Seneca, Epistulae Moralis XX
Commentary by Rachel Thomas
Edited by Jacques Bailly

Introduction
"Verba rebus proba" is the theme of the start of this letter, in which Seneca urges Lucilius to make his actions and life in general accord completely with his philosophy. For philosophy is about lives and actions that demonstrate a coherence with theory and vice versa. In essence, this is an example of philosophy as therapy. Making theory and life cohere is not easy, says Seneca, but as a result you will become and be your own person. You will not think you desire/need one thing while actually desiring/needing another, for it is impossible in the long term to continue desiring (or rejecting) the same thing if it is not the right thing to desire (or reject).

In section 7, Seneca deals with an objection. Embracing the philosophical life gives absolute priority to being content with oneself and what is in one's control, which means one should give no priority to acquiring material goods or means. What if one's estate declines? Seneca's reply is that one's true friends will stick around. Those who don't are not true friends. For this reason alone, poverty is choiceworthy. Furthermore, one who preaches poverty from an impoverished estate proves that preaching with deeds, not words. But if one happens to be rich, there is no reason why one cannot philosophize. The important thing is that one have the correct attitude: philosophical wisdom is everything, worldly goods are worth nothing. And yet, if one prepares oneself well, worldly goods make it easier to acquire that security without which it is impossible to be content. And if one is rich, one must continually prepare oneself by experiencing poverty to some extent by setting aside days on which to be poor.

