Associate Professor of Counselor Education and Supervision

Dr. Lance Smith's teaching focuses on equity centered, Critically Conscious, Intersectional and Liberatory approaches to counseling and supervision. His research and scholarship explores Youth Participatory Action Research as a liberatory paradigm for schools, the implementation and evaluation of Restorative Practices to disrupt the School to Prison Pipeline, the development of instruments to measure Critical Consciousness, field studies that examine implicit bias in the field of counseling, and other work on issues of social justice in counseling.

Dr. Smith is the proud co-founder of the multidisciplinary Project CORE-Community Based Participatory Research and Restorative Practices research team at the University of Vermont.

During his counseling career, Smith worked as a professional school counselor among the Tikiamu people of Northern Alaska and as a clinical mental health counselor in a community mental health clinic in upstate New York. 


Peer-reviewed Journals (full listing of publications available on attached CV)

Shin, R. Q., Keum, B. T., Smith, L.C., Lu, Y., Yee, S. (in press) The Development and Validation of the Heterosexism Erasure Scale. The Counseling Psychologist.

*Smith, L.C., Herbert, A., Payne, A., Grudev, N, Volkmar, S. S., Garnett, B. R., & Aguda-Brown, F. (2021) “Real meaningful change comes from building relationships”: School counselor’s experiences implementing restorative practices. The Journal of School Counseling, 19 (48).

Shin, R. Q., Smith, L. C., Verney, C. N., Welch, J. C., Sharma, R., & Eberhardt, M (2020) Accessing counseling services where the rainbow doesn’t shine: A heterosexism audit study.  Journal of Homosexuality.

*Kervick, C. T., Garnett, B., Moore, M., Ballysingh, T. A., & Smith, L. C. (2020). Introducing restorative practices in a diverse elementary school to build community and reduce exclusionary discipline: Year one processes, facilitators, and next steps. School and Community Journal, 30 (2), 155-186.

*Garnett, B. R., Kervick C. T., Moore, M., Ballysingh, T. A., & Smith, L.C. (2020) School Staff and Youth Perspectives of Tier 1 Restorative Practices Classroom Circles. School Psychology Review, 1-15.

*Gonell, Q. E., Smith, L. C., Garnett, B. R., & Clement, L. (2020). Practicing YPAR for School Equity: A Pedagogical Model. Action Research Journal.

Kervick C. T., Moore, M., Ballysingh, T. A., Smith, L.C. Garnett, & B. R.,  (2019).  The Emerging Promise of Restorative Practices to Reduce Discipline Disparity Affecting Youth with Disabilities and Youth of Color: Addressing Access and Equity. Harvard Educational Review, 89 (4), 588-610

*Kervick, C. T., Smith, L.C., Moore, M., Garnett, B. R., & Ballysingh, T. A. (2019) Surfacing student voice by integrating youth participatory action research, restorative practices and critical service learning. International Journal of Student Voice (5).

Wolff, J., Okech, J. E. A., Smith, L. C., Southwick, P. J. C. (2019). Protecting Sexual and Gender Minorities in Academic Institutions with Disallowing Policies: Psychological, Ethical, and Accreditation Concerns. Training and Education in Educational Psychology.

**Garnett, B. R., Smith, L. C, Kervick, C. T., Ballysingh, T. A., Moore, M. (2019). The emancipatory potential of mixed methods designs: Informing youth participatory action research and restorative practices within a district-wide school transformation project. International Journal of Research and Method in Education, (42)3, 305-316.

*Garnett, B. R., Moore, M., Kidde, J., Ballysingh, T. A., Kervick, C. T., Bedinger, L., Smith, L. C. & Sparks, H. (2019). Needs and Readiness Assessment for Implementing School-Wide Restorative Practice: A Community Based Participatory Action Research Study. Improving Schools.

