Publications

Publications

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2018

Integrating agroecology and participatory action research (PAR): principles and characteristics

V. Ernesto Méndez, Martha Caswell, Stephen R. Gliessman & Rose Cohen | August 16, 2018 | Download Attachment

Cadernos de Agroecologia 13 (1) Anais do VI Congresso Latino-americano de Agroecologia; X Congresso Brasileiro de Agroecologia; V Seminário de Agroecologia do Distrito Federal e Entorno; 12 a 15 de setembro de 2017, Brasília/DF

Subsistence under the canopy: Agrobiodiversity’s contributions to food and nutrition security amongst coffee communities in Chiapas, Mexico

Margarita Fernandez and V. Ernesto Méndez | November 15, 2018 | Download Attachment

Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems:1-23. DOI: 10.1080/21683565.2018.1530326.

Use and perceptions of alternative economic activities among smallholder coffee farmers in Huehuetenango and El Quiché departments in Guatemala

Gerlicz, A., V.E. Méndez, D. Conner, D. Baker and D. Christel | October 18, 2018 | Download Attachment

Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, DOI: 10.1080/21683565.2018.1532480

Report of the 2017-2018 New England Adaptation Survey for Vegetable and Fruit Growers

White, A., Faulkner, J., Sims, S., Tucker, P., & Weatherhogg, K. | October 18, 2018 |

Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Vermont. Burlington, VT. Download: https://adaptationsurvey.files.wordpress.com/2018/10/new-england-adaptation-survey-report-10-17.pdf

Origin of Pest Lineages of the Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

Izzo V.M., Chen Y.H., Schoville S.D., Wang C., Hawthorne D.J. | January 15, 2018 |

Journal of Economic Entomology. DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox367.

Agroecology in Canada: Towards an integration of agroecological practice, movement, and science

Isaac M., Isakson S., Dale B., Levkoe C., Hargreaves S., Méndez V.E., Wittman H., Hammelman C., Langill J., Martin A., Nelson E., Ekers M., Borden K., Gagliardi S., Buchanan S., Archibald S., Gálvez Ciani A. | September 15, 2018 |

Sustainability 10:3299. Open access: http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/10/9/3299

Harnessing local strength for sustainable coffee value chains in India and Nicaragua: reevaluating certification to global sustainability standards

Mithöfer, D., V.E. Méndez, A. Bose, P. Vaast | April 25, 2018 |

International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 13 (1): 471-496

A mixed methods approach to understanding farmer and technical service provider perceptions of climate change and adaptation in Vermont, United States

Schattman, R.E., V.E. Méndez, S.C. Merrill & A. Zia | January 1, 2018 | Download Attachment

Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 42(2)121-148. https://doi.org/10.1080/21683565.2017.1357667

2017

Integrating Agroecology and Participatory Action Research (PAR): Lessons from Central America

Méndez, V.E., M. Caswell, S.R. Gliessman and R. Cohen | Download Attachment

Sustainability 9(5): 705. link: http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/9/5/705

2016

Agroecology: a transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented approach

Méndez, V.E., C.M. Bacon, R. Cohen and S.R. Gliessman (Eds) | September 28, 2016 |

Invited book for the Advances in Agroecology Series. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.

New pathways to sustainability in agroecological systems.

Salvador, R.J. & V.E.Méndez (Guest Editors) | September 10, 2015 |

Elementa: science of the Anthropocene, Sustainability Transitions Domain [Open Access].

Assessing resilience in coffee-dependent communities of Honduras, Nicaragua and Haiti

Caswell, M., V.E. Méndez, J. Hayden, J. Anderzén, P. Merritt, A. Cruz, V. Izzo, S. Castro, J. Wiegel, A. Ospina and M. Fernandez | September 7, 2016 |

ARLG/LWR Research Brief #5. Agroecology and Rural Livelihoods Group (ARLG), University of Vermont & Lutheran World Relief (LWR).

Improving access to vegetable seeds for resilient family farms in Costa Rica

Hethcote, L., M. van Zonneveld , W. Solano, V.E. Méndez and N. Vasquez | April 14, 2016 |

Farming Matters. April: 14-17.

Assessing resilience in coffee-dependent communities of Honduras, Nicaragua and Haiti

Caswell, M., V.E. Méndez, J. Hayden, J. Anderzén, A. Cruz, P. Merritt, V. Izzo, S. Castro and M. Fernandez | December 31, 2016 | Download Attachment

Research Report. Agroecology and Rural Livelihoods Group (ARLG), University of Vermont. Burlington, VT, U.S.A.

Assessing resilience in coffee-dependent communities of Honduras, Nicaragua and Haiti

Caswell, M., V.E. Méndez, J. Hayden, J. Anderzén, P. Merritt, A. Cruz, V. Izzo, S. Castro, J. Wiegel, A. Ospina and M. Fernandez | Download Attachment

Agroecology and Rural Livelihoods Group (ARLG), University of Vermont & Lutheran World Relief (LWR). ARLG/LWR Research Brief #5.

Análisis de la resiliencia en las comunidades dependientes del café en Honduras, Nicaragua y Haití

Caswell, M., V.E. Méndez, J. Hayden, J. Anderzén, P. Merritt, A. Cruz, V. Izzo, S. Castro, J. Wiegel, A. Ospina and M. Fernandez | Download Attachment

Agroecology and Rural Livelihoods Group (ARLG), University of Vermont & Lutheran World Relief (LWR). Informe de Investigación ARLG/LWR #5.

Agroecology, food sovereignty and urban agriculture in the U.S.

Fernandez, M., V.E. Méndez, T. Mares & R. Schattman | Download Attachment

In V.E. Méndez, C.M. Bacon, R. Cohen & S.R. Gliessman (eds) Agroecology: a transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented approach. Advances in Agroecology Series. CRC Press/Taylor and Francis.

Introduction: agroecology as a transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented approach

Méndez, V.E., C.M. Bacon and R. Cohen | Download Attachment

In V.E. Méndez, C.M. Bacon, R. Cohen & S.R. Gliessman (eds) Agroecology: a transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented approach. Advances in Agroecology Series. CRC Press/Taylor and Francis.

California’s drought as opportunity: Redesigning agriculture for a changing climate

Morris, K.S. and G. Bucini |

Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 4: 000142. doi: 10.12952/journal.elementa.000142

2015

New pathways to sustainability in agroecological systems.

Salvador, R.J. & V.E.Méndez (Guest Editors) | September 10, 2015 |

Elementa: science of the Anthropocene, Sustainability Transitions Domain [Open Access].

New pathways to sustainability in agroecological systems

Salvador, R.J. & V.E.Méndez (Guest Editors) |

Elementa Special Forum. Elementa: science of the anthropocene 3: in progress

Shade tree diversity, carbon sequestration, and epiphyte presence in coffee agroecosystems: a decade of smallholder management in San Ramón, Nicaragua

Goodall, K.E., C.M. Bacon & V.E. Méndez | Download Attachment

Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 199:200-206

Vermont agricultural resilience in a changing climate: A transdisciplinary and participatory action research (PAR) process

Schattman, R., V.E. Méndez, K. Westdjik, M. Caswell, D. Conner, C. Koliba, A. Zia, S. Hurley, C. Adair, L. Berlin and H. Darby | Download Attachment

pp. 325-346. In N. Benkeblia (Ed.) Agroecology, ecosystems, and sustainability. CRC Press/Taylor and Francis: Boca Raton, FL.

Exlusion nettting for managing spotted wing Drosophila on berry farms in the Northeastern United States.

Schattman, R., V. Izzo, Y.H. Chen | Download Attachment

ARLG Research Brief # 3. Agroecology and Rural Livelihoods Group (ARLG), University of Vermont: Burlington, VT.

Farmer’s engagement with community food insecurity: approaches, perspectives and implications for Extension

Schattman, R., L. Berlin, F.F. Bochner, & M. Lawrence |

Journal of Extension 53 (4): 4FEA2.

