Forest Ecosystem Monitoring Cooperative

Forest Research at Harvard Forest: Landscape Response to Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Southern New England 1997-2011

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  • Forest Ecosystem Monitoring Cooperative

    • Address:
      705 Spear Street
      South Burlington, Vermont 05403
      United States of America

      Phone: (802) 391-4135


    Since 1907, the Harvard Forest has served as a center for research and education in forest biology and conservation. The Forest's Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program, established in 1988 and funded by the National Science Foundation, provides a framework for much of this activity.


  • Emery Boose: Principal Investigator


  • elongated hemlock scale, forest management, Harvard Forest, hemlock woolly aldelgid, inventory, regional trends,


  • Harvard University Harvard Forest: lead
  • Duke Forest : partner

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    Data Table

    • Title: Landscape Response to Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Southern New England 1997-2011
    • Start Date: 1997-01-01
    • End Date: 2001-12-31
    • Description: The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsuga Annand; HWA), a small, aphid-like insect native to Japan, is currently migrating Northward through eastern North America and threatens to eliminate eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere), one of the most abundant, long-lived shade tolerant species, across its range. In addition, a second invasive pest, the elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa; EHS), often co-occurs with HWA on hemlock with unknown long-term consequences. This study was started to analyze Hemlock tree stands, the damage created by HWA and the long term consequences of EHS.

    • Purpose: The major objectives of this study were: (1) To characterize the pre-HWA distribution, composition, and structure of hemlock stands; (2) to characterize the spatial patterns of damage generated by HWA across southern New England since the time of its arrival in 1985; (3) to examine environmental and stand factors that are associated with declines in crown vigor and mortality of hemlock; (4) examine the dynamics of HWA and EHS in hemlock stands over time; and (5) assess whether there is a difference in the response of these insects to abiotic conditions (winter temperature, summer temperature, summer precipitation), and whether the distribution and abundance of each insect species is dependent on biotic interactions with the co-occurring insect species.

    • Condensed Title:

    • Object Name: VMC.1387.2854

    • Data Type: mySQL
    • Citation: Orwig D, Foster D. 2017. Landscape Response to Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Southern New England 1997-2011. Harvard Forest Data Archive: HF081. Available at:

    • Online Distribution:

    Attribute List

      Attribute Name: species
      • Label: Species field in the HF Hemlock Woolly Adelgid datasets
      • Description: Species field in the Harvard Forest Landscape Response to Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in SNE datasets (hf081)
      • Storage Type: text
      • Measurment Type: nominal
      • String Format: D-M-YY
      • Number Type: -1
      • Species List: landscaperesponse hemlockwollyadelgid harvard
        • Code: TSCA
          • Definition: ITIS #183397, Canada hemlock; hemlock spruce (Tsuga canadensis)
        • Code: PIST
          • Definition: ITIS #183385, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)
        • Code: QURU
          • Definition: ITIS #19408, northern red oak (Quercus rubra)
        • Code: ACRU
          • Definition: ITIS #28728, red maple (Acer rubrum)
        • Code: BELE
          • Definition: ITIS #19487, sweet birch (Betula lenta)


    • No methods recorded for this dataset

    Sampling Equipment

    • No sampling equipment recorded for this dataset

    Site Characteristics

    • No site characteristics recorded for this dataset