*Shin, R. Q., Smith, L. C., Lu, Y., Welch, J.C., Sharma, R., Verney, C. N.,  & Yee, S. (2018). The development and validation of the contemporary critical consciousness measure II. The Journal of Counseling Psychology (65)5,539-555. Journal Acceptance Rate 5-10%, Impact Factor 2.475

*Smith, L.C., Garnette, B. R., Herbert, A., Grudev, N., Vogel, J., Keefner, W., Barnett, A., & Baker, T. (2018). The hand of professional school counseling meets the glove of restorative practices: A call to the profession. Professional School Counseling (21)1, 1-10. Journal Acceptance Rate 15%

Smith, L. C. (2017). Critical Consciousness and School Based Family Counseling: “Seeing” the Pathogen in Order to Dismantle the Pump of Oppression. International Journal for School-Based Family Counseling, 8. Retrieved from Journal Acceptance Rate 25%

*Shin, R. Q., Smith, L.C., Welch, J., Ezeofor, I.  (2016). Is “Allison” more likely than “Lakisha” to get a call back from counseling professionals: A racism audit study. The Counseling Psychologist (44)8, 1187-1211. doi:10.1177/0011000016668814 Journal Acceptance Rate 10%, Impact Factor 1.821

Smith, L. C., & Okech, J. E. A. (2016). Negotiating CACREP accreditation practices, religious, and sexual orientation diversity: A rejoinder to Sells and Hagedorn. Journal of Counseling and Development, 94, 280-284. doi: 10.1002/jcad.12084 Journal Acceptance Rate 10%, Impact Factor 1.509

+Smith, L. C., & Okech, J. E. A. (2016). Ethical issues raised by CACREP accreditation of programs within institutions that disaffirm or disallow diverse sexual orientations. Journal of Counseling and Development, 94, 252-264. doi: 10.1002/jcad.12082 Journal Acceptance Rate 10%, Impact Factor 1.509

*Shin, R. Q., Ezeofor, I., Smith, L. C., Welch, J. & Goodrich, K. M. (2016). The development and validation of the contemporary critical consciousness measure. The Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63, 210-223. doi: Journal Acceptance Rate 5-10%, Impact Factor 2.475

Smith, L. C.  (2015). Alterity models in counseling: When we talk about diversity, what are we actually talking about? The International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 37, 248-261. doi: 10.1007/s10447-015-9241-8

Smith, L. C., & Shin, R. (2015). Negotiating the intersection of racial oppression and heteronormativity. The Journal of Homosexuality. doi: 10.1080/00918369.2015.1073029 Journal Acceptance Rate 10%, Impact Factor 1.364

Awards and Recognition

  • American Educational Research Association Grassroots Community and Youth Organizing Special Interest Group Impact Award (2021)
  • Kroepsch-Maurice Excellence in Teaching Award, University of Vermont (2018)
  • 2015 Graduate Student Senate Excellence in Teaching Award, University of Vermont (2015)
  • Doctoral Research Prize, School of Education, Syracuse University (2010)
  • Doctoral Dissertation Prize, The Graduate School, Syracuse University (2010)

Associations and Affiliations

  • American Counseling Association
  • American Psychological Association
  • Counselors for Social Justice
  • Vermont School Counseling Association
  • Fellow, Oxford Symposium in School-Based Family Counseling
Lance Smith

Areas of Expertise and/or Research

  • Diversity, Equity and Inclusion
  • Critical Consciousness
  • Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR)
  • Restorative Practices


  • Ph.D. in Counselor Education and Supervision from Syracuse University
  • M.Ed. in School Counseling from the University of Southern Mississippi
  • Teaching Licensure, Middle School Science and Social Studies from Lynchburg College
  • B.A. in Interdisciplinary Studies in Philosophy of Religion from Liberty University


  • 802-656-3898
Office Location:

111D Mann Hall

Courses Taught

  • EDCO 374 Counseling Theory
  • EDCO 377 Diversity and Intersectionality
  • EDCO 300 Research Methods in Counseling
  • EDCO 389 Internship Seminar
  • EDCO 363 Practicum