Ancient Sources

Some Useful Materials


A. D. Lee, ed., Pagans and Christians in Late Antiquity: A Sourcebook. BR128.R7 L44 2000
Maas, Michael. Readings in Late Antiquity: a Sourcebook. DG78 .M22 2000
Whittaker, Molly. Jews and Christians: Graeco-Roman Views. DS115.5 .W48 1984


Inscriptions: CIL on microfiche: Microfiche 225. Indexes LRA CN520 .G68 1965
ILS: Dessau, H. Inscriptiones latinae selectae. LRA CN521 .D4
Ehrenberg, V., and A.H.M. Jones. Documents Illustrating the Reigns of Augustus and Tiberius. LRA PA3416.Z5 HS1949
Charlesworth, M.P. Documents Illustrating the Reigns of Claudius and Nero. LRA DG284 .C5
Smallwood, E.M. Documents Illustrating the Principates of Gaius, Claudius, and Nero. DG281 .S66
Smallwood, E.M. Documents Illustrating the Principates of Nerva, Trajan, and Hadrian. DG292 .S6


RIC: Roman Imperial coinage. ed. H. Mattingly et al. CJ969 .R6 13 volumes


Jones, A.H.M., Martindale, J.R., Morris, J. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire volumes 1 and 2 (library does not have volume 3)

Ancient Sources by Name (where known)

Aelian (Claudius Aelianus) c. 170-235. Several works, including Varia Historia (Historical Miscellany), De natura animalium (On the Characteristics of Animals) Loeb. (look up under Aelian and under Aelianus, Claudius.

Agathias. c. 531-580. Histories. 5 books continuing Procopius, covering 553-559. English trans. J.D. Frendo DF572 .A38

Ambrose. c. 339-397. Funerary orations for Valentinian II (392) and Theodosius (395). Various works translated (mostly into English); look up under Ambrose, Saint, Bishop of Milan

Ammianus Marcellinus. c. 330-395. Res gestae in 31 books continuing Tacitus, covering 98-378; books 14-31 (353-378) extant. Loeb. The Later Roman Empire, tr. W. Hamilton (not entire) PA6204 .E5 1986

Anonymus De rebus bellicis. Written c. 370 (?), transmitted with Notitia Dignitatum, containing reform proposals for the empire's finances and design for military machinery. Text, translation, introduction by E.A. Thompson DG85 .D413 1952

Anonymus Valesianus (Excerpta Valesiana). Two texts by different authors. Chs. 1-35 deal with life of Constantine, chs. 36-96 History of Italy under Odoacer and Theoderic, 474-526. English translation in third volume of Loeb Ammianus.

Apollonius of Tyana. first century. Letters of Apollonius of Tyana: a critical text with prolegomena, translation and commentary by Robert J. Penella. PA3871.A6 A8313

Apuleius. c. 123-after 161. The Golden Ass (Metamorphoses) trans. P.G. Walsh PA6209.M3 W35 1994. Apologia and Florida trans. H.E. Butler LRA PA6209.A5 B8. Rhetorical Works trans. S. Harrison et al.PA6209 .M73 2001. Many other editions and commentaries.

Aristides, Aelius. 117 or 129-181 (or later). Orations, Sacred Teachings. Loeb. Complete Works trans. C.A. Behr OA3874 .A7 E5 1981

Arnobius. late 3d century. Adversus nationes (Against the Pagans). Latin text LRA BR65.C55 R4. not available in English, but see Courcelle in Momigliano 1963.

Arrian (Flavius Arrianus). 2nd century. Expedition against the Alani, Anabasis (Alexander the Great), Cynegeticus, Dissertations of Epictetus, Fragmenta Historica, Indica, Periplus of the Euxine Sea, Tactics. The account of Alexander the Great is extant; fragments of historical works not available in English.

Athanasius. Greek Church Father. c. 295-373. Bishop of Alexandria. Contra gentes (Against the Pagans) and De incarnatione (On the Incarnation) trans. R.W. Thomson BT1116.A82 C6 1971. On the Incarnation trans. P. Lawson BR65.A443 D413 1981. Orations against the Arians LRA BT11350 .A78 1893. Life of Antony and the Letter to Marcellinus trans. R.C. Gregg BR1720.A6 A8313 1980.

Augustine (Aurelius Augustinus). 354-430. De civitate dei (City of God); Confessions. (Loeb) Confessions, tr. H. Chadwick (Oxford); Clark, G. Augustine: The Confessions. 1993. BR65.A62 C53 1993. 90 items; look up under Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo.

Aurelius Victor, Sex. Liber de Caesaribus to 360, short biographies of emperors from Augustus to Constantius II. Transmitted with Liber de viris illustribus urbis Romae and Epitome de Caesaribus (short biographies, continued to 395). There is a French translation PA6966 .F4 1975. No Loeb. A private translation available of the two biographical works (only the last part of the second), and there is a translation of the De viris illustribus by W.K. Sherwin, Jr., which I own.

Ausonius Magnus, Dec. Latin orator, c. 310-395. Letters, many poems; oration thanking Gratian for his consulship (379). (Loeb). Green, R.P.H. The Works of Ausonius. 1991. PA6221 .A2 1991 (this is text and commentary but no trans.)

Benedictus of Nursia. Latin Church Father. c. 480-550. Regula Benedicti foundation of western monasticism.17 different versions in library, many in English; look under Benedict, Saint, Abbot of Monte Cassino.

Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus. c. 480-524. Consolatio philosophiae ( Consolation of Philosophy) trans. P.G. Walsh B659.D472 E5 1999, trans. J.C. Relihan B659.C2 E52 2001; 31 works in total, search under Boethius, d. 524

Caesarius of Arles. Sermons. BR60 .F3 v. 31, 47, 66 of The Fathers of the Church.

Cassiodorus (Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus, Senator). c. 490-583. Chronica (brief history of Rome to 519), a history of the Goths (lost, used by Jordanes), other works. Variae. Models for, or actual, official letters, 507-537, trans. S.J.B. Barnish DG506 .C32 1992

Claudian (Claudius Claudianus). d. c. 404. Latin poet (from Alexandria) at court of Honorius. Political invective, panegyrics. Barr, W. Claudian's Panegyric on the fourth consulate of Honorius LRA PA6373.E5 P34 1981; Loeb; In Rufinum LRA PA6372.I73 L4 (commentary)

Codex Theodosianus. QUARTO K436.A11 C6

Dexippus, P. Herennius. 3d century. History to 269-270, Gothic Wars 238-275. Nothing in English; library has Dexippi, Eunapii, Petri Patricii, Prisci, Malchi, Menandri, Historiarum quae supersunt e recensione Imm. Bekkeri et B.G. Niebuhrii cum versione latina per IO. Classenum emendata. Accedunt Eclogae Photii ex Olympiodoro, Candido, Nonnoso et Theophane, et Procopii Sophistae Panegyricus, graece et latine, Prisciani Panegyricus, annotationes Henr. Valesii, Labbei et Villoisonis, et indices Classeni. DG503 .B4 1829. See also FGrH (if you read Greek)

Dio (Cassius Dio Cocceianus), c. 155-235. History of Rome from foundation to 229. Reign of Augustus translated in Penguin DG207 .C3713 1987; Loeb of extant portions of entire work.

Dio Chrysostom (Dio Cocceianus, not the same as the historian). c. 40-after 112. Orations (some actually delivered). Loeb

Ennodius, c. 473-521. Panegyric of Theoderic, letters. French translation of letters BR65 .E56 1906. Latin text of works in MGH (Monumenta Germaniae Hostorica) DD3.M8 A8 v.7

Eugippius, d. after 553. Vita Sancti Severini (S. died 482; end of Roman rule in Noricum) (Life of St. Severinus). trans. L. Biehler BR60 .F3 v.55; trans. G.W. Robinson LRA BR1720.S4 R6

Eunapius, c. 345-420. Lives of the Sophists, History from 270-404 (continuing Dexippus). (Lives: Loeb; fragments of history in Blockley 1981-3)

Eusebius, of Caesarea, c. 260-340. Life of Constantine. Introduction, translation, and commentary by Averil Cameron and Stuart G. Hall. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999 DG315 .E8913 1999. Online translations: Paul Halsall's Medieval Sourcebook; New Advent; CCEL
The History of the Church from Christ to Constantine trans. G.A. Williamson (London, 1989).
Panegyric to Constantine trans. H.A. Drake DG315 .D73; online translation

Eutropius, late 4th century. Breviarium historiae Romanae (Short History of Rome) from Romulus to Jovian; dedicated to Valens. Breviarum, tr. H. W. Bird but nil; only Latin available (see also Paul the Deacon) in print at UVM; online translation

Festus, Rufius. late 4th century. Eadie, J.W. The Breviarium of Festus: a critical edition with historical commentary. 1967. PA6385 .F6 1967; online translation

Frontinus, Sex. Iulius. Stratagems and Aqueducts. Loeb. Online translation of Aqueducts

Fronto, M. Cornelius. c. 100-166. Tutor of Marcus Aurelius. Letters Loeb, commentary on letters M.P.J. van den Hout PA6389.F7 H68 1999

Gaius, 2d century. Roman jurist. Institutes trans. W.M. Gordon and O.F. Robinson, with Latin text, KJA882.A3413 A4 1988; see also Scott 1932.

Gildas. d. c. 570. On the Ruin of Britain and Other Works trans. M. Winterbottom DA135 .G5413 1978

Gregory of Nazianzus. 329-389. Funeral Orations by Saint Gregory Nazianzen and Saint Ambrose, trans. L.P. McCauley et al. BR60 .F3 v.22

Gregory of Nyssa, c. 330-395.. Ascetical works trans. V.W. Callaban BR60 .F3 v.58; Easter Sermons trans. and commentary LRA BR65.G76 I56 1978; Life of Saint Macrina trans. K. Corrigan BR1720.M22 G713 1995

Gregory of Tours, 538-594. History of the Franks. trans. E. Brehaut DC64.G8 B6 1965; trans. L. Thorpe DC64.G8 P46 1974. online translation

Herodian. With an English translation by C.R. Whittaker. Loeb. PA4001 .H4 1969 2 volumes. History of the Roman Empire from the death of Marcus Aurelius to the accession of Gordian III. Translated from the Greek by Edward C. Echols. Berkeley 1961. DG298 .H4 1961 LRA. Online at and

Isidore, Bishop of Seville 602-636. History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi trans. G. Donini and G.B. Ford D135 .I813 1970; no English translation of the Etymologies.

Jerome (Eusebius Hieronymus), c. 348-420. Homilies trans. M.L. Ewald BR60 .F3; Letters trans. C.C. Mierow BR60 .A35 no.33; On Illustrious Men trans. T.P. Halton BR60 .F3 v.100; Translation of Jerome's Chronicon with Historical Commentary M.D. Donalson BR65.J473 C4713 1996. 24 listings in all; search under Jerome, Saint.

Jordanes. d. after 551. De origina actibusque Getarum (Getica), History of the Goths, excerpted from Cassiodorus. English trans. by C.C. Mierow D137 .J9 1960; online

Josephus, Flavius. b. c 37/8. Jewish War trans. varii DS122.8 .J73; QUARTO DS122.8 .J83 J67 1982; Loeb; Penguin

Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, Augustus 361-363), 332-363. Orations, letters, and other works. Loeb

Justin Martyr. 100-165. Apologies and other works, trans. T.B. Falls BR60 .F3 v.6

Justinian (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus, Augustus 527-565). c.482-565. Institutes trans. P. Birks and G. McLeod KJA1088 .E5 1987

Juvenal (Dec. Iunius Iuvenalis), late 1st-early 2d century, d. after 127. Verse satirist; Loeb, Penguin, other translations in print; 34 items in library

Lactantius, c. 240-320. On the Deaths of the Persecutors (De mortibus persecutorum) trans. J.L. Creed BR65.L23 D43513 1984; online text; minor works BR60 .F3 v.54

Libanius, 314-c.393. Speeches and letters. Loeb has some orations, letters.

