Vermont Forest Indicators Dashboard

Softwood Regeneration

Score for 2017:
Long-Term Trend:
Scores are 
While assessments of mature trees provides information about the current condition of Vermont’s forests, densities of sapling give details about the likely softwood composition in the future. Softwood regeneration is a measured as the density of seedlings per hectare, inventoried annually on Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data. Per FIA protocol, plots are reassessed every 5 years until 2014, and then every 7 years since then. A softwood seedling is classified as a small tree less than 1" in diameter and greater than 6" in height1. Here, a dominant component of the Montane Spruce-Fir Forest, and an ecologically and economically important species, red spruce (Picea rubens), was used as a proxy for all softwood species regeneration. The current year is scored as the distance between 0 and the maximum value, scaled to be between 0 and 1 using a 5-year moving window.
1USDA Forest Service. 2017. Forest Inventory and Analysis National Core Field Guide, Volume 1: Field Data Collection Procedures for Phase 2 plots. Version 7.2. Available at: