My research explores the associative and motivational bases of learning. In both Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning preparations, it aims to clarify how knowledge about relationships between events is acquired and expressed. I have studied limitations in the encoding and retrieval of information relevant to the physiological well being of the organism when learning is about a chain of relationships between multiple events, for example in second-order conditioning and secondary reward paradigms. In the resurgence paradigm, I have demonstrated the ability of the animal's own behavior to act as a context for learning, showing that it controls the expression of that learning in a way quite similar to the physical location. I am currently interested in the application of contemporary statistical techniques to real-time experimental data in order to allow more accurate inference of the organism's expectation of one event given the occurrence of another, related event.