2014

Climate change resilience on Vermont farms: a research report for service providers

Schattman, R.E., H.M. Aitken, V.E. Méndez & M. Caswell | September 25, 2014 |

ARLG Research Brief # 2. Agroecology and Rural Livelihoods Group (ARLG), University of Vermont: Burlington, VT.

Revisiting the “thin months”- a follow-up study on livelihoods of Mesoamerican coffee farmers.

Caswell, M., V.E. Méndez, M. Baca, P. Läderach, T. Liebig, S. Castro-Tanzi & M. Fernández | September 24, 2014 |

Policy Brief # 19. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT): Cali Colombia.

Revisiting the “thin months”- a follow-up study on livelihoods of Mesoamerican coffee farmers

Caswell, M. Méndez, V. Ernesto Baca, María Läderach, Peter Liebig, T. Castro-Tanzi, S. Fernández, M. | May 1, 2014 | Download Attachment

Policy Brief # 19. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) & Agroecology and Livelihoods Group (ARLG): Cali, Colombia.

Transition from Semi-Confinement to Pasture-Based Dairy in Brazil: Farmers’ View of Economic and Environmental Performances

Alvez, J.P., A.L. Schmitt, J.C. Farley, J.D. Erickson and V.E. Méndez | January 8, 2014 | Download Attachment

Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 38(9): 995-1014. doi: 10.1080/21683565.2013.859222

Explaining the ‘hungry farmer paradox’: Smallholders and fair trade cooperatives navigate seasonality and change in Nicaragua’s corn and coffee markets

Bacon, C., W.A. Sundstrom, M.A. Flores-Gomez, V.E. Méndez, R. Santos, B. Goldoftas and I. Dougherty | Download Attachment

Global Environmental Change 25: 133-149

Shade Coffee: Update on a Disappearing Refuge for Biodiversity

Jha, S., C.M. Bacon, S.M. Philpott, V. Ernesto Méndez, P. Läderach and R.A. Rice |

Bioscience 64(5): 416-428. doi: 10.1093/biosci/biu038 pdf

Geographic variation in winter hardiness of a common agricultural pest, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, the Colorado potato beetle

Izzo V.M., D.J. Hawthorne, Y.H. Chen |

Evolutionary Ecology Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 505–520

Geographic variation in winter hardiness of a common agricultural pest, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, the Colorado potato beetle

Victor M. Izzo, D.J. Hawthorne, Y.H. Chen |

Evolutionary Ecology (2014) 28: 505 | doi:10.1007/s10682-013-9681-8

Climate change resilience on Vermont farms: a research report for service providers. ARLG Research Brief # 2.

Schattman, R.E., H.M. Aitken, V.E. Méndez & M. Caswell | Download Attachment

ARLG Research Brief # 2. Agroecology and Rural Livelihoods Group (ARLG), University of Vermont: Burlington, VT.

Agroecological risk and resilience screening tool: guidance for considering agroecological impact of agriculture interventions and identifying opportunities to build resilience in food systems

Scarborough, G., V.E. Méndez and A. Bisson | Download Attachment

Mercy Corps: Portland, OR.

2013

Agroecología y la transformación de los sistemas agroalimentarios: perspectivas transdisciplinares y participativas

Méndez, V.E., C.M. Bacon, R. Cohen, S.R. Gliessman & M. Gonzalez de Molina (Guest Editors) | September 14, 2013 |

Monográfico Invitado [Invited Special Issue]. Translated and re-edited Open Access version of the Special Issue published in Agroecology and Sustainable Systems 37 (1), 2013. Agroecología [Spain] 8(2). Read Here.

Agroecology and the transformation of agro-food systems: Transdisciplinary and participatory perspectives

Méndez, V.E., C.M. Bacon and R. Cohen (Guest Editors) | September 18, 2013 |

Invited Special Inaugural Issue of Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37(1) (formerly Journal of Sustainable Agriculture; IF: 0.673; R: 23 of 57 in Agriculture, Multidisciplinary). Read Here.

Seasonal hunger in coffee communities: integrated analysis of livelihoods, agroecology,and food sovereignty with smallholders of Mexico and Nicaragua. Conference Paper # 42

Fernandez, M., V.E. Méndez & C. Bacon | September 14, 2013 |

Food Sovereignty: A critical dialogue. International Conference at Yale University. September 14-15.

