To determine the impact of recreational hiking on slopes of

Camel's Hump. Using the statistics on trail use from the Green Mountain

Club we will study a well traveled trail and a less traveled trail for our

data compiling.



We will take measurement at a designated elevation interval,

determined by using an altimeter. The measurements at these intervals will

include slope, determined with a bubble level, stadia rod and a 30 meter

tape measure for distance.

In a sample distance we will take six measurements of trail

widthand trail incision (every 5 meters) to get the average trail width

and incision for each station. Compaction will be measured every 10 meters

(3 measurements)to determine the average compaction.

With this data we can compare total cross section profiles for

the less traveled and more traveled trails at similar slopes and

elevations. We can also compare the width of the trail at different

stations to the incision. We can also look at slope as a function of

slope and/or elevation. We the data we will make a comparison of slope

profiles, a topo station map and a map of surficial material on the




*The well traveled trail will be more incised and compacted than

the less traveled trail.

*The steeper the slope, the more incised the trail will be.

*The narrower the trail the more incised the trail will be.

*As the elevation increases the compaction will decrease in area

where there is no bedrock.

*The trail width will decrease as elevation increases.


Mark Fabian

Charles Bell

Geology 151, Prof. Bierman

October 15, 1997


What happened on a gentle Summer

Revised Project Proposal: Mill Creek, West Bolton, VT


Between July 4 and July 23, 1990; several heavy rainstorms hit the

waters of the Mill Creek, causing a flash flood and raising the water

upwards of fifteen feet. The intense water movement moved huge masses of

geologic material and trees, thus diverting the course of the river to

what it is today. We plan to explore the flood site and better

under-stand exactly what happened during these storms.




1. Estimate the discharge through the Mill Creek at the time of flood.

To do this we will acknowledge data from several sources. First, local

observations will allow us to estimate cross sectional area at the time of

the flood. We will estimate the mass of debris moved by the river, and

use that data compute the river velocity. Having the velocity and river

cross-section, we can compute the river discharge. Alternatively, we plan

estimate the total runoff in the river drainage basin at the time of the

flood. This data over a certain time interval will also give us river



2. Map the flood site. We plan to cover an area roughly 400 meters by

600 meters, but we will focus on the much smaller area of the past river

routes. These include the path before the flooding and subsequent paths

during the flooding. We believe the map will allow us to better calculate

river cross sectional area at the time of the flood as well as it will

assist in demonstration purposes.




We plan to look for clues as to the water height at the time of the flood,

including scars on tree trunks. This will help us calculate cross

sectional area. We also hope to estimate the mass or rocks and trees

moved by the raging waters in order to give us an idea as to de-termine

river velocity. In the field, we can collect dimensions of the debris.

Using a com-puted volume and assumed density of the debris, we can

calculate mass. We need to re-search methods for computing velocity using

mass of displaced debris. We hope to spend several hours observing and

documenting the flood site in hopes of finding further clues and patterns.


Using an area USGS topographic map, we will define and calculate the

horizontal plane area of the Mill Creek drainage basin. From this area

and average rainfall data for these areas obtained from the National

Weather Service for a time interval, we can calculate to the total volume

per unit time of precipitation in the basin. We also will try to roughly

estimate the infiltration rates for areas around the basin. We will be

able to roughly esti-mate discharge into the river from this data.


To produce the flood site map, we plan to use a total station. We will

shoot most of our data points around the present and past river routes.

We will record elevation and coor-dinate data and plot the site on a

topographic map. The map will be rather brief, but will help us to

understand and explain what happened.

This project involves the reconstruction of flooding events that

occurred this summer in Montgomery, Vermont. Over a period of hours an

above average amount of rain fell on the watershed of this area,

generating some of the largest discharges teh Trout river has seen in over

fifty years ( old guy at Enosburg Falls, Personal Comm).

In order to measure the effects the flood had on the geomorphology

of the area, certain measurements need to be obtained. We hope to

determine the following information in order to quantify the flood's



---Create cross section of river during flood

---Determine discharge of flood

---Compare with present discharge

---Correlate flood volume with watershed area and total rainfall

---Correlate sediment textures to distance from river channel

---Measure total sedimetn yield from the surrounding watershed

---Dig trenches to observe evidence of past flooding events


Station locations will be established at various point along the

Trout River, near Montgomery Village. Stream cross sections will be

created by estimating Manning's n, using George Arcement's "Guide for

Selecting Mannings Roughness Coefficient for Channels an Floodplains",

1989, and "Roughness Coefficient for Densely Vegetated Floodplains.",

1987. These cross sections will be created for the present stream as well

as the stream during the flood. The discharge of the present stream

will be obtained using the cross section area along with measured

stream velocities. The cross section of the flood stream will be

generated by estimating the maximum surface elevation of the stream. This

will be accomplished using distinct markers, such as weeds and

debris in tree branches, scars on trees, extent of sediment on flood

plain, and maximum observed height (Farmer Longley, Personal Comm.) The

cross section area of the stream at flood stage will be used along with

the estimated roughness coefficient in order to determine the discharge of

the stream at the peak of flooding. This will be compared with the stream

discharge of the Trout River presently.

