Seneca Commentary: Letter LXXXIV

Commentary by J. Bailly

Text:


SENECA LVCILIO SVO SALVTEM

[1] Itinera ista quae segnitiam mihi excutiunt et valetudini meae prodesse iudico et studiis. Quare valetudinem adiuvent vides: cum pigrum me et neglegentem corporis litterarum amor faciat, aliena opera exerceor. Studio quare prosint indicabo: a lectionibus <non> recessi. Sunt autem, ut existimo, necessariae, primum ne sim me uno contentus, deinde ut, cum ab aliis quaesita cognovero, tum et de inventis iudicem et cogitem de inveniendis. Alit lectio ingenium et studio fatigatum, non sine studio tamen, reficit. [2] Nec scribere tantum nec tantum legere debemus: altera res contristabit vires et exhauriet (de stilo dico), altera solvet ac diluet. Invicem hoc et illo commeandum est et alterum altero temperandum, ut quidquid lectione collectum est stilus redigat in corpus. [3] Apes, ut aiunt, debemus imitari, quae vagantur et flores ad mel faciendum idoneos carpunt, deinde quidquid attulere disponunt ac per favos digerunt et, ut Vergilius noster ait,

 liquentia mella
 stipant et dulci distendunt nectare cellas.

 [4] De illis non satis constat utrum sucum ex floribus ducant qui protinus mel sit, an quae collegerunt in hunc saporem mixtura quadam et proprietate spiritus sui mutent. Quibusdam enim placet non faciendi mellis scientiam esse illis sed colligendi. Aiunt inveniri apud Indos mel in arundinum foliis, quod aut ros illius caeli aut ipsius arundinis umor dulcis et pinguior gignat; in nostris quoque herbis vim eandem sed minus manifestam et notabilem poni, quam persequatur et contrahat animal huic rei genitum. Quidam existimant conditura et dispositione in hanc qualitatem verti quae ex tenerrimis virentium florentiumque decerpserint, non sine quodam, ut ita dicam, fermento, quo in unum diversa coalescunt.

[5] Sed ne ad aliud quam de quo agitur abducar, nos quoque has apes debemus imitari et quaecumque ex diversa lectione congessimus separare (melius enim distincta servantur), deinde adhibita ingenii nostri cura et facultate in unum saporem varia illa libamenta confundere, ut etiam si apparuerit unde sumptum sit, aliud tamen esse quam unde sumptum est appareat. Quod in corpore nostro videmus sine ulla opera nostra facere naturam [6] (alimenta quae accepimus, quamdiu in sua qualitate perdurant et solida innatant stomacho, onera sunt; at cum ex eo quod erant mutata sunt, tunc demum in vires et in sanguinem transeunt), idem in his quibus aluntur ingenia praestemus, ut quaecumque hausimus non patiamur integra esse, ne aliena sint. [7] Concoquamus illa; alioqui in memoriam ibunt, non in ingenium. Adsentiamur illis fideliter et nostra faciamus, ut unum quiddam fiat ex multis, sicut unus numerus fit ex singulis cum minores summas et dissidentes conputatio una conprendit. Hoc faciat animus noster: omnia quibus est adiutus abscondat, ipsum tantum ostendat quod effecit. [8] Etiam si cuius in te comparebit similitudo quem admiratio tibi altius fixerit, similem esse te volo quomodo filium, non quomodo imaginem: imago res mortua est. 'Quid ergo? non intellegetur cuius imiteris orationem? cuius argumentationem? cuius sententias?' Puto aliquando ne intellegi quidem posse, si magni vir ingenii omnibus quae ex quo voluit exemplari traxit formam suam inpressit, ut in unitatem illa conpetant. [9] Non vides quam multorum vocibus chorus constet? unus tamen ex omnibus redditur. Aliqua illic acuta est, aliqua gravis, aliqua media; accedunt viris feminae, interponuntur tibiae: singulorum illic latent voces, omnium apparent. [10] De choro dico quem veteres philosophi noverant: in commissionibus nostris plus cantorum est quam in theatris olim spectatorum fuit. Cum omnes vias ordo canentium implevit et cavea aeneatoribus cincta est et ex pulpito omne tibiarum genus organorumque consonuit, fit concentus ex dissonis. Talem animum esse nostrum volo: multae in illo artes, multa praecepta sint, multarum aetatum exempla, sed in unum conspirata.