Agroecology as a transdisciplinary, participatory, and action-oriented approach.

Méndez, V.E., C.M. Bacon and R. Cohen | January 1, 2013 | Download Attachment

Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37(1): 3-18. doi: 10.1080/10440046.2012.736926

La agroecología como un enfoque transdisciplinar, participativo y orientado a la acción

Méndez, V.E., C.M. Bacon y R. Cohen | January 2, 2013 | Download Attachment

Agroecología 8(2): 9-18.

Agroecología y la transformación del sistema agroalimentario: Perspectivas transdisciplinarias y participativas

Méndez, V.E., C.M. Bacon, R. Cohen, S.R. Gliessman and M. Gonzalez de Molina (Editores Invitados) | January 15, 2013 |

Monográfico Especial Invitado. Agroecología (Spain) 8(2). http://revistas.um.es/agroecologia/issue/view/13201/showToc

Agroecology and the transformation of agri-food systems: Transdisciplinary and participatory perspectives

Méndez, V.E., C.M. Bacon and R. Cohen (Guest Editors) | January 9, 2013 |

Inaugural Special Issue of Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems: 37 (1). http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/wjsa21/37/1#.U4yw9CjiinY

Food sovereignty: an alternative paradigm for poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation in Latin America

Chapell, J.H., H. Wittman, C.M. Bacon, B.G. Ferguson, L. García-Barrios, R. García-Barrios, D. Jaffee, J. Lima, V.E. Méndez, H. Morales, L. Soto-Pinto, J. Vandermeer and I. Perfecto | January 1, 2013 | Download Attachment

[v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/23s]. F1000Research 2013, 2: 235.

Identifying, quantifying and classifying agricultural opportunities for land use planning

Erickson, D.L., S.T. Lovell and V.E. Méndez | February 1, 2013 | Download Attachment

Landscape and Urban Planning 118(0): 29-39

Agroecology and Alternative Agri-Food Movements in the United States: Toward a Sustainable Agri-Food System

Fernandez, M., K. Goodall, M. Olson and V.E. Méndez | January 1, 2013 | Download Attachment

Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37(1): 115-126. doi: 10.1080/10440046.2012.735633

2012

Food security and smallholder coffee production: current issues and future directions. ARLG Policy Brief # 1.

Caswell, M., V.E. Méndez & C.M. Bacon | September 26, 2012 |

Agroecology and Rural Livelihoods Group (ARLG), University of Vermont: Burlington, VT.

Vermont farm resilience in a changing climate: survey of Vermont agricultural service providers. ARLG Research Brief # 1

Schattman, R., V.E. Méndez & K.E. Westdijk | September 21, 2012 |

Agroecology and Rural Livelihoods Group (ARLG), University of Vermont: Burlington, VT.

Cultivation of maize landraces by small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador

Olson, M.B., K.S. Morris and V.E. Méndez | Download Attachment

Agricultural Systems 111: 63-74. doi: 10.1016/j.agsy.2012.05.005

2011

Prioritizing food security and livelihoods in climate change mitigation mechanisms: experiences and opportunities for smallholder coffee agroforestry, forest communities and REDD+

Davis, A. and V.E. Méndez | September 30, 2011 |

Policy Brief. Salvadoran Research Program on Development and Environment (PRISMA): San Salvador, El Salvador.

2010

Agrobiodiversity and Shade Coffee Smallholder Livelihoods: A Review and Synthesis of Ten Years of Research in Central America

Méndez, V.E., C.M. Bacon, M. Olson, K. S. Morris & A. Shattuck | September 24, 2010 |

Invited Article for a Special Focus Section on Geographic Contributions to Agrobiodiversity Research. Professional Geographer 62(3):357-376 (IF: 1.206; R: 28 of 73 in Geography; TC: 8).