Using a topographic map of the Richford Quadrangle along with the

gage records from the weather service, the amount of rain that fell will

be compared with the flood volume.

Measurements of the amount of sediment overlying the most recent

soil layer in the flood plain will be obtained by digging and

logging trenches in the flood plain and surrounding terraces. Also, grain

sizes at these locations will be observed, and should become smaller

further from the river's banks. These data are needed to approximate the

amount of denudation that occured on the watershed during this particular

storm event. The volume of sediment overlying the most recent soil layer

between two points along the river (this includes two points on each

side) will be established by multiplying the area between the two points

with the depth of the sediment. This volume will be extrapolated for the

length of the river in the vicinity of the watershed.

The trenches will be examined to find buried soil horizons. The

public record of the last storm event of this magnitude will help us

determine if any periodicy exists in the flooding events. This will be

determined by comparing the amount of sediment that has accumulated since

the last storm event, with the time of the event. The rate of aggradation

between known episodic deposition events will be postulated.





"Tender Situation, create a good illusion" --ween



-- Infiltration Rates In UVM's East Woods --

Darrin Santos and Ben Groves


East Woods is a 92.5 acre forest in South Burlington, Vermont. The

diversity of the landscape in East Woods is great. There are several

types of tree cover, many soil types, hillslopes, two wetland areas, a

railroad cut and trails leading all around the property. Potash Brook,

which is situated at the base of the hillslopes adds to the diversity as

well. Several small scale hillslope failures have been observed. What

appears to be a flood plain lies adjacent to Potash Brook.

The purpose of the research on East Woods will be to discover how the

infiltration rates differ across the extremely diverse landscape. Does

the infilration rate vary on the different soil types? How does it

differ on the trails? How does the tree cover effect the infiltration

rate? Why has hill slope failure occurred in certain areas? Is the

infiltration rate different near the wetlands or beside the brook? These

are the types of questions which will be answered after the data is

collected and analyzied.

The infiltration rates will be tested using the 'coffee can' method. As

many different areas will be tested as possible. The more data the

better. Where each infiltration rate is tested a pit will be dug so that

the soil and surficial material can be logged. This will help in drawing

conclusions and in checking the validity of the Soils map.

Through preliminary research, a soils map, a tree cover map, and a

topographic map have, been obtained. Literature concerning infiltration

was found in the library [ WATER AT THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH -Miller,

HILLSLOPE HYDROLOGY -Kirkby, and WATER, A PRIMER -Leopold]. The data to

be collected on infiltration rates will be reduced using the above

mentioned material and a map concerning infiltration rates will be

produced. Conclusions will be made on how the surficial material, forest

cover and even human inpact has effected the infiltration rates in East



Our proposal involves measuring on and off trail

infilltration/permeability rates with respect to elevation. We will

relate these measurments to trail erosion and determine if trends

exist. Do the infilltration rates vary with elevation fluxuation,

on/off trail respectively, and does this effect trail erosion impact?

Our research area will be on the Burrow's trail established on Camel's

Hump in Hunington, VT. Each of the five different sites will be

seperated by 250' ft elevation starting at 1800' ft above sea level. At

each of these five sites infiltration and permeability rates will be

measured. There will be two on trail and two off trail sites at each

location. We will excavate small portions using an auger to view

stratigraphy, thus determining percolation rates along with our

infiltration capacity tests. We will compare unique stratigraphy along

with measurement depths from trail bank to trail trench, to measure


The methods we will be using to gather measurements of infilltration

will include a sharpened 12" in PVC pipe. Liters of water will be added

to the securely grounded PVC pipe. Absorption will be measured in lenth

of time it takes to empty out the full contents of our water bottles,

with a water surface line remaining constant within the pipe itslef. In

the auger holes we dig up, a fixxed amount of water water will be poured

into the ground and then in intervals of five minutes we will record how

much has permeated the surface. The rates will be averaged for each

elevation with respect to on/off trail locations. These measurements

will be recorded in tabular form and referenced to a topographic

location on a map.

The first method for erosional measurement will be looking at the

stratigraphy. By using an auger, we will open a small "window" into the

soils stratigraphy. This will be done on and off trails so a comparison

can be made. Hopefully unique stratigraphy will allow us to determine

the amount of trail erosion impact to date. One goal is to minimize

environmental impact by digging as few holes as possible while still

being able to retreive the proper amount of data.

