Mills & Factories

Manufacturing heritage sites in Burlington and Winooski, Vermont

Local and Global Manufacturers in Downtown Burlington

By Egbert Stolk


This research mainly focuses on large and small manufacturers located around the corner of College Street and Pine Street and the corner of King Street and St. Paul Street in downtown Burlington. These manufacturers, situated close to each other, were supplying products both locally and globally. Although an adjacent area of Burlington west to the waterfront and south along Pine Street also has a diverse history of manufacturing with many large factories, the main focus of this research will be the manufacturers, small and big, that had factories in the downtown center of Burlington. Only one manufacturer stands out as a big enterprise, the Wells & Richardson Company, which occupied almost an entire block. Because the area is mostly urban, even at the middle of the 19th century, the rest of the factories are relatively small. Because there was an abundance of smaller manufacturers in the grid of College, Church, Maple, and Battery streets, this research focuses on the factories and buildings that do still exist here and that therefore give us a better understanding of their contributions to the manufacturing heritage of Burlington.

Research on the sites and structures of the following manufacturers is included below:

- Wells & Richardson Company Complex
- Crystal Confectionary Company
- Mead Manufacturing Company
- Green Mountain Distillery
- Smith Carriage Company
- W.C. Hoag Toy Company
- O.L. Hinds Overall Company

Figure 1. Map of downtown Burlington around College, St. Paul, and Pine Streets. The different blue colors indicate the buildings' age, from dark blue (1874) to light blue (1897). The different red colors indicate the buildings' ages, from dark red (1902) to light red (around 1915).

Drawing by E. A. H. Stolk, 2013.
Figure 2. Map of downtown Burlington around the corner of King Street and St. Paul Street, showing (in red) the location of the O.L. Hinds factory building (1902,) and (in blue) the location of the Smith Carriage Company / W.C. Hoag Company building (circa 1900). Drawing by E. A. H. Stolk, 2013.

Wells & Richardson Company: Manufacturer of Proprietary Medicines and Chemical Works

Located between College Street, Pine Street, and Main Street, the firm of Wells & Richardson has a very rich history, not only in Burlington, but also worldwide. Through smart and aggressive advertisement this firm grew into one of the nation's largest wholesale drug and dye companies, which exported products all over the world. During the second half of the 19th century great activities occurred on an economic level with the coming of age of the industrial era.1

Prosperity bloomed in Burlington from 1850 onwards and numerous smaller and bigger companies were founded in the city. This process was disrupted, though, during the Civil War and the economic decline of the 70's. During the 80's and 90's the economy increased again, which was also reflected in Wells & Richardson with the steady expansion of the company. The origins of the firm can be found in the small town of Waterbury, but later on it established its success in the city of Burlington. It is still possible to admire the original factory, office, and shop buildings, which reflect the vastness of the enterprise. To understand the history behind the buildings it is important to understand the deeper history of the firm and the story of its success.

In 1867 the wholesale druggist and manufacturer of patent medicines, John J. Henry & Company, moved its business from Waterbury to Burlington in search of a larger market and better transportation facilities.2 With the partnership of General William W. Wells, General William W. Henry, Edward Wells, Albert E. Richardson, E.B. Johnson, Ben H. Dewey, and Loren B. Lord, the company established itself under the name Henry & Johnson Co. on 12 St. Paul Street in Burlington. The famous general William W. Wells, Jr. (1837 - 1892) was a decorated war veteran and even received the Medal of Honor in the Battle of Gettysburg for his exceptional service for the Union. In 1870 the company was then divided into three firms, which, in 1872, resulted in the establishment of Wells, Richardson & Company. Gen. William Wells left the firm because he took the position as Customs Collector and was therefore replaced by William J. van Patten.3 In 1873 Henry Wells joined the firm too. They located their new firm on 105 College Street. These men were all part of Burlington’s elite, which resulted in a substantial amount of capital invested in this firm, which attributed greatly to its success. In 1874 the board decided to hire the firm of H. Ruby & Brothers to design and build a large office, laboratory, shop, and storage space on 123-125 College Street.4 This well-preserved building shows the wealth and professionalism poured into this firm.

