AAA Style Guide
For a PDF version retaining all original formatting of this document, see AAA Style Guide at: http://www.aaanet.org/pubs/style_guide.htm
AAA uses The Chicago Manual of Style (14th edition, 1993)
and Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (10th edition, 1993; On-Line
edition, 2003). This guide is an outline of style rules basic to AAA style.
Where no rule is present on this list, follow
Article Titles and Section Heads
Do not put endnote callouts on display type such as titles, section heads, or epigraphs.
Place them after nearest hard punctuation or at the ends of excerpts. Never use endnote
inside excerpts or after soft punctuation (i.e., commas, em-dashes, in lines of poetry,
Do not number section heads
Use the following terms for each separate submission:
• paper = conference
• article = journal or newspaper
• chapter = book
• essay = essay in journal, book, etc.
• review = review in journal or newspaper
Follow Webster’s and Chicago
• Capitalize these terms as noted (unless author objects): African American, Afro-
Euramerican, Euro-American, Euro-Canadian, European American, European
Canadian, Hispanic, Indo-European, Jew,
Native American, Pacific Islander, Australian and Canadian Aboriginal and Aborigine
• Lowercase these terms as noted: aboriginal (where not Australian or Canadian);
black; highlander, but Highlander (where referring to Scottish); mestizo; redneck;
• Capitalize historical, quasi-historical, political, economic, and cultural events or
Figures, tables, appendixes (exception to
• Capitalize in text if they refer to items within the present work, lowercase if they refer
to those in other works:
• In Figure 1
• As you can see in Table 2
• In Johnson’s figure 1
• Evidence in Johnson’s table 1 agrees with my own (Table 2)
Historical or cultural terms (
• Where capitalized by tradition or to avoid ambiguity, per Chicago and Webster’s use:
Middle Ages, Progressive Era, Restoration, Roaring Twenties, Stone Age,
• Lowercase: ancient
Names of organizations, committees, associations,
• Capitalize full official names—lowercase “the” preceding a name, even where it is
part of the official title: the Baltimore City Council, Bureau of the Census, Census
• Lowercase where they become general: the bureau, city council, congressional,
council, county court, federal
• Capitalize geographical and popular names of places:
Coast, North Pole, Orient, the States,
• Directions should be capitalized where used as a name but not where used as a
• Caribbean Islands; Far East; North India; North Pole; Pacific Islands;
southwestern (adj.); the West; Westernize
the Western world
• Lowercase: eastern Europe, western Europe, central
Titles of offices (
• Capitalize civil, military, religious, and professional titles only where they
immediately precede the name. In formal usage, such as acknowledgments or lists of
contributors, capitalize the title following the name: B.A. in anthropology; Judy
Jones, Smith Professor Emeritus at
professor of education studies; a professor emeritus; Henry Trueba, chair of the
Department of Education Studies; the chairman of the department
• For academic degrees or titles, capitalize where formal, lowercase where informal:
Louis Spindler, Ph.D.; a Master of
Science degree from
master’s degree in education
Titles of works (
• For titles of works in AAA journals, references cited, and notes: change capitalization
only. Do not change anything else, even spelling or punctuation (exception to
• Capitalize first and last words of titles and subtitles in English. For other languages,
• Capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound (exception
• Do not capitalize parenthetical translations of titles in references cited
Foreign Words and Foreign Quotations
• Alert field office and AAA of unusual characters or fonts in advance of submission to
verify they are printable.
• Put foreign sentences and quotations in quotation marks (and do not italicize)
• Include translations of foreign words in parentheses immediately following (or vice
versa, but keep consistent throughout the work):
• ellai (borders) and cantippu (crossroads)
• Include translations of foreign-language quotations either in an endnote or in brackets
immediately following the quotation (without italics and without quotation marks):
• “Todas somos amigas de desde chiquitas, casi puras vecinas” [We are all friends since we were small, and almost all are neighbors].
• See Reference Examples, example X, for translation of foreign titles in references
• Italicize non-English words that do not appear in the main section of Webster’s.
Italicize them on first use only, unless used as a term (see Italics, Words as words)
Words as words:
• Italicize words used as words (e.g., as terms) in written context; but where the context
is solely the spoken word, is used for ironic effect, or is a concept, use quotation
• In Smith 1994 the term subaltern implies
• to keep children on the “right path” academically
• Bourdieu, who utilized notions of “cultural capital” and “habitus”
• Bourdieu defines cultural capital and habitus as
Legal usage (
• Use italics for names of legal cases
• Italicize publications used as authors in in-text citations, but leave roman in references cited
• Italicize word, not brackets
• Correct obvious typographical errors rather than use [sic]
Do not italicize: e.g., i.e., or cf.
