Seneca LXXII
Commentary by David Bates, revised by J. Bailly

Introduction


In this letter Seneca suggests that we should spend as much of our time philosophizing as possible. By philosophizing is meant perfecting our souls, and the perfected soul is what makes for a wise person. Once attained, perfection of soul is permanent and self-sufficient, Seneca maintains. The wise person needs nothing more for contented well-being and will be unconcerned with all worldly things and distractions.

The first part of the letter concerns the effort to find time to philosophize: Seneca suggests that given its importance, we should do so every day in spite of any other calls on our attention. In the second part of the letter, Seneca expands on what it means to be wise and how the wise person is invulnerable to fortune. He concludes by suggesting that given the distance we have to cover to become wise, we ought not to waste time on other business.

Text


LXXII. SENECA LUCILIO SUO SALUTEM

[1] Quod quaeris a me liquebat mihi - sic rem edidiceram - per se; sed diu non retemptavi memoriam meam, itaque non facile me sequitur. Quod evenit libris situ cohaerentibus, hoc evenisse mihi sentio: explicandus est animus et quaecumque apud illum deposita sunt subinde excuti debent, ut parata sint quotiens usus exegerit. Ergo hoc in praesentia differamus; multum enim operae, multum diligentiae poscit. Cum primum longiorem eodem loco speravero moram, tunc istud in manus sumam. [2] Quaedam enim sunt quae possis et in cisio scribere, quaedam lectum et otium et secretum desiderant. Nihilominus his quoque occupatis diebus agatur aliquid et quidem totis. Numquam enim non succedent occupationes novae: serimus illas, itaque ex una exeunt plures. Deinde ipsi nobis dilationem damus: 'cum hoc peregero, toto animo incumbam' et 'si hanc rem molestam composuero, studio me dabo'. [3] Non cum vacaveris philosophandum est, sed ut philosopheris vacandum est; omnia alia neglegenda ut huic assideamus, cui nullum tempus satis magnum est, etiam si a pueritia usque ad longissimos humani aevi terminos vita producitur. Non multum refert utrum omittas philosophiam an intermittas; non enim ubi interrupta est manet, sed eorum more quae intenta dissiliunt usque ad initia sua recurrit, quod a continuatione discessit. Resistendum est occupationibus, nec explicandae sed summovendae sunt. Tempus quidem nullum est parum idoneum studio salutari; atqui multi inter illa non student propter quae studendum est. [4] 'Incidet aliquid quod impediat.' Non quidem eum cuius animus in omni negotio laetus atque alacer est: imperfectis adhuc interscinditur laetitia, sapientis vero contexitur gaudium, nulla causa rumpitur, nulla fortuna; semper et ubique tranquillus est. Non enim ex alieno pendet nec favorem fortunae aut hominis exspectat. Domestica illi felicitas est; exiret ex animo si intraret: ibi nascitur. [5] Aliquando extrinsecus quo admoneatur mortalitatis intervenit, sed id leve et quod summam cutem stringat. Aliquo, inquam, incommodo afflatur; maximum autem illud bonum fixum est. Ita dico, extrinsecus aliqua sunt incommoda, velut in corpore interdum robusto solidoque eruptiones quaedam pustularum et ulcuscula, nullum in alto malum est. [6] Hoc, inquam, interest inter consummatae sapientiae virum et alium procedentis quod inter sanum et ex morbo gravi ac diutino emergentem, cui sanitatis loco est levior accessio: hic nisi attendit, subinde gravatur et in eadem revolvitur, sapiens recidere non potest, ne incidere quidem amplius. Corpori enim ad tempus bona valetudo est, quam medicus, etiam si reddidit, non praestat - saepe ad eundem qui advocaverat excitatur: <animus> semel in totum sanatur. [7] Dicam quomodo intellegas sanum: si se ipse contentus est, si confidit sibi, si scit omnia vota mortalium, omnia beneficia quae dantur petunturque, nullum in beata vita habere momentum. Nam cui aliquid accedere potest, id imperfectum est; cui aliquid abscedere potest, id imperpetuum est: cuius perpetua futura laetitia est, is suo gaudeat. Omnia autem quibus vulgus inhiat ultro citroque fluunt: nihil dat fortuna mancipio. Sed haec quoque fortuita tunc delectant cum illa ratio temperavit ac miscuit haec est quae etiam externa commendet, quorum avidis usus ingratus est. [8] Solebat Attalus hac imagine uti: 'vidisti aliquando canem missa a domino frusta panis aut carnis aperto ore captantem? quidquid excepit protinus integrum devorat et semper ad spem venturi hiat. Idem evenit nobis: quidquid exspectantibus fortuna proiecit, id sine ulla voluptate demittimus statim, ad rapinam alterius erecti et attoniti.' Hoc sapienti non evenit: plenus est; etiam si quid obvenit, secure excipit ac reponit; laetitia fruitur maxima, continua, sua. [9] Habet aliquis bonam voluntatem, habet profectum, sed cui multum desit a summo: hic deprimitur alternis et extollitur ac modo in caelum allevatur, modo defertur ad terram. Imperitis ac rudibus nullus praecipitationis finis est; in Epicureum illud chaos decidunt, inane sine termino. [10] Est adhuc genus tertium eorum qui sapientiae alludunt, quam non quidem contigerunt, in conspectu tamen et, ut ita dicam, sub ictu habent: hi non concutiuntur, ne defluunt quidem; nondum in sicco, iam in portu sunt. [11] Ergo cum tam magna sint inter summos imosque discrimina, cum medios quoque sequatur fluctus suus, sequatur ingens periculum ad deteriora redeundi, non debemus occupationibus indulgere. Excludendae sunt: si semel intraverint, in locum suum alias substituent. Principiis illarum obstemus: melius non incipient quam desinent. Vale.

