Outline of Early Books of Livy

Book 1

1-3 Foundation Stories
  The Legend of Antenor
  Aeneas and the Alban Kings

3-7 Romulus and Remus
  Birth of the Twins
  Evander and the Luperci
  Recognition of the Twins
  Foundation of Rome
  Hercules and Cacus

8-16 Romulus [the founder and fighter]
  8 Constitutional Measures
    Magisterial Emblems
  9-13 Rome and the Sabines unite
    9 Rape of the Sabine women
    10-11 War with Caeninenses, Antemnates, Crustumini
    11 Story of Tarpeia
    12 Mettius Curtius and the defeat of the Sabines
    13 Reconciliation
  14 Death of Tatius
  14-15 War with Fidenae and Veii
  16 Apotheosis

17 The Interregnum

18-21 Numa [the religious figure]
  19 Temple of Janus, Reform of calendar
  20 Flamines, Vestal Virgins, the Salii, Pontiffs
  21 Shrines of Egeria and Fides; the Argei

22-31 Tullus Hostilius [the ferocious: not always in a bad way]
  22 Interregnum
  23 The Albans; Mettius Fufetius
  24-25 Battle of the Champions
    The Fetiales (see also 1.32)
  26 Perduellio
  27-29 Mettius Fufetius and the fall of Alba Longa
  30-31 Death of Tullus Hostilius (note prodigies)

32-34 Ancus Marcius [internal and military concerns]
  32 Fetial formulae
  33 War with Latins; assimilation; building
  34 Arrival of Lucumo, son of Demaratus of Corinth, from Etruria
    Lucumo renamed Lucius Tarquinius Priscus

35-40 Tarquinius Priscus [internal and military concerns]
  35 Election, adlection of new senators, Latin war, Circus Maximus
  36 Sabine war, Attus Navius the augur
  37-38 Sabine and Latin wars, buildings
  39 Introduction of Servius Tullius

40-48 Servius Tullius [founder of constitution]
  39-41 Origin and accession
    Assassination of Tarquinius Priscus
    Tanaquil nominates Servius as king
  42-43 The Servian constitution
    42 Victory over Etruscans
    43 Differentiation of citizen ranks and army
    44 Lustrum; enlargement of city (pomerium), city wall
    45 Temple of Diana (and primacy over Latins)
  46-48 Death of Servius Tullius
    46-47 Family problems
    48 Death and succession

49-60 Tarquinius Superbus [the tyrant]
  49 Tyrannical behavior
  50-52 Turnus Herdonius and the Latins
  53-56 Military activities
    53-54 Gabii and treachery
    55 Peace with Aequi, war with Etruscans
    56 Snake portent and consultation of Delphi
  57-60 Rape of Lucretia and its outcome
    57 Siege of Ardea, young officers visit home
    58 Sextus Tarquinius and Lucretia
    59 Brutus raises rebellion
    60 Tarquinius Superbus and sons exiled

Book 2

Themes to note include the struggle between plebeians and senate, creation of people's champions (tribunes of the people), their behavior and Livy's commentary on it, and frequent references to agrarian (land) legislation; frequency of conflicts with neighboring peoples, especially Volsci, Aequi, and various Etruscans.

1-2 A new beginning
  1 Preface (note comment on tribunician agitation)
   1-2 Constitutional adjustments
    Rex Sacrorum (King of Sacrifices; cf. King Archon at Athens)
  2 Abdication of Collatinus
3-5 Vindicius and the Conspiracy
  5 Digression on the Bona Regia
6-7 War against Veii and Tarquinii
  L. Valerius Poplicola
8 More constitutional arrangements

9-15 War against Lars Porsenna
  10 Horatius Cocles (for another version of this story, see Polybius 6.55)
  11 The Ambush
  12-13 C. Mucius Scaevola; Cloelia
  14 Bona Porsennae and Tuscus Vicus
    Battle of Aricia
  15 Peace with Porsenna

16-18 505-501 BCE
  16 Arrival of Attius Clausus (renamed Appius Claudius)
  17 War against Pometia and the Aurunci
  18 Trouble with Latins; creation of dictatorship

19-21 Battle of Lake Regillus and aftermath
  21 Temple of Saturn and the Saturnalia; chronological and other problems

22-33 The Struggle for the Tribunate
  22 Rome and Latium
  23-24 The Nexi (citizens forced into slavery by debt)
  25-26 Wars with Volsci, Sabines, Aurunci
  27-30 Senate vs people
  30-31 Wars with Aequi, Volsci, Sabines
  31-33 First Secession of the Plebs
    Creation of tribunes of the people
    Sp. Cassius signs important treaty with the Latins (the Foedus Cassianum)

33-40 Coriolanus
  34-35 Hostility to plebeians
  36-40 With Volsci against Rome

41 Sp. Cassius
  What happens if you try to extend a land law to Latin allies

42-51 Discord: The Fabii
  44 Speech of App. Claudius and Etruscan debate
  45-47 Victory over Veii; M. Fabius refuses a triumph
  48-50 Cremera: destruction of the Fabii

51-65 Discord: Volero, Laetorius and App. Claudius

Book 3

1-8 Wars against Aequi and Volsci, interrupted by plague at Rome
9-14 The Lex Terentilia and Trial of K. Quinctius
  9 C. Terentilius Harsa proposes that a board of five men write up laws; Q. Fabius argues against him
  10 Triumph over Aequi and Volsci
   11-14 Trial of K. Quinctius (Kaeso rendered Caeso in translation) for obnoxious patrician behavior; (falsely) accused of striking someone and causing his death; he goes into exile and his father (Cincinnatus) pays a huge fine by having to forfeit his bail