Spell out numbers in the following instances:
• One through ten
• Numbers at the beginning of a sentence
• Numbers where used in the approximate sense:
• The area comprises roughly two hundred viable sites; not 200
• About 15 thousand soldiers were killed; not 15,000 or fifteen thousand
• 24 years old, 11 months old, a 34-year-old woman, in her thirties
• Assume dollar designations are in
• US$200 (not
• Do not use $ with USD (e.g., $20 USD), as it is redundant
• Refer to the Government Printing Office for pre-Euro designations, or flag for the
production department at AAA
• ninth century, 20th century; 1960–65; 1960s (not 60s); the sixties; October 6, 1966;
April 1993 (no comma); C.E. 1200; 1000 B.C.E.; April 18, not April 18th
• Hyphenate as both adjective and noun: a two-thirds majority, two-thirds of those present
• Do not elide numbers in a range: 893–897; 1,023–1,045
• Elide year spans (exception to above): 1989–92
• Hyphenate numbers or numerals: mid-thirties (age), mid-1800s (years)
• Use an en-dash, rather than hyphen, with an open compound: mid–19th century, mid–
Numbered items such as parts of a book, are not capitalized:
• chapter 5 (in reviews ch. 5 or chs. 5–7), part 2
Ordinals (nd or rd):
• 22nd, rather than 22d; 23rd, rather than 23d
• Use numerals above ten and spell out measurement: 26 millimeters, five miles, 15
kilometers (not km); but in tables, OK to use 26 mm, 5 gm, 10 mph
• Express round numbers above ten million in numerals + words: 20 million
• 20 percent, but in tables, OK to use %
• Use commas in four-digit numbers: 1,409; but not page numbers (p. 1409)
• Where dealing with more than one series of quantities, use numerals for one of the
series: The first shape had 4 sides, the second had 7 … and the twelfth had 3
• Where small numbers occur in a group with large numbers, set them all in numerals
• Decimal fractions: use initial zero only if number can equal or exceed 1
• according to a Chi-square test yielding a value of 4.2, p < .05
• Kappa = .33, p < .05
• Use N for sample sizes, but use n for subgroups of samples
• 2:00 p.m., noon
Binary distinctions, dichotomies, or equal relationships: use en-dash, not solidus or
• parent–teacher; us–them; mind–body, not mind-body or mind/body
• Previously published phrases are excepted: Foucault’s power/knowledge
All published quotations must be cited with year and page number(s):
Avoid “cited in” where citing quotes within another work. Use the work listed in
references cited and adjust the language outside parentheses:
• As Johnson notes (Webber 1992)
• Do not use: (Johnson, cited in Webber 1992)
Format for block extracts:
• If extract takes more than four manuscript lines, make it a block extract
• Use brackets for citation at the end of a block; put sentence period before citation
• If italics have been added, specify:
• [Smith 1993:22, emphasis added]
• Do not use “emphasis in original”
• If multiple paragraphs occur within a continuous block, the first paragraph should
have no indent, but subsequent paragraphs should be marked by indents rather than
• Change case of initial letter of quote to fit sentence without using brackets
Spelling and punctuation corrections:
• Leave all spellings and punctuation alone in quotes; use [sic] only if necessary, and
give an explanation in text if absolutely necessary
Do not use initial or final ellipses
Do not use quotes for yes or no except in direct discourse (
• Do not use in narrative text in most cases
• Ampersands: replace all “&” with “and”
• Only abbreviate in parentheses: (i.e., e.g., etc.)
• Spell out in text: that is, for example, et cetera, and so forth
Articles in titles:
• Drop or romanize articles in titles (a, the) from text:
• In 1998, a New York Times op-ed piece indicated
• The Washington Post article contends
Avoid gender-related language:
• See Casey Miller and Kate Swift’s The Handbook of
Nonsexist Writing (
Lippincott and Crowell, 1980)
• Never use “s/h e,” “him/her,” or “his/her”: Use “he or she” or rewrite as plural to
avoid. See The Handbook of Nonsexist Writing (Casey Miller and Kate Swift) for
more on nonsexist language
• Use serial commas. Use a comma to separate the clauses of a compound sentence but
not a compound subject or a compound predicate unless there are three or more
elements. Use commas around parenthetical elements
• Spell out names on first occurrence and then use first initial on subsequent
• Run lists into text with (1), (2), (3), etc. Do not use (a), (b), (c), etc.