Text

XX. SENECA LUCILIO SUO SALUTEM

[1] Si vales et te dignum putas qui aliquando fias tuus, gaudeo; mea enim gloria erit, si te istinc ubi sine spe exeundi fluctuaris extraxero. Illud autem te, mi Lucili, rogo atque hortor, ut philosophiam in praecordia ima demittas et experimentum profectus tui capias non oratione nec scripto, sed animi firmitate, cupiditatum deminutione: verba rebus proba. [2] Aliud propositum est declamantibus et assensionem coronae captantibus, aliud his qui iuvenum et otiosorum aures disputatione varia aut volubili detinent: facere docet philosophia, non dicere, et hoc exigit, ut ad legem suam quisque vivat, ne orationi vita dissentiat vel ipsa inter se vita unius sit omnium actionum sine dissensione coloris.  Maximum hoc est et officium sapientiae et indicium, ut verbis opera concordent, ut ipse ubique par sibi idemque sit. 'Quis hoc praestabit?' Pauci, aliqui tamen. Est enim difficile hoc; nec hoc dico, sapientem uno semper iturum gradu, sed una via. [3] Observa te itaque, numquid vestis tua domusque dissentiant, numquid in te liberalis sis, in tuos sordidus, numquid cenes frugaliter, aedifices luxuriose; unam semel ad quam vivas regulam prende et ad hanc omnem vitam tuam exaequa. Quidam se domi contrahunt, dilatant foris et extendunt: vitium est haec diversitas et signum vacillantis animi ac nondum habentis tenorem suum. [4] Etiam nunc dicam unde sit ista inconstantia et dissimilitudo rerum consiliorumque: nemo proponit sibi quid velit, nec si proposuit perseverat in eo, sed transilit; nec tantum mutat sed redit et in ea quae deseruit ac damnavit revolvitur. [5] Itaque ut relinquam definitiones sapientiae veteres et totum complectar humanae vitae modum, hoc possum contentus esse: ‘quid est sapientia? semper idem velle atque idem nolle.’ Licet illam exceptiunculam non adicias, ut rectum sit quod velis; non potest enim cuiquam idem semper placere nisi rectum. [6] Nesciunt ergo homines quid velint nisi illo momento quo volunt; in totum nulli velle aut nolle decretum est; variatur cotidie iudicium et in contrarium vertitur ac plerisque agitur vita per lusum. Preme ergo quod coepisti, et fortasse perduceris aut ad summum aut eo quod summum nondum esse solus intellegas.
[7] 'Quid fiet' inquis 'huic turbae familiarium sine re familiari?' Turba ista cum a te pasci desierit, ipsa se pascet, aut quod tu beneficio tuo non potes scire, paupertatis scies: illa veros certosque amicos retinebit, discedet quisquis non te sed aliud sequebatur. Non est autem vel ob hoc unum amanda paupertas, quod a quibus ameris ostendet? O quando ille veniet dies quo nemo in honorem tuum mentiatur! [8] Huc ergo cogitationes tuae tendant, hoc cura, hoc opta, omnia alia vota deo remissurus, ut contentus sis temet ipso et ex te nascentibus bonis. Quae potest esse felicitas propior? Redige te ad parva ex quibus cadere non possis, idque ut libentius facias, ad hoc pertinebit tributum huius epistulae, quod statim conferam.
[9] Invideas licet, etiam nunc libenter pro me dependet Epicurus. 'Magnificentior, mihi crede, sermo tuus in grabatto videbitur et in panno; non enim dicentur tantum illa sed probabuntur.' Ego certe aliter audio quae dicit Demetrius noster, cum illum vidi nudum, quanto minus quam in stramentis incubantem: non praeceptor veri sed testis est. [10] 'Quid ergo? non licet divitias in sinu positas contemnere?' Quidni liceat? Et ille ingentis animi est qui illas circumfusas sibi, multum diuque miratus quod ad se venerint, ridet suasque audit magis esse quam sentit. Multum est non corrumpi divitiarum contubernio; magnus ille qui in divitiis pauper est. [11] 'Nescio' inquis 'quomodo paupertatem iste laturus sit, si in illam inciderit.' Nec ego, Epicure, angulus si iste pauper contempturus sit divitias, si in illas inciderit; itaque in utroque mens aestimanda est inspiciendumque an ille paupertati indulgeat, an hic divitiis non indulgeat. Alioquin leve argumentum est bonae voluntatis grabattus aut pannus, nisi apparuit aliquem illa non necessitate pati sed malle. [12] Ceterum magnae indolis est ad ista non properare tamquam meliora, sed praeparari tamquam ad facilia. Et sunt, Lucili, facilia; cum vero multum ante meditatus accesseris, iucunda quoque; inest enim illis, sine qua nihil est iucundum, securitas. [13] Necessarium ergo iudico id quod tibi scripsi magnos viros saepe fecisse, aliquos dies interponere quibus nos imaginaria paupertate exerceamus ad veram; quod eo magis faciendum est quod deliciis permaduimus et omnia dura ac difficilia iudicamus. Potius excitandus e somno et vellicandus est animus admonendusque naturam nobis minimum constituisse. Nemo nascitur dives; quisquis exit in lucem iussus est lacte et panno esse contentus: ab his initiis nos regna non capiunt. Vale.

Text from www.thelatinlibrary.com: some corrections may have been made to that text.

Commentary

[1] Si vales et te dignum putas qui aliquando fias tuus, gaudeo; mea enim gloria erit, si te istinc ubi sine spe exeundi fluctuaris extraxero. Illud autem te, mi Lucili, rogo atque hortor, ut philosophiam in praecordia ima demittas et experimentum profectus tui capias non oratione nec scripto, sed animi firmitate, cupiditatum deminutione: verba rebus proba.

te dignum: double accusative
fias: relative clause of purpose: fio takes predicative nominative
fluctuaris: how can you tell that this is not perfect subjunctive?
exeundi: gerund.
Illud: illud it the direct object of rogo atque hortor and refers to the idea expressed in ut clause. Illud can frequently be translated as "the following."
demittas...capias: indirect command in primary sequence (with rogo and hortor)
profectus: what case? not nominative.
rebus: ‘deeds.’
proba: imperative.