The second method will to physically measure the depth of the trail in

relation to its banks. This will be measured using a linear rod resting

on opposing trail banks from where depth will be measured. 5 random

depths will be taken along the width of the trail and averaged together

at each elevation. The erosion information will be recorded in

statigraphic cross sections showing surficial material both on and off

trail at each elevation.

This compilation of data collection will allow us to determine if any

trends exist between on/off trail infiltration rates and erosional

impact on an established trail.


Datzenka, Papamichos, Romine

Journal of soil and water conservation, 22:196-197

Ketchledge, Leonard

The Conservationist, 25:14-18


Journal of environmental management, 10:155-165

Wilson and Seney

Mountain research and developement, v14 n1 pp.77-88


-Chris and Dan


Channel Meandering Rates at the Lamoille River Delta

David Sonenberg & Joya Tetreault


Researching the Lamoille River delta will assist in providing information

on future meandering of the river. The purpose of this project is to

determine where the Lamoille River delta has migrated from and to

hypothesize where it will be in the future. Based on previous studies and

knowledge, the Lamoille river delta has migrated north. The Lamoille was

once located at Clay point, which is south of the river's present delta at

Milton. By determining rates of erosion and sedimentation, the rate and

direction of meandering can be estimated. Hypothetically, the bank that

has a higher rate of erosion and a lower rate of sedimentation than the

opposite bank will be the side to which the river will meander. And from

past meandering, the Lamoille is expected to meander north. It is best to

study meandering relationships over a long period of time, such as

thousands of years, to get the general direction of displacement of the

channel. The meandering of a channel in tens of years can result in

meandering in various directions, whereas the overall

direction of meander will be in one direction. Hopefully, this research

will be able to project where the delta will be in the future.


Previous Work


Previous work done on sedimentation rates at Lake Champlain by Allen Hunt

gives rates of sedimentation at the delta of the Lamoille River. Surficial

geology of the river's watershed can be examined for deltaic sediments to

determine where the river has been in the past. Mosselman and Crosato have

published work on an equation for the erosion coefficient for meandering

rivers. Also, Johanneson and Parker have researched other variables in

channel meandering.



Hunt, Allen S., 1979. "Sedimentation rates in Lake Champlain since

settlement by man : a completion report," Vermont Water Resources

Research Centerand US. Department of the Interior, Office of Water

Research and Technology.


Johannson, H., Parker, G., 1989, "Velocity Redistribution in Meandering

Rivers,"Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, vol. 115, no. 8, p. 1019-1038.


Mosselman, E., Crosato, A., 1991, "Universal Bank Erosion Coefficient for

Meandering Rivers," Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, vol. 117, no. 7,



United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. New York District, 1976, "Flood

plain information : Lamoille River, Colchester and Milton,

Vermont" New York District, Corps of Engineers.


Further research will be done on historic and prehistoric deltas of the

Lamoille River.


Research Methods


To research meandering in the delta of the Lamoille River at Milton and

Colchester, erosion and sedimentation will be measured. These data can be

collected by taking channel cross-sections to determine velocity and

discharge, as well as plot sediment size and distribution along the banks.

Also, stratigraphic columns of the river sediments can help determine the

past locations of the Lamoille River Delta.



Biological dating of quaternary exposed rock outcrop surfaces by use of



Lichenometry assumes that the largest individual in a lichen community is

the oldest, and that the maximum lichen size correlates to a minimum age

for the substrate dated. In order to perform lichen dating, I will

calibrate lichen growth rate from a substrate of a known age. Many

factors influence growth rate of lichen from lichen species to location

to microclimate. I am prepared to deal with these factors by use of a

lichen guide book, a thermometer, and careful observation of lichen

envioronment. Upon calibration, I would like to test my dating technique

against more popular techniques on a substrate in order to determine a

variance factor. As no two lichen grow the same,the specifics of my

calibration site will determine what type of site I may date. The dating

site should as closely as possible match the calibration site. As a

result, I cannot determine my dating site until a growth rate has been

calibrated for a species in a specific location.


The main objective of our project is to compare and contrast the

effects fluvial systems have on adjacent forested and deforested lands. The

stream found within the deforested land is located off of Skyline Ridge

trail in the Ranch Valley of Mt. Mansfield. This deforested land is a part

of a ski slope Stowe Mountain Ski Resort. The stream in the forested land

is on the same mountain, yet located on the opposite face from the ridge.

The discharges of the two streams will be used as our interpretive

data to conclude how vegetation affects the discharges and the surrounding

landforms and terrain. In order to compare the effects discharges have on

the land, they must be similar in as many aspects as possible i.e. slope

and volume.

