Helping Vermonters for over three decades

The Attorney General's Consumer Assistance Program (CAP) at UVM helps Vermont consumers resolve disputes with businesses, protect themselves from fraud and access available services.  We:

  • run a consumer hotline for information and assistance
  • mediate consumer disputes with businesses
  • track fraud and scam complaints and
  • recover thousands of dollars yearly for consumers.

Find Answers Here:

Identity Theft

What is identity theft?

Vermont law defines identity theft as the unauthorized use of another person's personal identifying information to obtain credit, goods, services, money or property (for more information on Vermont laws regarding privacy and data security, click here).  In many cases, identity theft involves the fraudulent use of your credit card or bank account information.  In some cases, your social security number and other personal information may be used to fraudulently obtain driver's licenses, lines of credit, loans or other consumer accounts.

I think I am a victim of identity theft. What steps should I take?

Credit Bureau Fraud Contacts:
  EQUIFAX 1-800-525-6285
  EXPERIAN 1-888-397-3742
  TRANSUNION 1-800-680-7289
    • Review your credit reports carefully for any accounts that you are not familiar with. You can obtain your free credit report from each of the Credit Reporting Bureaus through  If you find anything that should not be there, be sure to save a copy of the report.  Then, contact the credit reporting agency to dispute all inaccurate items.
    • Place a fraud alert or freeze on your credit reports.  You can find out more information from the Federal Trade Commission about fraud alerts and freezing your credit files.  To place a fraud alert or freeze on your credit files, contact the three credit reporting agencies listed in the box above and to the right.
    • Close any accounts that have been tampered with or opened fraudulently.
    • File an "identity theft" police report and ask for a copy for your records. Find your local police agency.
    • File a complaint with the Federal Trade Commission.
    • Write down the name of anyone you talk to, what s/he told you, and the date of the conversation.
    • Follow-up in writing with all contacts you've made about the ID theft on the phone or in person. Use certified mail, return receipt requested, for all correspondence regarding the theft.
    • Keep copies of all correspondence or forms relating to the ID theft.
    • Keep the originals of supporting documentation, like police reports and letters to and from creditors; send copies only.
    • Keep old files even if you believe the problem is resolved.

    I still have questions, where can I find out more?

    Find out more about identity theft by visiting the Federal Trade Commission.

    Common Scams

    Top Ten Scams List of 2018

    Sign up to receive scam alerts from the Attorney General to protect yourself and your loved ones, friends and neighbors from scams! Here is the list of the Top 10 Scams of 2018, as reported to the Vermont Attorney General’s Office Consumer Assistance Program.

    1. IRS Debt Collection:
      A scam telephone call saying you owe “back taxes” or outstanding payments due to the government, typically from callers claiming to be “Internal Revenue Service”, “IRS”, and “US Treasury and Legal Affairs.”  Don’t respond to these callers.  If you think you may actually owe back taxes, hang up and contact the IRS directly at 1-800-829-1040.
    2. Social Security Number Phishing:
      Caller claims to be from the Social Security Administration claiming that your Social Security number has been compromised or stolen.  Never give personal information to unknown callers!  If Social Security (or any official agency) wanted to contact you, they would not call to ask for your personal information, especially your Social Security number, over the phone.
    3. Computer Tech Support:

      Caller or pop-up message on your computer which claims to be from Microsoft/Windows or other tech company claiming there is a virus or other serious problem with your computer.  They will try to persuade you to give remote access to your computer.  Never allow remote access to your computer or click links in a strange email or pop-up message!  Turn off your computer!  Do not pay an unknown entity!  Also, be careful when searching for tech support numbers online. Some users have been scammed by calling illegitimate company numbers.

    4. "Grandparent Scam" and Other Imposters:

      Scammers claiming to be a grandchild, friend/relative or romantic interest contact consumer, reportedly in distress and needing money to be wired or transmitted with a reloadable card, gift card (like iTunes), PayPal account payment, cash or check/money order.  Never wire or otherwise send funds unless you can verify the emergency!

