NAME:Ian A.F. Stokes, Ph.D.
Dept. Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation
Stafford Hall, University of Vermont
Burlington, Vermont 05405-0084
Undergraduate: Trinity College, Cambridge - 1968-1971 (BA, Engineering Science)
Graduate: Polytechnic of Central London - 1971-1975 (PhD, Biomechanics)
Research Professor Emeritus.
Dept. of Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation,University of Vermont, Burlington, VT
RECENT/CURRENT RESEARCH FUNDING:
NIH R01 AR 44119-05 "Stability of muscular loading of the lumbar spine".
PI: IAF Stokes. July 1999 - Dec 2003, $189,331 pa
NIH R01 46543 "Mechanical Modulation of Growth in
Physes" PI: IAF Stokes,
2/01/99-6/30/03. $173,091 pa
NIH K01 AR 02048 "Load induced disc degeneration in a rat tail
model" (PI: James Iatridis)
7/1/99-6/30/04. (Stokes is Mentor)
NIH R01 AR 40909 "Mechanism of Specific Trunk Exercises in Low back
Pain" PI: Sharon M Henry, PT, PhD.
NIH R01 AR 049370 "An integrated model of intervertebral disc
function", PI: Ian A. Stokes.
NIH R01 AR 053132 "Progressive scoliosis deformity in intervertebral disc", PI: Ian A. Stokes. Sept 2006 - July 2010
Book Chapters:Aronsson DD, Stokes IAF: The Modulation of Skeletal Growth. Chapter 9 in Orthopaedic Knowledge Update (Paediatrics) Ed Song, KM. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Rosemont IL USA. [pdf]
Papers in Refereed Journals (Reverse Chronological)
Stokes IAF, Gardner-Morse M: A database of lumbar spinal mechanical behavior for validation of spinal analytical models. Journal of Biomechanics 49 (2016), pp. 780-785 [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Aronsson, DD, McBride C, Roughley CA: Metabolic effects of angulation, compression and reduced mobility on annulus fibrosis in a model of altered mechanical environment in scoliosis. Spine Deformity 1(3) (2013) 161-170. [pdf]
Aronsson, DD, Stokes IAF, McBride CA: Contributions of Remodeling and Asymmetrical Growth to Vertebral Wedging in a Scoliosis Model. Spine Deformity 1 (2013) 2-9.[pdf]
Stokes IAF, McBride C, Aronsson DD, Roughley PJ. Intervertebral disc changes with angulation, compression and reduced mobility simulating altered mechanical environment in scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 2011 20(10), 1735-1744.[pdf]
Aronsson DD, Stokes IA. Nonfusion treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis by growth modulation and remodeling. J Pediatr Orthop. 2011 Jan-Feb;31(1 Suppl):S99-106. [pdf]
Stokes IA. Stature and growth compensation for spinal curvature. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2008;140:48-51. PubMed PMID: 18809998. International Research Society Spinal Deformities, 2008 Liverpool, UK [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Gardner-Morse M, Henry SM. Abdominal muscle activation increases lumbar spinal stability: analysis of contributions of different muscle groups. Clinical Biomechanics 26 (2011) 797-803. pdf
Grivas TB, de Mauroy JC, Négrini S, Kotwicki T, Zaina F, Wynne JH, Stokes IA, Knott P, Pizzetti P, Rigo M, Villagrasa M, Weiss HR, Maruyama T; SOSORT members. Terminology - glossary including acronyms and quotations in use for the conservative spinal deformities treatment: 8th SOSORT consensus paper. Scoliosis. 2010 Nov 2;5:23. [pdf]
Stokes IA, Laible JP, Gardner-Morse MG, Costi JJ, Iatridis JC. Refinement of elastic, poroelastic, and osmotic tissue properties of intervertebral disks to analyze behavior in compression. Ann Biomed Eng. 2011 Jan;39(1):122-31. pdf
Stokes IA, Gardner-Morse MG, Henry SM. Intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal wall muscular function: Spinal unloading mechanism. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2010 Nov;25(9):859-66. [pdf]
Sangole A, Aubin CE, Labelle H, Lenke L, Jackson R, Newton P, Stokes IA; Scoliosis Research Society "3D Scoliosis Committee. The central hip vertical axis: a reference axis for the scoliosis research society three-dimensional classification of idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 May 20;35(12):E530-4.