[2] Aliud propositum est declamantibus et assensionem coronae captantibus, aliud his qui iuvenum et otiosorum aures disputatione varia aut volubili detinent: facere docet philosophia, non dicere, et hoc exigit, ut ad legem suam quisque vivat, ne orationi vita dissentiat vel ipsa inter se vita unius sit omnium actionum sine dissensione coloris.  Maximum hoc est et officium sapientiae et indicium, ut verbis opera concordent, ut ipse ubique par sibi idemque sit. 'Quis hoc praestabit?' Pauci, aliqui tamen. Est enim difficile hoc; nec hoc dico, sapientem uno semper iturum gradu, sed una via.

aliud ... aliud: when two forms of alius occur in parallel clauses, they usually mean "one . . . another."
declamantibus ... captantibus ... his: why dative?
hoc: refers to ut clause following. As with "illud," "hoc" too can be translated as "the following."
vivat: present subjunctive; indirect command in primary sequence with exigit
dissentiat: present subjunctive; negative purpose clause in primary sequence
inter se: idiomatic for “mutually”
ipsa inter se vita unius sit omnium actionum sine dissensione coloris: ipsa modifies vita. unius modifies coloris, which is a predicate genitive (aka genitive of description). omnium actionum is a genitive with coloris (as in the parallel English "the color of red" or "the action of kicking" where red just is the color and kicking just is the action).
concordent...sit: nominal ut-clauses in primary sequence. They are 'nominal' because they act as nouns and are in apposition to hoc.
ut ipse ubique par sibi idemque sit: ipse is the subject with two predicate nominatives.
hoc: refers to the previous ut-clauses.
Pauci (praestabunt), aliqui (praestabunt) tamen.
iturum (esse): indirect statement with subject sapientem.

[3] Observa te itaque, numquid vestis tua domusque dissentiant, numquid in te liberalis sis, in tuos sordidus, numquid cenes frugaliter, aedifices luxuriose; unam semel ad quam vivas regulam prende et ad hanc omnem vitam tuam exaequa. Quidam se domi contrahunt, dilatant foris et extendunt: vitium est haec diversitas et signum vacillantis animi ac nondum habentis tenorem suum.

numquid: introduces indirect questions expecting negative answers
dissentiat...sis...cenes...aedifices: why subjunctive?
tuos: Latin frequently uses the masculine plural of meus, tuus, etc. to refer to members of a person's group, whether that group be family members, soldiers, clients, friends, etc.
vivas: purpose subjunctive.
prende...exaequa: imperatives.
domi...foris: locatives
contrahunt ... dilatant ... extendunt: figurative usages. To con-trahere onself is to become stingy in terms of money, goods, kindness, speech, etc. to dilatare and extendere oneself is the opposite.
diversitas: remember that nominative -tas, genitive -tatis, etc. is a very common pattern of abstract nouns. They are without exception feminine.
habentis: modifies animi, which goes with signum. Remember that participles can take objects and adverbs just as any verb can do.

[4] Etiam nunc dicam unde sit ista inconstantia et dissimilitudo rerum consiliorumque: nemo proponit sibi quid velit, nec si proposuit perseverat in eo, sed transilit; nec tantum mutat sed redit et in ea quae deseruit ac damnavit revolvitur.

sit: why subjunctive?
velit: why subjunctive?
tantum: adverb.

[5] Itaque ut relinquam definitiones sapientiae veteres et totum complectar humanae vitae modum, hoc possum contentus esse: ‘quid est sapientia? semper idem velle atque idem nolle.’ Licet illam exceptiunculam non adicias, ut rectum sit quod velis; non potest enim cuiquam idem semper placere nisi rectum.

relinquam...complectar: why subjunctive?
hoc: why ablative?
licet: translate as "provided that" or "as long as." Licet takes the semi-independent subjunctive adicias.
ut rectum sit: nominal ut-clause acting as direct object (hence "nominal" clause) of adicias.
quod velis: the antecedent of quod is omitted. It would be something like id and be the subject of sit.
idem: subject
rectum: understand est.

