Syllabus: Latin 52 Intermediate Latin, Spring 2006
Spring 2006: 2:30-3:30; Waterman 400
|Z. Philip Ambrose||Office hours:|
|Office: Room 304,
|656-0649||or by appointment|
|Texts:||C. Pharr, Vergil's Aeneid, Books 1-VI|
|C. Dunmore, Selections from Ovid|
|F. Wheelock, and R. LaFleur, Wheelock's Latin, 6th edition. (Optional)|
The purpose of this course is to teach you to read the Latin of Vergil's Aeneid and Ovid's Metamorphoses. In addition to your work with the Latin texts, you will read one book each week of the Aeneid, as assigned. Your work in class will be to translate from Latin passages from Books I, II, IV, and VI of the Aeneid and a few episodes from the Metamorphoses. There will be a 15-minute quiz most Fridays on material from the three preceding classes, as noted below in this syllabus. There are ten homework assignments, to be handed in on most Wednesdays, as noted below, consisting of sentences to be translated from English to Latin. These sentences demonstrate a point of syntax and are based upon material from the book of the Aeneid you are reading in translation that week. Consult a grammar for the point of syntax. The first hour test, on February 27, will include oral recitation by memory of the first seven lines of the Aeneid. The purpose of this exercise is to help you gain facility in scanning the dactylic hexameters of Latin epic.
Online texts (with grammatical links) and translations of Vergil and Ovid may be found at: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/. Click on Classics in left menu.
Class attendance is required. Participation is a major component of the course grade. The final course grade will be determined as follows:
|Two Hour Tests:||20%|
Day Date Assignment for this date [Passages in brackets will be read at sight in class.]
|W||1/18||The life and works of Publius Vergilius Maro (70-19 B.C.E.)|
|W||2/22||[709-722] 740-756; Homework 5|
|F||2/24||In translation, Book VI; Review for First Hour Test|
|M||2/27||Rigorosum Primum (includes memorized recitation of
|W||3/1||II. [1-20] 21-53; No homework.|
|F||3/3||II. 54-87 [88-99]; In translation, Book VII; No Quiz|
|W||3/8||II. 234-249 [268-286] 287-295; Homework 6|
|F||3/10||II. 468-475 [476-485] 486-499; In translation, Book VIII; Quiz 5|
|M||3/13||II. 506-517 [518-524] 535-543|
|W||3/15||IV. 1-5 [6-14] 15-30 [31-53] 54-55 [56-64] 65-73; Homework 7|
|MWF||3/20-24||vacant: feriae vernae|
|M||3/27||IV. 74-89; 160-188 [190-197]|
|W||3/29||IV. 450-473; Homework 8|
|F||3/31||IV. 584-599 [600-612] 612-629; In translation, Book IX; Quiz 6|
|M||4/3||IV. 651-671 [672-692] 693-705|
|W||4/5||VI. 1-33 [36-41]; No homework|
|F||4/7||Review for Hour Test Two; LATIN DAY, Patrick Gymnasium 9-12:30|
|W||4/12||Ovid, Met. I. 313-47; No Homework|
|F||4/21||vacat: Dies Honorum; Ovid,
|[Submit answers to Quiz 8 in writing by email.]|
|M||4/24||Ovid, IV. 55-127|
|W||4/26||Ovid, IV. 128-68; Homework 10|
|F||4/28||VI. 826-853; In translation, Book XII; Quiz 9|
|M||5/1||VI. [854-859] 860-901|
|W||5/3||Review [No Homework]|
1. Indirect Statements and Questions (Wheelock 164-66 and 204-06):
Indirect Statement: Verb of speaking (fero, loquor, dico) + accusative + infinitive
Dicunt Iuliam esse bonam. They say Julia is good.
Dicunt Iuliam fuisse bonam. That say Julia was good.
Dixerunt Iuliam esse bonam. They said Julia was good.
Dixerunt Iuliam fuisse bonam. They said Julia had been good.
Indirect Question: Verb of asking + subordinate noun clause with subjunctive.
Rogant quid Gaius faciat. "They ask what Gaius is doing."
Rogant quid Gaius fecerit. "They ask what Gaius has done/did."
Rogavit quid Gaius faceret. "He asked what Gaius was doing."
Rogavit quid Gaius fecisset. "He asked what Gaius had done."
Translate into Latin: "Venus says that her son is toiling greatly. She asks what evil Aeneas has done."
2. Present and Past Contrary-to-Fact Conditions (Wheelock 228-30, esp. 229):
Si id faceret, prudens esset. "If he were doing this, he would be wise."
Present: Protasis (imperfect subjunctive), Apodosis (imperfect subjunctive).
Si id fecisset, prudens fuisset.
