Office of Health Promotion Research
Abstract 1980-1989Rothblum ED, Solomon LJ, Murakami J. Affective, cognitive, and behavioral differences between high and low procrastinators. J Couns Psychol. 1986 Oct;33(4):387-394.
Examined the relation between academic procrastination and academically related trait measures among 379 university students, including 261 females, 117 males, and 1 S who did not specify gender. 126 of the Ss participated in weekly assessment sessions. Ss completed a procrastination assessment scale, the Test Anxiety Scale, a self-control scale, and a trait measure of attributions of success and failure 3 times when midterm examinations approached. Results indicate that more than 40% of the Ss reported a high level of procrastination. Self-reported procrastination was positively correlated with delay in taking self-paced quizzes and was negatively correlated with grade point average (GPA). High procrastinators, particularly women, were significantly more likely than were low procrastinators to report more test anxiety, weekly state anxiety, and weekly anxiety-related physical symptoms. High procrastinators were significantly more likely than were low procrastinators to attribute success on examinations to external and unstable factors. As the examination deadline approached, both high and low procrastinators perceived examinations to be less difficult, less important, and less anxiety provoking; reported fewer factors to hinder study behavior; increased their study behavior; and decreased delay. Implications for anxiety reduction as a procrastination intervention are discussed.
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