Lydus, Johannes Laurentius. c. 490-560. On Powers, or, The Magistracies of the Roman State, trans. A.C. Bandy Q11 .P612 vol. 149; trans. T.F. Carney PA5319.J6 E33 1971

Macrobius, Ambrosius Theodosius. 5th century. Saturnalia; no English translation in library. Commentary on Cicero's Somnium Scipionis trans. W.H. Stahl PA6498.E6 S8

Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Augustus 161-180). 121-180. Meditations (variously titled in English): Meditations trans. G. Hays B580.H3 M3713 2002; trans G. Long B580 .L6 1964 Emperor's Handbook trans. C.S. Hicks and D.V. Hicks B580 .H53 M3713 2002. Letters: see Fronto.

Martial (M. Valerius Martialis), c.40-104. Epigrams. 21 items in library. Loeb and other translations.
Merobaudes, Flavius. Orator and poet. Panegyrics on A‘tius (only fragments) trans. F.M. Clover QUARTO Q11 .P6 v.61 pt.1 n.s.

Notitia Dignitatum. Copy made in 1551 of older ms (now lost), showing Eastern and Western halves of Empire after its division in 395. Each has index, lists of magistracies and magistrates' functions, illustrations. Ed. O. Seeck DG83.5 .A1 S3 1876a. no translations.

Olympiodorus, b. before 380, d. after 425. History, only fragments. See Blockley 1981-3.

Panegyrici Latini. 12 panegyrics of various emperors by different orators (Pliny's Panegyricus plus 11 late Roman orations, 289-389) trans. (except Pliny, found in Loeb) C.E.V. Nixon and B. Rodgers PA6166 .P36 1994

Paul the Diacon, c. 720-799. Historia Romana continues Eutropius to Justinian. No English version; library has Eutropi Breviarium ab urbe condita cum versionibus graecis et Pauli Landolfique additamentis, ed. H. Droysen. DD3.M8 A8 t.2. Historia Langobardorum (History of the Lombards) trans. W.D. Foulke DG511 .P413 1974

Paulus, Julius. early 3d century Roman jurist. Sententiae (Opinions). See Scott 1932.

Petronius Arbiter, mid-first c. Satyricon. 59 listings, translations of whole or part into various languages.

Philoponus, John. c. 490-570. Commentaries on various of Aristotle's works; 9 listings, all in English.

Philostorgius, c. 368-430/440. Church History continues Eusebius to 425 (fragments only), epitomized by Photius. trans. E. Wal BR160.S8 W32x

Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana; Lives of the Sophists. Loeb

Photius. 858-867 and 878-886 patriarch of Constantinople. Bibliotheke contains excerpts from, and tables of contents of, many ancient works, including late antique authors such as Olympiodorus. French translation PA5330 .B5 1959

Pliny the Elder (C. Plinius Secundus), 23/24-79. Natural History. Loeb. Selections in a Penguin volume

Pliny the YoungerElder (C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus), Pangyric to Trajan Loeb PA6156 .P6 1915; Letters, Loeb, Penguin

Plotinus, 205-269/70. Enneads. trans. S. MacKenna B693.E53 M3 1956; Loeb. Other translations of parts of the whole work.

Procopius, c. 500-after 562. Wars (Persian War, Vandal Wars, Gothic Wars); On Buildings (Justinian's) trans A. Stewart DS102 .P22 v.2. Anecdota (Secret History). Loeb of whole corpus. Secret History also trans. R. Atwater DF72 .P83 1961, DF572 .P83 1966 (Penguin)

Prudentius, Aurelius Clemens. 348-after 405, administrator and poet. Cathemerinon (The Daily Round) trans. D.R. Slavitt PA6648.P6 A7 1996; contra Symmachum. Loeb.

