophia Kruszewski, Vermont Law School; Esther Akwii, Harvard Law School Food Law & Policy Clinic
This presentation provides an overview of the research and analysis that form the basis of Defining and Regulating Agritourism: Trends in State Legislation 2019-2020, a report released by Vermont Law School's Center for Agriculture and Food Systems in April 2021. The poster will use graphics to depict variations across the states in agritourism regulations, focusing in particular on state definitions of agritourism. It will also identify trends in recent state agritourism legislation, and highlight best practices and recommendations for legislative drafters.
Presenter: Esther Akwii, Harvard Law School, Attorney | Clinical Fellow at the Food Law and Policy Clinic

Engaging volunteers on a u-pick orchard and flower farm
Phil Hallstedt, Hallstedt Homestead Cherries
Our U-pick cherry orchard and flower farm enables friends to assist us during the year as they desire, and several enjoyed the experience so much that they brought their friends. They came to receive new knowledge, a sense of accomplishment, an outdoor experience and a community of friends with similar interests…. plus some excellent perks of fresh produce, food and fellowship. Our cherry orchard is named Hallstedt Homestead, which we abbreviate as HH Cherries. We named our volunteers 'heroes' which stuck. Over time, as the group of volunteers grew, we found a number of elements which became a volunteer program called Hallstedt Homestead Heroes. They key elements includes an identity, a kickoff and post harvest celebration, an inventory of their likes and dislikes for engagement, training with two way feedback, invitations to special events, and regular communication of immediate needs and low expectations for involvement. Low expectations meaning that we call our place a “guilt free zone” and welcome any time people are willing to share. We find that if they are here, they come to learn and make a difference; they do not want to sit around and have their time wasted! As new volunteers have joined the pool, others have drifted off to new interests or withdrawn due to other obligations. Whatever the case, all are welcomed back for visits as they all have become brand ambassadors to the farm in their own social circles. The presentation will expound on the each of these elements and the focus on inclusion and engagement to make a volunteer program strong. The results from a volunteer survey will be shared and the plans for future planning provided for consideration.
Presenters: Phil Hallstedt, HH Cherries (and flowers!), Founder; Sarah Hallstedt, HH Cherries, Founder

Agritourism safety and liability: Updating best risk management practices for the COVID-19 pandemic
Kerry Daigle, University of Vermont; Lisa Chase, University of Vermont; Chadley Hollas, Kadupul / Cadence Creamery; Autumn Strom, University of Vermont; Claudia Schmidt, The Pennsylvania State University
Prior to the Covid-19 pandemic, liability and safety concerns were found to be among the top challenges facing producers with agritourism and on-farm direct sales. A national survey in 2019 found 81% of respondents concerned about liability issues, 73% concerned about managing visitor accessibility, 66% concerned about food safety, and 55% concerned about biosecurity. Since this time, the Covid-19 pandemic has heightened concerns about safety and sanitation on farms everywhere. Many farms were not able to open their farm stands and u-pick operations during the 2020 growing season, due to concerns about Covid-19 safety and liability, or an inability to adjust agritourism offerings to meet state and local guidelines. The purpose of this project is to support Northeastern US farms’ ability to adapt and respond to Covid-19 safety and liability concerns during the 2021 growing season. This 18-month long project began in April 2021. A multi-state team convened to plan and develop eight virtual workshops that provided training and resources on agritourism safety and liability. Workshops ran weekly in the spring and early summer of 2022 and covered topics such as getting ready for pick your own, crisis communication, liability insurance, checklists and self-assessments for farm safety, and farm-based education in a post-Covid world. This project also supported over 50 on-farm safety consultations to develop personalized plans for risk management practices, as well as the delivery of signs and handwashing stations to select farms. These project objectives will extend to the 2022 growing season.​This presentation will be used to detail project steps, discuss published resources that support on-farm safety and liability, and present key questions from producers during virtual trainings and on-farm assessments. Materials and findings covered in this presentation can be adopted to help farms, and the organizations that support them, to address safety and liability concerns in other geographical contexts.
Presenter: Kerry Daigle, University of Vermont, Center for Rural Studies, Research Specialist

