Professor Emeritus

Professor Emeritus George Happ's first love in research was bird behavior, which he pursued as an undergraduate at Principia College. After graduate training in behavior and physiology with Tom Eisner at Cornell University, he held faculty and/or administrative appointments at Catholic University of America, New York University, Colorado State University, the University of Vermont, and the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Over those years, his laboratory worked on pheromones, insect biochemistry, insect cell and developmental biology, histocompatibility genes, prion genes, and infectious diseases. In retirement and in partnership with Christy Yuncker Happ, he is now focused on the behavior of Sandhill Cranes.


G. M. Happ & T. Eisner (1961) Hemorrhage in a coccinellid beetle and its repellent effect on ants. Science 134: 329-331.

G. M. Happ (1968).  Quinone and hydrocarbon production in the defensive gland of Eleodes longicollis and Tribolium castaneum  (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)  J. Insect Physiol.
    14: 1821-1839.

G. M. Happ (1969). Multiple sex pheromones  of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L.  Nature 222: 180-181.

J. Somberg, G. M. Happ & A. Schneider (1970). Retention of a conditioned avoidance response following metamorphosis in mealworms. Nature 228: 87-88.

P. J. Dailey, N. M. Gadzama, & G. M. Happ (1980). Cytodifferentiation in the accessory glands of Tenebrio molitor. VI. A congruent map  of cells and their secretions in the layered elastic product of the male bean-shaped gland.  J. Morphol. 166: 289-322

G. M. Happ, B. J. MacLeod, T. M. Szopa, C. S. Bricker,  T. C. Lowell, J. H. Sankel, and C. Yuncker (1985). Cell cycles in the male accessory glands of mealworm pupae. Develop. Biol. 107: 314-324. 

H. Shinbo, T. Yaginuma, and G. M. Happ (1987).  Purification and characterization of a proline-rich secretory protein of an  insect spermatophore. J. Biol. Chem.  262: 4794-4799. 

T. Yaginuma, H. Kai, and G. M. Happ (1988). 20-Hydroxyecdysone  accelerates the flow of cells into the G1 phase and the S phase in a male accessory gland of a mealworm pupa (Tenebrio molitor ). Develop. Biol. 126: 173-181.

G. C. Paesen, M. B. Schwartz, M. Peferoen, F. Weyda, and G. M. Happ (1992).  Amino acid sequence of Sp23, a structural protein of the spermatophore of the mealworm beetle,  Tenebrio molitor.  J. Biol. Chem. 267: 18852-18857.

L. J. Kennedy, L. Altet, J. M. Angles, A. Barnes, S. D. Carter, O. Francino, J. A. Gerlach, G. M. Happ, W. E. Ollier, A. Polvi, W. Thompson, J. L. Wagner (2000).  Nomenclature for  the DLA system, 1998. First report of the ISAG DLA Nomenclature Committee. Animal Genetics, 31(1):52-6

G. M. Happ, H. J. Huson, K. B. Beckmen,  L. J. Kennedy (2007).  Prion protein genes in Alaska caribou. J. Wildlife Diseases 43:224-228.

J. A. Runstadler, G. M. Happ, R. D. Slemons, Z.-M. Sheng, N. Gundlach, M. Petrula, D. Senne, J. Nolting, D. L. Evers, A. Modrell, H. Huson, S. Hills, T. Rothe, T. Marr, and J. K. Taubenberger (2007).   Using RRT-PCR analysis and virus isolation to determine the prevalence of avian influenza virus infections in ducks at Minto Flats State Game Refuge, Alaska during August 2005.  Archives of Virology 152:1901-1910.

A. N. Triebenbach, S. J. Vogl, L. Lotspeich-Cole, D. S. Sikes, G. M. Happ, K. Hueffer. (2010). Detection of Francisella tularensis in Alaskan mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and assessment of a laboratory model for transmission. J. Med. Entomol. 47:639-648.

V. N. Bui, H. Ogawa, Xiningen, K. Karibe, K. Matsuo, S. A. A. Awad, G. L. Minoungou, S. Yoden, H. Haneda, L. H. Ngo, S. Tamaki, Y. Yamamoto, K. Nakagama, K. Saito, Y. Watanabe, J. A. Runstadler, F. Huettmann, G. M. Happ, K. Imai (2012). H4N8 subtype avian influenza virus isolated from shorebirds contains a unique PB1 gene and causes severe respiratory disease in mice. Virology 423:77-88.

A. I. Ploshnitsa, M. E. Goltsman, G. M. Happ, D. W. Macdonald, L. J. Kennedy (2013).  Historical and modern neutral genetic variability in Mednyi Arctic foxes passed through a severe bottleneck  J. Zoology 289:68-72.