Integrating agroecology and landscape multifunctionality in Vermont: a framework to evaluate the design of agroecosystems

Lovell, S.T., S. Desantis, C.A. Nathan, M.B. Olson, V.E. Méndez, H.C. Kominami, D.L. Erickson, K.S. Morris, and W.B. Morris | September 22, 2010 |

Agricultural Systems 103:327-341 (IF: 2.899; R: 2 of 57 in Agriculture, Multidisciplinary; TC: 12).

2009

Cooperative management and its effects on shade tree diversity, soil properties and ecosystem services of coffee plantations in western El Salvador

Méndez, V.E., E.N. Shapiro, and G.S. Gilbert | September 5, 2009 |

Selected for a Special Issue on Agroforestry for Ecosystem Services and Environmental Benefits. Agroforestry Systems 76 (1):111-126 (IF: 1.378; R: 31 of 79 in Agronomy; TC: 11).

2008

Are sustainable coffee certifications enough to secure farmer livelihoods? the millenium development goals and Nicaragua’s Fair Trade cooperatives

Bacon, C.M., V.E. Méndez, M.E. Flores, D. Stuart & S.R. Díaz | September 12, 2008 |

Globalizations 5 (2): 259-274 (IF: 0.468; R: 56 of 89 in Social Sciences, Interdisciplinary; TC: 42).

Confronting the coffee crisis: Fair Trade, sustainable livelihoods and ecosystems in Mexico and Central America

Bacon, C.M., V. E. Méndez, S.R. Gliessman, D. Goodman & J. A. Fox (eds.) | September 26, 2008 |

Food, Health and the Environment Series. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, USA.  

Will “we” achieve the millenium development goals with small-scale coffee growers and their cooperatives? a case study evaluating Fair Trade and organic coffee networks in northern Nicaragua

Bacon, C., V.E. Méndez, M.E. Flores & M. Brown | September 23, 2008 |

Center Research Brief # 12. Center for Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems.  University of California: Santa Cruz, CA, USA.

Agroecology, a next step in sustainable coffee

Bacon, C. M., E. Whitlow-Inman & V.E. Méndez | September 21, 2006 |

Fresh Cup, February: 82-87.

2007

Tree biodiversity in farmer cooperatives of a shade coffee landscape in western El Salvador

Méndez, V. E., S.R. Gliessman, and G.S. Gilbert | September 20, 2007 |

Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 119(1-2):145-159 (IF: 3.004; R: 1 of 57 in Agriculture, Multidisciplinary; TC: 35).

Agroecología: promoviendo una transición hacia la sostenibilidad (Agroecology: promoting a transition towards sustainability)

Gliessman, S. R., F. Rosado-May, C. Guadarrama-Zugasti, J. Jedlicka, A. Cohn, V. E. Méndez, R. Cohen, L. Trujillo, C. Bacon & R. Jaffe | September 12, 2007 |

Ecosistemas (Spain) 16(1): 13-28 (TC:18).

2006

Ecological processes and farmer livelihoods in shaded coffee production.

Méndez, V. E. & C. Bacon | September 1, 2006 |

Invited Article. LEISA (The Netherlands) 22(4): 22-23.

Sustainable coffee from the bottom-up: impacts of certification initiatives on small-scale farmer and estate worker households and communities in Central America and Mexico

Méndez, V. E., C. Bacon, S. Petchers, D. Herrador, C. Carranza, L. Trujillo, C. Guadarrama-Zugasti, A. Cordón & A. Mendoza | September 20, 2006 |

Research Report. Oxfam America: Boston, MA.

2005

Medios de vida y conservación de la biodiversidad arbórea: las experiencias de las cooperativas cafetaleras en El Salvador y Nicaragua (Livelihoods and conservation of tree biodiversity: experiences in coffee cooperatives of El Salvador and Nicaragua)

Méndez, V.E. & C. Bacon | September 22, 2005 |

LEISA Revista de Agroecología (Peru) 20(4): 27-30.

Asociación de comunidades forestales de Petén, Guatemala: contexto, logros y desafíos (Association of forestry communities of Petén, Guatemala: context, accomplishments & challenges)

Gómez, I. & V. E. Méndez | September 29, 2005 |

PRISMA: San Salvador, El Salvador.

