(2002-01-01 - Current) 1. Evaluate the relative ability of silvicultural alternatives to achieve desirable forest management outcomes. 2. Evaluate the operational effectiveness and economic tradeoffs of alternate silvicultural systems, including those designed to enhance structural complexity. 3. Determine the effects of forest management alternatives on selected elements of biological diversity and ecological processes. 4. Test the ability of silvicultural manipulations to accelerate the development of late-successional structural and compositional characteristics in northern hardwood forests. 5. Provide an experimental framework for collaborative research on relevant ecological, sociological and economic dimensions.