Surveying and measuring equipment will be used to calculate cross

sections, depths, velocities, surrounding topography, Manning's N, etc, at

various locations throughout both streams.


Adam Laperle

Rob Danckert

Semester Project Proposal for Geomorphology Geol 151


Resubmitted to: Paul R. Bierman, Ph.D. October 13, 1997


Prepared by Mike Graichen and Todd Menees



Title: Estimating Soil Loss in a River Meander Bend Due to Erosion of a Concave

Outer Bank on the Meander Bend


Background and Purpose


Alluvial river channel stability is influenced by channel morphology,

stream power, and sediment erosion. Estimating the rates of historical bank

erosion can be approximated from analysis of both existing maps and new

field surveys.


The purpose of this project is to develop an estimate of soil loss in a

river bank from a limited literature review, analysis of existing maps and

field data collection. A methodology will be developed to identify the

problem, identify and collect data and derive an assessment of erosion

rates in a sand river bank. The rate of erosion will be based on historical

records of former channel locations and estimates of volumes lost in the

lapsed time period.


Data Sources


The field data will be collected on the concave meander bank of the

Winooski River on the sand bluff located on the opposite side of Derway

Island in Colchester. The height and slope-of-face of the sand bluff will

be surveyed from the public right-of-way on the River Road.


The stream bank has been protected from erosion with rip-rap at the bank

full flood stage. A search for available maps and aerial photographs will

be conducted in the Bailey Howe Library. Data sources will include the

construction plans for rip-rap stream bank protection prepared for the Town

of Colchester by the Natural Resources Conservation Service.


Materials and Methods


The field methods will include a level circuit, and research will include a

desk top analysis of existing maps. The level circuit will be conducted to

measure the height of the bank above the water surface and verify

topographic features shown on maps. The reduced field data will be drafted

in plan form and compared to existing documents to develop a data base.


The data analysis will include volume estimates and rates of erosion.

Volume estimates will be derived from drawings assuming applicable

geometries and formulas. Rates of erosion will be based on the volumes

moved in the lapsed periods between map/data record entries.


The final product will be a 5 page report and a 10-minute presentation to

the class. These will include a brief problem statement, a description of

the methodologies for data collection and analysis and discussion of

results and conclusions.



Rain water is a major source of erosion on hillslopes. In this experiment

we will test how much sediment is displaced during a rainstorm. When a

raindrop falls some water is absorbed into the soil, but the raindrop also

causes some sediment to "jump" or be picked up by the raindrop and be

diplaced on the hillside. In this experiment we will test the

amount and direction of sediment displaced at different hillslope angles.

We hypothesize that more sediment will be displaced downhill on the

steeper hillslopes.



We will mark 4 different sites at different angles on one hillslope on

Mt. Philo. We will cut a hole in the middle of a coffee filter, weigh the

paper, and dividepaper in half designating the upper half uphill and lower

half as

downslope. The raindrop will fall through the hole and diplace a certain

amount of sediment on the paper. During two different rainstorms of

different intensities, we will revisit the sites marked. At each site we

will collect the sediment displaced on 10 samples during 5 minutes of the

rainstorm. The same procedure wil be carried out at each of the different

sites for each rainstorm. After collecting the sediment, the paper and

sediment will be dried and weighed. The weight of the paper will be

subtracted from the value of the weight and sediment to find the acual

weight of the sediment displaced. If our results are inconclusive,

we will synthesize a rainstorm using a sprinker of some kind.


Variables to consider in our experiment:

1. The type of sediment

2. The amount of vegetation cover

3. Saturation of the soil

4. Intensity of storm




Megan & Sarah

"Local glacial movement in Northwestern Vermont"

Matt Tipple and Connor Bergman


This project will compare local glacial advancement in 2 areas; within 4

square miles near the present Lamoille River delta and rt 2, and along the

Winooski river in Jonesville. Based on striations, trend of advancement of

finger glaciers can be inferred by shape, depth, and orientation for sites

along rt 2, at clay point and along the winooski river.

Along rt 2 recently exposed out crops have striations that have

weathered little. Bedrock adjacent to the lake contains striations at Clay

Point. On river road near Jonesville, an outcrop displays deep grooves on

a terrace adjacent to the Winooski river.

The locality and nature of environment must be considered at the

striations or grooves. We will determine the lithology and strike, dip,

shape, length and depth of grooves and striations will be found with a

compass and ruler.Local topography as a result of glacial coersion will support striation


Area maps and strip maps will be created from the data. Sketches

and photos will provide visual support for data. A cross section of

grooves and striations will reinforce advancement direction.