Regulatory navigation tools for agritourism enterprises in Vermont
Amelia Luke, University of Vermont; Lisa Chase, University of Vermont
Understanding regulations and legislation necessary for entering into agritourism can be challenging and time consuming for farmers starting agritourism enterprises. Information is often spread out across various websites, and can be difficult to put into the context of one's own business. In an effort to consolidate information and give individuals easy access to the information they need to be successful, the Regulatory Navigation Tools were created, with a focus on Vermont. The project consists of two tools: the Regulatory Navigation and Planning Tool for Agritourism Activities, which allows users to select which agritourism activity they are looking to pursue and receive specific information for that enterprise, and the Regulatory Navigation checklist, a pdf that that can be printed, and condenses information to a basic form, which can be applied to all agritourism activities. These tools seek to help those at any stage of opening or running an agritourism practice. After gathering information about Vermont’s regulations, the information was organized into four categories: land use regulations, permits, licenses, and additional resources. While the tool attempts to summarize information in a way that is easy to understand, users are encouraged to find the original source of the information by using the embedded links. After the tools were created, stakeholders from the Vermont Agency of Agriculture Food and Markets, Vermont Law, the Vermont Farm Bureau, the Department of Health and farmers who are engaged in agritourism reviewed the documents and provided their feedback. This feedback ensured that information presented is clear and accurate. Work is continuing to be done with local farmers, who are helping to develop scenarios to make information more accessible to other entrepreneurs.​With agritourism being a popular way to increase revenue and engage with communities in meaningful ways, it is important that individuals have easy access to information that will help their businesses thrive. These tools are a way for farmers to understand what steps are necessary and keep track of their progress. While the tools were developed for Vermont farmers, they can serve as an example for other states and regions.
Presenter: Amelia Luke, University of Vermont Extension, Program Manager

Developing a conceptual framework for agritourism in the U.S.
Brian Schilling, Rutgers Cooperative Extension; Lisa Chase, University of Vermont; Mary Stewart, Oregon State University Extension Service; Becky Smith, Mississippi State University; Michelle Walk, Mackinac State Historic Parks
Consumer demand for local food and experiences on farms has led to rapid increases in “agritourism” throughout the U.S. and the world. It has also led to myriad understandings of the concept of agritourism and estimates of its value. In the U.S. there is no standard definition of agritourism that is widely accepted, nor is there agreement on the boundaries of agritourism including the setting, types of experiences, meaning of authenticity, and importance of tourism. Some definitions require that agritourism must take place on a working farm while others include non-working farms as well as farmers markets and agricultural fairs. The connection to agriculture and the engagement of visitors is at issue, leading to controversies over whether to include activities on farms unrelated to agriculture, such as concerts and mountain biking. This disagreement over the boundaries of agritourism has hindered the ability of researchers and agricultural interests to fully understand the sector’s economic importance and develop programming to support its performance over time. A common understanding of the concept of agritourism is needed for clear communication, reliable and consistent measurement, informed policies, and effective programs that support farms and their communities. To address that need, the authors led a multi-state initiative to develop a conceptual framework for understanding agritourism. The framework that was created with input from colleagues in several states around the U.S. encompasses core and peripheral tiers. Activities that fall within the core tier take place on a working farm, are closely connected to agricultural production, and are generally accepted as agritourism. In contrast, activities within the peripheral tier may or may not be considered agritourism depending on the location and context. Regardless of whether an activity is core or peripheral, it can be classified into one or more of the five categories of agritourism: direct sales, education, hospitality, outdoor recreation, and entertainment. Some activities, such as dinner at a farm using local products, may encompass multiple categories including direct sales, education, hospitality, and entertainment. At this stage of development, the authors are soliciting feedback to improve the conceptual framework. The framework that will be presented at the International Workshop on Agritourism is not intended to be the final word. Rather, it is meant to stimulate discourse and progress toward the goal of a common understanding of agritourism.
Presenters: Brian Schilling, Rutgers Cooperative Extension, Director; Lisa Chase, University of Vermont, Extension Professor

The making of an international culinary trail
David Gillespie, CANAMEX trail
A presentation was made at the First World Congress on Agritourism in Italy in 2018 on a conceptual international culinary trail between Canada and the USA. Since then, an international committee has taken it to its next step which is in its implementation. Using existing trails where possible, it will link them together and be promoted in this manner. The trail will encompass two states (Vermont, New York), two provinces (Quebec, Ontario) and two countries (USA, Canada) as well as the future participation of the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne. Its distance will surpass 1,500 km and be the longest and most integrated culinary trail worldwide. Promoting the trail as an international agritourism destination and a true cross-border collaborative effort by government agencies, organizations and institutions as well as the private sector can help preserve existing farms and value-added enterprises by means of sustainable methods and can supplement their farm income given variable highly volatile commodity prices in traditional agriculture. The trail also offers rural development opportunities to cross-border regions by demonstrating common geographical, agricultural, cultural and historical links all while promoting product diversity to a potentially much larger tourism base given its international scope. Furthermore, this dynamic blend of diversity and commonality on many levels will also be evaluated on the benefits and economic impacts of the trail to ensure continuity.
Presenter: David Gillespie, David Gillespie, Owner