Aronsson DD, Stokes IA, McBride C. The role of remodeling and asymmetric growth in vertebral wedging. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2010;158:11-5. PubMed PMID: 20543392.
Stokes IA, Chegini S, Ferguson S, Gardner-Morse MG, Iatridis JC, Laible JP: Limitation of finite element analysis of poroelastic behavior of biological tissues undergoing fast cyclic loading. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 2010, 38(5) 1780-1788 [pdf]
Duong L, Cheriet F, Labelle H, Cheung KM, Abel MF, Newton PO, McCall RE, Lenke LG, Stokes IA. Interobserver and intraobserver variability in the identification of the Lenke classification lumbar modifier in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2009 Aug;22(6):448-55. PubMed PMID: 19652574.
Villemure I, Stokes IA. Growth plate mechanics and mechanobiology. A survey of present understanding. J Biomech. 2009 Aug 25;42(12):1793-803.[pdf]
Will RE, Stokes IA, Qiu X, Walker MR, Sanders JO. Cobb angle progression in adolescent scoliosis begins at the intervertebral disc. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Dec 1;34(25):2782-6.[pdf]
Stokes IA; Sangole AP; Aubin, CE: Classification of scoliosis deformity 3D spinal shape by cluster analysis. Spine 2009 34(6):584-590. [pdf]
Sangole AP, Aubin C-E, Labelle H, Stokes IAF, Lenke LG, Jackson R, Newton P: Three-dimensional Classification of Thoracic Scoliotic Curves. Spine 2009 34(1): 91-99. [pdf]
Iatridis JC, Laible JP, Furukawa M, Gardner-Morse MG, Stokes IA.
Spatially resolved streaming potentials of human intervertebral discs
under axial compression and compared with a poroelastic and chemical electric model. J. Biomech Eng. March 2009, Vol. 131 / 031006-1 [pdf]
Kadoury S, Cheriet F, Beausejour M,. Stokes IA, Parent S, Labelle H: A three- dimensional retrospective analysis of the evolution of spinal instrumentation for the correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 2009 18:23-37 (DOI 10.1007/s00586-008-0817-4) [pdf]
Costi JJ, Stokes IA, Gardner-Morse MG, Iatridis JC: Frequency dependent behavior of the intervertebral disc in response to each of six degree of freedom dynamic loading: Solid phase and fluid phase contributions. Spine 2008 Jul 15;33(16):1731-8.) [pdf]
Alini M, Eisenstein SM, Ito K, Little C, Kettler AA, Masuda K, Melrose J,Ralphs J, Stokes I, Wilke HJ. Are animal models useful for studying human disc disorders/degeneration? Eur Spine J. 2008 17(1): 2-19 [pdf]
Stokes IA: Analysis and simulation of progressive adolescent
scoliosis by biomechanical growth modulation. Eur Spine J. 2007
Masuoka K, Michalek AJ, Maclean JJ, Stokes IA, Iatridis JC.
Different Effects of Static Versus Cyclic Compressive Loading on Rat
Intervertebral Disc Height and Water Loss In Vitro. Spine. 2007 Aug
Stokes IA, Clark KC, Farnum CE, Aronsson DD: Alterations in the
growth plate associated with growth modulation by sustained compression
or distraction. Bone.
2007 Aug;41(2):197-205. [pdf]
Stokes IA, Burwell RG, Dangerfield PH. Biomechanical spinal growth
modulation and progressive adolescent scoliosis - a test of the
'vicious cycle' pathogenetic hypothesis: Summary of an electronic focus
group debate of the IBSE. Scoliosis.
