CREAM cows at the farm

Please contact me for additional information. 

The Barlow Lab conducts research on dairy cattle health and disease. We conduct laboratory and on-farm experiments ranging across molecular, cellular, and population levels. Examples of the techniques we use include: basic microbiology, mammalian cell culture models, mathematical epidemiologic models, immunologic and molecular diagnostics, nucleic acid sequence analysis, whole genome sequencing, next generation sequencing, and bioinformatics.


In the Barlow lab, we study host-pathogen interactions and the impact of infectious disease control interventions (e.g. vaccination and antimicrobial use) on cattle health. Our work is motivated by practical concerns of dairy cattle health on food production, and encompasses epidemiology, molecular genetics, microbiology and immunology. We are interested in economically significant diseases of dairy cattle that affect productivity and ultimately human health and well-being through food availability. We also study epidemiology and host specificity of infectious diseases at the human-animal interface. Broadly, my research interests involve the intersection between epidemiologic and molecular genetic approaches to understand the population biology of host-pathogen relationships. Recently, our lab is exploring the use of next generation sequencing approaches (whole genome sequencing and metagenomics) in epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens, antimicrobial resistant pathogens, and zoonotic pathogens on small to medium sized farms, including dairy farms that make farmstead and artisan cheeses.

Lab Publications

Barlow JWa 2021. Letter to the Editor: Comments on “Mammary microbial dysbiosis leads to the zoonosis of bovine mastitis: a One-Health perspective” by Maity and Ambatipudi. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, Volume 97, Issue 8, August 2021, fiab078,

Andrews T, Jeffrey Cc, Gilker R, Neher D, Barlow JWa. 2021. Survey design and implementation quantifies winter housing and bedding types used on Vermont organic dairy farms. J. Dairy Science Apr 14;S0022-0302(21)00517-8
DOI: 10.3168/jds.2020-19832

Huebner R, Mugabi Rc, Hetesy Gd, Fox L, De Vliegher S, De Visscher A, Barlow JWa, Sensabaugh G. 2021. Characterization of genetic diversity and population structure within Staphylococcus chromogenes by multilocus sequence typing. PLoS One. Mar 15; 6(3): e0243688.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0243688
The primary reference for the MLST scheme available at the MLST database where I am a co-curator for S. chromogenes

Eckstrom Kc, Barlow JWa. 2019. Resistome metagenomics from plate to farm: the resistome and microbial composition during food waste feeding and composting on a Vermont poultry farm. PLoS One. Nov 21; 14(11):e0219807. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219807. eCollection 2019.
Article included in the PLOS One collection on Antibiotic Resistance
Article Highlighted in Microbiome Digest – Bik’s Picks
Article Highlighted in BioCycle Composting Roundup

Andrews T, Weicht TR, Neher DA, Barlow JWa. 2019. Mammary microbiome of lactating organic dairy cows varies among individual cows by time, tissue site, and infection status. PLoS One 14(11): e0225001.

Sitt Tb, Kenney M, Barrera J, Pandya Mc, Eckstrom Kd, Warner M, Pacheco JM, LaRocco M, Palarea-Albaladejo J, Brake D, Rieder E, Arzt J, Barlow JW, Golde WT. 2019. Duration of protection and humoral immunity induced by an adenovirus-vectored subunit vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Holstein steers. Vaccine. 37(42):6221-6231. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.08.017. Epub 2019 Sep 5. PMID: 31493951

Lund CS, Stebbins EE, Jumani RS, Hasan MM, Miller P, Barlow J, Freund YR, Berry P, Stefanakis R, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Love MS, McNamara CW, Easom E, Plattner JJ, Jacobs RT,Huston CD. 2019. Identification of a potent benzoxaborole drug candidate for treating cryptosporidiosis. Nature Communications 10: 2816 DOI:      

Bainbridge ML, Saldinger LK, Barlow JW, Alvez JP, Roman J, Kraft J. 2018. Alteration of Rumen Bacteria and Protozoa through Grazing Regime as a Tool to Enhance the Bioactive Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milk. Front Microbiol. 9:904. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00904.

Stebbins E, Jumani RS, Klopfer C, Barlow J, Miller P, Campbell MA, Meyers MJ, Griggs DW, Huston CD. 2018. Clinical and microbiologic efficacy of the piperazine-based drug lead MMV665917 in the dairy calf cryptosporidiosis model. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 12(1): e0006183. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006183.