Developing the North Carolina agritourism spotlight virtual tour
Ann Savage, Laura Lauffer, Becky Bowen, Greg Traywick, Lisa Gonzalez, Kenneth Sherin, Jackie Murphy Miller, and Noah Rannells - North Carolina Cooperative Extension
In 2020-21 team members of North Carolina (NC) Cooperative Extension Local Food Program Team developed 13 NC Agritourism Spotlights that served as informal case studies. These spotlights provide an in-depth look at agritourism operations including the agritourism development, challenges and opportunities. These spotlights were developed as a resource for those interested in adding agritourism ventures to their operations and to assist those supporting agritourism and farm development. Local Food Program Team members reached out to those either in their county, region, or that they have worked with in other projects to interview a variety of agritourism operations across the state. Each spotlight starts off with an enterprise overview, background information of the farm, the development process then moves into pricing, marketing and promotion information of the agritourism components to the farm. The spotlight wraps up with agritourism business concerns and important considerations when adding these activities to your farm business. Each spotlight also includes quotes and words of wisdom from the operators to convey the personality of the operators. Currently, each of the thirteen spotlights are in both front and back pdf form or tri-fold form for ease of distribution. Through the initial spotlight development, a more refined process for development has come about so interested county extension offices can create spotlights of agritourism operations in their area to expand the spotlights available and the geographic representation. The next phase of the project is finding a way to tie together the spotlights via several podcasts or virtual live events to take folks on a “road trip” to meet the farmers and learn more about the agritourism operations. An interactive listing of the spotlights can be found here:
Presenters: Ann Savage, North Carolina State University, Tourism Extension Associate; Laura Lauffer, EmPOWERing Mountain Food Systems, Project Director

Expanding the agritourism reach to coastal communities: The potential of oyster farming in regional tourism development
Whitney Knollenberg, North Carolina State University; Carla Barbieri, North Carolina State University; Emily Yeager, East Carolina University; Jane L. Harrison, North Carolina Sea Grant; Julie Leibach, North Carolina Sea Grant
Much of the existent agritourism-related work (practice, research, and outreach) focuses on activities surrounding the production of terrestrial crops (e.g., u-pick) or animals (e.g., petting zoos), with scarce attention to the cultivation of aquatic species such as fish and shellfish (i.e., aquaculture). We suggest to increase attention to the aquaculture farming sector given its steady growth in certain regions. Coastal communities of North Carolina (NC, USA), for example, are showing greater interest in establishing shellfish mariculture, specifically the farming of saltwater oysters and hardshell clams. Seeking to assess the expansion of agritourism to aquaculture settings, our team conducted a research-outreach project to support the expansion and sustainability of a regional mariculture-tourism effort, the North Carolina Oyster Trail (NCOT). We conducted a demand-and-supply investigation to gather intelligence on strategic resource allocation. Given that the integration of multiple stakeholders’ perspectives is critical to develop seafood-based regional tourism experiences, we are first facilitated Appreciative Inquiry workshops with oyster growers and community stakeholders in NC to create an inventory of existing assets that can contribute to the NCOT. Because responding to the interests of potential tourists is critical to the success of regional tourism efforts, we then surveyed residents from the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast coastal regions (target market) to identify their preferences for and barriers to participation in oyster tourism experiences along the NCOT. Finally, we compared the inventory of existing assets and the survey results to identify strengths that will give the NCOT competitive advantage over similar regional opportunities and resource gaps that must be filled. This presentation will showcase the multi-modal methods we utilized to support the NCOT and key results. Deepening existing knowledge on agritourism development beyond traditional terrestrial farming operations —mariculture, in this case— will deliver evidence to further expand the economic, environmental, and social benefits that agritourism provides to society. A successful NCOT will not only create new revenue streams for oyster farmers, but may also support sustainable businesses (e.g., locally sourced restaurants) in coastal communities. Furthermore, shellfish mariculture improves water quality as oysters and clams filter water. Lastly, tourism in mariculture settings can also help to preserve traditional practices (e.g., artisanal oystering) and increase public awareness of the cultural significance of local foods.
Presenter: Carla Barbieri, North Carolina State University, Professor

