Forest Ecosystem Monitoring Cooperative

The Ecological Significance of Sun/Shade Plasticity in Balsam Fir, Red Spruce, and Paper Birch along Elevational Gradients in the Northeastern United States: Needle Morphology

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Metadata Provider

  • Forest Ecosystem Monitoring Cooperative

    • Address:
      705 Spear Street
      South Burlington, Vermont 05403
      United States of America

      Phone: (802) 656-2975
      Email: femc@uvm.edu
      Website: www.uvm.edu/femc

Abstract

    To better understand the relationship between plants and their abiotic environment, by using the response of three different tree species growing at different elevations, to light.

People

  • Andrew Richardson: Principal Investigator

Keywords

  • balsam fir, elevation, foliage, red spruce,

Geographic Coverage

  • Coordinates
  • Coordinate System

Data Table

  • Title: Needle Morphology
  • Start Date: 2000-06-01
  • End Date: 2002-09-30
  • Description: Measurements of elevation, crown position, width, cross section etc.

  • Purpose: To better understand the relationship between plants and their abiotic environment, by using the response of three different tree species growing at different elevations, to light.

  • Condensed Title: Z0128_SpruceNeedleMorph

  • Object Name: VMC.128.172

  • Data Type: mySQL
  • Citation: Andrew Richardson. 2002. Needle Morphology. FEMC. Can be found at: https://www.uvm.edu/femc/data/archive/project/the-ecological-significance-sunshade-plasticity-balsam/dataset/needle-morphology/overview

  • Online Distribution: https://www.uvm.edu/femc/data/archive/project/the-ecological-significance-sunshade-plasticity-balsam/dataset/needle-morphology