From that time on, the company grew into a worldwide producer of proprietary medicines, dyes, and food coloring, with branches in Montreal, London, England and Sydney, Australia.5 In 1883 architect Alfred Benjamin Fisher was commissioned to build a secondary store and laboratory next to the main office on 127-129 College Street.6 Presumably in 1887 a factory was set up behind the main offices on College Street, to keep up with the increasing demand on Wells & Richardson products. The Burlington Free Press mentions the erection of a building in the rear of the main buildings.7 The company's most important products were Kidney-Wort, advertised as the safest and surest remedy ever discovered for kidney diseases, liver complaints, constipation, rheumatism and so on.8 Paine's Celery Compound, a blood purifier and nerve tonic, was also a major success for the company. According to the company it was assured to cure rheumatism.

Wells & Richardson Complex
Figure 3. Wells & Richardson advertisement, around 1896. Courtesy of University of Vermont Library Special Collections.
Wells & Richardson Complex
Figure 4. Wells & Richardson advertisement, around 1896. Courtesy of University of Vermont Library Special Collections.

The third major part of the production was Diamond Dyes, for domestic dyeing, and Golden Extract Butter Coloring.9 Including the food coloring business, these three products made up two-thirds of the company's exports. The secret of Wells & Richardson's success was twofold. First, during the second half of the 19th century, proprietary medicines were patented preparations that could be produced solely by the manufacturer. The contents of these medicines were unknown to the gullible public. Wells & Richardson profited from the wave of medical quackery.10 Some of these medicines worked, others did not.11 Wells & Richardson purchased the majority of their drugs patents from other manufacturers or invented themselves. Most of these "so called" medicines consisted of water, herbs, alcohol, or even opiates. People kept buying these products, which were relatively cheap to manufacture. The second reason is the aggressive and substantial advertising campaign of the company, from a modest expenditure of 4,000 dollars annually in 1874, to half a million dollars in the early 1900's.12 The marketing of these products came from the mind of Albert E. Richardson, head of the sales department, who understood that a lot of profit could be made from these products in combination with a well-planned national advertising campaign.13 This resulted in the construction of a large printing office, with more than 25 printing presses, on 119 Main Street in 1897. It produced pamphlets, sales-promotional materials, and labels.14

The slow decline of the company started in the early 1900's. With the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, manufacturers were obliged to mention the contents of their product on the label if specific drugs, including heroin, cocaine, morphine, or alcohol were added. The content of these secret "wonder medicines" became publicly known. Although these products were not illegal at that time, consumers were less inclined to buy these products and the sales of patent medicines slowly wound down. Another reason was the upcoming textile industry and mass production, which caused a decreasing interest in home dyeing.15 During the 1920's the company was changed to Wells-Richardson Co. and the business rights were sold to Sterling Drug Company.

At one point the company was solely using the printing department on Main Street. In 1942-43, after more than seven decades of business, the doors closed for the company. An enterprise that employed in the height of its success more than two hundred people and made its fame all over the world could not claim its position in the medicine market anymore, although it made the founders of the company incredibly rich.

Wells & Richardson Complex
Figure 5. Southeast view on north front facades of the Wells & Richardson offices on College Street. September 28, 2013. Photographer: Egbert Stolk.
Wells & Richardson Complex
Figure 6. Interior of the Wells & Richardson office, date unknown. From the Digital Archive of the University of Vermont Library Special Collections. Photographer Louis. L. McAllister.