Identifying popular agri-tourism practices in South Africa
Christelle Charlien Van Zyl, North-West University; Late Melville Saayman, North-West University​
While the practice of agri-tourism has been around for many years, the term is still relatively new in South Africa. As there is no universal definition of agri-tourism around the world, several definitions were combined and this research defines agri-tourism as any activity or attraction that allows the tourist to visit a working or commercial farm for the purpose of education, enjoyment or to be actively involved in the day-to-day activities of the farm. Based on this definition, 47 different agri-tourism activities/attractions were identified and tested within a South African context. The aim of this research was to identify the different agri-tourism activities/attractions offered in South Africa and to list the most popular activities/attractions. A quantitative approach was used by distributing standardized questionnaires to South African farmers. Farmers from all nine provinces in the country were approached. Both online and in-person methods were used to distribute the questionnaires, in order to reach farmers around the country. A total of 557 usable questionnaires were received, of which 148 respondents (27%) indicated that they are currently offering some form of agri-tourism on their farm. It is important to note that these statistics were gathered pre-covid. Based on the 148 respondents around the country, farm stay/accommodation was by far the most offered agri-tourism activity (68%), followed by hunting (51%), hiking/nature trails (34%), wildlife view and photography (33%), farm tours (30%), and cycling (30%). When considering each province on its own, farm stay/accommodation is still the most popular activity. However, different activities can be seen in each province. Each of the 47 agri-tourism activities/attractions that were identified can be divided into five categories, namely outdoor recreation, educational experiences, entertainment, hospitality services, and on-farm direct sales. This research indicated that hospitality services are the most generally offered for agri-tourism on a South African farm. While not all farmers in South Africa are utilizing the opportunity that agri-tourism has to offer them, it is clear that many farmers have embraced that change from only agriculture on a farm, to offering agri-tourism activities/attractions on a farm. As research and knowledge are still limited within a South African context, it is important for farmers to educate themselves on exactly what agri-tourism is and how they can utilize it on their farms. It is only with knowledge that a farmer can make an informed decision on his/her farm’s future.
Presenter: Christelle Van Zyl, North-West University / Noordwes-Universiteit, Doctoral Student

Farmer-to-farmer agritourism
Partners of the Americas (POA) has implemented the USAID Farmer-to-Farmer program for nearly 25 years. Currently, we work in Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, Myanmar, Guatemala, Guyana, and Colombia. We work in different areas surrounding agriculture production, diversification, and resilience. We send volunteers on two-to-three week assignments to our project countries. Our host beneficiaries are farmer co-ops, universities, government agencies, non-profits, and rural enterprises. We have trained 23,500 people in our cycle. Around 12 of our assignments since 2018 have focused on agritourism. We rigorously measure the impact of programing. A few indicators we report on are number of individuals trained, changes in host incomes, and clients. Our assignments shed light on sustainable development opportunities and limitations, environmental trade-offs of agritourism enterprise, and funding gaps for projects.
Presenters: Robert Maher, Partners of the Americas, Senior Program Officer; Rosa Almonte, Partners of the Americas, Farmer-to-Farmer Country Project Director DR; Marsha Johnson, Partners of the Americas, Farmer-to-Farmer Country Director Jamaica; Javiera Salinas, Partners of the Americas, Senior Program Officer; Quincy Scotland, Partners of the Americas, Farmer-to-Farmer Guyana Field Officer