2006 Oct 18;1:16. [pdf]
Stokes IA, Aronsson DD, Clark KC, Roemhildt ML. Intervertebral disc
adaptation to wedging deformation. Stud Health Technol Inform.
2006;123:182-7. PubMed PMID: 17108424.
Stokes IA, Aronsson DD, Dimock AN, Cortright V, Beck S. Endochondral
growth in growth plates of three species at two anatomical locations
modulated by mechanical compression and tension. J Orthop Res. 2006;2
Costi JJ, Stokes IA, Gardner-Morse MG, Laible JP, Scoffone HM,
Iatridis JC. Direct measurement of intervertebral disc deformations and
principal tissue strains in six degrees of freedom: Deformations and
motions that place tissue at risk of injury. J Biomech.
Iatridis JC, MacLean JJ, O'Brien M, Stokes IAF: Measurements
of proteoglycan and water content distribution in human lumbar
intervertebral discs. Spine.
Jun 15;32(14):1493-7. [pdf]
Stokes IAF and Windisch L: Vertebral height growth predominates over intervertebral disc height growth in the adolescent spine. Spine: 2006; 31(14): 1600-4.[pdf]
Stokes IA, Fox JR, Henry SM: Trunk muscular activation patterns and
responses to transient force perturbation in persons with self-reported
low back pain.
Eur Spine J. 2006
May;15(5):658-67. Epub 2005 May 20.
Stokes IAF and Aronsson DD: Computer-assisted algorithms
improve reliability of king classification and cobb measurement of
scoliosis. Spine. 2006 Mar
Stokes IAF, Iatridis JC: Mechanical conditions that accelerate
intervertebral disc degeneration: overload versus immobilization.
Spine 29(23): 2724-2732, 2004
(Focus Issue on Disc Degeneration). [pdf]
Stokes IAF: Relationships of emg to effort in the trunk under isometric conditions: force-increasing and decreasing effects and temporal delays. Clinical Biomechanics, 2005, 20(1): 9-15. [pdf]
Stokes IA, Gwadera J, Dimock A, Farnum CE, Aronsson DD: Modulation of vertebral and tibial growth by compression loading: diurnal versus full-time loading. J Orthop Res 23: 188-195, 2005 [pdf]
Stokes IAF and Gardner-Morse M: Muscle activation strategies and symmetry of spinal loading in the lumbar spine with scoliosis. Spine 2004, 29(19) 2103-2107. [pdf]
Gardner-Morse MG, and Stokes IAF: Structural behavior of human lumbar spinal motion segments. J Biomechanics 2004, 37(2): 205-121. [pdf]
Stokes IAF and Gardner-Morse M: Spinal stiffness increases with axial load: another stabilizing consequence of muscle action. Journalof Electromyography and Kinesiology 2003, 13(4): 397-402. [pdf]
Aubin CE, Petit Y, Stokes IA, Poulin F, Gardner-Morse MG, Labelle H: Biomechanical modeling of posterior instrumentation of the scoliotic spine. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 2003 6(1);27-32. [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Henry SM, Single R: Surface EMG electrodes do not accurately record from lumbar multifidus muscles. Clinical Biomechanics, 18(1):9-13, 2003. [pdf]
Gardner-Morse MG, Stokes IAF: Physiological axial compressive preloads increase motion segment stiffness, linearity and hysteresis in all six degrees of freedom for small displacements about the neutral posture. Journal of Orthopaedic Research 2003 21(3):547-552. [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Aronsson DD: Identifying sources of variability in scoliosis classification using a rule-based automated algorithm. Spine, 2002; 27(24): 2801-2805. [pdf]
Wu G, Siegler S, Allard P, Kirtley C, Leardini A, Rosenbaum D,Whittle M, D'Lima DD, Cristofolini L, Witte H, Schmid O, Stokes I. ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate system of various joints for the reporting of human joint motion-part I: ankle, hip, and spine. J Biomech. 2002 Apr;35(4):543-8.