[11] 'Quomodo' inquis 'hoc effici poterit?' Adsidua intentione:si nihil egerimus nisi ratione suadente, nihil vitaverimus nisi ratione suadente. Hanc si audire volueris, dicet tibi: relinque ista iamdudum ad quae discurritur; relinque divitias, aut periculum possidentium aut onus; relinque corporis atque animi voluptates, molliunt et enervant; relinque ambitum, tumida res est, vana, ventosa, nullum habet terminum, tam sollicita est ne quem ante se videat quam ne secum, laborat invidia et quidem duplici. Vides autem quam miser sit si is cui invidetur et invidet. [12] Intueris illas potentium domos, illa tumultuosa rixa salutantium limina? multum habent contumeliarum ut intres, plus cum intraveris. Praeteri istos gradus divitum et magno adgestu suspensa vestibula: non in praerupto tantum istic stabis sed in lubrico. Huc potius te ad sapientiam derige, tranquillissimasque res eius et simul amplissimas pete. [13] Quaecumque videntur eminere in rebus humanis, quamvis pusilla sint et comparatione humillimorum exstent, per difficiles tamen et arduos tramites adeuntur. Confragosa in fastigium dignitatis via est; at si conscendere hunc verticem libet, cui se fortuna summisit, omnia quidem sub te quae pro excelsissimis habentur aspicies, sed tamen venies ad summa per planum. Vale.

Text from www.thelatinlibrary.com as submitted by Hansulrich Guhl (Frauenfeld, Switzerland) from an unidentified edition and (the later books) by Sally Winchester from the Reynolds edition. Typographical errors may have been corrected by J Bailly.

Commentary (under construction: i.e. incomplete and in draft form)

[1] Walking aids one's studies.

Itinera ista quae segnitiam mihi excutiunt et valetudini meae prodesse iudico et studiis. Quare valetudinem adiuvent vides: cum pigrum me et neglegentem corporis litterarum amor faciat, aliena opera exerceor. Studio quare prosint indicabo: a lectionibus <non> recessi. Sunt autem, ut existimo, necessariae, primum ne sim me uno contentus, deinde ut, cum ab aliis quaesita cognovero, tum et de inventis iudicem et cogitem de inveniendis. Alit lectio ingenium et studio fatigatum, non sine studio tamen, reficit.

Itinera ista ... iudico et studiis: iudico is the entire main clause. The rest is indirect speech dependent on iudico.
prodesse: takes the datives valetudini meae and studiis.
mihi excutiunt: mihi is a dative of separation dependent on excutiunt.
et ... et ... : "both .... and ..." linking valetudini and studiis.
et studiis: the last position in the sentence is given to this rather than the verb, because it is the most important thought, as what follows indicates.
adiuvent: subjunctive in indirect question.
cum ... faciat: cum concessive takes subjunctive.
prosint: why subjunctive?
ut existimo: parenthetical remark having no effect on the sentence's syntax.
primum ... deinde ... : these words explicitly mark two reasons for Seneca's claim.
ne ... ut ...: introduce purpose clauses. Iudicem and cogitem are verbs of the ut clause.
cum ... tum .... : temporal cum clauses referring to present or future time are indicative. Cum ... tum ... = "once ..., then ..." (rather than the more common "both ... and ...").
inveniendis: a gerundive used as a noun: cf. "agenda" or "memorandum" in English.
Alit lectio ingenium et studio fatigatum, non sine studio tamen, reficit: Seneca is given to such aphoristic diction: the apparent paradox might make the thought more memorable.
fatigatum: modifies an understood noun (from the first clause of the sentence).

[2] We should both read things and write things: the one complements the other.

Nec scribere tantum nec tantum legere debemus: altera res contristabit vires et exhauriet (de stilo dico), altera solvet ac diluet. Invicem hoc et illo commeandum est et alterum altero temperandum, ut quidquid lectione collectum est stilus redigat in corpus.

altera res ... altera... : "the one thing ... the other ... ." What are their antecedents?
hoc et illo(c): "this way and that way."
alterum altero temperandum: a gerundive phrase.
ut ... redigat: it is hard to decide between result or purpose.
quidquid lectione collectum est: this indefinite relative clause as a whole is the object of redigat.

[3] We should be like bees, who collect the material for honey and then produce honey.

Apes, ut aiunt, debemus imitari, quae vagantur et flores ad mel faciendum idoneos carpunt, deinde quidquid attulere disponunt ac per favos digerunt et, ut Vergilius noster ait,

 liquentia mella
 stipant et dulci distendunt nectare cellas.