[6] Nesciunt ergo homines quid velint nisi illo momento quo volunt; in totum nulli velle aut nolle decretum est; variatur cotidie iudicium et in contrarium vertitur ac plerisque agitur vita per lusum. Preme ergo quod coepisti, et fortasse perduceris aut ad summum aut eo quod summum nondum esse solus intellegas.

velint: subjunctive in indirect question.
illo momento quo: ablatives of time when or in which.
in totum: adverbial, "completely," "across the board."
nulli: what case? Remember the UNUS NAUTA adjectives that have irregular datives and genitives: unus, neuter, uter, solus, nullus, alius, ullus, totus, and alter.
velle aut nolle: subject of decretum est.
plerisque: ablative or dative? why?
preme: imperative.
eo: "to that point" or "to the point." eo is the antecedent of quod, and so quod might be translated "where," or "at which."
summum: predicate nominative with esse.
intellegas: present subjunctive; relative clause of characteristic in primary sequence.

[7] 'Quid fiet' inquis 'huic turbae familiarium sine re familiari?' Turba ista cum a te pasci desierit, ipsa se pascet, aut quod tu beneficio tuo non potes scire, paupertatis scies: illa veros certosque amicos retinebit, discedet quisquis non te sed aliud sequebatur. Non est autem vel ob hoc unum amanda paupertas, quod a quibus ameris ostendet? O quando ille veniet dies quo nemo in honorem tuum mentiatur!

Cf. Cicero de Amicitia 64 for the idea that a true friend is one who stays true in calamity.

turbae familiarum: dative with fio. Remember that the "family" included all the members of a household, not just a nuclear family of father, mother, and their children.
re familiari
: idiomatic for "estate," "family property."
desierit: alternate form of desiverit: indicative or subjunctive? temporal cum clauses that refer to the present or future take the indicative.
quod...scire, paupertatis scies: in English word order, with some understood terms supplied, the sentence might read: tu scies beneficio paupertatis id quod tu non potes scire tuo beneficio. Note that although beneficio has to be understood with paupertatis, beneficio has a slightly different sense in each place.
paupertatis: why genitive? Consider that tuo in beneficio tuo is the equivalent of a genitive. paupertatis is parallel to tuo.
illa: sc. paupertas.
quisquis: subject of both discedet and sequebatur.
ameris: relative clause of characteristic in primary sequence
mentiatur: present subjunctive; relative clause of characteristic in primary sequence

[8] Huc ergo cogitationes tuae tendant, hoc cura, hoc opta, omnia alia vota deo remissurus, ut contentus sis temet ipso et ex te nascentibus bonis. Quae potest esse felicitas propior? Redige te ad parva ex quibus cadere non possis, idque ut libentius facias, ad hoc pertinebit tributum huius epistulae, quod statim conferam.

tendant: present jussive subjunctive.
cura...opta: imperatives.
remissurus: future participle apparently agreeing with Lucilius, the addressee of the letter (although he would logically be addressed in the vocative, not the nominative case). Seneca is free with his use of the future participle.
contentus sit: result clause in primary sequence. contentus takes the ablatives temet ipso et nascentibus bonis.
temet: --met is an emphastic ending that need not be translated. Te is ablative.
propior: "more nearly."
redige: imperative.
non possis: relative clause of characteristic.
id: refers to the action commanded in the previous clause.
facias: present subjunctive; purpose clause in primary sequence.
hoc: also refers to the action commanded in the redige clause.
tributum huius epistulae: subject of pertinebit. Seneca likes to leave Lucilius with a tributum or "reward," often in the form of a pithy saying.

[9] Invideas licet, etiam nunc libenter pro me dependet Epicurus. 'Magnificentior, mihi crede, sermo tuus in grabatto videbitur et in panno; non enim dicentur tantum illa sed probabuntur.' Ego certe aliter audio quae dicit Demetrius noster, cum illum vidi nudum, quanto minus quam in stramentis incubantem: non praeceptor veri sed testis est.

invideas: semi-independent use of subjunctive with licet. Seneca suggests that Lucilius might not like it that Seneca uses Epicurus.
magnificentior: adjective modifying sermo
tantum: adverbial, "only."
quae: the antecedent is omitted. It would have been something like ea and would have been the object of audio.
Demetrius: Demetrius the Cynic, also referenced in Senecan letters 62.3, 67.14, and 91.19.  He lived during the reigns of Caligula, Nero, and Vespasian, and held a deep contempt for worldly possessions and prosperity.

