To determine the impact of recreational hiking on slopes of
Camel's Hump. Using the statistics on trail use from the Green Mountain
Club we will study a well traveled trail and a less traveled trail for our
We will take measurement at a designated elevation interval,
determined by using an altimeter. The measurements at these intervals will
include slope, determined with a bubble level, stadia rod and a 30 meter
tape measure for distance.
In a sample distance we will take six measurements of trail
widthand trail incision (every 5 meters) to get the average trail width
and incision for each station. Compaction will be measured every 10 meters
(3 measurements)to determine the average compaction.
With this data we can compare total cross section profiles for
the less traveled and more traveled trails at similar slopes and
elevations. We can also compare the width of the trail at different
stations to the incision. We can also look at slope as a function of
slope and/or elevation. We the data we will make a comparison of slope
profiles, a topo station map and a map of surficial material on the
*The well traveled trail will be more incised and compacted than
the less traveled trail.
*The steeper the slope, the more incised the trail will be.
*The narrower the trail the more incised the trail will be.
*As the elevation increases the compaction will decrease in area
where there is no bedrock.
*The trail width will decrease as elevation increases.
Geology 151, Prof. Bierman
October 15, 1997
What happened on a gentle Summer
Revised Project Proposal: Mill Creek, West Bolton, VT
Between July 4 and July 23, 1990; several heavy rainstorms hit the
waters of the Mill Creek, causing a flash flood and raising the water
upwards of fifteen feet. The intense water movement moved huge masses of
geologic material and trees, thus diverting the course of the river to
what it is today. We plan to explore the flood site and better
under-stand exactly what happened during these storms.
1. Estimate the discharge through the Mill Creek at the time of flood.
To do this we will acknowledge data from several sources. First, local
observations will allow us to estimate cross sectional area at the time of
the flood. We will estimate the mass of debris moved by the river, and
use that data compute the river velocity. Having the velocity and river
cross-section, we can compute the river discharge. Alternatively, we plan
estimate the total runoff in the river drainage basin at the time of the
flood. This data over a certain time interval will also give us river
2. Map the flood site. We plan to cover an area roughly 400 meters by
600 meters, but we will focus on the much smaller area of the past river
routes. These include the path before the flooding and subsequent paths
during the flooding. We believe the map will allow us to better calculate
river cross sectional area at the time of the flood as well as it will
assist in demonstration purposes.
We plan to look for clues as to the water height at the time of the flood,
including scars on tree trunks. This will help us calculate cross
sectional area. We also hope to estimate the mass or rocks and trees
moved by the raging waters in order to give us an idea as to de-termine
river velocity. In the field, we can collect dimensions of the debris.
Using a com-puted volume and assumed density of the debris, we can
calculate mass. We need to re-search methods for computing velocity using
mass of displaced debris. We hope to spend several hours observing and
documenting the flood site in hopes of finding further clues and patterns.
Using an area USGS topographic map, we will define and calculate the
horizontal plane area of the Mill Creek drainage basin. From this area
and average rainfall data for these areas obtained from the National
Weather Service for a time interval, we can calculate to the total volume
per unit time of precipitation in the basin. We also will try to roughly
estimate the infiltration rates for areas around the basin. We will be
able to roughly esti-mate discharge into the river from this data.
To produce the flood site map, we plan to use a total station. We will
shoot most of our data points around the present and past river routes.
We will record elevation and coor-dinate data and plot the site on a
topographic map. The map will be rather brief, but will help us to
understand and explain what happened.
This project involves the reconstruction of flooding events that
occurred this summer in Montgomery, Vermont. Over a period of hours an
above average amount of rain fell on the watershed of this area,
generating some of the largest discharges teh Trout river has seen in over
fifty years ( old guy at Enosburg Falls, Personal Comm).
In order to measure the effects the flood had on the geomorphology
of the area, certain measurements need to be obtained. We hope to
determine the following information in order to quantify the flood's
---Create cross section of river during flood
---Determine discharge of flood
---Compare with present discharge
---Correlate flood volume with watershed area and total rainfall
---Correlate sediment textures to distance from river channel
---Measure total sedimetn yield from the surrounding watershed
---Dig trenches to observe evidence of past flooding events
Station locations will be established at various point along the
Trout River, near Montgomery Village. Stream cross sections will be
created by estimating Manning's n, using George Arcement's "Guide for
Selecting Mannings Roughness Coefficient for Channels an Floodplains",
1989, and "Roughness Coefficient for Densely Vegetated Floodplains.",
1987. These cross sections will be created for the present stream as well
as the stream during the flood. The discharge of the present stream
will be obtained using the cross section area along with measured
stream velocities. The cross section of the flood stream will be
generated by estimating the maximum surface elevation of the stream. This
will be accomplished using distinct markers, such as weeds and
debris in tree branches, scars on trees, extent of sediment on flood
plain, and maximum observed height (Farmer Longley, Personal Comm.) The
cross section area of the stream at flood stage will be used along with
the estimated roughness coefficient in order to determine the discharge of
the stream at the peak of flooding. This will be compared with the stream
discharge of the Trout River presently.