This section consists of one single sentence that is a short main clause (Apes debemus imitari) and a long multi-part relative clause (quae 1) vagantur, 2) carpunt, 3) disponunt (quidquid attulere is an indefinite relative that functions as the object of disponunt and digerunt), ac 4) digerunt, et 5) stipant et distendunt).
ut aiunt and ut Vergilius noster ait: parenthetical clauses which are discrete from the syntax of the sentence.
ad mel faciendum: prepositional phrase dependent on idoneos. mel faciendum is a gerundive phrase.
attulere: alternate form of 3rd person plural perf. active indicative.

[4] The details about bees' activities in honey-making are disputed. Continue brief summaries from here.

De illis non satis constat utrum sucum ex floribus ducant qui protinus mel sit, an quae collegerunt in hunc saporem mixtura quadam et proprietate spiritus sui mutent. Quibusdam enim placet non faciendi mellis scientiam esse illis sed colligendi. Aiunt inveniri apud Indos mel in arundinum foliis, quod aut ros illius caeli aut ipsius arundinis umor dulcis et pinguior gignat; in nostris quoque herbis vim eandem sed minus manifestam et notabilem poni, quam persequatur et contrahat animal huic rei genitum. Quidam existimant conditura et dispositione in hanc qualitatem verti quae ex tenerrimis virentium florentiumque decerpserint, non sine quodam, ut ita dicam, fermento, quo in unum diversa coalescunt.

Greeks and Romans both domesticated bees. Theories about them were varied. Aristotle held at Historia Animalium 623b ff. that they make their honey, although he was unsure of the exact substance which they gather up to make it or what process they subject it to. At Historia Animalium 553b f., however, he says honey falls from the air and is not made by bees but gathered from what falls as a deposit from the air (Dittmeyer's 1907 Teubner edition, however, would omit that passage). Aristotle also thought that bees do not breathe (Historia Animalium 487a32). At History of Animals 554a, he says bees vomit the honey into the cells (which means they must produce it or swallow and disgorge it changed or unchanged). He thought that they collect whatever they collect from one type of flower per flight, never mixing the stuff of one type of flower with that of another in the same flight (624b).
Pliny the Elder, apparently depending on Aristotle (or Aristotle's source?), in his Natural History, says bees "contrahunt mella" (11.4), that honey and wax comes "ex floribus" (11.5), but later explains that honey comes from the sky and is corrupted by the process it goes through before becoming honey in a bee hive:
Venit hoc ex aëre et maxime siderum exortu, praecipueque ipso sirio expendescente, nec omnino prius vergiliarum exortu, sublucanis temporibus. itaque tum prima aurora folia arborum melle roscida inveniuntur ac, si qui matutino sub diu fuere, unctas liquore vestes capillumque concretum sentiunt, sive ille est caeli sudor sive quaedam siderum saliva sive purgantis se aëris sucus;  utinamque esset purus ac liquidus et suae naturae, qualis defluit primo!
nunc vero e tanta cadens altitudine multumque, dum venit, sordescens et obvio terrae halitu infectus, praeterea e fronde ac pabulis potus et in utriculos congestus apium — ore enim eum vomunt —, ad hoc suco florum corruptus et alvis vitiis maceratus totiensque mutatus, magnam tamen caelestis naturae voluptatem adfert (11.12)
KEEP LOOKING AT SOURCES UNDER BIENEN IN RE
in hunc saporem: in + acc. = "into."
QUIBUSDAM: WHO?
faciendi and colligendi: gerundives.
illis: predicate dative (as mihi in "Est mihi gladium" means "There is a spear to me," or in better English, "I have a spear").
gignat: subordinate clauses within indirect speech take subjunctive.
poni: indirect speech is continued from the preceding. Hence this infinitive.
persequatur et contrahat: subjunctive in subordinate clause within indirect speech.
huic rei: dative of purpose.
verti: infinitive in indirect speech dependent on existimant. The subject is the unexpressed antecedent of quae in this sentence.
quae ... decerpserint: what is the subject of decerpserint? Fetch it from the preceding passage.
in hanc qualitatem: in + acc. = "into."
non sine quodam, ut ita dicam, fermento, quo in unum diversa coalescunt: indirect speech has ceased (hence indicative coalescunt) and Seneca is providing his own redescription of the preceding theory. quodam modifies fermento, which is the antecedent of quo, and ablative of means.