Text from http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/: Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium- submitted by Hansulrich Guhl (Frauenfeld, Switzerland) from an unidentified edition and (the later books) by Sally Winchester from the Reynolds edition.

Commentary


1 Lucilius asked Seneca a question whose answer Seneca once knew, but Seneca has not thought about it for so long that he can no longer remember it. Seneca suggests that the contents of one's soul must be periodically dusted off.

Quod quaeris a me: there is no way to know exactly to what item or items Seneca refers.
itaque… sequitur
: this is equivalent in meaning to a grammatical result clause, but it is not one.
Quod: the following hoc is its antecedent.
hoc..sentio: indirect statement.
explicandus est: passive periphrastic, translate with necessity and obligation. An example of the construction is as follows: “mihi hic liber legendus est” means "this book must be read by me."
quaecumque deposita sunt: this indefinite relative clause is the subject of debent and parata sint.
ut parata sint: purpose clause, in primary sequence with “debent.”
exegerit: philosophic future perfect.
in praesentia differamus: independent jussive subjunctive (when it is first person, some call it a "hortatory" subjunctive).
hoc: refers to the item or items which Lucilius asked about and Seneca cannot recall adequately.
multum: used substantivally here, it takes genitive.

2 Seneca says that while some studies require seclusion and undivided attention, nonetheless in the course of everyday activities, one can still engage in philosophical pursuits.

quaedam, quae: both refer to studies
possis: generic impersonal second person. Why subjunctive?
et in cisio: adverbial use of et, “even.”
diebus: why ablative?
agatur: jussive subjunctive.
illas: modifies an understood noun: supply it from the preceding clause.
itaque ex una exeunt plures: another clause equivalent to a grammatical result clause.
cum … incumbam: the structure is that same as that of a future-less-vivid conditional.
si hanc…dabo: Future less vivid condition.