Using a topographic map of the Richford Quadrangle along with the
gage records from the weather service, the amount of rain that fell will
be compared with the flood volume.
Measurements of the amount of sediment overlying the most recent
soil layer in the flood plain will be obtained by digging and
logging trenches in the flood plain and surrounding terraces. Also, grain
sizes at these locations will be observed, and should become smaller
further from the river's banks. These data are needed to approximate the
amount of denudation that occured on the watershed during this particular
storm event. The volume of sediment overlying the most recent soil layer
between two points along the river (this includes two points on each
side) will be established by multiplying the area between the two points
with the depth of the sediment. This volume will be extrapolated for the
length of the river in the vicinity of the watershed.
The trenches will be examined to find buried soil horizons. The
public record of the last storm event of this magnitude will help us
determine if any periodicy exists in the flooding events. This will be
determined by comparing the amount of sediment that has accumulated since
the last storm event, with the time of the event. The rate of aggradation
between known episodic deposition events will be postulated.
"Tender Situation, create a good illusion" --ween
-- Infiltration Rates In UVM's East Woods --
Darrin Santos and Ben Groves
East Woods is a 92.5 acre forest in South Burlington, Vermont. The
diversity of the landscape in East Woods is great. There are several
types of tree cover, many soil types, hillslopes, two wetland areas, a
railroad cut and trails leading all around the property. Potash Brook,
which is situated at the base of the hillslopes adds to the diversity as
well. Several small scale hillslope failures have been observed. What
appears to be a flood plain lies adjacent to Potash Brook.
The purpose of the research on East Woods will be to discover how the
infiltration rates differ across the extremely diverse landscape. Does
the infilration rate vary on the different soil types? How does it
differ on the trails? How does the tree cover effect the infiltration
rate? Why has hill slope failure occurred in certain areas? Is the
infiltration rate different near the wetlands or beside the brook? These
are the types of questions which will be answered after the data is
collected and analyzied.
The infiltration rates will be tested using the 'coffee can' method. As
many different areas will be tested as possible. The more data the
better. Where each infiltration rate is tested a pit will be dug so that
the soil and surficial material can be logged. This will help in drawing
conclusions and in checking the validity of the Soils map.
Through preliminary research, a soils map, a tree cover map, and a
topographic map have, been obtained. Literature concerning infiltration
was found in the library [ WATER AT THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH -Miller,
HILLSLOPE HYDROLOGY -Kirkby, and WATER, A PRIMER -Leopold]. The data to
be collected on infiltration rates will be reduced using the above
mentioned material and a map concerning infiltration rates will be
produced. Conclusions will be made on how the surficial material, forest
cover and even human inpact has effected the infiltration rates in East
Our proposal involves measuring on and off trail
infilltration/permeability rates with respect to elevation. We will
relate these measurments to trail erosion and determine if trends
exist. Do the infilltration rates vary with elevation fluxuation,
on/off trail respectively, and does this effect trail erosion impact?
Our research area will be on the Burrow's trail established on Camel's
Hump in Hunington, VT. Each of the five different sites will be
seperated by 250' ft elevation starting at 1800' ft above sea level. At
each of these five sites infiltration and permeability rates will be
measured. There will be two on trail and two off trail sites at each
location. We will excavate small portions using an auger to view
stratigraphy, thus determining percolation rates along with our
infiltration capacity tests. We will compare unique stratigraphy along
with measurement depths from trail bank to trail trench, to measure
The methods we will be using to gather measurements of infilltration
will include a sharpened 12" in PVC pipe. Liters of water will be added
to the securely grounded PVC pipe. Absorption will be measured in lenth
of time it takes to empty out the full contents of our water bottles,
with a water surface line remaining constant within the pipe itslef. In
the auger holes we dig up, a fixxed amount of water water will be poured
into the ground and then in intervals of five minutes we will record how
much has permeated the surface. The rates will be averaged for each
elevation with respect to on/off trail locations. These measurements
will be recorded in tabular form and referenced to a topographic
location on a map.