The buildings of the Wells & Richardson Company are situated in the block between College, St. Paul and Pine Street. It is possible that the first company buildings were constructed on 121-123 and 125-127 College Street by the Roby Brothers as two four-story buildings around 1874. In the early months of 1883 efforts were made to create a new main office and shop on the adjoining lot, on 129-131 College Street.16 This beautiful High Victorian brick building was constructed as a five-bay 50 by 80 feet deep office space. Although it was build in the same architectural style, there are some noticeable differences with the adjoining original headquarters. The red brown brick is darker than the adjoining building and the façade is in comparison richly decorated. A center-bay door originally characterized the storefront on the first floor with two large glass paned windows on each side.17 Three of those windows and the entrance are still preserved. The rightmost window was removed at an unknown date. Above the windows, square and round stained-glass transom light panes give the storefront an elegant touch. Cast iron piers separate the store windows. From the second to the top floor, the center bay windows are narrowly arched in pairs of two. The left and right windows on the second and third floor are squared paired windows. On the top floor the windows on the left and right have segmental arches. The lintels, sills, and arches around the windows have rough surfaced granite blocks. Terracotta details are placed in the walls between each floor. The elaborate cornice is a mix of terra cotta, brick brackets, protruding pilasters and granite finials placed on top of the roof. Centered on top of the roof is a granite and brick arched panel with the inscription. "1883 Wells & Richardson." After 1883 this building served as the main office of the Wells & Richardson Company with a store on the first floor. The rear was also used for a storage area.

Behind the main office an alley divides the main offices from a large four-story brick factory building. At the end of October of 1883 construction of the factory was started.18 According to the Burlington Free Press it started out as a 56 by 75 feet building. The factory was placed perpendicular to the main offices on an east-west axis. The newspaper mentions the eastern part of the factory, which was made of brick, but the western part, was a wooden frame construction, which was later to be replaced by brick in 1887.19 The difference is characterized by a small elevation of the newer section of the building. Each wall of the factory has large segmental-arched windows to let light into the factory. A basement was constructed to facilitate the manufacturing process. An underground passageway connected the western part of the factory with the building on 125-127 College Street and a wooden air bridge connected the eastern part of the factory with the main office building on 129-131 College Street.20 The boiler and engine room was housed in a smaller separate building placed on the west side of the factory. The purpose of the factory was the production of dyes and medicines. The factory building that currently stands is the result of different adaptations and enlargements during the course of time. Because of the growth of the company more space and production facilities were added during the three decades after its foundation, as you can see clearly on the Sanborn maps.

Between 1894 and 1906 a big enlargement was made to the west side of the factory in constructing a bigger heating plant. This brick L-shaped one-story addition to the factory on 118 Pine Street is currently painted in a different color then the rest of the factory, but it was renovated after the closure of the factory. The original four pilasters and recessed segmented arched windows flank the center bay entrance. Two large tapered brick chimney towers are clearly visible in the back of the building. The space behind the boiler room is a two-story brick building, or maybe addition is a more suitable word, to connect the factory and the boiler room together, and is known as the Phelps building.

The last major building added to the Wells & Richardson complex is the Printing Office on 119 Main Street. Constructed in 1897, it is a large four-story red-brick building with Italian Renaissance Revival elements.21 The building has a facade is five-bay wide east facade with round and segmental arched windows, while the side is eight bays deep. The first floor is three bays wide, with a centered entrance and one window on each side placed in a horizontal brick banding. The top of the first floor is characterized by a brick entablature. The windows on the first floor have rough surfaced granite sills and arched keystone brick lintels. The three recessed arches reach up to the fourth floor and flank the centered windows. The two windows that are placed each on the outside are smaller recessed windows with segmented arches and round arches on the fourth floor. The cornice is adorned with brick ornaments and stepped along the portion of the roof.22 Segmented arched windows are placed along the side of the walls. In the rear, a wooden framed bridge connected the printing office with the factory.

Wells & Richardson Complex
Figure 7. East view on western elevation of the Wells & Richardson Complex with the boiler room up front on Pine Street. September 28, 2013. Photographer: Egbert Stolk.
Wells & Richardson Complex
Figure 8. Northwest view on south front facade of the Wells & Richardson printing office on Main Street. November 30, 2013 Photographer: Egbert Stolk.

