1. Selecting Behaviors

Penetration: In the workshop we discussed the importance of calculating the relative importance of various behaviors by estimating their impact, probability and penetration. Below are links to two reports that investigate the penetration of energy efficiency behaviors.  The first is a survey of Canadian households and the second is a study of United Kingdom households. 



Behavioral Wedge: The article below is the only study that I have seen that attempts to estimate the size of the “behavioral wedge” that is related to reducing CO2 emissions.  This article, authored by Thomas Dietz and his colleagues, estimates the importance of modifying human behavior as a route to reducing CO2 emissions. 


Rebound Effects: When people engage in one-time behaviors the environmental impacts are rarely as large as expected as people often engage in repetitive behaviors that offset the gains that would normally occur (e.g., someone installs a low-flow showerhead and then takes longer showers).  The following two reports investigate the importance of the rebound effect.  The first is a review of some 200 studies investigating the size of the rebound effect.  The second is a just released EU study that looks at how to reduce rebound effects.



List of residential energy efficiency behaviors and their estimated impacts.  http://media.cbsm.com/uploads/1/TownsvilleEEBehaviors.doc

2. Uncovering Barriers & Benefits

The following link provides a helpful overview of issues to consider when developing a questionnaire:


Two in-depth guides to focus groups and surveying, respectively. 

Focus Groups: Morgan, D.L. & Krueger, R.A. (1998). The focus group kit. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Surveys: Fink, A. (2003). The survey kit (2nd Edition). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

3.  Developing Strategies


Good review of the importance of carefully crafting normative  approaches. Includes a review of the Iron Eyes Cody research and the work done in Petrified National Forest. 


Wes Schultz’s research on the impact of normative messages on energy conservation. 


Cialdini’s research on norms and littering:


Impact of normative washroom prompts on the reuse of towels:



The following article reviews what leads commitments to impact behavior. 


Goal Setting

>From my keynote with Wes Schultz

Hip surgery and goal setting:


Action triggers and breast self examination:



Recycling Container Design:



The following article provides a good overview of the habit literature. Well worth reading.



Ecoteams or greenteams have been found to be an effective way of quickly altering a variety of behaviors.  This article is well worth reading:

4.  Pilot Testing

Return on Investment

See pages 141-142 in Fostering Sustainable Behavior (3rd Edition)

Continuing Education:

Brian Day, Online Course at Duke University (Environmental Communication for Behavior Change): http://www.nicholas.duke.edu/del/executiveed/courses/environmental-communication-for-behavior-change

McKenzie-Mohr, D. (2011).  Fostering sustainable behavior: An introduction to community-based social marketing (3rd Edition).  New Society. Link on Amazon: http://amzn.com/0865716420

McKenzie-Mohr, D., Lee, N., Schultz, W., & Kotler, P. (2011).  Social marketing for the environment: What works. Sage.  Link on Amazon: http://amzn.com/1412991293

Fostering Sustainable Behavior website: http://www.cbsm.com

The University of South Florida, College of Public Health offers a graduate certificate in social marketing that can be completed almost exclusively online.   Students must complete four online graduate level courses, and then work with a mentor to conduct a field project and present the project to peers in a capstone seminar.   For more information, contact Carol Bryant cbryant@health.usf.edu or Jim Lindenberger jlindenb@health.usf.edu.

Gardner, G. T. & Stern, P.C. (2002). Environmental problems and human behavior (2nd Edition). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Cialdini, Robert. (2007).  Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion. Harper. 

Andreasen, Alan  (1995).  Marketing Social Change: Changing Behavior to Promote Health, Social Development, and the Environment. Josey Bass. 

To subscribe to the Andreasen social marketing listsev send an email to: listproc@georgetown.edu, In the *body* of the message write: sub soc-mktg FirstName LastName (replacing these with your first and last name)

Conservation Psychology Website and Listserv: http://www.conservationpsychology.org/

CBSM Case Study Webinars: www.webinars.cullbridge.com

2013 World Social Marketing conference that will take place in Toronto:  April 21-23, 2013

Tools of Change website:  toolsofchange.com


The following file provides an overview of CBSM. Consider using it as a handout for presentations that you make or share it with colleagues.