The first method for erosional measurement will be looking at the
stratigraphy. By using an auger, we will open a small "window" into the
soils stratigraphy. This will be done on and off trails so a comparison
can be made. Hopefully unique stratigraphy will allow us to determine
the amount of trail erosion impact to date. One goal is to minimize
environmental impact by digging as few holes as possible while still
being able to retreive the proper amount of data.
The second method will to physically measure the depth of the trail in
relation to its banks. This will be measured using a linear rod resting
on opposing trail banks from where depth will be measured. 5 random
depths will be taken along the width of the trail and averaged together
at each elevation. The erosion information will be recorded in
statigraphic cross sections showing surficial material both on and off
trail at each elevation.
This compilation of data collection will allow us to determine if any
trends exist between on/off trail infiltration rates and erosional
impact on an established trail.
Datzenka, Papamichos, Romine
Journal of soil and water conservation, 22:196-197
The Conservationist, 25:14-18
Journal of environmental management, 10:155-165
Wilson and Seney
Mountain research and developement, v14 n1 pp.77-88
-Chris and Dan
Channel Meandering Rates at the Lamoille River Delta
David Sonenberg & Joya Tetreault
Researching the Lamoille River delta will assist in providing information
on future meandering of the river. The purpose of this project is to
determine where the Lamoille River delta has migrated from and to
hypothesize where it will be in the future. Based on previous studies and
knowledge, the Lamoille river delta has migrated north. The Lamoille was
once located at Clay point, which is south of the river's present delta at
Milton. By determining rates of erosion and sedimentation, the rate and
direction of meandering can be estimated. Hypothetically, the bank that
has a higher rate of erosion and a lower rate of sedimentation than the
opposite bank will be the side to which the river will meander. And from
past meandering, the Lamoille is expected to meander north. It is best to
study meandering relationships over a long period of time, such as
thousands of years, to get the general direction of displacement of the
channel. The meandering of a channel in tens of years can result in
meandering in various directions, whereas the overall
direction of meander will be in one direction. Hopefully, this research
will be able to project where the delta will be in the future.
Previous work done on sedimentation rates at Lake Champlain by Allen Hunt
gives rates of sedimentation at the delta of the Lamoille River. Surficial
geology of the river's watershed can be examined for deltaic sediments to
determine where the river has been in the past. Mosselman and Crosato have
published work on an equation for the erosion coefficient for meandering
rivers. Also, Johanneson and Parker have researched other variables in
Hunt, Allen S., 1979. "Sedimentation rates in Lake Champlain since
settlement by man : a completion report," Vermont Water Resources
Research Centerand US. Department of the Interior, Office of Water
Research and Technology.
Johannson, H., Parker, G., 1989, "Velocity Redistribution in Meandering
Rivers,"Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, vol. 115, no. 8, p. 1019-1038.
Mosselman, E., Crosato, A., 1991, "Universal Bank Erosion Coefficient for
Meandering Rivers," Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, vol. 117, no. 7,
United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. New York District, 1976, "Flood
plain information : Lamoille River, Colchester and Milton,
Vermont" New York District, Corps of Engineers.
Further research will be done on historic and prehistoric deltas of the
To research meandering in the delta of the Lamoille River at Milton and
Colchester, erosion and sedimentation will be measured. These data can be
collected by taking channel cross-sections to determine velocity and
discharge, as well as plot sediment size and distribution along the banks.
Also, stratigraphic columns of the river sediments can help determine the
past locations of the Lamoille River Delta.
Biological dating of quaternary exposed rock outcrop surfaces by use of
Lichenometry assumes that the largest individual in a lichen community is
the oldest, and that the maximum lichen size correlates to a minimum age
for the substrate dated. In order to perform lichen dating, I will
calibrate lichen growth rate from a substrate of a known age. Many
factors influence growth rate of lichen from lichen species to location
to microclimate. I am prepared to deal with these factors by use of a
lichen guide book, a thermometer, and careful observation of lichen
envioronment. Upon calibration, I would like to test my dating technique
against more popular techniques on a substrate in order to determine a
variance factor. As no two lichen grow the same,the specifics of my
calibration site will determine what type of site I may date. The dating
site should as closely as possible match the calibration site. As a
result, I cannot determine my dating site until a growth rate has been
calibrated for a species in a specific location.
The main objective of our project is to compare and contrast the
effects fluvial systems have on adjacent forested and deforested lands. The
stream found within the deforested land is located off of Skyline Ridge
trail in the Ranch Valley of Mt. Mansfield. This deforested land is a part
of a ski slope Stowe Mountain Ski Resort. The stream in the forested land
is on the same mountain, yet located on the opposite face from the ridge.