    5. Debt Collection Threats:
      Calls from fake debt collectors making threats, including lawsuit, wage garnishment, and arrest.  Most attempt to collect nonexistent debts and even make claims that legal action will be taken against you if payment is not made immediately.  Never pay a harassing collector over the phone; demand proof of the debt in writing and verify the debt with the original creditor!  If you think you do actually owe money to a debt collector or other agency, make sure you call and check using a trusted number.
    6. Spoofed Calls:
      Spoofed calls come from a number that appears local to Vermont – or even your town.  But in reality, the scammer is often calling from overseas, and “spoofing” the number to make it show up on caller ID as a neighbor so you’ll be inclined to answer.  Ignore the call.  Don’t call the number back – chances are the person you are calling has nothing to do with the scam.
    7. Reflector (claim to be Microsoft):

      Similar to other spoofed calls, these scammers will call you on what appears to be your own number. Upon picking up, the scammer tells you that your Microsoft software or your computer IP address has been compromised.  They will ask you to pay them immediately over the phone to protect your computer data.  Nobody from Microsoft would call you to say that your data has been breached or your IP address compromised.  They especially wouldn't ask you to pay immediately using Google Play gift cards or your credit card.  Never give personal or financial information to an unverified person or service that contacts you.

    8. Email Extortion Scams:

      You may receive a threatening email from a person you don't know saying that they have an old password of yours or some other personal information.  They use that against you in order to scare you into paying them.  Legitimate actors would never threaten you, even if they had access to your old information.  Never click on links that are in the email because they may give the scammer remote access to your computer or download viruses.  Don't reply to the email or interact with it in any way and delete it from your inbox.  If they refer to a valid password, go to your account directly and change your password.

    9. "Publisher's Clearinghouse" Sweepstakes Claims:

      A call, email or letter claiming that a consumer has won big from "Publisher’s Clearinghouse" and needs to pay a fee to collect winnings. Sometimes this will include a realistic-looking check.  If you actually win a major prize from Publisher’s Clearinghouse, they will contact you in person.  For smaller prizes (less than $10,000), winners are notified by overnight delivery services (FedEx, UPS), certified mail, or email in the case on online giveaways.  They never make phone calls.  Never pay an upfront fee to receive winnings.  If you win something, they will pay you – not the other way around.

    10. Sweepstakes Claims (general):
      A phone call or mailing claiming that you won money or a prize but have to make a payment in order to receive it.  Sometimes the outreach includes a realistic fake check.  The check bounces and no “winnings” are ever dispersed.  If it is a well-known organization, try contacting them to verify the information.  If it is an unknown organization, chances are the winnings are fake.  An unsolicited check in the mail from an unknown sender is usually a scam.  Never pay upfront to receive winnings.  If you win something, they will pay you – not the other way around.  No actual contest or sweepstakes would you make you pay first to receive money.

    Automobile Sales, Service and Finance

    Avoid car purchase pitfalls:

    • Before you sign anything, review the sales contract carefully!  Make sure it is the right vehicle, at the price and terms you negotiated.  Once you sign a contract, you have committed to purchase the car.  There is no time period during which you can return a car once you sign the contract.
    • Understand the financing terms!  What is the interest rate?  How long is the loan for?  What are your monthly payments?  Does the payment amount change?  How much will the loan cost you in interest?
    • Check out the seller!  Ask your friends, co-workers and neighbors about their experiences.  Check the business complaint history with CAP.
    • Get it checked out by your mechanic!  Have a mechanic you know and trust carefully look over the car and let you know what issues may need to be addressed.  Also, having the vehicle looked over by a competent body shop can provide more information about the body repair history.
    • Don't rely on vehicle history reports alone!  Vehicle history reports can be helpful, but none contain complete records for all vehicles.  In fact, many will not even have complete accident and insurance history information.  While no current database is complete, the most complete single database is available at
    • Review the warranty! is it "As-is"?  An as-is sale means if something goes wrong with the car, even as you are driving home, you may not have any recourse with the dealer to get it fixed.
    • Take your time!  Don't rush the purchase.  Car purchases can be exciting.  Take the time to think about it and make sure it is the right car for you.