Quintilian (M. Fabius Quintilianus) c. 30-before 100. Institutio oratoria. Loeb and various other translations.

Rutilius Namatianus (Rutilius Claudius Namatianus), early 5th century. Latin poet. De reditu suo describes his travel home to Gaul from Rome in 417 in 2 books. Loeb (Minor Latin Poets)

Sapor I (Shapur), Sassanid king reigned 241-272. A. Maricq, "Res Gestae Divi Saporis" Syria 35 (1958), 295-360.

Scriptores Historiae Augustae. Loeb. PA6139 .H7 1922. 3 volumes. Birley, A., trans., Lives of the Later Caesars (earlier lives only). Online at Lacus Curtius

Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (the Elder). c. 55 BCE-39 CE. Declamations trans. M. Winterbottom (Loeb).

Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (the Youner). 4 BCE/1CE-65 CE. Essays, Letters, Apocolyntosis (perhaps). Loeb. 91 listings; various editions and translations.

Sidonius Apollinaris, c. 430-480. Poet, administrator, bishop. Verse panegyrics of fifth-century emperors, letters. Loeb Letters online

Socrates: Greek church historian. c. 380-440, from Constantinople. Continues Eusebius to 439. Book 3 online (book 3 is about Julian the Apostate); entire text online

Sozomen. c. 380-450. Ecclesiastical History trans. E. Wal BR160.S8 W32x

Statius, P. Papinius. c. 45-96. Poet. Silvae, Thebais, Achilleis. Loeb. various other translations (26 listings)

Suda (Suidas). Byzantine lexicon, major resource, not translated into English.

Suetonius Tranquillus, C. c. 69- after 122. Lives of the Twelve Caesars trans. R. Graves (Penguin). Loeb. De grammaticis et rhetoribus (short biographies of grammarians and rhetoricians) trans. R.A. Kaster PA6700.D9 S84 1995. 27 listings

Symmachus, Q. Aurelius. c. 340-402. Letters, Orations; relationes (reports) to the Emperor from 384, trans. Barrow 1973. Latin text ed. O. Seeck DD3.M8 A8 v.6 pt. 1; French translation of letters PA6704.S7 L47

Tabula Peutingeriana (Peutinger Table). For a picture, look here. 3d or 4th century. A route map of the Roman world. FOLIO G1026.P4 W4 1976 v.1-2

Tacitus, Cornelius. c. 56-after 113. The Annals, The Histories, Agricola, Germania, Dialogus. Loeb, Penguin, various translations. 79 listings

Themistius, c. 317-388. Or. 1: Downey, GRBS 1 (1958) 49-69. Private Orations of Themistius, trans. R.J. Penella. PA4441.T5 A26 2000 Themistii Orationes quae supersunt / recensuit H. Schenkl. Opus consummavit G. Downey. 1965 PA3404 .T15 1965 (no translation)

Theodoret, c. 393-466. Ecclesiastical History BR160.T6 W32 1843; History of the Monks of Syria trans. R.M. Price BR160.T6 E5 1985

Theophanes, c. 702-818. Chronicle 284-813 trans. H. Turtledove D17 .T513 1982

Ulpian (Domitius Ulpianus), Roman jurist, d. 223. See Scott 1932.

Vegetius (Flavius Vegetius Rentus), wrote between 383 and 450. Epitoma rei militaris (Military Institutions of the Romans) trans. J. Clark U35 .V4413 1985; trans. N.P. Milner U101 .V313 1996.

Victor, Bishop of Vita, d. c. 505. History of the Vandal Persecution, trans. J. Moorhead BR1608.A355 V5313 1992

Zonaras, Johannes, 12th century. Epitome of Histories, universal history to 1118. No translation available.

Zosimus, 5th or 6th century. Nova historia (New History) from Augustus to 410. French trans. F. Paschoud PA3641.B5 Z6 1971. English trans. R.T. Ridley DG207.Z89 R52 1982