15-18 Appius Herdonius
  App. Herdonius and supporters take over Capitoline; Roman problems keep them from doing anything about it and they are saved by Latins from Tusculum

19-21 L. Quinctius Cincinnatus as suffect consul during time of political unrest
  22-23 Various military operations

24-29 Dictatorship of Cincinnatus
  Cincinnatus rescues Roman army surrounded by Aequi on Mt. Algidus
  29 The triumph

30-32 Annalistic Notices and Preliminaries to Decemvirate
  32 Embassy to Athens

32-42 The Decemvirate
  32-34 First year and publication of Ten Tables
  35-42 Second year (and more)
  38 Debate in the Senate
  39 Speech of M. Horatius
  40 Speeches of C. Claudius and L. Cornelius

43 L. Siccius Dentatus, the Roman Achilles

44-49 Verginia

50-54 Second Secession of the Plebs
  50 Speech of Verginius
  52 Speech in the Senate
  54 Speech of the envoys, election of Tribunes

Valerio-Horatian Laws
  Plebiscita, Provocatio, Sacrosanctitas
    (i.e. plebeian plebiscite binding on all Romans even patricians, right of appeal, sanctity of tribunes)

56-59 Trial of Appius Claudius

60-63 Wars with Aequi, Volsci, Sabines

64-65 Agitation by Tribunes; the Lex Trebonia

67-68 Speech of Quinctius on necessity of concord

69-72 War with Aequi and Volsci
  71 The Scaptius affair involving Ardea and Aricia

Book 4

1-6 C. Canuleius
  This tribune of the people raised the questions of plebeians being elected consul, and of intermarriage between patricians and plebeians
    Lex Canuleia (445 BCE) on intermarriage
    Consular (military) tribunes first elected (then elected for 56 of the next 78 years)

7-11 Ardea; Institution of consular tribuneship and the censorship
  7 First election of military tribunes
  8 Creation of censorship (patrician office)
  9-11 Civil/class war at Ardea brings in Romans on patrician side, Volsci on plebeian
    Repopulation of Ardea (after Rome prevails) with a new colony

12-16 Sp. Maelius
  12-13 Plebeian Sp. Maelius tries to offset food shortage with his own resources
  13 Alarmed patricians appoint L. Quinctius Cincinnatus dictator
  14 C. Servilius Ahala, dictator's master of horse, kills Sp. Maelius when he refuses to be arrested (on charge that he is aiming at kingship)
  15 Speech of Cincinnatus
  Aequimaelium (destruction of Maelius' house and consecration of the place where it stood; an aetiological story)

17-20 A. Cornelius Cossus and the Spolia Opima
  17 Roman colony at Fidenae revolts, urged on by Lars Tolumnius, king of Veii, and Fidenates kill Roman envoys
  18-20 Subsequent battle, during which Cossus kills Tolumnius
  20 Dedication of the special spoils and Livy's account of researches into the matter of spolia opima in general undertaken by Augustus

21-34 Events of 436-426 BCE
  Events include a battle at Fidenae, a supposed Lex de ambitu (which means a law against excessive electoral canvassing), dictatorship of A. Postumius and battle of Algidus, and second battle at Fidenae
  [NB To the east, the Peloponnesian war has now broken out]

35-36 Tribunician agitation

37-42 C. Sempronius and Sex. Tempanius
  Defeat by Volsci and prosecution of a general

43-47 Military operations of 421-416 BCE

48 App. Claudius defeats agrarian legislation by a clever device

49-51 M. Postumius Regillensis (another unpopular member of his family)
  After winning vs Aequi, Postumius refuses to allow his soldiers the booty, then tries to punish them so harshly that they stone him to death
    Fairly mild punishment followed

52-55 Events of 412-409 BCE

56-57 Dictatorship of P. Cornelius Cossus in war vs. Aequi and Volsci

58-61 Preliminaries of war with Veii
  58 Negotiations with Veii after truce had run out
  59 In battling Volsci, Cn. Fabius Ambustus (consular tribune) and his army capture Anxur; he shares booty with all armies
    Senate votes to have pay for military service in future
  60 War declared on Veii (405/404 BCE)

[The Peloponnesian war is now over]

Book 5

1-6 Siege of Veii commenced, with interruptions
  2 Tribunician protests
  3-6 Speech of App. Claudius

7-11 Siege of Veii continues
  8 C. Servilius Ahala; defeat of Romans at Veii
  10 Proposed co-option of patrician tribunes

11-12 Trial of Sergius and Verginius

12 Religious sanctions against Veii

13 Signs of divine displeasure, and how the Romans dealt with them

14-19 Elections, prodigies (many), draining of Alban Lake

19-23 Capture of Veii (very important) (395 BCE)
  M. Furius Camillus (one of early Rome's great heroes)
  Ritual of evocatio (calling out the gods of Veii) and institution of cult of Juno Regina
  The cuniculus (tunnel)
  Dedication to Apollo at Delphi

24-30 Interlude
  24-25 Civil unrest and criticism of Camillus over spoils and dedication to the god
  26-27 Capture of Falerii
  28 Embassy to Delphi and the Liparians

29-30 Tribunes' motion to move to Veii

31-32 Prosecution of Camillus

33-35 Clusium and the Invasion of the Gauls
  33-35 Gallic migrations (digressions on Etruria and Gauls)

35-55 Rome against the Gauls
  35-36 Embassy of the Fabii
  37-38 The Allia
  39-43 Gallic occupation of Rome (390 BCE)
  43-46 Recall of Camillus
  47 M. Manlius (afterwards surnamed Capitolinus) and the geese
  48-50 Withdrawal of the Gauls
  51-54 Speech of Camillus
  55 Rebuilding of Rome