Reksen, O., Gröhn, Y., Mitchell, R.M., Barlow, J.W., and Schukken, Y.H. 2012. Transmission dynamics of intramammary infections with Coagulase negative Staphylococci. Journal of Dairy Science.

Nene, V., Svitek, N., Toye, P., Golde, W., Barlow, J., Buus, S., and Nielsen, M. 2012. Designing bovine T cell vaccines via reverse immunology. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases

Barlow, J. 2011. Mastitis Therapy and Antimicrobial Susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 16:383-407. Impact factor 5.446

Barlow, J.W., White, L.J., Zadoks, R.N., and Schukken, Y.H. 2009.  A mathematical model demonstrating indirect and overall effects of lactation therapy targeting subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 90:31-42. Impact factor 1.704

Schukken, Y.H., Bar, D., Gröhn, Y.T., Barlow, J.W., Quesnell, R.R., Zadoks, R.N. 2008. Milk quality improvement and mastitis control on dairy farms: The case of persistent infections and repeated clinical cases. Magyar Állatorvosok Lapja [Hungarian Veterinary Journal] 130:591-606.

Barlow, J.W.  Rauch, B., Welcome, F., Kim, S.G., Dubovi, E., and Schukken, Y.H. 2007. Association between Coxiella burnetii shedding in milk and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. Veterinary Research 39:23-31. Impact factor 4.125

Fan, W., Plaut, K., Bramley, A.J., Barlow, J.W., Mischler, S.A., Kerr D.E. 2004. Persistency of adenoviral-mediated lysostaphin expression in goat mammary glands. Journal of Dairy Science 87: 602-608. Impact factor 2.361

Tikofsky, L., Barlow, J.W., Santisteban, C., and Schukken, Y.H. 2003. A comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for Staphylococcus aureus in organic and conventional dairy herds.  Microbial Drug Resistance 9 (suppl 1) S39-S45. Impact factor 1.543

Barlow, J., Yandell, D., Weaver, D. Casey, T. and Plaut, K. 2003. Higher stromal expression of transforming growth factor-beta type II receptors is associated with poorer prognosis breast tumors. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 79: 149-159. Impact factor 4.453

Fan, W., Plaut, K., Bramley, A.J., Barlow, J.W., and Kerr, D.E. 2002. Adenoviral-mediated transfer of a lysostaphin gene in the goat mammary gland. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1709-1716. Impact factor 2.361

McDougall, S., Murdough, P., Pankey, J.W., Delaney, C., Barlow, J., and Scruton, D.  2001. Relationships among somatic cell count, California Mastitis Test, impedance and bacteriological status of milk in goats and sheep in early lactation.  Small Ruminant Research 40:245-254. Impact factor 0.966

Barlow, J., Casey, T., Chiu, J., and Plaut, K. 1997.  Estrogen affects development of alveolar structures in whole-organ culture of mouse mammary glands.  Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 232: 340-344. Impact factor 2.749

John working in his lab

If you wish to see a copy of my CV or get a complete listing of my publications, please contact me directly.


Lab Management Resources

General Barlow Lab Sharepoint (Net ID/password protected)

Cattle MHC Project Sharepoint (Net ID/password protected)

HR Time Approval in PeopleSoft (Net ID/password protected)

This Ruby script was developed by Mital Pandya to facilitate access to and manipulation of data contained within the bovine Major Histocompatibility Complex Immunopolymorphism Database (MHC-IPD). The Ruby script allows the user to sort the database based on breed, serological specificity or reference, and extract the FASTA file of the alleles sorted. Any questions about the script should be sent to


My Courses

ASCI 111 Animal Anatomy
ASCI 177 Animal Plagues and Global Health;
HCOL 186 One Health
ASCI 278 Molecular and Mathematical Epidemiology of Infectious Disease;
ASCI 279 One Health: Antimicrobial Resistance;
ASCI 303 Research Proposal Writing.

Contact Information

John Barlow, D.V.M., Ph.D.
Associate Professor

Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences
University of Vermont
221 Terrill, 570 Main Street
Burlington, VT  05405-0148

Office: (802)-656-1395
Lab: (802)-656-2209
Fax: (802)-656-8196