Fostering a community of support for small-scale agritourism enterprises: Lessons learned from the development and deployment of the Ag + Art Tour across South Carolina
Ben Boyles, Clemson University Extension; Will Culler, Clemson University Extension; R. David Lamie, Clemson University
From a single York County tour in 2012, to twelve county tours throughout the Midlands and Upstate in 2019, to fourteen county tours stretching 3 regions of our State in 2020, the South Carolina Ag + Art Tour has become a model for agritourism product development. Clemson Extension has been instrumental in the tour every step of the way, from concept to development to program delivery. As tour developer and administrator, Clemson Agribusiness Agents have worked closely with farmers, governmental leaders, and local organizations to build the foundation for program development. Selected program impacts to date include the following: - 45,000 visitors since 2012. - Increased connections between consumer and producer resulting in an increase in farmer income. - The tour is the largest free farm tour in the nation. - Economic Development Impact: Direct local economic development impacts through tourist visitor expenditure. - Change in Local Food Demand Impact: Increase in purchases of locally grown food through new producer-consumer relationships. Tour participants are linked from the website to encourage consumer-producer interaction. - Risk Management Impact: The tour included farms that have not historically implemented agritourism strategies in their business plan. Utilizing this business opportunity will help to reduce some of the financial risk associated with ag-based businesses. Asset Mapping Impact: A product of the tour process is an asset map of agritourism assets that can be used to develop future marketing support programs. Community Development Impact: Establishing county-level planning teams and a regional leadership team will help to ensure the sustainability of the program while providing a venue for communication and interaction of the agritourism community within each county. Knowledge Transfer Impact: The toolkit for expansion will help other communities in the state and across the nation implement the Ag + Art concept.
Presenters: Ben Boyles, Clemson University Cooperative Extension, Agribusiness Extension Agent; Dave Lamie, Clemson University, Professor of Agricultural and Rural Development; Will Culler, Clemson Extension, Senior Extension Agent

Play with your food: Using play to create memorable agri-tourism experiences
Shannon Bence, Vancouver Island University
In British Columbia (BC), Canada (and beyond) the existing food systems are becoming less sustainable through the increased reliance on globalization. Places such as Vancouver Island are feeling the impacts of this globalization as a little as 4% of food is currently grown regionally. This a dynamic drop from 1950’s where that same number was around 85%. This matters as Vancouver Island, home to almost 900,000 residents, could only sustain itself in an emergency for a short 48 hours. While the statistics are bleak and concerns are at an all-time high, there certainly is hope. With the resurgence of the slow food movement, the support for farm fresh products is growing. And while farm gate and farmer’s market sales are at an all-time high in BC, it is important to continue to look for solutions that further support the creation of sustainable food systems. This presentation argues that agri-tourism can be one of these solutions. While the rule of thumb is typically ‘don’t play with your food,’ this presentation poses the question of “what if playing with our food and playing in the spaces it comes from, is actually a key element in the success of encouraging the creation and support for sustainable food systems?” Agri-tourism experiences provide the opportunity for urban dwellers and non-farm folks to explore, play and learn in a farm setting. This presentation is a conversation about how agri-tourism experiences matter because they allow people who are disconnected from where their food comes from, the opportunity to not only become familiar but also to genuinely care. This is an important outcome as it can increase the number of advocates that support the creation of sustainable food systems. While statistics are certainly important for context, they will be limited and used just to provide context in order to keep the presentation relatable to an international audience. This will allow for the main focus to be placed on how Play can be used to create high quality visitor experiences that better allow customers to feel connected to their food and to the farmers that grow it. This is important for farmers and agri-tourism operators to note, because establishing relationships with customers that feel connected to their farms, increases the retention of current customers and the attraction of new ones. Throughout the presentation, there will be examples of how farms are currently using play within their agri-tourism experiences to better connect and serve their customers. The workshop will include ‘playing’ to showcase the many meaningful and often time simple ways folks can incorporate ‘play’ into their experiences to make them meaningful and memorable for their customers.
Presenter: Shannon Roberts, Vancouver Island University, Sessional Professor

The magic of experience: Agritourism as an experiential marketing model for Maine farm and fish products
Caroline Paras, University of Maine; Tracy Michaud, University of Southern Maine; Matthew Hoffman, University of Southern Maine
Over the last decade, the market value from Maine farms and fisheries has declined by 13%. When inflation is factored in, it is a drop of 20%. One bright spot, however, is agritourism. From 2012 to 2017, direct sales on Maine farms increased 53%, and from other agritourism activities, 268% (USDA Census of Agriculture). Can these experiences serve as powerful forces to accelerate the process of consumer branding and loyalty? First coined in 1998, “Experience Economy” describes the movement of businesses beyond the mere sale of goods and services to the design of memorable experiences, with the memory itself becoming the product. The emotions generated by the event translate into behavioral intentions to purchase a product, both in real time and long after the event. This project surveyed over 450 visitors participating in repeatable agritourism experiences on Maine oyster and wild blueberry farms, revealing the impact of agritourism on direct sales as well as the most powerful marketing themes that resonated with consumers in Maine, New England, and the Northeast. Visitor experiences were captured through audio recordings as part of 1) an online survey of the Maine Oyster Trail: and 2) a face-to-face intercept survey during Maine Wild Blueberry Weekend. Results show that 83% of respondents purchased wild blueberries, oysters, and/or value-added products in real time, and over 82% stated their intention to purchase these Maine products in the future. In addition, the research generated a new framework for evaluating agritourism experiences: Participation, Place, Product, and People. Of these four P’s, the strongest driver of memory was Participation, such as the opportunity to rake blueberries or kayak to an oyster farm.
Presenter: Caroline Paras, University of Southern Maine, Research Assistant