[5-6] Sed ne ad aliud quam de quo agitur abducar, nos quoque has apes debemus imitari et quaecumque ex diversa lectione congessimus separare (melius enim distincta servantur), deinde adhibita ingenii nostri cura et facultate in unum saporem varia illa libamenta confundere, ut etiam si apparuerit unde sumptum sit, aliud tamen esse quam unde sumptum est appareat. Quod in corpore nostro videmus sine ulla opera nostra facere naturam [6] (alimenta quae accepimus, quamdiu in sua qualitate perdurant et solida innatant stomacho, onera sunt; at cum ex eo quod erant mutata sunt, tunc demum in vires et in sanguinem transeunt), idem in his quibus aluntur ingenia praestemus, ut quaecumque hausimus non patiamur integra esse, ne aliena sint.

aliud: namely, some other topic.
quam de quo: quam = "than." The antecedent of quo is omitted, but would have been id (vel sim.).
agitur: "there is discussion," "is at issue," "is being treated." Ago has several figurative meanings such as this.
abducar: subj. of purpose clause.
nos quoque: emphatic.
separare: Aristotle (see n. above) believed that bees do not in the same flight mix what they gather from one type of flower with what they gather from other types of flower.
adhibita ingenii nostri cura et facultate: ablative absolute.
confundere: infinitive dependent on debemus.
ut ... appareat: a complex result clause:
Quod: linking relative: quod refers to the previous thought.
videmus sine ulla opera nostra facere naturam: videmus as a verb of thinking can take indirect statement.
et solida innatant stomacho: et means "i.e.," because solida expresses the same thought as in sua qualitate perdurant. Solida is a predicate adjective modifying alimenta. Stomacho is dative with in- of innatant.
in vires et in sanguinem transeunt: in + acc. = into.
idem: object of praestemus.
ingenia: subject of aluntur.
praestemus: hortatory subjunctive.
patiamus: purpose clause subjunctive.
esse: infinitive dependent on patiamur. quaecumque hausimus is the subject of esse, and integre is a predicate adjective agreeing with quaecumque.
sint: purpose clause subjunctive.

[7] Concoquamus illa; alioqui in memoriam ibunt, non in ingenium. Adsentiamur illis fideliter et nostra faciamus, ut unum quiddam fiat ex multis, sicut unus numerus fit ex singulis cum minores summas et dissidentes conputatio una conprendit. Hoc faciat animus noster: omnia quibus est adiutus abscondat, ipsum tantum ostendat quod effecit.

Concoquamus, Adsentiamur, and faciamus: hortatory subjunctives.
nostra: agrees with illa. Facere is a factitive verb, which means it takes two accusatives, just as in English "I make them mine" has two object terms (them and mine). Other English factitive examples: "I paint the wall red," "I find you beautiful," "I elect you president."
fiat: result clause subjunctive.
faciat, abscondat, ostendat: jussive subjunctives.

[8] Etiam si cuius in te comparebit similitudo quem admiratio tibi altius fixerit, similem esse te volo quomodo filium, non quomodo imaginem: imago res mortua est. 'Quid ergo? non intellegetur cuius imiteris orationem? cuius argumentationem? cuius sententias?' Puto aliquando ne intellegi quidem posse, si magni vir ingenii omnibus quae ex quo voluit exemplari traxit formam suam inpressit, ut in unitatem illa conpetant.

si cuius: cuius = alicuius. Genitive dependent on similitudo.
comparebit: from compareo, comparere, comparui.
altius: comparative adverb, "quite deeply."
quomodo filium, non quomodo imaginem: much has to be understood from the previous clause. The whole thought, if spelled out explicitly, might be: volo te esse similem quomodo volo filium esse similem, non quomodo volo imaginem esse similem.
res mortua: predicate nominative.
imiteris: "generic" you referring to no one in particular.
imiteris: indirect question subjunctive.
Puto ... conpetant: a complex sentence with the following structure:
Why does he say it cannot even be understood? Does this use of intellego make use of inter + lego? Mark has a different text: where from?

[9] Non vides quam multorum vocibus chorus constet? unus tamen ex omnibus redditur. Aliqua illic acuta est, aliqua gravis, aliqua media; accedunt viris feminae, interponuntur tibiae: singulorum illic latent voces, omnium apparent.

constet: subjunctive in indirect question.
omnium apparent: sc. voces.

[10] De choro dico quem veteres philosophi noverant: in commissionibus nostris plus cantorum est quam in theatris olim spectatorum fuit. Cum omnes vias ordo canentium implevit et cavea aeneatoribus cincta est et ex pulpito omne tibiarum genus organorumque consonuit, fit concentus ex dissonis. Talem animum esse nostrum volo: multae in illo artes, multa praecepta sint, multarum aetatum exempla, sed in unum conspirata.

sint: jussive subjunctive.

