DISCLAIMER: The Lab Notebook is meant as a quick summary of assignments. It is not meant to be a complete users manual, or recipe book that tells you the commands you use to complete the assignments. You need to come to lab and take notes to be able to complete the assignments.


In this lab we will learn to turn our personal computer into a "terminal" to a large multi-user host cluster: ZOO.  ZOO is useful for sending electronic mail, electronic chat or "talk" and a source for downloading files.  Below are the commands you use to turn your PC into a terminal and log on to ZOO.

Click on Start --> Telnet to Zoo.

NOTE: ZOO's operating system AIX (IBM's version of UNIX) is "case sensitive", you must type in lower case!

login: jleonard type in your first initial and the first seven characters of your last name (jleonard is just an example).

Password: XXXXXX... type in your password (it will not show up on the screen in case spies are looking over your shoulder).

zoo>                                      is ZOO's AIX (UNIX) Operating System prompt.

Some useful AIX (UNIX) command-line commands:

cls               Clears the screen and leaves you at the AIX (Unix) prompt

hostname   Displays which host in the cluster you are using.

who            Displays all usernames that are logged on.

date            Displays the data and time.

ls                Displays a list of files in your working directory.

ls -a            Displays all files (hidden and other directories).

ls -al            Displays the long (l) version of all files.

pwd             Displays on the screen your working directory, for example:
                    /hp1urs/u/ugrad/jleonard> .  pwd = print working directory.

cd              This means "Change directory".  This command will always
                return you to your working directory.

cd ..           Will move you up one level in the tree hierarchy, to the
                    /ugrad/ directory.

pg filename     Displays the contents of a file on the screen.

pg -p "[%d]:" filename  Displays the file and changes the prompt (-p)
                        at the bottom of the screen so it shows the
                        page number in square brackets.

more filename   Displays a file on the screen but half a screen's
                        worth at a time and shows you the % of the file that
                        has been displayed.

pico         Loads the editor so you can create or edit (modify) text

pine            Loads the electronic mail utility program.

              Wildcards are any string of characters.  For example *.* means any filename and any extension in that directory.

cp              Copy command.  Can be used to copy a file from one directory to another.

rm filename     Removes a file (deletes or erases it).
                hostname this will return the name of the host you are logged in

mv filename newfile     Moves a file from one filename to another.  Use
                        this command to rename a file.

Ctrl C  (Hold down the CTRL key, then while you are holding it down,
press C).  This ABORTS or CANCELS commands.


From Jonathan Leonard's directory into Jane Student's directory:

zoo> cp /rack2g/u/uvmstaff/jleonard/example.txt example.txt

        (or :   cp ~jleonard/example.txt example.txt )

From Tom Patterson's directory into Jane Student's directory:

zoo> cp /racka4/u/faculty/tpatters/example.txt example.txt

        (or: cp ~tpatters/example.txt example.txt)
Even though you see this on your screen, it all happens on the disk 
drives in the machine room in Waterman building.>ls -a          You now should be able to see the file in
                                    your directory.>pg example.txt     This should display the file 
                                        on the screen.>pico example.txt   This pulls the file example.txt 
                                        into Unix Editor pico, so you 
                                        may make changes. Use Ctrl-X 
                                        to save and exit.>bye        Logout when you are finished!


pine    Loads the electronic mail utility program. You will see
the pine

C       To compose or write and send a mail message

I       To view the (I)ndexed mail messages that have come into 
        your mail directory.

ZOO E-MAIL ON THE WEB:  Try UVM's web interface:
You may create a signature file by clicking on "Preferences" on the menu on the left of the screen.


You must find out the name of the listserv group and the host that serves out the e-mail discussion. For example, if you wanted to join an imaginary listserv group called mountaineering that was served out from the host, you would send an e-mail message to: In the body of the message you would put:

        subscribe mountaineering YourFirstName YourLastName

To join the AGRI 85 list, send an e-mail to with the following in the message text:

        subscribe agri85 Jane Doe

Be sure to cut away your signature file so the above line is the ONLY thing in the e-mail. To unsubscribe, send the following message to

        unsubscribe agri85

Sometimes the host is called listproc instead of listserv. You should get an e- mail message back within a few minutes tha twelcomes you to the list. Also, if it is popular list, you will have lots (perhaps hundreds) of e-mail messages every day! For this reason, it is good idea to know how to unsubscribe from the list. Once again you must send e-mail to the host listserv or list processor:, but this time send: unsubscribe mountaineering YourFirstName YourLastName