Stokes IA, Mente PL, Iatridis JC, Farnum CE, Aronsson DD: Enlargement of growth plate chondrocytes modulated by sustained mechanical loading. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002 Oct; 84-A(10):1842-8. [pdf]
Ian A.F. Stokes. Mechanical effects on skeletal growth. 31st International Sun Valley Hard Tissue Workshop. Published in Journal of Muskuloskeletal and Neuronal Interactions. 2002; 2(3, 277-280. [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Gardner-Morse M, Churchill D, Laible JP: Measurement of a spinal motion segment stiffness matrix. Journal of Biomechanics, 2002; 35(4): 517-521. [pdf]
Stokes, IAF, Gardner-Morse, M: Lumbar spinal muscle activation synergies predicted by multi-criteria cost function. Journal of Biomechanics, 34(6): 733-740, 2001. [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Aronsson DD: Disc and vertebral wedging in patients with progressive scoliosis, Journal of Spinal Disorders,2001;14:317-322 [pdf]
Gardner-Morse, MG and Stokes, IAF: Trunk stiffness increases with steady-state effort. Journal of Biomechanics 2000, 34(4): 457-463. [pdf]
Stokes, IAF, Gardner-Morse M, Henry S, Badger GJ: Decrease in trunk muscular response to perturbation with preactivation of lumbar spinal musculature. Spine, 25(15):1957- 1964, 2000 [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Gardner-Morse MG: Muscle activation strategies used to stabilize the elbow joint challenged by inverted pendulum loading. Journal of Biomechanics, 33:737-743, 2000. [pdf]
Aronsson DD, Stokes IAF, Rosovsky J, Spence H: Mechanical modulation of calf tail vertebral growth: implications for scoliosis progression. J. Spinal Disorders 12(2): 141-146, 1999
Mente PL, Aronsson DD, Stokes IAF, Iatridis JC: Mechanical modulation of growth for the correction of vertebral wedge deformities. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 17:518-524, 1999 [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Gardner-Morse M: Quantitative anatomy of the lumbar musculature. Journal of Biomechanics 1999, 32: 311-316. [pdf] [Supplementary data-Table] [Supplementary data-Figures]
Iatridis JC, Mente PL, Stokes IAF, Aronsson DD, Alini M: Compression induced changes to intervertebral disc properties in a rat tail model. Spine 24(10): 996-1002, 1999.[pdf]
Poulin F., Aubin C.É., Stokes I., Gardner-Morse M. and Labelle H. Biomechanical modeling of the scoliotic spine instrumentation using flexible mechanisms. Ann Chir. 52(8):761-767, 1998.
IAF Stokes: Biomechanics of the thoracic spine and rib cage.(Invited review). Seminars in Spinal Surgery, 10(2): 127-140,1998.
Stokes IAF, Aronsson DD, Spence H, Iatridis J: Mechanical modulation of intervertebral disc thickness in growing rat tails. J Spinal Disorders, 11(3): 261-265, 1998 [pdf]
Gardner-Morse MG, Stokes IAF: The effects of abdominal muscle co-activation on lumbar spine stability. Spine 23(1), 86-92, 1998. [pdf]
Mente PL, Stokes IAF, Spence H, Aronsson DD: Progression of vertebral wedging in an asymmetrically loaded rat tail model. Spine,22: 1292-1296, 1997
Stokes IAF: Analysis of symmetry of vertebral body loading consequent to lateral spinal curvature. Spine, 22(21): 2495-2503,1997. [pdf]
DD Aronsson, IAF Stokes, PJ Ronchetti, and BS Richards. Surgical correction of vertebral axial rotation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: prediction by lateral bending films. J Spinal Disorders 9(3): 214-219, 1996.