• Use pairs of parentheses, not singles
Spaces between initials:
• T. S. Eliot, H. L. Mencken
• Use the first spelling in Webster’s unless otherwise noted
Tables, Figures, and Appendixes
Table and figure widths depend on the size of the journal. Ensure that all text and figures
are sized to fit within the margin limitations of submitting journal or contact AAA
production office for verification
Every table and figure should have a callout in running text: [Place Table 1 here]
Place appendixes at the end of the article, after the references cited
Text Citations and References Cited
All references must be cited in author–date form; all author–date citations must be
• References with the same author and date should be placed in alphabetical order, by
• Place text citations as near the author’s name as possible, except place quotation
citations after the quote
• Use colon, no space, between year and page number
• Waterman 1990:3–7
• Use “et al.” in text citations of three or more authors , but use all names in references
• Use full first names where possible for authors and editors (but do not force if author
goes by initials)
• Where citing an author, put the year in parentheses, but where citing a work, leave the
year (and page numbers, if applicable) in the running text:
• Author: Smith (1990) eloquently describes the material.
• Work: Smith 1990 contains an analysis of the material.
Do not use ibid. for repeated references
• Where citing a note or notes, use:
• (Boulifa 1990:10 n. 12, 24 nn. 12–13)
Works in production or near publication:
• Text citations: in press; n.d.
• References cited: In press; N.d.
• Where citing reprinted material, use date from work used in text citations and insert
all dates in references cited list:
• Text citations: (Webber 1994)
• References cited: Webber 1994
• References are handled in text citations, rather than the end of the chapter—provide
title, author, publisher, and year, but omit the city of publication:
• (What Was Socialism, and What Comes Next? Katherine Verdery,
• (“Ethnography in/of the World System: The Emergence of Multi-Sited Ethnography,” Annual Review of Anthropology, 1995:95–117)
States (Chicago 14.17):
• Spell out state names in text
• Do not use state name with city of publication in references unless the city is obscure
or there are several with the same name
• Where state name is used in notes, references cited, tables, or addresses, use two-letter
postal code abbreviations (e.g., AL, TX, DC)
• In references where the author also is the translator use: Victor Hugo, ed. and trans.
• If volume is the only one referenced in the article, then include its number in
references cited and omit its number from the text citation
• Cite a specific volume of a referenced work by inserting the volume number after the
year: (Waterman 1990, vol. 2:3–7)
Various Other Style Rules and Word Treatments
• Acronyms: do not spell out common acronyms: CIA; FBI; IMF; NASA; NATO;
UNICEF; USAID; WTO
unless a wider region is intended
• and/or: never use
• archaeology; exception is Archeology section of AAA
• audio-recorded, audio-recording, audiovideo
• basketmakers (artisans), Basket Maker (cultural period)
• bride-price (per Webster’s)
• bridewealth (per Webster’s)
• Classic Maya
• coresident, coworker
• early-century, late-century
• e-mail, Internet, on-line, website
• field notes, fieldwork, fieldworker
• full-time, part-time (hyphenate in any position as adj.)
• health care systems; but federal and state health-care systems (hyphenate only for
• a historical study (not an historical study), a hotel
• Letters as shapes: Leave normal font—that is, do not use with sans serif typeface—in
cases such as U-shaped, L-shaped
• lifespan, lifestyle, lifeworld
• Ligatures: Do not use except in an Old English language piece
• m.y.a. (million years ago), B.P. (before the present, calibrated), b.p. (before the
• nation-making, nation-building (exception to
• non-kin (hyphenate to avoid confusion)
• rain forest (per Webster’s)
• re-create (create again)
• semi-independent, semi-indirect (use hyphens for double vowels, except as in
• Split infinitives: The thirteenth edition of this manual
included split infinitives among the examples of “errors and infelicities” but
tempered the inclusion by adding, in parentheses, that they are “debatable
‘error.’ ” The item has been dropped from the fourteenth edition because the
Press now regards the intelligent and discriminating use of the construction as
a legitimate form of expression and nothing writers or editors need feel uneasy
about. Indeed, it seems to us that in many cases clarity and naturalness of
expression are best served by a judicious splitting of infinitives. [
• toward (not towards)
• Turn of the Century, for beginning of 20th century; but turn of the 19th century—
avoid the ambiguous “turn of this century”
• underway (adj.); under way (adv.)
Where there are two places of publication for a reference, use only the first
A. Single-Author Book
1990 Here for Good.
B. Coauthored Book
Bonacich, Edna, and John Modell
1975 The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese
C. Author, with Others (cite first author in text citations)
Bonacich, Edna, with Mark Smith and Kathy Hunt
1999 The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese
D. Multiple References in the Same Year (alphabetize by title)
1983a A Christmas
Gatherings in the
E. Work Accepted for Publication
In press In Pursuit of a Dream: The Experience of Central Americans Recently Arrived
F. Work Submitted for Publication or Unpublished Work
Education and Reproduction among Turkish Families in
Department of Education,
G. Materials in Archives
Davidson, William A.
N.d. “On several occasions she would even join in our discussions .” Untitled paper,
John P. Gillin
1879 Settlement Register, Tirunleveli District. Archived material, Madras Archives,
H. Chapter in Book with Editor(s)
Rohlen, Thomas P.