The discharges of the two streams will be used as our interpretive
data to conclude how vegetation affects the discharges and the surrounding
landforms and terrain. In order to compare the effects discharges have on
the land, they must be similar in as many aspects as possible i.e. slope
Surveying and measuring equipment will be used to calculate cross
sections, depths, velocities, surrounding topography, Manning's N, etc, at
various locations throughout both streams.
Semester Project Proposal for Geomorphology Geol 151
Resubmitted to: Paul R. Bierman, Ph.D. October 13, 1997
Prepared by Mike Graichen and Todd Menees
Title: Estimating Soil Loss in a River Meander Bend Due to Erosion of a Concave
Outer Bank on the Meander Bend
Background and Purpose
Alluvial river channel stability is influenced by channel morphology,
stream power, and sediment erosion. Estimating the rates of historical bank
erosion can be approximated from analysis of both existing maps and new
The purpose of this project is to develop an estimate of soil loss in a
river bank from a limited literature review, analysis of existing maps and
field data collection. A methodology will be developed to identify the
problem, identify and collect data and derive an assessment of erosion
rates in a sand river bank. The rate of erosion will be based on historical
records of former channel locations and estimates of volumes lost in the
lapsed time period.
The field data will be collected on the concave meander bank of the
Winooski River on the sand bluff located on the opposite side of Derway
Island in Colchester. The height and slope-of-face of the sand bluff will
be surveyed from the public right-of-way on the River Road.
The stream bank has been protected from erosion with rip-rap at the bank
full flood stage. A search for available maps and aerial photographs will
be conducted in the Bailey Howe Library. Data sources will include the
construction plans for rip-rap stream bank protection prepared for the Town
of Colchester by the Natural Resources Conservation Service.
Materials and Methods
The field methods will include a level circuit, and research will include a
desk top analysis of existing maps. The level circuit will be conducted to
measure the height of the bank above the water surface and verify
topographic features shown on maps. The reduced field data will be drafted
in plan form and compared to existing documents to develop a data base.
The data analysis will include volume estimates and rates of erosion.
Volume estimates will be derived from drawings assuming applicable
geometries and formulas. Rates of erosion will be based on the volumes
moved in the lapsed periods between map/data record entries.
The final product will be a 5 page report and a 10-minute presentation to
the class. These will include a brief problem statement, a description of
the methodologies for data collection and analysis and discussion of
results and conclusions.
Rain water is a major source of erosion on hillslopes. In this experiment
we will test how much sediment is displaced during a rainstorm. When a
raindrop falls some water is absorbed into the soil, but the raindrop also
causes some sediment to "jump" or be picked up by the raindrop and be
diplaced on the hillside. In this experiment we will test the
amount and direction of sediment displaced at different hillslope angles.
We hypothesize that more sediment will be displaced downhill on the
We will mark 4 different sites at different angles on one hillslope on
Mt. Philo. We will cut a hole in the middle of a coffee filter, weigh the
paper, and dividepaper in half designating the upper half uphill and lower
downslope. The raindrop will fall through the hole and diplace a certain
amount of sediment on the paper. During two different rainstorms of
different intensities, we will revisit the sites marked. At each site we
will collect the sediment displaced on 10 samples during 5 minutes of the
rainstorm. The same procedure wil be carried out at each of the different
sites for each rainstorm. After collecting the sediment, the paper and
sediment will be dried and weighed. The weight of the paper will be
subtracted from the value of the weight and sediment to find the acual
weight of the sediment displaced. If our results are inconclusive,
we will synthesize a rainstorm using a sprinker of some kind.
Variables to consider in our experiment:
1. The type of sediment
2. The amount of vegetation cover
3. Saturation of the soil
4. Intensity of storm
Megan & Sarah
"Local glacial movement in Northwestern Vermont"
Matt Tipple and Connor Bergman
This project will compare local glacial advancement in 2 areas; within 4
square miles near the present Lamoille River delta and rt 2, and along the
Winooski river in Jonesville. Based on striations, trend of advancement of
finger glaciers can be inferred by shape, depth, and orientation for sites
along rt 2, at clay point and along the winooski river.
Along rt 2 recently exposed out crops have striations that have
weathered little. Bedrock adjacent to the lake contains striations at Clay
Point. On river road near Jonesville, an outcrop displays deep grooves on
a terrace adjacent to the Winooski river.
The locality and nature of environment must be considered at the
striations or grooves. We will determine the lithology and strike, dip,
shape, length and depth of grooves and striations will be found with a
compass and ruler.Local topography as a result of glacial coersion will support striation
Area maps and strip maps will be created from the data. Sketches
and photos will provide visual support for data. A cross section of
grooves and striations will reinforce advancement direction.