Stokes IAF, Spence H, Aronsson DD, Kilmer N: Mechanical modulation of vertebral body growth: implications for scoliosis progression. Spine, 21(10): 1162-1167, 1996.[pdf]
Gardner-Morse M, Stokes IAF and Laible JP: Role of muscles lumbar spine stability in maximum extension efforts. J Orthop Res 13(5):802-808, 1995. [pdf]
Labelle H, Dansereau J, Bellefleur C, Poitras B, Rivard C-H, StokesIAF, De Guise J.: Comparison between preoperative and postoperative three-dimensional reconstructions of idiopathic scoliosis with the Cotrel-Dubousset procedure. Spine 20(23) 2487-2492, 1995.
Stokes and Gardner-Morse. Lumbar spine maximum efforts and muscle recruitment patterns predicted by a model with multijoint muscles and flexible joints. J. Biomech. 28(2): 173-186, 1995. [pdf]
Bellefleur C, Labelle H, Dansereau J, De Guise J, Stokes IAF, RivardC-H, Poitras B: Évaluation tridimensionelle per opératoirede la procédure Cotrel-Dubousset pour le traitement de lascoliose idiopathique. Annales de Chirurgie 48(8): 723-730, 1994.
Stokes IAF, Aronsson DD, Urban JPG: Biomechanical factors in progression of skeletal deformities: A review. The European Journal of Experimental Musculoskeletal Research: 3:51-60, 1994.
Aronsson DD, Stokes IAF, Ronchetti PJ, Labelle HB: Comparison of curve shape between children with cerebral palsy, Friedreich's ataxia, and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Dev Med Child Neurol 1994 May;36(5):412-8.
Stokes IAF, Ronchetti PJ, Aronsson DD: Changes in shape of the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curve after surgical correction. Spine1994 May 1;19(9):1032-7; discussion 1037-8
Gardner-Morse M, Stokes IAF: Three-dimensional simulations of scoliosis derotation by Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation. J Biomech.27: 177-181, 1993 [pdf]
Stokes IAF (chair) Scoliosis Research Society Working Group on 3-D terminology of spinal deformity: Three-dimensional terminology of spinal deformity. Spine, 19: 236-248, 1994. [pdf]
IAF Stokes: Biomechanics of the thoracic spine and rib cage. (Invited review). Seminars in Spinal Surgery, 5(1): 42-50, 1993.
Stokes IAF, Gardner-Morse M: Three-dimensional simulation of
Harrington distraction instrumentation for surgical correction
of scoliosis. Spine
18:2457-2464, 1993. [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Aronson DD, Ronchetti PJ, Labelle H, Dansereau J. Re-examination of the Cobb and Ferguson angles: bigger is not always better. J. Spinal Disorders 6:333-338, 1993 [pdf]
Stokes IAF: Longitudinal study of rib and spine growth and progression in idiopathic scoliosis.Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on 3-D Scoliotic Deformities (Montreal Canada July 1992). Co-publishers: Editions de l'école polytechnique de Montréal and Gustav Fischer Verlag (1992).[pdf]
Stokes IAF and Gardner-Morse M: Cross sectional and longitudinal study of spinal curvature and rotation Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on 3-D Scoliotic Deformities (Montreal Canada July 1992). Co-publishers: Editions de l'école polytechnique de Montréal and Gustav Fischer Verlag (1992).[pdf]
Stokes IAF, Gardner-Morse M: Analysis of the interaction between spinal lateral deviation and axial rotation in scoliosis. J Biomech 24(8):753-759, 1991. [pdf]
Stokes IAF: Biomechanics of Scoliosis: In vivo methods (invited paper presented at Biomechanics symposium, Scoliosis Research Society,Vancouver 1987) Spine 16:1217-1223, 1991.