Notes (Wells & Richardson Co.)

1. Joseph Amrein, Burlington, Vermont: The Economic History of a Northern New England City (New York University, Graduate School of Business Administration, 1958), 37.
2. David J. Blow, Historic Guide to Burlington Neighborhoods, Vol. II (Burlington, VT: Chittenden County Historical Society, 1997), 51.
3. Blow, A guide to Burlington's Neighborhood, Volume II, 50.
4. Clark Schoettle, Reference Sheet History of Architecture in Burlington (Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Library, Special Collections)
5. State of Vermont, Agency of Development and Community Affairs, National Register of Historic Place; Nominations Form, (Montpelier, Vermont: 1979).
6. Chester Liebs, ed., Historic Preservation Program, Department of History, University of Vermont, comp., The Burlington Book: Architecture, History, Future (Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Historic Preservation Program, 1980) 85.
7. The Burlington Free Press, (Burlington, VT: August 7, 1887).
8. Jon Fritschel, "Butter Color, Diamond Dye and Kidney-Wort," Bottles and Extras: The Official Publication of the Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors (Summer Edition 1973), 14.
9. Fritschel, 15.
10. National Register Historic Survey, 1979.
11. Fritschel, 42.
12. Ibid., 14.
13. Blow, A guide to Burlington's Neighborhood, Volume II, 52.
14. Ibid., 51.
15. Fritschel, Butter Color, Diamond Dye and Kidney-Wort, 14.
16. The Burlington Free Press, March 12 1883.
17. Schoettle, Reference Sheet History of Architecture in Burlington.
18. Ibid., November 9 1883, 3.
19. Ibid., August 7 1887.
20. Insurance Maps of Burlington, Vermont (New York: Sanborn-Perris Map Co.,1889), Sheet 21.
21. National Register Historic Survey, 1979.
22. Ibid.

Crystal Confectionary Company: Manufacturer of confectionary goods
116 Main Street and 101 College Street

In the 1889-1990 Burlington city directory, the names Macrae & Montgomery appeared for the first time. A confectionary and tobacco factory, presumably small, was first situated on the corner of Cherry Street and St. Paul Street. After a short period of time, according to the report of the historic landmark survey, the company wanted to expand their business and created the Crystal Confectionary Company, manufacturers and wholesale confectioners, and dealers in cigars and nuts, together with the assistance of industrialist U.A. Woodbury and K.B. Walker.23 It is also possible that due to a fire in the factory, mentioned in the Vermont Phoenix of May 22 1891, the structure was badly damaged, which could have given the incentive to move the factory and reorganize the company. Shortly afterwards the company started on the construction in the summer months of 1891 on 116 Main Street.24

Walker and Woodbury also built other buildings in the same block to house retail space and offices of the factory on the northwest corner of St. Paul and Main Street, which is also called the Woodbury-Walker block, and was designed by Burlington architect Clellan W. Fisher, the son of the famous architect Alfred Benjamin Fisher.25 The factory was a four-story frame building with a brick outside wall covered with a patent granite roofing and connected by an air bridge to the back of the brick factory office, located on 139 St. Paul Street. This building was divided in a store, pharmacy, and office space of the Crystal Confectionary Company.

Woodbury himself became the president of the company and Walker the vice-president and manager of the factory. Montgomery and Macrae became the auditors of the company and composed the financial committee.26 Probably the financial input of Woodbury and Walker gave them the leading position in the firm. Woodbury was one of Burlingtonâ’s major business and political figure in Burlington. A one-armed Civil War veteran, he owned multiple enterprises and served as Burlingtonâ’s mayor in 1885 and 1886 and was even Vermont's governor from 1895 until 1897. At about 1869, Kilburn B. Walker came to Burlington, where he continued in the business of marble. He was employed by the Burlington Manufacturing Company as a superintendent at about 1873 but joined his brother L.A. Walker in opening a marble fitting and cutting firm on the southwest corner of College and St. Paul Street.27 So before leading the Crystal Confectionary firm both Walker and Woodbury already had been experienced in managing positions. Woodbury was also one of the people who set up the Queen City Cotton Company.