[11] 'Quomodo' inquis 'hoc effici poterit?' Adsidua intentione:si nihil egerimus nisi ratione suadente, nihil vitaverimus nisi ratione suadente. Hanc si audire volueris, dicet tibi: relinque ista iamdudum ad quae discurritur; relinque divitias, aut periculum possidentium aut onus; relinque corporis atque animi voluptates, molliunt et enervant; relinque ambitum, tumida res est, vana, ventosa, nullum habet terminum, tam sollicita est ne quem ante se videat quam ne secum, laborat invidia et quidem duplici. Vides autem quam miser sit si is cui invidetur et invidet.

effici: pass. inf.
hanc: sc. rationem.
nisi ratione suadente: nisi does not introduce a new clause here. Rather, it applies only to the ablative abs. ratione suadente.
relinque ... relinque ... relinque ... : a tricolon crescendo. Three parts, each larger than the last.
aut periculum possidentium aut onus: in apposition to divitias. Possidentium: where Latin uses a genitive, English uses "to": a danger to the owner.
WHy abandon the pleasures of the soul?
tumida res est, vana, ventosa, nullum habet terminum..., laborat invidia ... : note the asyndeton.
tam sollicita est ... quam (sc. sollicita est) ... : note how tam ... quam ... tells the structure of the thought and helps the reader.
ne quem ante se videat: fearing clause. quem = aliquem.
quam ne secum: sc. quem videat.
sit: indirect question.
si is cui invidetur et invidet: typical Senecan pithy formulation.

[12] Intueris illas potentium domos, illa tumultuosa rixa salutantium limina? multum habent contumeliarum ut intres, plus cum intraveris. Praeteri istos gradus divitum et magno adgestu suspensa vestibula: non in praerupto tantum istic stabis sed in lubrico. Huc potius te ad sapientiam derige, tranquillissimasque res eius et simul amplissimas pete.

salutantium limina: limina is here used figuratively. It refers to the habit of attending upon one's patron by gathering at his doorway.
habent: subject to be supplied from previous sentence.
multum contumeliarum: multum takes the genitive.
ut intres: ut meaning "when, as" usually takes the indicative, but here it takes the subjunctive because this is a generalizing clause with an ideal "you." In other word, this "you" does not refer to Lucilius or anyone in particular, but rather it refers perfectly generally to anyone who enters. Think of a recipe in English which says, "First, you take some onions... ." The "you" is perfectly general.
cum intraveris: perfect subjunctive referring to past time with cum temporal.
praeteri: imperative.
istos gradus: namely, the steps to their houses.
tantum: adverbial
eius: refers to sapientia.

[13] Quaecumque videntur eminere in rebus humanis, quamvis pusilla sint et comparatione humillimorum exstent, per difficiles tamen et arduos tramites adeuntur. Confragosa in fastigium dignitatis via est; at si conscendere hunc verticem libet, cui se fortuna summisit, omnia quidem sub te quae pro excelsissimis habentur aspicies, sed tamen venies ad summa per planum. Vale.

sint ... exstent: quamvis takes the subjunctive.
comparatione humillimorum: where English has "by comparison with/to," Latin has comparatio + objective genitive.
conscendere: inf. with libet.
cui: antecedent is verticem.
omnia: obj. of aspicies.