Participatory action-research and support for community development and conservation: Examples from shade coffee landscapes of El Salvador and Nicaragua. Center Research Brief # 6

Bacon, C., V.E. Méndez & M. Brown | September 25, 2005 |

Center for Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems. University of California: Santa Cruz, CA, USA. Available online: http://repositories.cdlib.org/casfs/rb/brief_no6/

2004

Qu’est-ce que l’agroecologie?(What is agroecology?)

Gliessman, S. R., C. Bacon, R. Cohen, C. Guadarrama-Zugasti, L. Trujillo & V. E. Méndez | September 16, 2004 |

l’ Ecologiste (French edition of the Ecologist) 5 (3):27-29.

2003

Tendencias y perspectivas del sector forestal en El Salvador del siglo XX (Tendencies and perspectives of the forestry sector in El Salvador for the 21st century)

Cuéllar, N., V.E. Méndez, S. Larios & L. Dimas | September 20, 2003 |

FAO/MAG: San Salvador, El Salvador.

2002

Un enfoque interdisciplinario para la investigación en agroecología y desarrollo rural en el trópico Latinoamericano (An interdisciplinary approach for research in agroecology and rural development in the Latin American tropics)

Méndez, V.E. & S.R. Gliessman | September 26, 2002 |

Manejo Integrado de Plagas y Agroecología (Costa Rica) 64: 5-16 (TC: 30).

Fair trade networks in two coffee cooperatives of western El Salvador: an analysis of insertion through a second level organization

Méndez, V. E. | September 11, 2002 |

Case Study for the Project on “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Networks”. Colorado State University/Ford Foundation: Ft. Collins, CO, USA. Available on-line: colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/.

Café con sombra y pago por servicios ambientales: riesgos y oportunidades para impulsar mecanismos con pequeños agricultores de El Salvador (Shade coffee and payment for environmental services: risks and opportunities to foster mechanisms with small-scale farmers in El Salvador

Méndez, V. E., D. Herrador, L. Dimas, M. Escalante, O. Diaz & M. Garcia | September 20, 2002 |

Estudio de Caso para El Proyecto “Pago por Servicios Ambientales en las Américas” PRISMA/Fundacion FORD: San Salvador, El Salvador.

Pago por servicios ambientales en El Salvador: oportunidades y riesgos para pequeños agricultores y comunidades rurales (Payment for environmental services in El Salvador: opportunities and risks for small-scale farmers and rural communities)

Herrador, D., L. A. Dimas & V. E. Méndez | September 20, 2002 |

PRISMA: San Salvador, El Salvador.

2001

Interdisciplinary analysis of homegardens in Nicaragua: micro-zonation, plant use and socioeconomic importance

Méndez V.E., R. Lok & E. Somarriba | September 20, 2001 |

Agroforestry Systems 51(2): 85-96 (IF: 1.378; R: 31 of 79 in Agronomy; TC: 92).

1999

El proceso agroforestal participativo en Valle de Risco, Bocas del Toro (The participatory agroforestry process in Valle de Risco, Bocas del Toro)

Calvo, G., V.E. Méndez & M. Ortiz | September 21, 1999 |

Agroforestería en las Américas (Costa Rica) 6(21): 17-19.

Caracterización de la comunidad Ngöbe de Valle de Risco, Bocas del Toro, Panamá (Characterization of the Ngöbe community of Valle de Risco, Bocas del Toro, Panamá)

Méndez, E., G. Calvo & M. Ortiz | September 8, 1999 |

Revista Forestal Centroamericana (Costa Rica) 28: 32-36.

1996

Refrigerated controlled atmosphere storage during marine shipment on insect mortality and cut flower vase life

Shelton M.D., V.R. Walters, D. Brandl & V.E. Méndez | September 6, 1996 |

HortTechnology (U.S.A.) 6(3): 247-250.

Analisis agroecologico de huertos caseros tradicionales en Nicaragua (Agroecological analysis of traditional homegardens in Nicaragua).

Méndez, E. & R. Lok | January 1, 1996 | Download Attachment