    What about the "lemon law"?

    Vermont's "lemon law" applies to vehicles that are within the original manufacturer's warranty period (or, in some cases, within a year of the expiration of that warranty). If your vehicle is within the original warranty period and has: 

    • had 3 or more unsuccessful attempts to fix the same problem, or
    • been out of service for 30 days or more 

    then it may be eligible. There is no additional used car lemon law protection in Vermont. If you believe your situation may qualify, contact Vermont's Motor Vehicle Arbitration Board for assistance.

    Car service and repair

    At some point, every car will need to be serviced.  Whether it is for regular maintenance or a major repair, there are ways to be sure you get the most value for your money.

    • Know your mechanic.  Do they regularly service cars like yours?  Ask people you know about their experiences with the mechanic. You can also contact CAP to request the complaint history for a business you are considering using.
    • Get it in writing.   A quote for a repair is not a guarantee that the repair will not cost more.  There is no law in Vermont requiring a servicer to stick to a quote that is not a signed contract.  When you bring your vehicle in for service, be sure to stipulate in writing what services you are authorizing.   If you refuse to pay the bill, the mechanic may be able to retain possession of the vehicle until the services are paid for.  If the work is unsatisfactory or exceeds the scope of the work you requested, you may wish to file a complaint with CAP, dispute the charge on your credit card, or file a suit in small claims court. 
    • Ask about the parts and labor costs.  Find out what kind of parts they will use, how long it will take and what their labor rate is.


    What is a paid fundraiser for a charity?

    A paid fundraiser is someone (not an employee of the charity) who is paid by a charity to conduct fundraising efforts on behalf of the charity.  These payment arrangements vary widely. However, under Vermont law, paid fundraisers must report to the Attorney General with information about the campaign and their payment arrangements with the charity.

    How do I find out how much of my donation goes to the charity?

    To find out more about how your donation is applied when you donate through a paid fundraiser, you can look up the charity in our file. Alternatively, you can look this information up by the name of the paid fundraiser.

    Look up by charity name

    Look up by fundraiser

    For outside “ratings” of charities based on how they use their funds, you can check Charity Navigator or the Better Business Bureau’s Wise Giving Alliance Standards for Charity Accountability.

    What does the law require paid fundraisers to do?

    Under Vermont’s Charitable Solicitations Law, 9 V.S.A. § 2471 et seq., paid fundraisers for charities must file a “notice of solicitation” with the Attorney General’s Office in advance of each campaign, and a post-campaign financial report; post a $20,000 bond; make specific disclosures when soliciting donations; and comply with charity contract, script approval, donation deposit, record-keeping, and related requirements. In addition, fundraisers and charities are prohibited from making misrepresentations to prospective donors. The Attorney General’s Office is responsible for enforcing the Law. For more information on these requirements and prohibitions, please consult Vermont’s Charitable Solicitations Law and Consumer Fraud Rule (CF) 119.

    I'm on the Do Not Call registry, why are they still calling me?

    Charitable organizations are exempt from the federal Do Not Call statute.   However, you may request to be removed from their calling list.  If you are having difficulty with a paid fundraiser, you may also file a complaint with our office.

    Are my contributions tax-deductible?   

    If you intend to give tax-deductible contributions, you should verify an organization's tax filing status with the IRS.  Essentially, if the organization is tax-exempt or a 501(c)(3), donations should be tax deductible.  There are several ways to check the tax filing status:  request to see the organization's IRS tax exemption letter, search for the charity using the "Exempt Organizations" tool on the IRS website, or call the IRS at 877-829-5500.

    Home Improvement Fraud

    Home improvement problems are among the top ten complaint categories in Vermont and throughout the country. Because your home is probably your most valuable asset, it is particularly important that you protect that asset by making wise decisions when having work done on your home.