The new confectionary firm had stockholders and a workforce of forty people with ambitions to expand in the future to 75 employees. The plans of these two did not last very long. Both men left their positions in the company in 1894 for different reasons, although the son of Kilburn Walker continued to be the treasurer of the company until his death and his widow took over this position. Woodbury returned to the company as president in 1896 after his governorship of Vermont.28

The company grew over the years and eventually Crystal Confectionary moved their business to a larger building on 101 College Street in 1902. There a new factory was constructed with a façade that bears the name Woodbury and the date 1902.

Crystal Confectionary and Mead Manufacturing factories on College Street
Figure 9. Southwest view on north facades of the former Crystal Confectionary and Mead Manufacturing factories on College Street, October 2013. Photographer Egbert Stolk.

The old building on Main Street was eventually transformed into apartment buildings in 1920 and the old Crystal Confectionary offices on St. Paul Street were badly damaged during the big fire of 1910, which destroyed and/or damaged a lot of properties on the Woodbury Walker block. Eventually the former factory was demolished in order to make way for a parking lot, which marks the disappearance of the building on 116 Main Street.

The new location on College Street was a four-story rectangular brick block on the southwest corner of Pine and College Street. Woodbury acquired this piece of land together with Charles B. Gray for business purposes.29 At first the company shared the building with Mead Manufacturing Company Overalls Factory, which was also owned by U.A. Woodbury, but after a couple of years another block was constructed next to the existing factory and the Crystal Confectionary factory was moved to that location. According to U.A. Woodbury the growing business of Crystal Confectionary and the lack of space made the construction of a new separate building necessary.30

The Mead Factory was located at 101-103 College Street and the Crystal Confectionary Company at 97-99 College Street.  The date of the fourth location of the Crystal Confectionary factory was around 1911, because from 1912 onwards Crystal Confectionary had its address listed at 97-99 College Street instead of Corner of College and Pine Street. On the Sanborn map of 1912, two factory buildings existed exist next to each other.

Another change occurred in the factory between 1912 and 1919. At first the factory consisted of a rectangular brick building with an iron and wooden frame store space attached to the rear. On the 1919 Sanborn map one can clearly see that the store has been replaced by a brick building, which forms an extension of the main factory, probably for storing. An explanation could be that Crystal Confectionary Company did not sell their candy in their own story anymore, but focused on wholesale for other candy stores.

Despite its initial success, in 1926 the company was taken over by Riggi Brothers Confectionary Company. Sadly the company did not last longer than a year. This left the building vacant for a long period of time until Green Mountain Distillery moved in there in 1938. After a period of more than 30 years and multiple people and locations involved, the confectionary company had to close its business.

The original Woodbury building and the fourth location of the Crystal Confectionary factory are still standing on 101 College Street and house retirement apartments. Although they look like one building, the eastern section was built earlier. The façade betrays the different styles used in the building. The western building was built later and consists itself of two different sections in the rear. The brick middle section was constructed after the Second World War, probably to accommodate the new domestic function of the buildings. The exterior seemed to be unaltered except for the new side entrance on the structure's western section.

Notes (Crystal Confectionary Company)

23. Burlington City Directory for 1892, (Burlington, VT: L.P. Waite and Co., 1892), 113.
24. The Burlington Weekly Free Press, June 12 1891 (Burlington, VT), 5.
25. David J. Blow: A Guide to Burlington Neighborhoods Volume I, (Burlington: Chittenden County Historical Society, 1991), 127.
26. Burlington Weekly Free Press, August 14 1891, 5.
27. Blow, A Guide to Burlington Neighborhoods Volume I, 127.
28. Burlington Weekly Free Press, January 16 1896, 5.
29. Ibid., September 18 1902, 5.
30. Ibid., November 3 1910, 7.

