Vermont Department of Health

1) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) are established by the EPA for chemicals of concern in drinking water

2) Vermont Action Levels (VALs) are established by the Vermont Department of Health for eight chemicals of specific health concern in public water systems

-Benzene (0.001 mg/L), Carbon Tetrachloride (0.0005 mg/L), Dibromochloropropane (0.00003 mg/L), Dichloroethane (0.0005 mg/L), Dichloropropane (0.0006 mg/L), Hexachlorobenzene (0.00022 mg/L),Tetrachloroethylene (0.0007mg/L), and Vinyl Chloride (0.0005 mg/L).

3) Vermont Health Advisories (VHA) are established by the Vermont Department of Health in instances where chemicals do not have an MCL.


MCLs, VALs, and VHAs, are established to protect individuals from health hazardous chemicals contained in drinking water. This study did not include volatile chemicals and consequently no information about these constituents is available. Secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) are used to regulate contaminants that primarily affect the aesthetic qualities of drinking water. However, these levels are not established for every chemical. In fact, only Chloride and Sodium are included in the secondary MCL levels from the contaminants found in the study wellfield. They are both established at 250 mg/L. Ground water well #8 has a chloride level approximately 6.5 times the secondary MCL level, the highest in my study. Well 7 has the second highest level at 5.5 times the recommended level. All wells at the Williams' nest and the Wills' nest are over 250 mg/L (reference samples information). Again, these wells are located next to University roadways and walkways where salt is administered throughout the winter. The Fleming well nest's highest reading was recorded at 67.66 mg/L for ground water well #2. The second highest reading was 36.41 mg/L for well #2. The Fleming nest is not located near University roadways and walkways and therefore is significantly more clean. Sodium levels are slightly lower than chloride level at each respective well.