Gardner-Morse MG, Laible JP, Stokes IAF: Incorporation of spinal flexibility measurements into finite element analysis. J Biomechanical Eng 112: 481-483, 1990. [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Gookin DM, Reid S, Hazard RG: Effects of axis placement on measurement of isokinetic flexion and extension torque in the lumbar spine. J Spinal Disorders 3:114-118, 1990.
Asazuma T, Stokes IAF, Moreland MS, Suzuki N: Intersegmental spinal flexibility with lumbo-sacral instrumentation: An in vitro biomechanical investigation. Spine 11: 1153-1158, 1990.
Stokes IAF, Laible JP: Three-dimensional osseo-ligamentous model of the thorax representing initiation of scoliosis by asymmetric growth. J Biomech 23(6):589-96, 1990. [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Moffroid M, Rush S, Haugh LD: EMG to torque relationship in abdominal muscles: Results with repeated testing. Spine 14:857-861, 1989.
Stokes IAF, Dansereau J, Moreland MS: Rib cage asymmetry in scoliosis. J Orthop Res 7:599-606, 1989. [pdf]
Stokes IAF: The axial rotation component of scoliosis. J Orthop Res 7:702-708, 1989. [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Moreland MS: Concordance of back surface asymmetry and spine shape in idiopathic scoliosis. Spine14:73-78, 1989.
Stokes IAF, Counts DC, Frymoyer JW: Experimental instability in the rabbit lumbar spine. Spine14:68-72, 1989.
Stokes IAF: Bulging of intervertebral discs: non-contacting measurements of anatomic specimens. J Spinal Disorders1:189-193,1988.
Stokes IA: Editorial: Mechanical testing of instrumentation: A test of mechanics. Spine 23(21): 2263-2264, 1988.
Dansereau J, Stokes IAF: Measurements of three dimensional shape of the rib cage. J Biomech 21:893-901,1988.
Stokes IAF: Mechanical function of facet joints in the lumbar spine. Clinical Biomechanics 3:101-105,1988.
Stokes IAF, Shuma-Hartswick D, Moreland MS: Spine and Back Shape Changes in Patients with Scoliosis. Acta Orthop Scand 59:128-133, 1988. [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Moffroid M, Rush S, Haugh L: Comparison of acoustic and electrical signals from Erector Spinae Muscle. Muscle and Nerve11:331-336, 1988.
Stokes IAF, Armstrong JG, Moreland MS: Spinal deformity and back surface asymmetry in idiopathic scoliosis. J Orthop Res6:129-137, 1988.
Alvarez R, Stokes IAF, Aspirinio DE, Braun T: Dimensional changes of the feet in pregnancy. J Bone Joint Surg 70A: 271-274, 1988. [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Frymoyer JW: Segmental motion and instability. Spine12:688-691, 1987.
Stokes IAF, Krag MH, Wilder DG: A critique of "The Optimal Spine". Spine12:511-512, 1987.
Stokes IAF, Rush S, Moffroid M, Johnson GB, Haugh LD: Trunk extensor EMG/torque relationship. Spine 12:770-776, 1987.
Stokes IAF: Axis for dynamic measurement of torque about the lumbar spine. A computer simulation. Phys Ther. 67:1230-1233, 1987.
Stokes IAF, Bevins TM, Lunn RA: Back surface curvature and measurement of lumbar spinal motion. Spine 12(4):355-361, 1987.
Stokes IAF: Surface strain on human intervertebral discs. J Orthop Res 5:348-355, 1987. [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Bigalow LC, Moreland MS: Three-dimensional spinal curvature in idiopathic scoliosis. J Orthop Res 5:102-113, 1987. [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Moreland MS: Scoliosis and back surface deformity instanding and in forward bending. J Bone Joint Surg (A) 69A:203-211,1987. [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Bigalow LC, Moreland MS: Measurement of rotation of vertebrae in scoliosis. Spine 11:213-218, 1986. [pdf] + correction
Stokes IAF, Greenapple DM: Measurement of surface deformation of soft tissue. J Biomech18:1-7, 1985. [pdf]
Stokes IAF: Biplanar radiography for measurement of spinal shape and motion. Automedica6:37-49, 1985.