    Where to Go for Help

    Contact us to find out if complaints have been filed against the contractor you are considering hiring.  Keep in mind, however, that a lack of complaints doesn’t necessarily mean that the contractor is reputable, particularly if he or she is new to the area. Also, some disreputable contractors may change business names to keep a clean record.  You should also contact the CAP if you have a complaint against a contractor.  The staff at the CAP will contact the business on your behalf in an attempt to resolve your complaint. In addition, your complaint will become part of the public record, so that consumers who inquire about this contractor will become aware of your complaint.

    If you believe you have been defrauded by a contractor, you may also file a police report of home improvement fraud with your local police department or other law enforcement agency.  Home improvement fraud is a crime, and can be prosecuted in Vermont.

    Home Improvement Fraud Registry

    You may review the State registry of all persons who have been criminally convicted or resolved civil claims by the State of Vermont for committing “home improvement fraud”.

    Lead questions?

    For information on lead in homes, visit the Attorney General's website.  Is your contractor lead-certified?  Click here to search for EPA lead-certified contractors.

    Heating Fuels

    In Vermont, consumers have certain rights with regard to heating fuel service.  Vermont law regulates fuel pre-buy contracts, and establishes authority for the Attorney General to regulate propane service.  Fuel pricing is not regulated in Vermont.

    If you are having difficulty with your heating fuel provider, you can file a complaint with CAP or contact us for more information about your rights and responsibilities as a fuel consumer.

    Propane laws

    Certain retail propane industry business practices are regulated by Vermont law. Propane sellers are prohibited from:

    • Charging a minimum usage fee
    • Charging a fee for fuel not actually delivered
    • Requiring a minimum annual purchase of fuel, except as part of a guaranteed price plan
    • Charging any fee related to termination of service if a tank has been on the premises for more than 12 months.

    Additionally, propane sellers must refund consumers for fuel remaining in the tank within 20 days of disconnection or written notice from the consumer that the tank is no longer connected to the dwelling. Failure to issue a timely refund results in monetary penalties paid to the consumer that accrue daily until the refund and penalty are mailed or delivered.

    The Vermont Energy Act of 2011 also restricted the kinds of delinquencies that can trigger a disconnection of propane service to those charges related to the delivery of propane as specified in the Act.

    Propane regulations

    Vermont regulations establish certain rights and responsbilities for consumers with regard to propane service.  Since 1986, Vermont Consumer Protection Rule 111 (CP111) has governed the business practices of propane service providers in Vermont.  CP111 is enforced by the Office of the Attorney General, and includes some important additional protections for Vermonters.

    CP111: Vermont's Propane Rule

    Under the CP111 rules, propane consumers are entitled to, among other rights:

    • For new customers, disclosure of all charges that may be assessed on a standardized new customer disclosure form (PDF).
    • For current customers, 60-day notice of any changes to fees on an existing customer disclosure form (PDF).
    • notice prior to disconnection or disruption of service, including tenants whose service is incuded in the rent.
    • notice prior to a change in credit status
    • the right to establish new service as a cash customer and, if re-establishing service within 8 months of termination of service or last payment, the right to get fuel on a cash basis with partial payment toward any past-due balance.
    • the right to stop a disconnect during heating season for medical reasons
    • limits on minimum delivery requirements and security deposits
    • freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, marital status or sexual orientation

    If you would like to know more about recent changes to CP111 and your rights under the amended rule, please visit our CP111 FAQs page for additional information.

    If you have a complaint about a propane provider, or need more information about your rights as a propane consumer, please contact CAP for more information or file a complaint.  In most cases, CAP can quickly resolve disputes between consumers and propane providers.

    If you need help paying your fuel bill, dial 2-1-1 from your Vermont phone to be connected with an agency that can assist you.

    Tenant Rights

    What are the responsibilities of landlords and tenants?

    Vermont law establishes certain rights and responsibilities for tenants and landlords in Vermont. To view the law, click here.