Vocabulary

abduco, abducere, abduxi, abductus, distract, turn aside
abscondo, abscondere, abscondi, absconditum, hide, conceal
accedo, accedere, accessi, accessum, be added to, join (+dat.)
accipio, accipere, acccepi, acceptum, receive
acutus, -a, -um, high-pitched
adeo, adire, adii, aditus, approach
adg-, see agg-
adhibeo, adhibere, adhibui, adhibitum, apply, bring to bear
adiuvo, adiuvare, adiuvi, adiutum, help
admiratio, -onis, f., admiration, regard
adp-, see app-
ads-, see ass-
aeneator, -oris, m., trumpeter
aetas, aetatis, f., age, era
affero, afferre, attuli, allatum, bring, fetch
aggestus, -us, m., terrace
ago, agere, egi, actus, drive; do; turn one's attention to; speak about, discuss
aio (has only present forms aio, ais, ait, aiunt and imperfect forms aiebam, etc.), say
alienus, -a, -um, belonging to another, foreign
alimentum, -i, n., food
alioqui(n), otherwise
aliquando, adv., sometimes
aliquis, aliqua, aliquid, pron., someone, anyone
alo, alere, alui, altum/alitum, nourish
altus, -a, -um, deep; high
ambitus, -us, m., canvassing for votes; courting; ambition; ostentation
amor, amoris, m., love
amplus, -a, -um, ample, large, great, extensive
an, whether
animus, -i, m., mind
ante, prep., + acc., before, in front of
apis, apis, f., bee
appareo, apparere, apparui, apparitum, appear, be visible; become evident, be clear
apud, prep., + acc., among; in the land of; at the home of
arduus, -a, -um, uphill; tall; difficult
argumentatio, -onis, f., a line of argument; way of arguing
ars, artis, f., skill, knowledge of how to do or make
arundo, arundinis (also harundo, harundinis), f., reed
aspicio, aspicere, aspexi, aspectum, see, behold
assentior, assentiri, assensus, agree with (+dat.)
assiduus, -a, -um, constant, unremitting
attuli, see affero
audio, audire, audivi, auditum, listen to (+acc.)
caelum, caeli, n., sky
cano, canere, cecini, cantum, sing
cantor, -oris, m., singer
carpo, carpere, carpsi, carptum, seize, pluck at, pick
cavea, -ae, f., the auditorium of a theater (where the spectators usually sit)
cella, -ae, f., chamber, small room
chorus, -i, m.,  chorus
cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctum, encircle, gird
coalesco, coalescere, coalui, coalitum, combine, grow or join together, unite
cogito (1), think
cognovi, cognitum, know
colligo, colligere, collegi, collectum, gather together, collect, assemble
commeo (1), travel, come and go, journey
commissio, -onis, f., commencement, holding of (an event)
comparatio, -onis, f., comparison
compareo, comparere, comparui, appear, show oneself; be able to be found
competo, competere, competivi, competitum, come together, meet; coincide
comprehendo, comprehendere, comprehensi, comprehensum, cover, deal with; include
comprendo, see comprehendo
computatio, -onis, f., calculation
concentus, -us, m., a singing together, a playing together
concoquamus, concoquere, concoxi, concoctum, digest; cook together
conditura, -ae, f., a method of flavoring, preserving, or pickling
confragosus, -a, -um, uneven, rough; difficult
confundo, confundere, confudi, confusum, mingle, mix
congero, congerere, congessi, congestum, collect, amass, bring together
conp-, see comp-
conscendo, conscendere, conscendi, conscensum, climb, scale
consono, consonare, consonui, sound together, resound
conspiro (1), act or be in harmony, agree
constat, impersonal of next: it is know, it is established
consto, constare, constiti, consist of (+ abl.)
contentus, -a, -um, (+abl.) satisfied
contraho, contrahere, contraxi, contractus, draw together, collect
contristo (1), sadden, depress
contumelia, -ae, f., insult, affront
corpus, corporis, n., body
cura, -ae, f., care, concern, carefulness
debeo, debere, debui, debitus, owe, ought
decerpo, decerpere, decerpsi, decerptum, pluck, pick
deinde, then, next
demum, adv., finally
derigo, see dirigo
difficilis, -e, adj., hard, difficult
digero, digerere, digessi, digestum, distribute
dignitas, -atis, f., worthiness
diluo, diluere, dilui, dilutum, dissipate, weaken, diminish
dirigo, dirigere, direxi, directum, guide, steer
discurro, discurrere, discursi, discursum, run around; (of the mind) branch out over, range over
dispono, disponere, disposui, dispositum, distribute
dispositio, -onis, f., arrangement
dissideo, dissidere, dissedi, differ
dissonus, -a, -um, different sounding, diverse sounding; heterogeneous
distendo, distendere, distendi, distentum, stretch out, spread; fill to bursting
distinctus, -a, -um, distinct, different
