Forest Ecosystem Monitoring Cooperative

The Impact of Deer Overabundance on Forest Regeneration: Deer Exclosure Monitoring Sapling Data for Mohonk Preserve

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Metadata Provider

  • Forest Ecosystem Monitoring Cooperative

    • Address:
      705 Spear Street
      South Burlington, Vermont 05403
      United States of America

      Phone: (802) 391-4135


    The Environmental Monitoring and Management Alliance (EMMA) is examining the effects of deer overabundance on forest regeneration at seven upland oak forest sites centered in the Hudson Valley. These data, coupled with deer management programs, will allow us to both assess the impact deer are having on the survival of native species and evaluate the effectiveness of various deer management strategies across the region.


  • Lynn Christenson: Principal Investigator

  • Vicky Kelly: Principal Investigator

  • Jamie Deppen: Content Provider

  • Keri VanCamp: Principal Investigator

  • Lindsay Charlop: Content Provider

  • Hillary Siener: Principal Investigator

  • Dan Aitchison: Principal Investigator

  • Megan Napoli: Principal Investigator

  • Chris Nagy: Principal Investigator

  • Erin Sanderson: Content Provider

  • Elizabeth Long: Principal Investigator

  • Michael Vivirito: Content Provider

  • Catherine Ferreri: Content Provider

  • Anne Rhoads: Content Provider


  • EMMA, forest regeneration, herbivory, mohonk preserve, odocoileus virginianus, white-tailed deer,


  • Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies : partner
  • Ward Pound Ridge Reservation : partner
  • Mianus River Gorge : partner
  • Teatown Lake Reservation : partner
  • Huyck Preserve and Biological Research Station : partner
  • Vassar College Vassar Farm and Ecological Preserve: partner
  • Mohonk Preserve : partner

Geographic Coverage

  • Coordinates
    • Coordinate System

    Data Table

    • Title: Deer Exclosure Monitoring Sapling Data for Mohonk Preserve
    • Start Date: 2017-07-13
    • Description: Data collected on saplings in paired exclosed and unexclosed plots at Mohonk Preserve.

    • Purpose: To contribute to an initiative led by the The Environmental Monitoring and Management Alliance (EMMA) to examine the effect of overabundance of white-tailed deer on forest regeneration in urban and rural preserves throughout the Hudson Valley

    • Condensed Title: Z0347_2351_6XBJUA

    • Object Name: VMC.347.2351

    • Data Type: mySQL
    • Citation: Ferreri, Catherine, Megan Napoli, Mike Vivirito (2017) Deer Exclosure Monitoring Sapling Data for Mohonk Preserve. FEMC. Available online at:

    • Online Distribution:

    Attribute List

      Attribute Name: Browse
      • Label: Browse
      • Storage Type: text
      • Measurment Type: nominal
      Attribute Name: Height_
      • Label: Height_
      • Storage Type: decimal
      Attribute Name: ITIS_Code
      • Label: ITIS_Code
      • Storage Type: int
      Attribute Name: Measure_date
      • Label: Measure_date
      • Storage Type: date
      • Measurment Type: datetime
      • String Format: M/D/YYYY
      Attribute Name: Plot
      • Label: Plot
      • Storage Type: int
      Attribute Name: Sap__ID_#
      • Label: Sap__ID_#
      • Storage Type: text
      • Measurment Type: nominal
      Attribute Name: Species
      • Label: Species
      • Description: Species codes
      • Storage Type: int
      • Measurment Type: nominal
      • Species List: The impact of deer overabundance on forest regeneration mohonk preserve
        • Code: CAOV
          • Definition: ITIS #19242, shagbark hickory (Carya ovata)
        • Code: QURU
          • Definition: ITIS #19408, northern red oak (Quercus rubra)
        • Code: CACA
          • Definition: ITIS #19504, American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana)
        • Code: OSVI
          • Definition: ITIS #19511, eastern hophornbeam; hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana)
        • Code: ACSA
          • Definition: ITIS #28731, sugar maple (Acer saccharum)
        • Code: FRAM
          • Definition: ITIS #32931, white ash (Fraxinus americana)
        • Code: ACRU
          • Definition: ITIS #28728, red maple (Acer rubrum)
        • Code: QUAL
          • Definition: ITIS #19290, white oak (Quercus alba)
        • Code: QUMO
          • Definition: ITIS #19279, chestnut oak (Quercus prinus)
        • Code: VIAC
          • Definition: ITIS #35255, mapleleaf viburnum (Viburnum acerifolium)
      Attribute Name: Study_Yr__
      • Label: Study_Yr__
      Attribute Name: Treatment
      • Label: Treatment
      • Storage Type: text
      • Measurment Type: nominal
      Attribute Name: Treatment_#
      • Label: Treatment_#
      • Storage Type: int
      Attribute Name: X_Coord_
      • Label: X_Coord_
      • Storage Type: decimal
      Attribute Name: Y_Coord_
      • Label: Y_Coord_
      • Storage Type: decimal


    • Current Methods
      • Plot Establishment
        • Started: 2017-07-01
        • Method Description: Four pairs of 10 m x 10 m permanent plots were established in two unique locations. The two locations are characterized by relatively level terrain with a mixed oak overstory. The fenced and unfenced paired plots are separated from one another by a 5m buffer. The unfenced and fenced treatments were randomly assigned to the plots at each location. Fenced treatment plots were enclosed by a 2.5m-tall fence. A small (~25cm x 25cm) hole was cut at ground level on each side of the fence to allow smaller animals access to the fenced area. To permanently identify the unfenced plots, all four corners were marked with metal fence posts. A corner of origin was identified (to facilitate locating trees, saplings, etc. in the following years using a grid system). Sampling occurs in the summer, ideally in July, on the year of installation and every 5 years afterwards.

      • Sapling Layer
        • Started: 2017-07-01
        • Method Description: All individuals whose growth habits are designated as “tree” by the New York Flora Atlas, who are between 0.5 and 2 m tall with at least 50% of their stem(s) emerging from the ground inside of the plot will be evaluated in the sapling layer the year of exclosure installation and every 5 years afterwards. Each stem that emerges from the ground at a distinct location is considered a sapling. Saplings are tagged and assigned a number. The coordinate position (X and Y distance from the designated “origin”, in meters) is measured, primarily so that researchers can find saplings whose tags have fallen off between monitoring rounds. The presence/absence of browse, species, and undisturbed height (cm) to the tallest bud (without stretching the shoot) are measured.

    Sampling Equipment

    • No sampling equipment recorded for this dataset

    Site Characteristics

    • Site Description: To evaluate the impact of deer overabundance in the mixed upland oak forests of Mohonk Preserve, four paired plots were established in various vegetation stands. The plots contain red oak, chestnut oak, sugar maple, American hophornbeam, witchhazel, and shagbark hickory. Two plots are in the northeastern portion of the preserve, and two are in the southwestern portion. All plots are relatively flat with a closed canopy and few rocks.

    • Minimum Altitude: 128 meters

    • Maximum Altitude: 303 meters