|Ian A.F. Stokes, Ph.D.
||Ian A.F. Stokes, Ph.D.
Research Professor Emeritus
Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation
434 Stafford Hall,
Burlington, Vermont 05405-0084, USA
Phone : (802) 656-2250
Fax: (802) 656-4247
- Description of Research Program
- Address / Contact
- Recent Publications - go to CV
Ian Stokes' CV
Department of Orthopaedics
and Rehabilitation, University of Vermont
International Research Society of
Scoliosis Research Society
Scoliosis Research Society Glossaries
Vermonters for Justice in Palestine
Richmond Trails Committee
Old Spoke Home Community Workshop (Formerly Bike Recycle Vermont)
Machines for Burning Fossil Fuels
1948 Douglas Motorcycle Mk III (Owned 1966-2017)
Citroën 'Traction avant' 7C (1936)
Description of Research Program
Dr Stokes' primary research interest was in problems of the spine,
including muscle function around the lumbar spine and spinal
deformity and growth plate biomechanics, with an emphasis on using
biomechanical modeling and simulation.
A. Mechanical modulation of growth and progression of spinal
Experimental (animal) models were used to determine sensitivity of
growth plates in long bones and vertebrae to mechanical load.
Quantitative histology (fluorescent labelling, cellular morphology,
BrDU labeling, etc.) were used to investigate cellular responses
mechanical forces in growth plates of different species and
anatomical locations, having different base-line growth velocities.
This is combined with analytical determinations of the loading
asymmetry of vertebrae in spines with scoliosis in order to make a
predictive model of the progression of deformity. Results were
compared with clinical (radiographic) studies of patients during
the adolescent growth period.
B. Stability of muscular loading of the lumbar spine.
This work examined the idea that the spine might be 'self-injured' during
buckling events resulting from unstable equilibrium under the action
of muscular forces. Results confirmed that muscular stiffness
(which depends on muscle activation) is required normally for
stability. Analytical modeling determined conditions under
which the spine is at risk for such 'self-injury', and experimental
(EMG) measurements of human subjects were used to compare model
predictions with the theoretical predictions. This work also
involved experimental studies of the spinal motion segment stiffness
with axial preload.
Author: Ian Stokes, Ian.Stokes@uvm.edu
University of Vermont
Dept. of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation
434 Stafford Hall
Burlington, VT 05455-0084, USA
Last revised/updated: January 2019