Attribute List

    Attribute Name: Observation
    • Label: Observation
    • Description: Observation identification number
    • Storage Type: int
    • Measurment Type: nominal
    Attribute Name: Species
    • Label: Species of Tree
    • Description: Species of tree sampled
    • Storage Type: text
    • Measurment Type: nominal
    Attribute Name: Elevation
    • Label: Elevation of Observation
    • Description: Elevation where tree is located (low, mid and high elevations)
    • Storage Type: text
    • Measurment Type: nominal
    Attribute Name: Crown position
    • Label: Crown Position
    • Description: What part of the crown the sample is from (either sun or shade)
    • Storage Type: text
    • Measurment Type: nominal
    Attribute Name: Tree
    • Label: Tree ID
    • Description: Tree ID number
    • Storage Type: text
    • Measurment Type: nominal
    Attribute Name: Transect
    • Label: Transect
    • Description: Transect
    • Storage Type: text
    • Measurment Type: nominal
    Attribute Name: Mountain
    • Label: Mountain Site
    • Description: The mountain where the sample was taken
    • Storage Type: text
    • Measurment Type: nominal
    Attribute Name: Sample code
    • Label: Sample Code
    • Description: Sample code
    • Storage Type: text
    • Measurment Type: nominal
    Attribute Name: Needle width
    • Label: Width of Needle
    • Description: Width of needle
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: centimeter
    • Precision: 1
    • Unit: centimeter
    • Number Type: integer
    Attribute Name: Needle thickness
    • Label: Thickness of Needle
    • Description: Thickness of needle
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: centimeter
    • Precision: 0.01
    • Unit: centimeter
    • Number Type: real
    Attribute Name: Epidermis thickness
    • Label: Thickness of Epidermis
    • Description: Thickness of leaf epidermis (layered group of cells that protects leaves from external environment)
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: micrometer
    • Precision: 0.01
    • Unit: micrometer
    • Number Type: real
    Attribute Name: Vascular cylinder cross-sectional area
    • Label: Vascular Cylinder Cross-Sectional Area
    • Description: Cross-sectional area of the vascular cylinder. Measured in micrometers squared time 10^3
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: customSquareMicrometers
    • Precision: 0.01
    • Number Type: real
    Attribute Name: Cuticle thickness
    • Label: Thickness of Cuticle
    • Description: Thickness of leaf cuticle (hydrophobic, waxy covering produced by epidermal cells)
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: micrometer
    • Precision: 0.001
    • Unit: micrometer
    • Number Type: real
    Attribute Name: Transverse cross-sectional area of needle
    • Label: Needle Transverse Area
    • Description: Transverse cross-sectional area of a needle. Measured in micrometers squared time 10^3
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: customSquareMicrometers
    • Precision: 1
    • Number Type: integer
    Attribute Name: Cross-sectional area inside epidermis
    • Label: Area Inside Epidermis
    • Description: Cross-sectional area inside epidermis. Measured in micrometers squared time 10^3
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: customSquareMicrometers
    • Precision: 1
    • Number Type: integer
    Attribute Name: Mesophyll cross-sectional area
    • Label: Mesophyll Cross-Sectional Area
    • Description: Mesophyll cross sectional area (interior of the leaf between the upper and lower layers od epidermis). Measured in micrometers squared time 10^3
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: customSquareMicrometers
    • Precision: 0.01
    • Number Type: real
    Attribute Name: Width/thickness ratio
    • Label: Width/Thickness Ratio
    • Description: Ratio of the leafs width to its thickness
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: number
    • Precision: 0.000001
    • Unit: number
    • Number Type: real
    Attribute Name: Vascular cylinder ratio
    • Label: Vascular Cylinder Ratio
    • Description: Vascular cylinder ratio
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: number
    • Precision: 0.00001
    • Unit: number
    • Number Type: real
    Attribute Name: Mesophyll ratio
    • Label: Mesophyll Ratio
    • Description: Mesophyll ratio of leaf
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: number
    • Precision: 0.000001
    • Unit: number
    • Number Type: real
    Attribute Name: Needle mass
    • Label: Needle Mass
    • Description: Mass of needle
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: milligram
    • Precision: 0.1
    • Unit: milligram
    • Number Type: real
    Attribute Name: Projected needle area (one-sided)
    • Label: Projected Needle Area
    • Description: Projected area of one side of a needle
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: squareCentimeters
    • Precision: 0.001
    • Unit: squareCentimeters
    • Number Type: real
    Attribute Name: Needle length
    • Label: Needle Length
    • Description: Length of needle
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: centimeter
    • Precision: 0.00001
    • Unit: centimeter
    • Number Type: real
    Attribute Name: Average needle thickness
    • Label: Average Needle Thickness
    • Description: Average thickness of neele
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: centimeter
    • Precision: 0.0001
    • Unit: centimeter
    • Number Type: real
    Attribute Name: Tissue density
    • Label: Tissue Density
    • Description: Density of tissue
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: customGramsPerCubicMillimeter
    • Precision: 0.00001
    • Unit: GramsPerCubicMillimeter
    • Number Type: real
    Attribute Name: Needle mass to area ratio
    • Label: Needle Mass/Area Ratio
    • Description: Ratio of the needles mass to area
    • Storage Type: decimal
    • Measurment Type: ratio
    • Standard Unit: number
    • Precision: 0.001
    • Unit: number
    • Number Type: real

Methods

  • Current Methods
    • Experimental design
      • Started: 0001-01-01
      • Method Description: A split-split plot experimental design was used on the plots, split by species (balsam vs fir) first and then samples were split by crown position (sun vs shade). After sample processing, three needles from each sample were used for anatomical measurements.
      • Instrumentation: R:FR meter (Skye instruments); Software: Leica Q500MC and QWin V1.00 (Leica Cambridge Ltd.)

    • Photosynthetic rates
      • Method Description: Photosynthesis measurements were made on detached shoots with their ends immersed in vials of water. Projected needle area and dry mass were measured and then used to convert the measured photosynthetic rates to projected needle area. Chl NDI and PRI indices were used to obtain physiological insights from the chlorophyll fluorescence and spectral reflectance of dark-adapted foliage.
      • Instrumentation: OS-500 Modulated Fluorometer UniSpec Spectral Analysis System

    • Foliar C-13 analysis
      • Method Description: Using a pool of three samples from each site x crown position x species combination, an analysis of foliar C-13 was conducted by a commercial laboratory.
      • Instrumentation: Europa Scientific ANCA-GSL elemental analyzerQuality Control Measures: Two replicated of every fifth sample were analyzed sequentially. All samples were run against a flour standard and results are expressed in relation to the PDB standard.


Sampling Equipment

  • No sampling equipment recorded for this dataset

Site Characteristics

  • Site Description: Sampling sites were located on three mountains (Whiteface Mt., Mt. Mansfield and Mt. Moosilauke), along two transects on each mountain (eastern and southern), at three elevations on each transect (low, mid and high elevation), for two species (red spruce and balsam fir) and two crown positions (sun and shade).