Policies and Prospects. In Koreans in
Accommodation. Cameron Lee and
George De Vos, eds. Pp. 182–222.
Price, T. Douglas
1984 Issues in Paleolithic and Mesolithic Research. In Hunting and Animal
Exploitation in the Later
Paleolithic and Mesolithic of
I. Editor as Author
Diskin, Martin, ed.
1970 Trouble in Our
J. Article in Journal
Moll, Luis C.
2000 Writing as Communication: Creating Strategic Learning Environments for
Students. Theory into Practice 25(3):202–208.
K. Article in Journal Special or Theme Issue
Heriot, M. Jean
1996 Fetal Rights versus the Female Body: Contested Domains. Theme issue, “The
Social Production of Authoritative Knowledge in Pregnancy and Childbirth,” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 10(2):176–194.
Heriot, M. Jean, ed.
1996 The Social Production of Authoritative Knowledge in Pregnancy and Childbirth.
Theme issue, Medical Anthropology Quarterly 10(2).
L. Book in Series
M. One Volume in Multivolume Work
Clutton-Brock, Juliet, and Caroline Grigson, eds.
1986 Animals and Archaeology, vol. 1: Hunters and Their Prey. BAR International
1998 The Practice of Everyday Life, vol. 2: Living and Cooking. Rev. edition. Luce
ed. Timothy J. Tomasik, trans.
Trueba, Henry T.
1999 Review of Beyond Language: Social and Cultural Factors in Schooling Language
Minority Students. Anthropology and Education Quarterly 17(2):255–259.
2001 Review of Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity. In Journal of Linguistic
Anthropology 12(2). Electronic document, http://www.aaanet.org/
sla/jla/toc/toc12_2.htm, accessed December 3, 2002.
1977 Results of the Minimum Objective System, 1975–1976. Technical Report, 77.
P. Ph.D. Dissertation or M.A. Thesis
1989 “We Cool, Tha’s Why”: A Study of Personhood and Plac e in a Class of Hawaiian
Second Graders. Ph.D. dissertation,
Department of Education,
Shimahara, Nobuo K.
1998 Mobility and Education of Buraku: The Case of a Japanese Minority. Paper
presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association,
2000 Paths to Participation in Classroom Conversations. Paper presented at the 7th
R. Reprint or Translation
van Gennep, Arnold
Rites of Passage. Michaela Vizedom and Mari Caffee, trans.
1981 The Dialogic
Imagination. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist, trans.
S. Subsequent or Revised Edition
1960 Qualitative Methods in Research on Teaching. In Handbook of Research on
Teaching. 3rd edition. Margaret C. Wittrock, ed. Pp. 119–162.
1962 Qualitative Methods in Research on Teaching. In Handbook of Research
on Teaching. Rev. edition. Margaret
C. Wittrock, ed. Pp. 119–162.
T. Article in Newspaper or Popular Magazine
2000 Illegal Aliens Hoping to Claim Their Dreams. New York Times, November 3: A1,
Letter to the Editor
1994 Newsweek, August 27: 4, 11.
1983 How Can I
Become a Self-Starter?
U. Personal Communication (including e-mail, listserv, and newsgroup messages)
Should be cited in text citations, with specific date, but not in references cited:
Horace Smith claims (letter to author, July 12, 1993)
V. Court Case
Should be cited in text citations but not in references
(Doe v. U. Mich., 721 F. Supplement 852 )
W. Internet Document
Use this format for public Internet documents with URLs. Use example U, above, for
private documents sent via the World Wide Web:
2000 A Slice of Life in My Virtual Community. Electronic document,
http://well.sf.ca.us/serv/ftp.htm, accessed July 5.
American Anthropological Association
2000 Planning for the Future: Current Long-Range Plan for the American
Anthropological Association. Electronic document, http://www.aaanet.org/committees/lrp/lrplan.htm, accessed January 18, 2001.
X. Foreign Publication with Title Translation or Foreign Name (last name first name—no
1996 Minzu yanjiu wenji
(Collected works on nationalities research).
Y. Film, Video, Television, and Music Recordings (
Carvajal, Carmela, and David C. Kim, dirs.
1998 High School
Parody. 120 min. Paramount Pictures.
High School Parody
1998 Carmela Carvajal and David C. Kim, dirs. 120 min. Paramount Pictures.
Bush, George, Jr.
2000 Interview by Jim Lehrer. The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. PBS, May 18.
1997 I Wonder if Heaven Got a Ghetto. From R U Still Down? (remember me). New
Z. Authors of Forewords, Afterwords,
or Introductions (see
Comaroff, Jean, and John Comaroff
1993 Introduction. In Modernity and Its Malcontents: Ritual and Power in Postcolonial
Sources consulted: The
Copyright ©2003, American Anthropological Association (January)