Stokes IAF, Cobb LC, Moreland MS: Surface shape analysis of spinal deformity. Automedica 6:71-83, 1985.
Pope MH, Stokes IAF, Moreland MS: The biomechanics of scoliosis. CRC critical reviews in Biomedical Engineering, Vol. II, (3)157-187,1984.
Papaioannou T, Stokes I, Kenwright J: Scoliosis associated with limb-length inequality. J Bone Joint Surg 64A:59-62, 1982. [pdf]
Simkin A, Stokes IAF: Characterisation of the dynamic vertical force distribution under the foot. Med Biol Eng Comput 20:12-18, 1982.
Thurston AS, Whittle MW, Stokes IAF: Spinal and pelvic movement during walking. A new method of study. Eng Med 10:219-222, 1981.
Moreland MS, Pope MH, Wilder DG, Stokes I, Frymoyer JW: Moire fringe photography of the human body. Med Instrum 15:129-132, 1981.
Stokes IAF, Wilder DG, Frymoyer JW, Pope MH: Assessment of patients with back pain by biplanar radiographic measurement of intervertebral motion. Spine 6:233-240, 1981.
Stokes IAF, Medlicott PA, Wilder DG: Measurement of movement of painful intervertebral joints. Med Biol Eng Comput 18:694-700,1980.
Stokes IAF, Abery JM: Influence of the hamstring muscles on lumbar spine curvature in sitting. Spine 5:525-528, 1980.
Kendall JP, Stokes IAF, O'Hara JP, Dickson RA: Tension and creep in mammalian peripheral nerve. Acta Orthop Scand 50:721-725, 1979. [pdf]
Miller GF, Stokes IAF: A study of the duration of load-bearing under different areas of the foot. Engineering in Medicine 8(3): 128-132,1979.
Pope MH, Wilder DG, Stokes IAF, Frymoyer JW: Biomechanical testing as an aid to decision making in low back pain patients. Spine4:135-140, 1979.
Stokes IAF: Orthopaedic Engineering, Oxford Medical School Gazette, Vol XXX #3:6-9, 1979.
Roger RE, Stokes IAF, Harris JD, Frymoyer JW, Ruiz C: Monitoring adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with Moire fringe photography. EngMed 8:119-127, 1979.
Stokes IAF, Hutton WC, Stott JRR: Forces acting on the metatarsals during normal walking. J Anat 129:579-590, 1979.
Stokes IAF, Hutton WC, Stott JRR, Lowe LW: Forces under the hallux valgus foot before and after surgery. Clin Orthop 142:64-72, 1979. [pdf]
Stokes AIF, Faris IB, Hutton WC: The neuropathic ulcer and loads on the foot in diabetic patients. The Chiopodist 32(5): 143-149, 1977.
Stokes IAF, Hobin RA, Russell LH: The effect of shoe inserts on the load distribution under the foot. The Chiropodist 32(1): 5-12 ,1977.
Stokes IAF: Force platform resonances. Newsletter #4, Force Platform Group, Internat Soc Biomech, 1977
Stokes IAF, Hutton WC, Evans MJ: The effect of hallux valgus and Keller's operation on the load-bearing function of the foot during walking. Acta Orthop Belg 41:695-704, 1975.
Stokes IAF, Faris IB, Hutton WC: The neuropathic ulcer and loads on the foot in diabetic patients. Acta Orthop Scand 46:839-847, 1975. [pdf]
Stokes IAF, Stott JRR, Hutton WC: Force distributions under the foot - a dynamic measuring system. Biomed Eng 9:140-143, 1974.
Stott JRR, Hutton WC and Stokes IAF: Forces under the foot. J Bone Joint Surg 55-B:335-344, 1973. [pdf]