In most cases (especially among the required courses), your grade in a given class will be determined by your performance on a single final exam. Sometimes, you may have a midterm. But the days of having your final grade be the result of several papers and/or exams assigned over the course of the semester are over. That era ended when you graduated from college.
So, you should not expect to have the chance to “make up for” one paper that you bombed. Nor should you expect to get a progress report about how you are doing in a class. If there's only a final exam, there won't be any indicia of progress during the semester. Generally, you will get one shot, and if you don't do well on that one shot, you're stuck.