Forest Ecosystem Monitoring Cooperative

Forest Research at Harvard Forest: Effects of Warming on Tree Species Recruitment at Harvard Forest and Duke Forest since 2009

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  • Forest Ecosystem Monitoring Cooperative

    • Address:
      705 Spear Street
      South Burlington, Vermont 05403
      United States of America

      Phone: (802) 656-2975


    Since 1907, the Harvard Forest has served as a center for research and education in forest biology and conservation. The Forest's Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program, established in 1988 and funded by the National Science Foundation, provides a framework for much of this activity.


  • Emery Boose: Principal Investigator


  • climate change, forest regeneration, Harvard Forest, plant phenology, regeneration,


  • Harvard University Harvard Forest: lead
  • Duke Forest : partner

Geographic Coverage

  • Coordinates
    • Coordinate System

    Data Table

    • Title: Effects of Warming on Tree Species Recruitment at Harvard Forest and Duke Forest since 2009
    • Start Date: 2009-01-01
    • Description: Climate change is restructuring forests of the United States, although the details of this restructuring are currently uncertain. Rising temperatures of 2 to 8 deg C and associated changes in soil moisture will shift the competitive balance between species that compete for light and water, changing their abilities to produce seed, germinate, grow, and survive. Large scale experiments are being used to determine the effects of warming on the most sensitive stage of species distributions, i.e., recruitment, in mixed deciduous forests in southern New England and in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Two questions organize our proposed research: (1) Might temperate tree species near the "warm" end of their range in the eastern United States decline in abundance during the coming century due to projected warming? and (2) Might trees near the "cool" end of their range in the eastern United States increase in abundance, or extend their range, during the coming 100 years because of projected warming? To explore these questions, seedlings are exposed to air and soil warming experiments in two eastern deciduous forest sites; one at the Harvard Forest (HF) in central Massachusetts, and the other at the Duke Forest (DF) in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. The focus is on tree species common to both Harvard and Duke Forests.

    • Purpose: To determine how climate change will restructure mixed deciduous forests in the Eastern United States at both the "warm" and "cool" ends of the tree species range.

    • Condensed Title:

    • Object Name: VMC.1387.2867

    • Data Type: mySQL
    • Citation: Melillo J, Clark J, Mohan J. 2014. Effects of Warming on Tree Species Recruitment at Harvard Forest and Duke Forest since 2009. Harvard Forest Data Archive: HF199. Available at:

    • Online Distribution:

    Attribute List

      Attribute Name: species
      • Label: Species field in the HF Effects of Warming datasets
      • Description: Species field in the Harvard Forest Effects of Warming on Tree Species Recruitment growth and seed origin datasets (HF199-03,199-05)
      • Storage Type: text
      • Measurment Type: nominal
      • Species List: Harvard Forest - Effects warming tree species recruitment
        • Code: ACBA
          • Definition: ITIS #28759, Florida maple ( Acer barbatum)
        • Code: ACRU
          • Definition: ITIS #28728, red maple (Acer rubrum)
        • Code: ACSA
          • Definition: ITIS #28731, sugar maple (Acer saccharum)
        • Code: ACUN
          • Definition: ITIS #28727, maples (Acer )
        • Code: BEAL
          • Definition: ITIS #19481, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)
        • Code: BELE
          • Definition: ITIS #19487, sweet birch (Betula lenta)
        • Code: BEPO
          • Definition: ITIS #19497, gray birch (Betula populifolia)
        • Code: BEPA
          • Definition: ITIS #19489, paper birch (Betula papyrifera)
        • Code: BEUN
          • Definition: ITIS #19478, birch (Betula )
        • Code: CAGL
          • Definition: ITIS #19231, pignut hickory; sweet pignut (Carya glabra)
        • Code: CAOV
          • Definition: ITIS #19242, shagbark hickory (Carya ovata)
        • Code: FAGR
          • Definition: ITIS #19462, American beech (Fagus grandifolia)
        • Code: FRAM
          • Definition: ITIS #32931, white ash (Fraxinus americana)
        • Code: ILVO
          • Definition: ITIS #27986, yaupon (Ilex vomitoria)
        • Code: LIST
          • Definition: ITIS #19027, sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua)
        • Code: LITU
          • Definition: ITIS #18086, yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera)
        • Code: MAGR
          • Definition: ITIS #18074, laurier tulipier (Magnolia grandiflora)
        • Code: MAVI
          • Definition: ITIS #18070, laurier doux (Magnolia virginiana)
        • Code: NYSY
          • Definition: ITIS #27821, black gum, black tupelo, blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica)
        • Code: PIPA
          • Definition: ITIS #18038, longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)
        • Code: PIRE
          • Definition: ITIS #183375, red pine (Pinus resinosa)
        • Code: PIST
          • Definition: ITIS #183385, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)
        • Code: PITA
          • Definition: ITIS #18037, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)
        • Code: PIUN
          • Definition: ITIS #18035, pine (Pinus sp.)
        • Code: PRSE
          • Definition: ITIS #24764, black cherry (Prunus serotina)
        • Code: PRPE
          • Definition: ITIS #24799, pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica)
        • Code: QUAL
          • Definition: ITIS #19290, white oak (Quercus alba)
        • Code: QUFA
          • Definition: ITIS #19277, southern red oak (Quercus falcata)
        • Code: QUNI
          • Definition: ITIS #19280, water oak (Quercus nigra)
        • Code: QUPH
          • Definition: ITIS #19282, willow oak (Quercus phellos)
        • Code: QURU
          • Definition: ITIS #19408, northern red oak (Quercus rubra)
        • Code: QUVE
          • Definition: ITIS #19447, black oak (Quercus velutina)
        • Code: QUUN
          • Definition: ITIS #19276, oak (Quercus )
        • Code: ULAM
          • Definition: ITIS #19049, American elm (Ulmus americana)
        • Code: UNKN
          • Definition: ITIS #823, (Radiocystis )


    • No methods recorded for this dataset

    Sampling Equipment

    • No sampling equipment recorded for this dataset

    Site Characteristics

    • No site characteristics recorded for this dataset