Use the Web and look up: Also try and select Computers/Internet/EMail/Mailing Lists


A signature file is a text file that gets stuck on to the bottom of every e-mail message you send from the pine e-mail program on zoo. To
create your signature file you must use the editor "pico". You need to be out of pine and back at the zoo's operating system (Unix) prompt that
looks like:>_

To get create your signature file:>pico .signature

This will put you in the editor, ready to type what you want for a signature file. Start by hitting enter once or twice. Minimally you should have your Name, Address, voice telephone number(s), and e-mail. Also good to include is your fax number and your web home page URL address (if you have one). Some people like to add their favorite quote or pictures made with characters. 

When you are finished (check the menu at the bottom) press Ctrl-X You will then see a message "Save modified buffer (ANSWERING NO WILL DESTROY CHANGES) ?" Just press Y for yes here to tell pico that you do want to save the file. It will then prompt about saving it with the .signature name, where you should press enter. That's it. 

Now your signature file is complete. Go Into pine and choose C to compose a message and you will see your signature file at the bottom of the message text section of your message. 

To change your signature file, from the Unix prompt, just type pico .signature, make the changes you wish, and re-save it with Ctrl-X and enter. 

You may also change your signature file from inside pine by choosing S for setup, and S for signature.  To change your personal name that e-mail recipients see, use pine and choose S for setup and C for config. 


(Also known as the World Wide Web)  The Web is the fastest growing branch of the Internet. It is accessed on our Lab PCs by a Window's based, point and click program or Browser that links you to other sites on the Internet. The information on the Web is text, graphics, pictures, video, and sound. To explore the Web, get into Windows and click on the Internet Web Browser NETSCAPE NAVIGATOR, or Microsoft's Internet Explorer (Internet Earth icon).

All Web media is located by what is called the Universal Resource Locator or Uniform Resource Locator address, or URL pronounced "earl". A typical URL looks like:

The http stands for hyper text transfer protocol, and the stands for world wide web at an educational institution.

The best way to learn about the Web is to pull down the menus, explore, and enjoy "surfing".

Here are some interesting URLs to visit:

For Web Searches try one of these:

More Search Stuff: (Like a table of contents in the frontof a book)

SSH FTP (Secure Shell File Transfer Protocol):
FTP  is a software tool that allows you to send files from one computer to another over the internet (any TCP/IP digital network).  It is most often used sending files from a PC to a Server or vice versa.  Find the SSH or FTP icon to click on.  When FTP opens it should look something like:


When you click on Quick Connect, make sure the FTP Site is, enter your zoo login name, and password and click the Connect Button.  You should see a screen that looks something like above.

You may now click and drag files from the left side of the screen (your local PC) to the right half of the screen (your disk space on the zoo disk arrays in Waterman Building).  You may also create and manage directories and change file permissions (who gets what level access to which of your folders and files).


I. Using FTP upload any important files from your PC into your new PCbackup directory.   Using the Alt-Printscreen, capture the FTP window showing your new PCbackup directory and paste this into Paint or some other graphics editor.  Convert or Save the paint image as a jpg file that you can attach to an e-mail message to your lab instructor.  Upload the ftp image with SSH-FTP to your HOME Directory on zoo, so you can attach it to an email message using pine.

II. Your lab instructor will tell you to copy a file from their account to your account. Fill in the blank spaces in the file using the editor pico. Use the pine e-mail program and send an e-mail message to your lab instructor including the following three things:  1. The completed file that you copied from your lab instructor's account (use Ctrl-R when you are in the Message Text section of your e-mail message in Pine). 2. The .jpg image of the FTP window showing the PCBackup directory you created with your files backed up, and 3.  A signature file and include it at the end of your e-mail messages.

Your FTP .jpg image should look something like the one shown above where you can see the PCBackup folder in the middle right pane, and there are lots of folders and files that you have backed up visible in the far right pane.

(30 points). Your instructor will reply to all mail received. Check your e-mail for our reply and to check if your message was sent correctly. During the semester check your e-mail often (at least once every other day).

REMINDER:  Save this assignment file in your home directory on zoo because we will be using it later in the semester.