3 Seneca insists that one must constantly philosophize.

non cum vacaveris philosphandum est, sed ut philosopheris vacandum est: a chiastic sentence (a b b a). The periphrastics are impersonal. The sentiment is aphoristic and typically Senecan.
neglenda: sc. sunt.
ut huic adsideamus: purpose clause in primary sequence.
utrum…ommittas…intermittas: indirect questions in primary sequence with refert. The use of two compounds of -mitto is typically Senecan.
recurrit: sc. philosophia.
quod: "because."
resistendum est…explicandae…submovendae sunt:  three passive periphrastics, the first impersona. Explicandae shares sunt with submovendae.
Tempus quidem nullum est parum idoneum studio salutari: aphoristic. Typically Senecan.
parum idoneum: adverb modifying idoneum, which takes a dative.
non student propter quae studendum est: student takes an understood eis (or something similar), which is the (omitted) antecedent to quae. Seneca often uses pointed formulations that repeat a word with a different inflection.

4 This section makes a transition from talking about the necessity to philosophize even if one thinks there is no time to talking about well-being and its status. Moving from the hypothetical objection that inevitably something occurs to disturb one's philosophical activity, Seneca claims that there is nothing that can interrupt and hence prevent the wise from being happy and unperturbed and philosophizing. The wise person's well-being is not dependent on anything that belongs to or affects anyone else.

quod inpediat: relative clause of characteristic. Impediat is used absolutely (i.e. it lacks an object).
non quidem eum: sc. aliquid impediet.
eum cuius animus in omni negotio laetus atque alacer est: clearly a wise person fits this description. Perhaps some others do too.
imperfectis: i.e. those who are not wise according to the stoic idea of what makes a person wise.
nulla causa...nulla fortuna: ablatives.
alieno: alienus means "belonging to, of, relating to another." Here, the other is someone other than the wise person.
domestica: used figuratively here, meaning "interior to the wise person's self."
illi: dative of possession.
exiret ex animo, si intraret: present contrary to fact condition. The idea is that if one's happiness is dependent on external things, then it is likely not to last, whereas the wise person's happiness is entirely internal and so entirely in that person's control.
ibi: namely, in the soul of the wise person.

5 Seneca claims that the outside forces that
greatly affect other people are merely minor distractions to the wise, for the wise are fully satisfied with their own inner contentedness and nothing external is of moment to them.

extrinsecus: adverb.
quo admoneatur: relative clause of characteristic, equivalent to a purpose clause (remember, "anything that ut can do, qui can do better"). Primary sequence with “intervenit.”
intervenit: the subject of intervenit is the antecedent of quo, but it has been omitted. It must be something like "aliquid."
id leve: sc. est.
quod ... stringat: relative clause of characteristic.
aliquo, inquam, incommodo: inquam is parenthetical. aliquo modifies incommodo.
maximum ... illud bonum: i.e. the well-being of the wise person.
ita dico: dico sometimes takes direct speech. Here, it seems almost parenthetical, like inquam in the next sentence. As Latin developed, this sort of usage became more common.
extrinsecus: an adverb modifying the entire sentence that follows, placed in the initial position for emphasis. Compare English, "Necessarily, dogs are canines, cats are felines, and nothing is both," in which necessarily modifies the whole sentence, not just one part of it.
incommoda: predicate.
velut ... eruptiones quaedam pustularum et ulcuscula: in apposition to incommoda.
interdum: although interdum is placed in the middle of a prepositional phrase, and so ought in the normal course of things to modify something in that phrase, nonetheless, it makes best sense to take interdum to be modifying the whole clause. I.e. translate interdum as if it came right after velut.
nullum in alto malum est: adversative asyndeton: i.e. there is an understood sed.
in alto: altus, -a, -um is originally spatial, but here it is used figuratively: in alto, "profoundly, seriously." In alto modifies malum.
malum: predicate.