    Generally, landlords are required to provide housing that is suitable for human habitation and has adequate access to heat, water, and hot water.  Landlords must also ensure that the housing is safe for tenants, which may include requirements for smoke and carbon monoxide detectors, fire alarms, alternate means of escape, and proper maintenance of electrical fixtures and equipment.  Tenants are responsible for payment of rent, as well as for preventing damage or unreasonable wear to the premises.

    Vermont law provides for certain notice requirements with regard to termination of tenancy and evictions, and provides both tenants and landlords with the right to bring legal action in the event of non-compliance with rental agreement law.
    For more specific information about your rights as a tenant or landlord, review the handbook produced by Vermont Tenants, Inc.:

    The Definitive Guide to Renting in Vermont (PDF)

    What if I have a complaint against my landlord? Can the landlord evict me for my complaint?

    If you have a complaint against your landlord, you can file a complaint with CAP.  You may also pursue a claim in small claims court for violations of the lease or non-compliance with the law.  Vermont Law Help has small claims court forms on their website too.  If you have a health concern about the property you rent, you can contact your local town health officer through the town clerk's office.

    Generally, the law prohibits the landlord from retaliating against you for filing a complaint.  If you believe you are being retaliated against by your landlord, you can file a complaint with CAP.

    I have been served with an eviction notice.  What can I do?

    If you are facing eviction, you should contact your local county court, or an attorney.  If you cannot afford an attorney, you can contact Vermont Legal Aid at 800-889-2047.  

    What about Rental Scams?

    Unfortunately, rental listing scams are pretty common and pose a challenge for those trying to find rental housing.  Always do your research on a property you are interested in renting.  Often, scammers will replicate recently posted real estate or other rental listings.  For more information about rental scams, see the following:  

    Debt Collection

    If you are behind on credit card, home mortgage, personal loan or other debt payments, you may be contacted by the creditor or a debt collection agency acting on the creditor’s behalf. While the law allows reasonable attempts to collect legitimate debts, both state and federal laws protect you from abusive debt collection practices.

    What types of debt collection practices are prohibited?

    Vermont law prohibits the following practices regardless of whether the debt is being collected by the creditor, an attorney or a third-party collection agency.

    • Threats. Debt collectors may not threaten action that they will not or cannot take.
    • Harassment. Debt collectors may not harass, oppress, or abuse anyone.
    • Unreasonable publication. The law prohibits a debt collector from notifying other people about your debt.
    • Deceptive Representations. Debt collectors may not engage in deception in attempting to collect a debt.
    • Unconscionable Means. Debt collectors may not use unconscionable methods to collect a debt.

    For example, debt collectors may:

    • not misrepresent who they are or who they work for.
    • not falsely imply the amount of the debt or any legal action that can be taken.
    • only contact you between 8:00 a.m. and 9:00 p.m.
    • not continually call your phone or harass you. During a phone call, a debt collector must identify him/herself and may not threaten violence against you or your family or use profane language.
    • only contact you at work if he or she cannot reach you at home in between 8:00 a.m. and 9:00 p.m.
    • not call you more than one time a week at work and must stop calling you at work if you tell the debt collector not to contact you at work.

    If you receive a suspicious debt collection call:

    • Always ask the debt collector to provide you with written documentation that substantiates the debt they are trying to collect; and
    • Contact the original creditor and ask whether the debt has been paid.  If it has not, confirm that the debt was sold to a third party collector and verify the identity of the debt collector.

    How do I stop the contact from the collector?

    Under federal law, if the collector is a third party collection agency, you may send the agency a Cease Contact letter, requesting that they no longer contact you regarding the debt.  Alternatively, you may instruct them only to contact you by mail, at home, or through your attorney, using our sample cease contact letter text:


    By Certified Mail



    Dear Sir/Madam:
    Please cease all communication with me concerning account number with [COMPANY OWED].
    The federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act requires that you stop contacting me immediately
    upon receipt of this letter.

    Very truly yours,

    Send this letter by certified mail, with return receipt requested so you have a record of who received it and when.