diversus, -a, -um, varied
divitiae, divitiarum, f. pl., riches
dives, divitis, adj., rich
dulcis, dulcis, dulce, sweet
duplex, duplicis, adj., twofold
efficio, efficere, effeci, effectum, bring about, effect
emineo, eminere, eminui, stand out, excel
enervo (1), weaken
ergo, therefore
excelsus, -a, -um, sublime, noble, lofty
excutio, excutere, excussi, excussum, shake off, knock off
exemplum, -i, n., example, instance
exemplar, -is, n., example, pattern, model
exerceo, exercere, exercui, exercitum, exercise, train
exhaurio, exhaurire, exhausi, exhaustum, use up, exhaust
existimo (1), think, suppose, judge
ex(s)to, ex(s)tare, ex(s)titi, stand out, be conspicuous
facultas, -atis, f., capability
fastigium, -i, n., apex, summit
fatigo (1), tire out, weary, exhaust
favus, -i, m., honeycomb
femina, -ae, f., woman
fermentum, -i, n., fermentation
fideliter, adv., in good faith; with certainly
filius, -i, m., son
fio, fieri, factus sum, become, be made; happen
figo, figere, fixi, fixum, drive in, run through, fasten
florens, florentis, flowering, blooming
flos, floris, m., flower
folium, -i, n., leaf
forma, -ae, f., shape, form, mode, character
genitum, see gigno
genus, generis, n., sort, type, kind
gigno, gignere, genui, genitum, bring into being, create; produce
gradus, -us, m., step, stair
gravis, grave, low-pitched, deep
habeo, habere, habui, habitum, have, hold; consider, deem; habeo + acc. + pro + abl, consider (the acc. thing) to be/as (the abl. thing)
harundo, see arundo
haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum, swallow; drink
herba, -ae, f., plant, herb, grass
huc, adv., to here
humilis, humile, adj., lowly
humor, see umor
iamdudum, adv., already
idem, eadem, idem, same
idem, adv., likewise
idoneus, -a, -um, suitable
illic, there
imago, imaginis, f., likeness, image
imitor (1), imitate
impleo, implere, implevi, impletum, fill
imprimo, imprimere, impressi, impressum, stamp, imprint
indico (1), say, reveal, make known
Indus, -i, m., Indian
ingenium, -i, n., intellect, mental powers
innato (1), swim in, swim into
inp-, see imp-
inquis, you say (a defective verb that has only a few forms)
integer, integra, integrum, whole
intellego, intellegere, intellexi, intellectum, understand
intentio, -onis, f., attention, concentration
interpono, interponere, interposui, interpositum, insert, interpose
intro (1), enter
intueor, intueri, intuitus sum, watch, look at
invenio, invenire, inveni, inventum, discover, find
invicem, by turns, in turn
invideo, invidere, invidi, invisum, (+ dat.) look askance at, envy, hate
invidia, -ae, f., hatred; envy, jealousy
istic, adv., there
ita, adv., thus
iter, itineris, n., journey; march; road
iudex, iudicis, m., judge
iudico (1), judge, think
laboro (1), labor, toil; suffer, feel distress; be anxious, be worried
lateo, latere, latui, lie hidden, lie out of sight, escape notice
lectio, -onis, f., a reading
lego, legere, legi, lectum, read
libamentum, -i, n., sacrificial offering, first fruits; taste
libet, libere, libuit, one wants, it is pleasing
limen, liminis, n., threshold
liqueo, liquere, liqui/licui, be liquid
littera, -ae, f., letter (of the alphabet); pl. letter, epistle; pl. literature, writings
lubricus, -a, -um, slippery
manifestus, -a, -um, evident, obvious, unmistakable
medius, -a, -um, in between
mel, mellis, n., honey
melior, melius, comparative adj., better
memoria, -ae, f. memory
minus, adv., less
minus, minorisn., a smaller number/amount of
miser, misera, miserum, wretched, miserable
mixtura, -ae, f., mixture
mollio, mollire, mollivi, mollitum, soften, relax, weaken
mortuus, -a, -um, dead
muto (1), change
natura, -ae, f., the natural course of events
necessarius, -a, -um, necessary, needed
nectar, nectaris, n., a sweet liquid (as ambrosia, honey, wine, milk)
neglego, neglegere, neglexi, neglectum, not pay attention to, ignore
nosco, noscere, novi, notum, get to know, study (in the present system); know (in the perfect system)
notabilis, -is, -e, conspicuous, easily observed
numerus, -i, m., number
olim, at one time
onus, oneris, n., burden
opera, -ae, f., work, toil, effort
oratio, -onis, f., speech
ordo, ordinis, row, line, rank
organum, -i, n., musical instrument
ostendo, ostendere, ostendi, ostensum, show
patior, pati, passus sum, allow
per, prep., + acc., through
perduro (1), continue, persist
periculum, -i, n., peril, danger
persequor, persequi, persecutus sum, pursue, chase; search after, find