Virginia agritourism safety
Afton Preisser, Virginia Cooperative Extension
Safety is a concern for agritourism venues because an operating farm may expose visitors to many unfamiliar conditions, situations, and/or animals, which opens the farm operation to potential liability risks during these interactions. The purpose of this research was to review current safety protocols on Virginia agritourism operations and seek information that was needed to improve for the future. Based on a survey sent to Virginia operators, numerous areas were identified which would benefit from further education and risk management information. Insurance offerings tailored to agritourism operations are needed, in addition to improved employee screening and training for operations management. The survey found that 25.24% of responses do not do any type of pre-employment screening while over 7% do not participate in walkthroughs before events. The purpose of this research was to document specific protocols already in place, identify, and describe critical areas of improvement for Virginia agritourism event, venue, and visitor safety practices.
Presenter: Afton Preisser, Virginia Cooperative Extension - Isle of Wight County, Extension Agent

A Baseline Profile Study of Agritourism in Maryland
K. Ejiogu, University of Maryland Eastern Shore; E.N. Escobar, University of Maryland Eastern Shore; L. Peña-Lévano, University of Wisconsin-River Falls
Agritourism is a consumer-focused agricultural operation. It is structured as an additional income-generating platform to augment the economic viability of a farm. Agritourism centers in Maryland include wineries, creameries, craft breweries, petting zoos, U-pick, horseback riding, corn maze, hayrides, farm festivals, and other activities. The Maryland General Assembly passed House Bill 252 (March 19, 2018) to provide a framework for the characterization of agritourism in the state. The bill provides a model definition of agritourism as an activity conducted on a farm offered to the general public or guests for education, recreation, or active involvement in farm operations. Small- and medium-sized farmers in the state of Maryland are increasingly dependent on agritourism as a source of additional income to maintain their farm holdings. Approximately 28% of Maryland agritourism services are farm markets. 18% craft breweries, and wineries comprised 15% of the services. Creameries covered 6.8% of the services, and agricultural heritage festivals covered 6.2%. In the middle of the distribution were apiaries at 5.5%, farm stores at 3%, U-picks at 2.7%, corn mazes at 2.2%, pumpkin patches at 2%, and hayrides at 1.6%. On the lower end of the distribution are petting zoos, farm camps, and alpaca farms, comprising the lowest number of services at 0.4% each. This study provided a baseline information and guidance to UMES Extension specialists and educators offering formal education and training to agritourism farmers. Many farmers cannot solely decide, incorporate, and effectively manage farm recreational activities alongside their core farm production routine. The goal is to assist agritourism entrepreneurs in maximizing their social and economic capacities and thus contribute to local community welfare and development in counties within the state. Also, the study provided an overview of the typology and spatial distribution of agritourism services within the 24 counties in the state of Maryland. It evaluates the cost of access to transportation and explores the consumer characteristics of agritourism locations. The study collected data for 485 agritourism facilities through an internet search and direct inquiries. This process involved corroboration with academic publications, direct source information, federal and state government sources, private organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) databases. The descriptive methods adopted in the study involved spatial mapping and distance analysis. Following the study a webinar was organized for interested parties followed by surveys to agritourism operators. Results from the surveys are pending.
Presenter: Enrique Escobar, University of Maryland Eastern Shore

(Virtual) Agritourism emergency preparedness: Documenting your emergency procedures in an easy-to-use flip chart
Christie Welch, OSU Direct Food & Agricultural Marketing; Eric Barrett, OSU Extension; Robert Leeds, Ohio State University Extension Delaware County
Ohio State University Extension developed Agritourism Ready; a curriculum for farm families in Ohio and across the nation. The curriculum focus is seven units, comprised of chapters specific to Risk Management and addressing potential emergencies. Chapters within each unit strive to educate the farm management team to develop their plan, including the details needed to print a detailed emergency preparedness plan for use in their business. Part of this plan will be a posted flip-chart for hands-on access to employees and others who will assist with the response to and mitigation of the emergency. An optimized website was developed for use by the management team in preparing the plan and to educate employees on how to deal with specific emergencies. It can also be used by educators to teach this curriculum.
Presenters: Christie Welch, The Ohio State University, Direct Agricultural Marketing Specialist; Rob Leeds, Ohio State University Extension, Extension Educator; Eric Barrett, OSU Extension, Associate Professor