Mead Manufacturing Company: Manufacturer of overalls
101 College Street

Although the Burlington city directories and archives do not mention much about the Mead Manufacturing Company, the Burlington Weekly Free Press reported that the company was first located in Berlin, New Hampshire. To attract more manufacturers to Burlington the City Council decided in 1902 that the Mead Company would be exempted from taxation for a period of ten years, if it would move the entire company to Burlington. The company then still owned by Mr. Mead found space in part of the C.A. Hibbard Boot Company located on 52-54 College Street; plans were also made to invest money into the company by creating stockholders.31

The company, under the presidency of U.A. Woodbury, then moved to a new location at the end of 1902 and was located in the same building as the Crystal Confectionary Company on the corner of Pine and College Street. Woodbury may have had a large influence in the company, as he did with the creation of Crystal Confectionary, by owning the building and a share of the company. They initially manufactured overalls, working pants, shirts, coats, and woolen pants, and were a wholesale company. No store was incorporated into the building.

Mead Manufacturing Company Advertisement
Fig. 10. Mead Manufacturing Company Advertisement. From the Burlington City Directory of 1906 (Burlington, VT: L.P. Waite and CO., 1906).

The company changed ownership at least one time. In the Burlington city directory of 1929, the company is described as Mead Mfg Co. (Inc), workingman's garments, with Charles L. Woodbury as president, treasurer and manager of the company. At the beginning of the 30's it changed the focus towards manufacturing of hunting and sporting clothing.32 The office was located in the Hotel Vermont. By the end of World War II the company eventually closed its doors with more than forty years of manufacturing history behind it. The description of the building is already included in the Crystal Confectionary section.

Notes (Mead Manufacturing Company)

31. Burlington Weekly Free Press, February 20, 1902, 8.
32. Manning's Burlington Winooski and Essex Junction Directory of 1933 (Springfield, MA: H.A. Manning Co., 1933), 128.

Green Mountain Distillery: Distillery for maple liquor, liqueur and spirits
101 College Street

After a couple of years of vacancy the space, which used to house the Crystal Confectionary Company, was taken by a new company in 1936. The Green Mountain Distillery Company (Inc.) was run by president Frank H. Mahoney, former vice-president and general-manager of New England Distiller Inc. Director William Knox, the inventor of Green Mountain Liquor, Vice President Joseph F. Dufresner, Treasurer Ralph G. Brown and Secretary Raymond A. Contois also took part in this new enterprise.33

The idea behind the company was to start a new distillery company in Burlington. Although Burlington had different distilleries during the early years, all of them disappeared over the years when Prohibition took effect from 1920 until 1933. When the Green Mountain Distillery started it was the only distillery in Burlington. The five-story building was reconstructed to install a modern distilling plant as can be seen in the pictures below.

All these products were to be made from maple sugar. The idea of creating an alcoholic beverage from maple sap was not entirely new, but the Green Mountain Distillery managed to distill the Maple syrup to create liquor, which was a unique process.34 It was a daring concept to produce a global product from specific local resources and it was praised in different news articles outside the state.35

To facilitate the distillery process of rum and gin a 30 by 50 feet brick plant was to be constructed in the rear area of the warehouse in 1938. The rear plant is not visible anymore because it had to make way for a parking lot. This plant was erected to produce rum and gin in addition to the maple liquor and liqueur already produced in the main factory building.36 Six large fermenting tanks had a combined capacity of 24.000 gallons. 3500 barrels of maple liquor could be stored in the factory, to let the maple liquor age for at least six months. The same process is used for making rum.