Past: Protasis (pluperfect subjunctive), Apodosis (pluperfect subjunctive)
"If the gods loved us, we would not be so miserable. If fate had not been perverse (laevus/a/um),
3. Cum= Quom-clauses (Wheelock 211-12). Quom is cognate with English 'when."
Cum temporal, "when" (especially in the present tense), is usually + indicative.
Cum in the past tense, even in the sense of 'when,' is + subjunctive.
Cum in the sense of "although (adversative), because, since (causal, or
circumstantial) + subjunctive.
"Although life is hard, death is worse." "Because Achaemenides shouted, Aeneas fled."
4. Clauses of Fearing (Wheelock 285):
A subordinate clause of fear is introduced by ne (that, lest) or ut (that … not) +
"The unhappy woman was afraid that her lover would leave her." "The Trojans (Troiani) fear that the gods will not aid them."
5. Participles and Ablative Absolute (Wheelock 147-50, 155-57):
"When Aeneas said this, he gave the signal that was expected." [Write the preceding when-clause in two ways: a) with either cum, postquam, or ubi and b) with a participial construction. Write the relative adjective clause ("…that was expected") simply with one participle.]
"When the long journey was over, Anchises dies." [Use the ablative absolute construction.]
6. Purpose clauses (Wheelock 189)]:
A subordinate clause of purpose is introduced by ut ("in order that…") or ne ("in
order that… not") + subjunctive.
"The Sibyl led Aeneas to the underworld in order that he talk with his father."
7. Result clause (Wheelock 196-200):
A subordinate clause of result is anticipated by an adverb or adjective in the main
clause (ita, tantum, tam) and introduced by ut ("so that…") or ut …non ("so that
… not") + subjunctive.
"Silvia was so sad that she summoned the farmers."
8. Future-less-vivid conditions (Wheelock 229):
Si id faciat, prudens sit. "If he should (were to) do that, he would be wise."
"If Nisus should come (= were to come), he would help Euryalus."
9. Future-more-vivid conditions ( = Conditions of Fact, Wheelock 229):
Si id faciet, prudents erit. "If he does this, he will be wise."
Protasis: future or future-perfect indicative; Apodosis: future or future perfect
This condition is used for prophecies, promises, or threats.
"Your piety will kill you, if you help your father."
10. "Camilla's life then fled with a moan to the shades below. This was she who had born the arms of Diana upon her shoulders and now had fallen by the spear of an unseen foe."
Grammar and Syntax Analysis of
1 Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris
AccDO AccDO[+] TV, Gen-qualifier RelPrn S-modifier Prep+Abl
2 Italiam, fato profugus, Laviniaque venit
AccPlaceTo, AblMeans S-modifier, AccPlaceTo-modifer[+] VMotion
3 litora, multum ille et terris iactatus et alto
AccPlaceTo, Adv PrnS [+] AblPlace PP [+] AblPlace
4 vi superum, saevae memorem Iunonis ob iram,
AblMeans Gen-qualifier, Gen-modifier Acc-modifier GenPoss Prep+Acc
5 multa quoque et
AdvAcc Adv [+] AblPlace/Means DeponentPP, Subconj TVimpf-sbj AccDO
6 inferretque deos Latio, genus unde Latinum,
TVimpf-sbj[+] AccDO DatPlaceTo, S RelAdv S-modifier
7 Albanique patres, atque altae moenia Romae.
S-modifier[+] S, [+] Gen-modifier S Gen-modifier
8 Musa mihi causas memora, quo numine laeso
Voc, DatIO AccDO TVimperat, ?Adj Abl PP-absolute
9 quidve dolens
?Prn[-] Part-S-modifier S Gen-qualifier LimitAdj TVinf AccDO
10 insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores
AccS-modifier AblRespect AccS, LimitAdj TVinf AccDO
11 impulerit. Tantae animis caelestibus irae?
TVpfsbj. LimitAdjS-modifier DatPoss Dat-modifier S (ITV)?