Exploring farmer-visitor interactions in agritourism using an enhanced social situations analysis approach
Chimwemwe Chagunda, University of Glasgow
Agritourism is receiving increasing attention and has fuelled research efforts to understand its social benefits. The extended benefits include developing social connections, co-learning and exchanging experiences. Specifically, social interactions between farmers and visitors can enhance awareness of food production, conservation and may lead to behavioural change (Flanigan et al., 2015). However, there is little empirical evidence to demonstrate the social processes in the agritourism context. To understand and contextualise the processes of farmer-visitor social interactions within agritourism, with specific attention to on-farm accommodation. A purposive sampling approach and criterion technique was used to ensure the sampling units met set criteria. Data were collected through four agritourism farm visits and in-depth semi-structured interviews with twelve farmers providing visitor accommodation facilities on working farms. The social situations analysis framework of Argyle et al. (1981), which includes eight distinct, yet interconnected features was employed. In addition to the key features of the “Argyle” framework, social identity and social activities were used to contextualise the social spaces and to examine how encounters manifest and contribute to the visitors’ experience. The findings showed that none of the farmers explicitly used the term agritourism; they opt for ‘experience of a farm’ or ‘farm accommodation.’ While the relevance of a ‘working farm’ in agritourism cannot be underrated, not all visitors staying on farms were interested in agricultural activities. Furthermore, some farmers felt that health and safety regulations limit backstage experiences. Although fulfilling their economic gains was the principal goal for most farmers, integrating social dynamics plays a significant part when sharing rural farm life and educating the public about agricultural production. Host-farmers identify themselves first with farming in the community although they embrace entrepreneurial activities where more than 50% of the time is spent on managing agritourism business. Additional activities such as farm shops, farm trails, workshops extend agritourism experience and encourage close encounter with the farmer and agriculture. The study supports the notion that a definition and understanding of the agritourism concept will ultimately reduce confusion amongst farmers, overcome the barriers and increase the appeal to visitors. Enhanced social situation analysis is a useful framework for an in-depth understanding of social interactions within agritourism.
Presenter: Chimwemwe Chagunda, University of Glasgow | School of Interdisciplinary Studies, PhD Candidate

Guidance for agritourism operations in response to the COVID-19 pandemic
Stephen Komar, Rutgers Cooperative Extension; William Bamka, Rutgers University; Michelle Infante-Casella, Rutgers; Meredith Melendez, Rutgers; Richard VanVranken, Rutgers Cooperative Extension - Atlantic County; Brian Schilling, Rutgers
During the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020, many industries were forced to pivot and conduct business in different ways to protect public health, employees, and employers. The farming industry faced many challenges in supplying the nation through shifting food distribution channels and helping to ensure the country was supplied with essential products. In addition to providing food and fiber, the agricultural industry in New Jersey has a strong offering for family-friendly activities, events, and educational opportunities through agritourism on farms. Agritourism activities like pick-your-own crops, hayrides, field mazes, and other on-the-farm recreation and education has helped the public understand and appreciate agriculture and the benefits of having farms in their communities. Continuing farm agritourism visits during the pandemic can be an attractive outdoor alternative for family leisure and recreation. Continued community transmission of COVID-19, and Federal and State efforts to slow the spread of the virus, present significant challenges to agritourism operators. The Rutgers Cooperative Extension Agritourism Working Group developed farm assessment checklists to assist growers who are contemplating whether and how to host recreational or educational activities and events on their farms. They are designed to help operators develop business operation strategies that comply with State executive orders and federal/state safety guidelines. Essential elements of agritourism checklists for COVID-19 guidance include: understanding and complying with the Governor’s executive orders issued to control COVID-19 transmission, including limits on public indoor and outdoor gatherings, face coverings and social distancing; abiding by safety guidelines issues by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and State/local authorities; and evaluating the feasibility and practicality of implementing required or recommended practices to limit transmission of COVID-19. These COVID-19 resources are supplemental to the existing agritourism resources developed by Rutgers Cooperative Extension. These resources and other tools for agritourism operations are available online at:
Presenters: Stephen Komar, Rutgers; Michelle Infante-Casella, Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station Cooperative Extension, Agricultural Agent/Professor