6 Seneca compares the wise to those who are still becoming wise: it is similar to the relationship between a healthy man and one recovering from a disease, since the one who is recovering can at any point relapse, while the fully healthy man is safe (for the time being). In contrast to the body, once a soul becomes wise, it is reliably whole and healthy (if it should slip back, that means it was not truly wise).

consummatae ... procedentis: both are genitives of description. Understand sapientiae with procedentis as well as consummatae.
quod inter sanum et ex morbo gravi ac diutino emergentem (sc. interest): hoc is the antecedent of quod.
cui: antecedent is emergentem.
sanitatis loco: cf. English "in place of" or French "au lieu de."
hic: also refers to emergentem and stands in contrast to sapiens later in the sentence.
his nisi adtendit…revolvitur: simple conditional.
sapiens ... : another adversative asyndeton.
corpori: dative of possession.
ad tempus: idiomatic, "for a time."
si reddidit, non praestat: simple conditional.
qui advocaverat: antecedent of qui is eundem (sc. virum).
animus ... sanatur: another adversative asyndeton.

7 Seneca defines 'sanum' as perfection of the soul, a condition to which nothing can be added nor anything taken away and which is permanent and self-sufficient. He says further that although the wise person has no need of external things, the wise person nonetheless feels some delight (delectant) in them. Seneca even suggests that the wisdom (ratio) of the wise is what makes externals agreeable, for greedy people cannot enjoy externals.

intellegas: why subjunctive?
si ... si ... si ... : triple parallelism. Typically Senecan.
si scit omnia vota ..., omnia beneficia, ... habere ...: scit introduces indirect speech. Omnia vota is the subject of the infinitive habere.
cui ... cui ... cuius ... : triple parallelism. Typically Senecan.
cui: the antecedent is id of the following clause.
suo: "his/her own" what?
Omnia autem quibus vulgus inhiat ultro citro fluunt; nihil dat fortuna mancipio: aphoristic. The slave spoken of here is the person who is enslaved to external things and has not been freed of them through philosophy.
inhiat: what case do verbal compounds with in- typically take?
haec: what is the antecedent?
commendet: relative clause of characteristic.
quorum: another objective genitive (with usus).

8 The sections illustrates the thought of the last section with an illustrative image which Seneca's own teacher, Attalus, used to use.

Attalus
: the stoic Attalus was the most important teacher of Seneca. Not a great deal is known about him. Seneca mentions and quotes him frequently, however (in epistulae 9.7, 63.5, 67.15, 81.22, 108.3, 108.13, 108.23, 110.14-20).
uti: this verb takes what case?
canem missa a domino frusta panis aut carnis aperto ore captantem: to untangle this slew of substantives, start by asking what does the sentence's verb (vidisti) need? a direct object. Canem! Does anything agree with canem? captantem! Captantem is a participle of a transitive verb, which means it needs an object too. Frusta! Does anything modify frusta? missa! What is left? 1) a domino (what could "by/from the master" go with?, 2) panis aut carnis (genitive of "bread" and "meat": what could that go with?), and 3) aperto ore (an ablative substantive and participle: what construction typically consists of two such ablatives?).
captantem: frequentative verb. Frequentatives are formed by affixing -to, -tare, -tavi, -tatum to a verb stem (such as cap-io). Their meanings usually involve frequent action, repetition, or some other intensiveness.
quidquid ... quidquid ... : note the parallelism here:
quidquid (canis) excepit ... (id) devorat
quidquid (nobis) fortuna proiecit, id demittimus
integrum: modifies the understood object of devorat. That object is understood from quidquid excepit.
alterius: objective genitive with rapinam. An 'objective' genitive is the 'object' of the verbal notion inherent in the noun it goes with (e.g. in "My love of my dog," dog is an objective genitive).
erecti et attoniti: modify the subject of demittimus.
plenus est: i.e. he has no particularly strong desires for things external to him.
maxima, continua, sua: triplicate. Typically Senecan.

9 One may have a good will and have made some progress, but even in that case, one is far from the secure goal of wisdom.