Key to Abbreviations in the Grammar and Syntax Analysis:
( ) = understood
ITV = Intransitive Verb
?Adj = Interrogative adjective
?Prn[-] = Interrogative Pronoun with enclitic -ve (= "or")
[+ ] = et
Abl PP-absolute = Ablative Absolute noun modified by Perfect Passive Participle
AblMeans = Ablative of Means
AblPlace = Ablative of Place Where
AblPlace/Means = Ablative of Place or Means
AblRespect = Ablative of Respect
AccDO = Accusative Direct Object
AccDO[+] = Accusative Direct Object with enclitic -que
Acc-modifer = Accusative modifier
AccPlaceTo = Accusative of Place to Which
AccPlaceTo-modifer[+] = Accusative of Place to Which with enclitic -que
AccS = Accusative Subject
AccS-modifier = Accusative Subject modifier
Adv = Adverb
AdvAcc = Adverbial Accusative
DatIO = Dative of Indirect Object
Dat-modifier = Dative modifier
DatPlaceTo = Dative of Place to Which
DatPoss = Dative of Possession
DeponentPP = Deponent Perfect Passive Participle
Gen-modifier = Genitive modifier
GenPoss = Genitive of Possession
Gen-qualifier = Gentive noun qualifying another substantive
LimitAdj = Limiting Adjective
LimitAdjS-modifier = Limiting Adjective modifying a Subject
Part-S-modifier = Present Participle modifying a Subject
PP = Perfect Passive Participle
Prep+Abl = Preposition with an Ablative
Prep+Acc = Preposition with an Accusative
PrnS = Pronoun Subject
RelAdv = Relative Adverb
RelPrn = Relative Pronoun
S = Subject Noun
S-modifier = Subject modifier
S-modifier[+] = Subject modifer with enclitic -que
Subconj = Subordinate Conjunction
TV= Transitive Verb
TVimperat = Transitive Verb, Imperative
TVimpf-sbj[+] = Transitive Verb, Imperfect Subjunctive with enclitic -que
TVinf = Transitive Verb, Infinitive
TVpfsbj = Transitive Verb, Perfect Subjunctive
TVimpf-sbj = Transitive Verb, Imperfect Subjunctive
VMotion = Verb of Motion
Voc = Vocative
Publius Vergilius (or Virgilius) Maro was born at Andes, a village (pagus) near
In exponendis auctoribus haec consideranda sunt: poetae vita, titulus operis, qualitas carminis, scribentis intentio, numerus librorum, ordo librorum, explanatio: Vergilii haec vita est. Patre Vergilio matre Magia fuit: civis Mantuanus, quae civitas est Venetiae. Diversis in locis operam litteris dedit; nam et Cremonae et Mediolani et Neapoli [under Siro] studuit. adeo autem verecundissimus fuit, ut ex moribus cognomen acciperet; nam dictus est "Parthenias." Omni vita probatus uno tantum morbo laborabat; nam inpatiens libidinis fuit. primum ab illo hoc distichon factum est in Ballistam latronam:
"monte sub hoc lapidum tegitur Ballista sepultus:
nocte die tutum carpe viator iter."
Scripsit etiam septem sive octo libros hos: Cirin Aetnam Culicem Priapeia Catalepton Epigrammata Copam Diras. Postea ortis bellis civilibus inter Antonium et Augustum, Augustus victor Cremonensium agros, quia pro Antonio senserant, dedit [in 41 B.C.] militibus suis. Qui cum non sufficerent, his addidit agros Mantuanos, sublatos non propter civium culpam, sed propter vicinitatem Cremonensium: unde ipse in Bucolicis (9.28) "mantua vae miserae nimium vicina Cremonae." Amissis ergo agris Romam venit et usus patrocinio Pollionis et Maecenatis solus agrum quem amiserat meruit. Tunc ei proposuit Pollio ut carmen bucolicum scriberet, quod eum constat triennio scripsisse et emendasse [published in 37 B.C.]. Item proposuit Maecenas Georgica, quae scripsit emendavitque septem annis [published in 29 B.C.]. Postea ab Augusto Aeneidem propositam scripsit annis undecim, sed nec emendavit nec edidit: unde eam moriens praecepit incendi. Augustus vero, ne tantum opus periret, Tuccam et Varium hac lege iussit emendare, ut superflua demerent, nihil adderent tamen: unde et semiplenos eius invenimus versiculos, ut (Aen. I. 534) "hic cursus fuit," et aliquos detracto, ut in principio; nam ab armis non coepit, sed sic:
"Ille ego, qui quondam gracili modulatus avena
carmen, et egressus silvis vicina coegi
ut quamvis avido parerent arva colono,
gratum opus agricolis, at nunc horrentia Martis
arma virumque cano ... "
et in secundo libro aliquos versus (567-588) posuerat quos constat esse detractos, quos inveniemus cum pervenerimus ad locum de quo detracti sunt.
More details about his death are found in this excerpt from Donatus' Life of Vergil:, also from the 4th c.:
Anno aetatis quinquagesimo secundo impositurus Aeneidi summam manum statuit in Graeciam et in Asiam secedere triennioque continuo nihil amplius quam emendare, ut reliqua vita tantum philosophiae vacaret. Sed cum ingressus iter Athenis occurrisset Augusto ab oriente Romam revertenti destinaretque non absistere atque etiam una redire, dum Megara vicinum oppidum ferventissimo sole cognoscit, languorem nactus est eumque non intermissa navigatione auxit ita ut gravior aliquanto Brundisium appelleret, ubi diebus paucis obiit XI Kal. Octobr. Cn. Sentio Qu Lucretio coss. ossa eius Neapolim translata sunt tumuloque condita qui est via Puteolana intra lapidem secundum, in quo distichon fecit tale:
Parthenope: cecini pascua rura duces."