Malawi 2063: Challenges, opportunities, and limitations of agritourism in Malawi
Fidelis Chasukwa Mgowa, Mazizi Agritourism Farm; Yvonne Mwalwenje, Mazizi Agritourism Farm
Fast economic growth and poverty alleviation in Malawi will not be possible without strong 6 percent per annum growth in the agricultural sector. Malawi continues to have inequities in the distribution of national income with the Gini index (World Bank estimate) at 44.7 in 2021 suggesting towards perfect inequality. Youths in Malawi continue to be left behind in employment and unemployment. The unemployment rate among the youth aged 15-35 years is 23 percent using the International Labour Organisation broad definition. The country is characterized by the inability of the economy to generate employment opportunities commensurate with labor supplies. Given that agriculture is the bedrock of Malawi’s economy, it will likely remain so in the short to medium term. While the economy remains dependent on agriculture, is prone to natural shocks increasing vulnerability on rural populations, and preventing sustainable economic growth, there is a need for sustained growth in the economy. Malawi has demonstrated its political will and commitment to reducing income inequalities through the development of its Malawi 2063 (MW2063), a successor to Vision 2020; the latter’s deliverables have been highly a contested poverty reduction strategy among the policy stakeholders and communities within and outside the country. According to Malawi National Planning Commission (2020), the MW2063 agenda identifies three key strategic pillars namely Agriculture Productivity and Commercialization, Industrialization, and Urbanization. The MW2063 provides a normative framework to contribute to the operationalization of the global Sustainable Development goals. However, sustainable development will not happen without human capital. Malawi Population and Housing Census (2018) estimates the child population at 8.9 million representing 51% of the total population. Of these, 4.4 million are boys and 4.5 million are girls. This paper argues that partnerships in investing in strategic human capital focusing on demographic dividend in agritourism offers leverage to unemployment and underemployment of the youths Therefore, investing in human capital to favor the country's development cannot be done without considering youths that are representing more than half of the population. The median age of the population in Malawi is 17 years.
Presenter: Fidelis Chasukwa Mgowa, Catholic Relief Services, Partner Safeguarding Officer - CRS Malawi

SWOT analysis assessment of direct marketing and agritourism operations
Michelle Infante-Casella, Rutgers; William Bamka, Rutgers University; Stephen Komar, Rutgers Cooperative Extension; Brian Schilling, Rutgers Cooperative Extension
Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT) analysis is a business planning tool that can be utilized by farmers to assess potential changes to their operations. The Rutgers Agritourism Group offers SWOT analysis to farmers via extension education programs and through a toolkit, “SWOT Analysis for On-Farm Direct Marketing Operations” found at Internal factors of strengths and weaknesses are controlled by the farmer and must be looked at objectively to accomplish proposed goals. Components of the business like infrastructure, finances, skills, and risk assessment are some of the items discussed. Assessing opportunities and threats identifies external factors not controlled by the farmer. Opportunities such as high per-capita income or current market trends may positively influence the farm business. Examples of threats include weather, poor economy, or overburdening regulations. Farmer self-assessment using SWOT analysis has been well received and continues to be taught in extension educational to help improve farm management.
Presenters: Michelle Infante-Casella, Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station Cooperative Extension, Agricultural Agent/Professor; Stephen Komar, Rutgers

SWOT analysis assessment of direct marketing and agritourism operations
Michelle Infante-Casella, Rutgers; William Bamka, Rutgers University; Stephen Komar, Rutgers Cooperative Extension; Brian Schilling, Rutgers Cooperative Extension
Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT) analysis is a business planning tool that can be utilized by farmers to assess potential changes to their operations. The Rutgers Agritourism Group offers SWOT analysis to farmers via extension education programs and through a toolkit, “SWOT Analysis for On-Farm Direct Marketing Operations” found at Internal factors of strengths and weaknesses are controlled by the farmer and must be looked at objectively to accomplish proposed goals. Components of the business like infrastructure, finances, skills, and risk assessment are some of the items discussed. Assessing opportunities and threats identifies external factors not controlled by the farmer. Opportunities such as high per-capita income or current market trends may positively influence the farm business. Examples of threats include weather, poor economy, or overburdening regulations. Farmer self-assessment using SWOT analysis has been well received and continues to be taught in extension educational to help improve farm management.
Presenters: Michelle Infante-Casella, Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station Cooperative Extension, Agricultural Agent/Professor; Stephen Komar, Rutgers

Covered bridge photo courtesy of Vermont Department of Tourism & Marketing