Liz's work on stigma emerged out of a recognition that not all targets of stigma experience their stigmatized status in the same way. She promptly set about developing a measure of individual differences in stigma consciousness, or, how self-conscious people are about their stigmatized status. Since developing this measure, Liz has examined how stigma consciousness affects thought, feeling, and behavior in a wide range of groups, including gay men and lesbians, service workers, and members of racial/ethnic minorities.
More recently, Liz has wondered how stigma affects people's feelings of existential isolation and, in turn, their interpersonal worlds. She would love to pursue questions related to this topic with interested individuals.
Carol's work on stigma emphasizes the perspective of people who are stigmatized. Most of her research has focuses on how stigmatized people cope with the stigma, with particular emphasis on coping efforts that promote resilience and positive interpersonal interactions despite the prejudice stigmatized people face.
Her most recent research examines the interplay between the experiences of stigmatized people and the characteristics and perceptions of the communities in which they live. This work, which focuses on the experiences of people with HIV/AIDS examines both community-level and individual-level variables to see how the perception of being a stigmatized individual is related to community expressions of prejudice. This work also examines community social and physical environments as they relate to the experience of prejudice by stigmatized people living in these communities.
Racial/Ethnic Group Stigma