peto, petere, petivi, petitum, seek
philosophus, -i, m., philosopher
piger, pigra, pigrum, sluggish, torpid
pinguis, pinguis, pingue, rich, fatty, thick
placeo, placere, placui, placitus, be pleasing; placet + X in the dat. = X decides, X thinks
planus, -a, -um, even (ground), flat
plus, pluris, n., more
pono, ponere, posui, positum, place, put
possideo, possidere, possedi, possessum, own, hold, possess
potens, potentis, adj., powerful, influential
potius, adv., rather
praeceptum, -i, n., rule, principle
praeruptus, -a, -um, on the edge of a cliff, hazardous
praesto, praestare, praestiti, praestitum, render, bring about
praetereo, praeterire, praeterii, preateritum, go past, bypass
primum, firstly
pro, prep., + abl., as (with habeo, puto, etc.)
prosum, prodesse, profui, (+dat.) do good to, help
proprietas, proprietatis, f., special property
prosum, prodesse, profui, be advantageous, be beneficial
protinus, immediately
pulpitum, -i, n., performance platform
pusillus, -a, -um, petty, tiny
quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum, seek, investigate
qualitas, -atis, f., character, essential quality
quamdiu, as long as
quamvis, although
quare, why, for what reason
quicumque, quaecumque, quodcumque, whoever, whatever
quidam, quaedam, quiddam, certain
quidem, indeed
quisquis, quidquid/quicquid, whoever, whatever, anyone who, anything which
quomodo, in the way in which, in the same way as; how, in what way
quoque, adv., also
ratio, rationis, f., reason, thought
recedo, recedere, recessi, recessum, withdraw, move away from
reddo, reddere, reddidi, redditum, return; cause to appear, render
redigo, redigere, redegi, redactum, bring back, recall; reduce, limit
reficio, reficere, refeci, refectum, refresh
relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictum, leave, abandon, forsake
rixa, -ae, f., quarrel, brawl, rhubarb
ros, roris, m., dew
saluto (1), greet
sanguis, sanguinis, m., blood
sapientia, -ae, f., wisdom
sapor, saporis, m., flavor, taste
satis, enough
scientia, -ae, f., knowledge
segnitia, -ae, f., sloth, sluggishness
sententia, -ae, f., opinion
separo (1), separate, divide; keep separate
servo (1), preserve
sicut, just as, as
similis, similis, simile, similar, like
similitudo, similitudinis, f., likeness, similarity
simul,  at the same time
singulus, -a, -um, individual
solidus, -a, -um, unbroken, whole, entire
sollicitus, -a, -um, restless, troubled, anxious
solvo, solvere, solui, solutum, loosen, relax
spectator, -oris, m., spectator
spiritus, -us, m., breath
sto, stare, steti, status, stand
stilus, -i, m., stylus (a pointed instrument used for incising letters in wax, etc.), pen
stipo (1), compress, compact; surround closely
stomachus, -i, m., stomach
studium, -i, n., pursuit, study
suadeo, suadere, suasi, suasum, urge, advocate, suggest
submitto, submittere, submisi, submissum, make subject to
sucus, -i, m., sap, juice, vital fluid
summa, -ae, f., sum
summus, -a, -um, highest
summ-, see subm-
sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptum, take
suspendo, suspendere, suspendi, suspensum, hang, suspend
talis, talis, tale, such, of that sort
tam, as (often with a later 'quam,' which means 'as')
tamen, nonetheless, however
tantum, only
tempero (1), moderate, temper, adjust
tener, tenera, tenerum, tender, delicate
terminus, -i, m., limit, bound
theatrum, -i, n., theater
tibia, -ae, f., flute
traho, trahere, traxi, tractum, draw, take
trames, tramitis, m., path
tranquillus, -a, -um, peaceful, calm
transeo, transire, transii, transitum, go over, transition
tum, then, at the time
tumidus, -a, -um, presumptuous, overweening, affected, overly confident
tumultuosus, -a, -um, unruly, turbulent, uproarious
tunc, then, at the time
umor, umoris (also humor), m., moisture, fluid
unde, whence, from where
unitas, -atis, f., unity
utrum, whether
vagor (1), wander
valetudo, -inis, f., health, state of health
vanus, -a, -u, vain, insubstantial, empty
varius, -a, -um, varied
velut, as
venio, venire, veni, ventum, arrive, come
ventosus, -a, -um, windy; fickle, ephemeral, insubstantial
verto, vertere, verti, versum, turn, convert
vertex, verticis, m., summit, peak
verus, vera, verum, true, accurate
vestibulum, -i, n., forecourt; entranceway
vetus, veteris, adj., old
via, -ae, f., path, way, entranceway
vireo, virere, virui, show green growth, be verdant
vires, virium, f. pl., strength
vis, vis, force, power
vito (1), avoid
vox, vocis, f., voice
voluptas, -atis, f., pleasure