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FIELD, VEGETABLE & BERRY IPM

Spotted Wing Drosophila

sed adult

The Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, was first discovered in the western US 2008 and is now well-established throughout North America. Female SWD lay eggs in ripe and ripening fruit. This insect is a pest of most berry crops, cherries, grapes and other tree fruits, with a preference for softer-fleshed fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, blueberries. Larvae developing in fruit affects marketability and dramatically reduces storage time. It was detected in ME, NH & VT in 2011.   For information on the id, sampling and monitoring and management of SWD, please click HERE. This information was developed for a SWD workshop held on April 10, 2014 in Claremont, NH to help growers around the region better manage this pest.


Western Bean Cutworm

WBC Adult


      The western bean cutworm (WBC), Striacosta albicosta, is a late season pest that attacks corn (including field, sweet and popcorn) and both dry and snap beans. Moth larvae feed on developing kernels in husks or beans in pods causing economic damage.  Infestations involve multiple larvae per ear causing substantial losses. This moth is native to North America, and prior to 2000  losses occurred only in the western Corn Belt states. It has been on an eastward expansion.  It was found in Ontario in 2008, Pennsylvania and New York in 2009, and Vermont in 2011. 

WBC LarvaeWBC Damage
WBC LarvaWBC Damage to Corn

This is an emerging pest in the Eastern US. In 2011, scientists at the UVM Entomology Research Laboratory collaborated with Penn State and Cornell Univ. on a WBC survey using pheromone traps, which resulted in the first detection in South Burlington, VT. From 2012-2014 we expanded our survey to three VT counties (Franklin, Rutland and Addison) to better understand of WBC distribution and abundance. This will allow farmers to be prepared should there be a need for WBC management in the future. It is expected that this could become a serious pest farmers will have to be aware of in future years.

If you are a VT farmer and you think you have WBC, please contact the Entomology Laboratory at (802) 656-5434 or cfrank@uvm.edu.

Click HERE to view the 3 year results summary

2014 VT WBC Survey Data

DateCountyTownNo. WBC Adults
7/25/14AddisonShoreham1
7/30/13FranklinFairfield2
7/30/13FranklinEnosburg1
7/30/13FranklinSheldon3
7/30/13FranklinSwanton1
7/31/14RutlandEast Wallingford7
7/31/14RutlandNorth Clarendon2
7/31/14RutlandRutland2
7/31/14AddisonShoreham18
7/31/14AddisonAddison9
8/12/14RutlandEast Wallingford2
8/12/14RutlandRutland3
8/12/14AddisonShoreham19
8/12/14AddisonAddison2
8/15/14FranklinFairfield7
8/15/14FranklinSheldon9
8/15/14FranklinGeorgia10
8/25/14AddisonAddison1
8/29/14FranklinSheldon1
2014 Total100


2013 VT WBC Survey Data

DateCountyTownNo. WBC Adults
7/26/13ChittendenSouth Burlington1
7/26/13RutlandEast Wallingford2
7/26/13RutlandRutland1
7/26/13AddisonShoreham4
7/26/13AddisonAddison1
8/1/13FranklinSheldon1
8/8/13RutlandEast Wallingford1
8/8/13AddisonShoreham4
8/8/13AddisonAddison3
8/8/13ChittendenSouth Burlington3
8/23/13AddisonShoreham1
2013 Total22


2012 VT WBC Survey Data


DateCountyTownNo. WBC Adults
7/11/12AddisonShoreham1
7/11/12AddisonAddison6
7/27/12AddisonNew Haven3
7/27/12RutlandE. Wallingford3
7/27/12AddisonAddison30
7/27/12AddisonShoreham24
7/27/12RutlandN. Clarendon2
8/1/12FranklinFairfield1
8/1/12FranklinSheldon1
8/1/12FranklinGeorgia1
8/7/12AddisonAddison4
8/7/12AddisonShoreham3
8/7/12RutlandE. Wallingford2
8/21/12RutlandE. Wallingford1
2012 Total82


Results from the NYS Weekly Field Crops Pest Report that contains additonal WBC survey data can be found at: http://nysipm.cornell.edu/fieldcrops/tag/pestrpt/default.asp

Please visit Pest Watch for information on several key pests: http://www.pestwatch.psu.edu/

For additional WBC information, please visit the following websites:
http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/icm/taxonomy/term/586
http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/insect/05538.html

http://ipm.illinois.edu/vegetables/insects/western_bean_cutworm/
http://learningstore.uwex.edu/assets/pdfs/A3856.pdf
http://ento.psu.edu/extension/field-crops/corn/western-bean-cutworm



Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

BMSB Adult

The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, is one of the latest exotic invasive pests to reach northern New England, and it is expected to have a major impact on vegetable and fruit production in the future. There have been several sightings in Vermont in 2011 and 2012. It is known to feed on over 300 plants, many of which are important food crops. Damage to crops in New Jersey and Pennsylvania in 2011 was estimated to be in the millions. It also is a serious nuisance pest, when it enters homes in the fall in large numbers. To date, no chemical pesticide or biological control agent has been found to be particularly effective. UVM ERL scientists have been testing the effectiveness of the commercial insect-killing fungus Botanigard against the adult stage in laboratory trials. Three concentrations of the fungus were tested, and the highest rate killed 67-100% of the adults within 12 days. More research is needed to determine how best to use this microbial product under field conditions. 

Several other naturally-occurring insects are often mistaken for the BMSB. Click HERE for a fact sheet on the BMSB as well as their common look alikes.

If you suspect you have BMSB and are unable to identify them, please take the specimens  to your Extension specialist to confirm their identity.

For more BMSB information, please visit the following websites:
http://extension.unh.edu/Agric/AGPMP/Brownmarmoratedstinkbug.htm

http://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/brown-marmorated-stink-bug

http://njaes.rutgers.edu/stinkbug/identify.asp

http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/controlling/stinkbugs/

http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/pdf/FS_3824_08.pdf



Tarnished Plant Bug

TPB

The tarnished plant bug (TPB), Lygus lineolarisis, is one of the most serious pests of small fruits, such as strawberries, and vegetables in New England. Feeding by adults and nymphs cause lesions and deformations on fruits resulting in economic losses.

Click HERE for our factsheet on recognizing TPB damage on vegetables, fruits and herbs.

In the early 2000s, the Entomology Research Laboratory examined the effects of several strains of insect-killing fungi for the management of TPB. 
The list of publications that contain results from these trials are listed below. Please contact us for more information. 

Liu H, Skinner M, Parker BL. 2003. Bioassay method for assessing the virulence of Beauveria bassiana against tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Hem., Miridae). JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY 127(5):299-304.  

Liu HP, Skinner M, Brownbridge M, Parker BL. 2003. Characterization of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates for management of tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera : Miridae). JOURNAL OF INVERTEBRATE PATHOLOGY  82(3): 139-147.

Liu HP, Skinner M, Parker BL, Brownbridge M. 2002. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina : Hyphomycetes), and other entomopathogenic fungi against Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera : Miridae). JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 95(4): 675-681.  

For more TPB information, please visit the following websites:
http://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/tarnished-plant-bug
http://nysipm.cornell.edu/factsheets/treefruit/pests/tpb/tpb.asp

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