Habet aliquis bonam voluntatem, habet profectum, sed cui multum desit a summo
: this is a hypothetical example, as in "Let's assume that x, y, and z...." The verb in the initial place is emphatic.
multum desit a summo: Summo refers to perfection. The subjunctive indicates that this is a relative clause of characteristic, but it also confirms the hypothetical nature of the preceding two clauses.
alternis: adverb.
modo ... modo ...: these two adverbs correlate their clauses together. Translate "at one point ... at another ... ."
nullus
: modifies finis.
Epicureum illud chaos: Epicureum and illud modify chaos (inane does too, but in predicate position). Epicurus posited that only two things exist, void and atoms. Chaos refers to the void, which has no limits. Stoics also accept that void exists, but the void of the Epicureans was a commonplace.

10 In addition to the wise and the person who has made some progress, there are those who have not reached wisdom, and yet are somehow nearer to it than the masses. The language Seneca uses to describe this third category is largely figurative and thus hard to interpret with analytical exactitude.

genus tertium
: the first two are the wise and those who are referred to in section 9 (they have a bonam voluntatem).
qui adludunt
: the choice of this verb is puzzling. It means something like "play around with" or "sport with."
ut ita dicam: parenthetical.
sub ictu: i.e. it is almost in their grasp.
concutiuntur: being disturbed is a bad thing for stoics. They are supposed to be above that.
defluunt: meant figuratively, this verb indicates that this third sort of person has made enough progress that he or she will not slip back into utter vice.

11
Given that there is such a wide gap between us and wisdom, and it is the most important thing, we ought to concentrate on it to the exclusion of other occupations.

cum ... cum ...
: causal cum clauses: hence verbs in subjunctive. The third clause, although not introduced by cum, must also be a causal clause.
periculum ad deteriora redeundi: redundi depends on periculum. ad deteriora depends on redeundi.
indulgere: takes what case?
si semel intraverint: introduces what kind of conditional sentence?
obstemus: why subjunctive? Takes what case?

Vocabulary:

abscedo, abscedere, abscessi, abscessum, be removed, be taken away
ac, and
accedo, accedere, accessi, accessum, come to in addition, be added to
accessio, -onis, f., onset (of fever or illness)
adl-, see all-
admoneo, admonere, admonui, admonitum, remind (+ gen.)
adsideo, adsidere, adsedi, adsessum, pay attention to (+dat.)
advoco (1), summon, invite
aevum, -i, n., lifetime
afflo (1), blow upon, blast
agatur
alacer, alacris, alacre, lively, brisk
aliquando, sometimes
allevo (1), lift up, raise
alludo, alludere, allusi, allusum, allude to (+ dat.)
alternis, by turns, alternately
animus, -i, m., soul, mind
apertus, -a, -um, open
apud (+acc.), at the house of; in
ass-, see ads-
atque, and
atqui, and yet, all the same
attendo, attendere, attendi, attentum, pay close attention
attono, attonare, attonui, attonitum, strike with lightning; drive crazy, distract
avidus, -a, -um, greedy
beata
beneficium, -i, n., benefit
caelum, -i, n., heaven, sky
canis, canis, m. or f., dog
capto (1), be eager to get, try to get
caro, carnis, f., flesh
cisium, -i, n., a light two-wheeled carriage
citro, see ultro
cohaereo, cohaerere, cohaesi, cohaesum, stick together, adhere
commendo (1), render agreeable
compono, componere, composui, compositum, settle, arrange, organize, dispose
concutio, concutere, concussi, concussum, weaken, shake; upset, disturb
confido, confidere, confisus sum, be confident in (+ dat.)
conspectus, -us, m., sight
consummatus, -a, -um, complete, perfect
contentus, -a, -um, content, fulfilled
contexo, contexere, contexui, contextum, connect, link
contingo, contingere, contigi, contactum, touch
continuatio, -onis, f., continuity
cutis, cutis, f., skin
decido, decidere, decidi, fall down
defero, deferre, detuli, delatus, carry down
defluo, defluere, defluxi, defluxum, glide down, slip down, sink
deinde, then, next, what is more
delecto (1), cause delight
demitto, demittere, demisi, demissum, thrust down (the throat)
depono, deponere, deposui, depositus, entrust to for safekeeping
deprimo, deprimere, depressi, depressus, wiegh down, bring down, lower, reduce
desidero (1), need
desino, desinere, desivi, desitum, stop
desum, deesse, defui, defuturum, fall short of, be lacking
deterior, deterior, deterius, lower, poorer, worse
devoro (1), devour
differo, differre, distuli, dilatum, delay, postpone
dilatio, -onis, delay, postponement
diligentia, -ae, f., carefulness
discedo, discedere, discessi, discessum, move away from
discrimen, discriminis, n., difference
dissilio, dissilire, dissilui, spring apart
diutinus, -a, -um, chronic, lasting
do, dare, dedi, datus, give; cause, create
domesticus, -a, -um, within one's household, interior
edisco, ediscere, edidici, get to know; learn by heart
emergo, emergere, emersi, emersum, emerge
erigo, erigere, erexi, erectum, refresh, revive, restore; stimulate
eruptio, -onis, f., discharge (of bodily fluid), outbreak (of a rash, etc.)
evenio, evenire, eveni, eventum, happen, occur
excipio, excipere, excepi, exceptus, get
excito (1), stir up, stimulate, rouse
excludo, excludere, exclusi, exclusum, deny entry to, keep out
excutio, excutere, excussi, excussum, shake or knock off
exigo, exigere, exegi, exactum, demand
exeo, exire, exivi, exitum, emerge, come out
explico (1), unfold
exspecto (1), await
extollo, extollere, lift up, raise
extrinsecus, from without, externally
facile, readily, easily
favor, favoris, m., favor
felicitas, -atis, f., happiness
finis, finis, m., end
figo, figere, fixi, fixum, firmly established
fluctus, -us, m., flow
fluo, fluere, fluxi, fluxum, flow
fortuitus, -a, -um, chance, accidental
fruor, frui, fructum, enjoy (+abl.)
frustum, -i, n., crust
gaudeo, gaudere, gavisus sum, enjoy (+dat.)
gaudium, -i, n., joy
genus, generis, n., kind, type
gravo (1), grow heavy, worsen
hio (1), gape after
ictus, -us, m., blow, stroke, thrust, impact
idoneus, -a, -um, suitable (+ dat.)
imago, imaginis, f., image, illustration
imus, -a, -um, lowest
impedio, impedire, impedivi, impeditum, obstruct, hinder
imperfectus, -a, -um, imperfect, incomplete
imperitus, -a, -um, unskilled, ignorant
inanis, inane, empty, void
incido, incidere, incidi, incasum, happen, arise; fall into, lapse into
incipio, incipere, incepi, inceptum, begin
incommodum, -i, n., discomfort, disadvantage, annoying
incumbo, incumbere, incubui, apply oneself vigorously, devote one's energies to (+dat.)
indulgeo, indulgere, indulsi, indultum, indulge (+ dat.)
ingens, ingentis, huge
ingratus, -a, -um, unwelcome, displeasing