As business gradually improved for the distillery, the Second World War had a severe detrimental effect on this small enterprise. Shortages of labor, lack of transportation and raw materials, and wartime rationing caused the closure of a lot of distilleries in America.37 Green Mountain Distillery was one of them. In early 1942 another group of investors, consisting Lawrence F. O'Toole, and Harry, Lawrence and Samuel Singal (three brothers) bought the company and created the Lawrence Distilling Company. They managed to get a lucrative contract to produce alcohol for the government, which enabled them to create a profitable business.38

Green Mountain Distillery Factory
Figure 11. Southeast view on north facade of the Crystal Confectionary and Green Mountain Distillery Factory. September 28, 2013. Photographer: Egbert Stolk.
Green Mountain Distillery Factory
Figure 12. Distilling tanks iniside the Green Mountain Distillery Factory. Courtesy of the University of Vermont Library Special Collections.
Figure 13. Southeast view on west elevation of the Green Mountain Distillery Factory around 1938. Courtesy of the University of Vermont Library Special Collections.
Green Mountain Distillery Factory
Figure 14. Storage space of the Green Mountain Distillery Factory around 1938. Courtesy of the University of Vermont Library Special Collections.

Notes (Green Mountain Distillery)

33. Manning's Burlington, Winooski, and Essex Junction Directory of 1938 (Springfield, MA: H.A. Manning Co., 1938), 88.
34. Mida's Criterion, November 1936, 59.
35. The Saturday Evening Post, September 16, 1938. (Indianapolis, Indiana: Curtis Publishing Company).
36. The Burlington Free Press, February 2 1938 (Burlington, VT).
37. Lilian Baker Carlisle,"Green Mountain Distillery: The Saga of a Vermont Industry that almost made it", Chittenden County Historical Society Bulletin (Burlington, VT: Summer 2003), 6.
38. Carlisle, "Green Mountain Distillery."

Smith Carriage Factory/ W.C. Hoag Toy Company
164 St. Paul Street

The carriage factory of Smith William & Co., manufacturers and dealers in light carriages and sleighs, started their business on 153 St. Paul Street, with their factory and office in the block northwest on the corner of St. Paul and King Street around 1886.39 The venture was a combined effort of William Smith, Alex Deyette, and John H. Tuttle. Tuttle stepped out of the business pretty quickly to start his own business in carriage manufacturing and blacksmithing on 172 St. Paul Street from 1895 onwards.40 The original factory is not visible anymore, because of demolition and construction at the site throughout the years.

W.M. Smith Carriage Company advertisement
Fig. 15. W.M. Smith Carriage Company advertisement. From the Burlington City Directory of 1889 (Burlington, VT: L.P. Waite and CO., 1889).

The manufacturing areas were modest in size, mostly built of wood frame construction. At the turn of the century the company moved its business into a newly constructed building across the street on 164-168 St. Paul Street.41 The building is still standing and is a three-story square red-brick building on the corner of St. Paul and King Street. William Smith carried on the business himself throughout the new century but passed away in the 1910's and was followed up by his son-in-law, George E. Ferrin.42

Eventually the company stopped its business in 1918. The invention of automobiles and their affordability over time made the carriage more obsolete.

The building was then used shortly as a toy factory under the name W.C. Hoag & Company.43 The Hoag Company was first based on 220 Church Street. A skating rink fire in the same block also destroyed the factory. William C. Hoag, the owner of the company, immediately purchased in 1917 the building from George E. Ferrin, the administrator of the Smith estate.44 The company consisted of William C. and Ashley E. Hoag and W.E. Buxton, manufacturer of toys and novelties.45

In May 1920, part of the factory wall collapsed, which tragically killed a man and a child. Because of this accident, stricter regulations were adopted by the city afterwards regarding the amount of weight put on floors and materials used in construction.46 This suggests that too much heavy weight was put on a deficient structure. The city officials mentioned pier buckling.47 One of the brick piers settled into the soil, which increased the weight on the other piers.48 Damage on the property was immense and the garage next to the building was entirely destroyed.49 Part of the walls kept standing and were incorporated into the rebuilt structure, built in the same year. Steel columns with concrete foundations had to provide better structural support. Frank L. Austin was the architect for the new building, which was made with help of the Burlington-based Spear Brothers Company. With the new building, the internal garage was removed to create one open space.

