Ian A.F. Stokes, Ph.D.

Ian A.F. Stokes, Ph.D.

Research Professor  Emeritus
Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation
434 Stafford Hall,
Burlington, Vermont 05405-0084, USA
Phone : (802) 656-2250
Fax: (802) 656-4247

Description of Research Program
Address / Contact
Recent Publications - go to CV

Curriculum Vitae

Ian Stokes' CV

Academic Links

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Vermont
International Research Society of Spinal Deformities
Scoliosis Research Society
Scoliosis Research Society Glossaries

Other Links

Vermonters for Justice in Palestine
Richmond Trails Committee
Old Spoke Home Community Workshop (Formerly Bike Recycle Vermont)
Local Motion
Hendrix Quote

Machines for Burning Fossil Fuels

1948 Douglas Motorcycle Mk III (Owned 1966-2017)
Citroën 'Traction avant' 7C (1936)

Description of Research Program

Dr Stokes' primary research interest was in problems of the spine, including muscle function around the lumbar spine and spinal deformity and growth plate biomechanics, with an emphasis on using biomechanical modeling and simulation.

A. Mechanical modulation of growth and progression of spinal deformity.

Experimental (animal) models were used to determine sensitivity of growth plates in long bones and vertebrae to mechanical load. Quantitative histology (fluorescent labelling, cellular morphology, BrDU labeling, etc.) were used to investigate cellular responses mechanical forces in growth plates of different species and anatomical locations, having different base-line growth velocities.

This is combined with analytical determinations of the loading asymmetry of vertebrae in spines with scoliosis in order to make a predictive model of the progression of deformity. Results were compared with clinical (radiographic) studies of patients during the adolescent growth period.

B. Stability of muscular loading of the lumbar spine.

This work examined the idea that the spine might be 'self-injured' during buckling events resulting from unstable equilibrium under the action of muscular forces. Results confirmed that muscular stiffness (which depends on muscle activation) is required normally for stability. Analytical modeling determined conditions under which the spine is at risk for such 'self-injury', and experimental (EMG) measurements of human subjects were used to compare model predictions with the theoretical predictions. This work also involved experimental studies of the spinal motion segment stiffness with axial preload.



    University of Vermont
    Dept. of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation
    434 Stafford Hall
    Burlington, VT 05455-0084, USA

    Author: Ian Stokes, Ian.Stokes@uvm.edu

    Last revised/updated: January 2019

    URL: http://www.uvm.edu/~istokes/index.html
    Comments: Ian.Stokes@uvm.edu