inhio (1), be avid for (+ dat.); gape for (+ dat.)
initium, initii, n., beginning
inquam, I say
integer, integra, integrum, whole
intendo, intendere, intendi, intentum, stretch
interdum, meanwhile, for the time being
interest, interesse, interfuit, be the difference (between: + inter + acc. et acc.)
intermitto, intermittere, intermisi, intermissum, interrupt, temporarily leave off, take up at intervals
interrumpo, interrumpere, interrupi, interruptum, make discontinuous, interrupt
interscindo, interscindere, interscidi, interscissum, interrupt
intervenio, intervenire, interveni, interventum, occur, crop up
intro (1), enter
laetitia, -ae, f., joy
laetus, -a, -um, glad, happy, joyful
lectus, -i, m, couch (used for study or writing)
liqueo, liquere, licui/liqui, appear clear
mancipium, -i, n., slave; property
maneo, manere, manui, mansum, remain
medicus, -i, m., doctor
mitto, mittere, misi, missum, throw
modo ... modo, at one point, at another point
molestus, -a, -um, annoying
momentum, -i, n., movement, impulse
mora, -ae, f., delay
morbus, -i, n., illness
mos, moris, m., manner, habit
nascor, nasci, natus, be born
neglego, neglegere, neglexi, neglectum, neglect, ignore
nihilominus, nonetheless
nondum, not yet
novus, -a, -um, new
obsto, obstare, obsteti, obstatum, block (+ dat.)
obvenio, obvenire, obveni, obventum, turn up, happen, occur
occupatio, -ionis, f., activity, job, preoccupation
occupatus, -a, -um, busy
omitto, ommittere, ommisi, ommissum, omit, leave out
opera, -ae, work
os, oris, n., mouth
otium, otii, n., leisure
panis, panis, m., bread
paro (1), prepare, get ready
parum, insufficiently
pendeo, pendere, pependi, depend
perago, peragere, peregi, peractum, complete
periculum, -i, n., danger, peril
perpetuus, -a, -um, perpetual
peto, petere, petivi, petitum, seek
philosophor (1), engage in philosophy, study philosophy, think hard
plenus, -a, -um, full, satiated
plus, pluris, more
portus, portus, m., port
posco, poscere, poposci, demand, call for
praecipitatio, -onis, f., headlong descent
praesentia (in praesentia, for the moment)
praesto, praestare, praesteti, praestatum, furnish
principium, -i, n., origin, start
procedo, procedere, procedi, processus, make progress (toward virtue)
produco, producere, produxi, productum, stretch out
profectus, -us, m., progress
proicio, proicere, proieci, proiectum, throw forth
protinus, straightforth
pueritia, -ae, f., boyhood
pustula, -ae, f., blister, pustule, pimple
quidquid, whatever
quomodo, how
quotiens, as often as, as many times as
rapina, -ae, f., plunder, booty; carrying off of a person
ratio, -onis, f., reason
recido, recidere, recidi, lapse, sink back into
recurro, recurrere, recurri, recursum, return, run back
reddo, reddere, redditi, redditus, return, give back
redeo, redire, redivi, reditus, return, revert
refert, it matters (impersonal)
repono, reponere, reposui, repositum, put away
resisto, resistere, restiti, oppose, offer resistance
retempto (1), try again, test again
revolvo, revolvere, revolvi, revolutum, relapse
robustus, -a, -um, strong, robust
rudis, rude, uncultivated, uncouth
rumpo, rumpere, rupi, ruptum, break, interrupt,
salutaris, -e, that promotes one's well-being
sano (1), cleanse
sanitas, -atis, f., health
sanus, -a, -um, healthy
sapiens, -ientis, wise
sapientia, -ae,f., wisdom
secretum, -i, n., seclusion, retirement
secure, without fear, unconcernedly
semel, once
sequor, sequi, secutus, accompany
sero, serere, sevi, satum, sow
siccus, -a, -um, dry
situs, situs, m, the condition of lying undisturbed, neglect
soleo, solere, solitus, be accustomed to
solidus, -a, -um, strong
spero (1), hope for (+ acc.)
statim,
stringo, stringere, strinxi, strictum, graze, scratch
studeo, studere, studui, devote oneself to, concern oneself with (+dat.)
subinde, once in a while
submoveo, submovere, submovi, submotum, remove
substituo, substituere, substitui, substitutum, substitute
succedo, succedere, successi, successum, follow
summus, -a, -um, top of, surface of
sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptum, take
summoveo, see subm-
tam, so
tempero (1), temper, moderate
tempus, temporis, n., time; ad tempus, on time, at the right time
terminus, -i, m., endpoint
tertius, -a, -um, third
tranquillus, -a, -um, peaceful, unperturbed
ulcusculum, -i, n., small sore, ulcer
ultro ... citro, to and fro, on both sides, ambiguously
usque ad, up to, until, all the way to,
usus, us, m., need, use
vaco (1), have free time
votum. -i, n., wish, hope
vulgus, -i, n., the crowd, the masses