By 1923 the toy factory closed and was turned into a wholesale store for Hagar Hardware & Paint Co. (Inc.), which sold hardware, paints, roofing, and auto supplies. Their retail store was on 98 Church Street.

What is left though is a very well preserved historic building, which represents housing for smaller manufacturing companies to the turn of the 20th century. The building is a fine example of an early 20th century manufacturing building. Most parts of the walls originate from 1900, but because of the accident in the early 1900's the internal structuring and the northern part of the wall is probably from 1920. The removal of the garage to place windows is part of the explanation. The three-story red sand-struck brick building stands prominently on the northeast corner of St. Paul and King Streets. The building is similar in size, materials and architectural features of adjacent buildings in the neighborhood.50

Smith and Hoag Companies
Fig. 16. Northeast view on south elevation and west facade of the former Smith and Hoag Companies. Sepember 28, 2013. Photographer: Egbert Stolk.
W.M. Smith Carriage Company advertisement
Fig. 17. Interior space of the factory around 1987. Photographer: Prof. T. Visser, University of Vermont.

Notes (Smith Carriage Factory/ W.C. Hoag Toy Company)

39. Burlington City Directory, 1886-7, 203.
40. Ibid., 1895, 256.
41. Ibid., 1900, 235.
42. Burlington Weekly Free Press, October 18, 1917, 11.
43. Burlington City Directory, 1918, 417.
44. Burlington Weekly Free Press, October 18, 1917, 11.
45. Burlington City Directory, 1922, 198.
46. Burlington Weekly Free Press, September 9, 1920, 8.
47. Ibid., May 27, 1920, 9.
48. Ibid., May 27, 1920, 5.
49. Ibid., May 6, 1920, 7.
50. Inventory National Register of Historic Places Survey (Burlington, VT), 1987.

O.L. Hinds Company: Manufacturer of men's clothing, overalls, and duck goods
161 St. Paul Street

The firm of O.L. Hinds Company started out in 1895 with a factory in Richford, Vermont that was built in 1901 with their business offices in St. Albans, Vermont.51 The head of the company was O.L. Hinds. In 1902 the company was persuaded to move part of the company to the city by exempting it from taxes for the duration of ten years. It was the same tactic that had been used to attract the Mead Company. The company was planning to start a factory with about fifty machines and was capable of attracting around sixty workers.52 The biggest problem with the other factory was that it could not attract enough workers to expand the company. The company also consolidated with the Burlington Shirt Company, which was located on the corner of St. Paul and College Streets, east of the Wells & Richardson offices, and the company was made into a stock concern.53 The location of the O.L. Hinds factory in Burlington was to be on the northwest corner of King and St. Paul Streets, and construction was started at the end of the summer of 1902. The house that was located on the land purchased was moved to a vacant lot behind the armory in the same block.54 The company existed for more than forty years, when eventually before the breakout of World War II the company closed down.

The building is now being used as apartments and has been modified, but the exterior has been well preserved. The old factory as it stands now is a three-story red brick building with a basement that is exposed on the southern part of the building due to the slope of the sidewalk. The east front façade is 12 bays wide in which the segmented-arched windows are paired up in groups of three, each placed in a slight recessed arch that reaches from the first to the third floor. On the first floor three large segmental arched windows are placed on the left of the entrance, which is placed on the right side of the façade. The brick wall has a red coarse stone foundation with smaller windows to bring light into the basement. The building has been preserved well, with only a large modification placed on the former roof of the building to accomodate housing.

O.L. Hinds Overall factory
Fig. 19. South elevation facing King Street of the old O.L. Hinds Overall factory at 161 St. Paul Street. September 28, 2013. Photographer: Egbert Stolk.

Notes (O.L. Hinds Overall Company)

51. Burlington Weekly Free Press, May 15, 1902, 8.
52. Ibid., May 15, 1902, 8.
53. Ibid., May 15, 1902, 5.
54. Ibid., September 4, 1902, 5.