[10] 'Quid ergo? non licet divitias in sinu positas contemnere?' Quidni liceat? Et ille ingentis animi est qui illas circumfusas sibi, multum diuque miratus quod ad se venerint, ridet suasque audit magis esse quam sentit. Multum est non corrumpi divitiarum contubernio; magnus ille qui in divitiis pauper est.

contemnere: infinitive with licet
liceat: deliberative subjunctive.
ingentis animi: genitive of quality.
illas: refers to divitias.
multum: adverbial, "often."
venerint: quod causal clauses not on authority of the speaker are in the subjunctive.
ridet ... audit: verbs of the relative clause begun with qui.
suasque: modifies understood divitias and is subject of esse.
quam: comparison.
corrumpi: infinitive. Nominative with est.
magnus ille: sc. est

[11] 'Nescio' inquis 'quomodo paupertatem iste laturus sit, si in illam inciderit.' Nec ego, Epicure, angulus si iste pauper contempturus sit divitias, si in illas inciderit; itaque in utroque mens aestimanda est inspiciendumque an ille paupertati indulgeat, an hic divitiis non indulgeat. Alioquin leve argumentum est bonae voluntatis grabattus aut pannus, nisi apparuit aliquem illa non necessitate pati sed malle.

laturus sit...inciderit: a future-more-vivid condition in indirect question.
Nec ego: understood scio
angulus si: the manuscripts are corrupt here. No sure sense is to be found until after the semicolon, but the thought that the context demands must be that Seneca does not know how the poor person who falls into riches will handle him- or herself.
utroque: refers to upcoming indirect questions.
indulgeat: takes the dative. Why subjunctive?
leve argumentum: predicate nominative, "unsure indication," with bonae voluntatis.
grabattus aut pannus: subject.
apparuit: the subject of apparuit is the indirect statement aliquem illa (i.e. grabattum aut pannum) non necessitate pati sed malle.
illa...necessitate: ablative of cause.

[12] Ceterum magnae indolis est ad ista non properare tamquam meliora, sed praeparari tamquam ad facilia. Et sunt, Lucili, facilia; cum vero multum ante meditatus accesseris, iucunda quoque; inest enim illis, sine qua nihil est iucundum, securitas.

ceterum: adverbial, "as for the rest," "moreover."
magnae indolis: genitive of quality
ad ista: ista refers to riches, as the following sentence confirms.
tamquam meliora: modifies ista.
multum: adverbial.
meditatus: deponent participle, modifies subject.
iucunda: sc. sunt.
illis: dative dependent on inest. Also refers to divitias.

[13] Necessarium ergo iudico id quod tibi scripsi magnos viros saepe fecisse, aliquos dies interponere quibus nos imaginaria paupertate exerceamus ad veram; quod eo magis faciendum est quod deliciis permaduimus et omnia dura ac difficilia iudicamus. Potius excitandus e somno et vellicandus est animus admonendusque naturam nobis minimum constituisse. Nemo nascitur dives; quisquis exit in lucem iussus est lacte et panno esse contentus: ab his initiis nos regna non capiunt. Vale.

necessarium ... id: double accusative object of iudico.
fecisse: indirect statement. Remember the tense when translating
aliquos dies interponere quibut nos imaginaria paupertate exerceamus ad veram: in apposition to id.
imaginaria paupertate: ablative. Why?
exerceamus: relative clause of purpose.
veram: fetch a feminine noun from what precedes for this to modify.
quod: linking relative. Refers back to the exercise in poverty of the preceding sentence.
faciendum est: passive periphrastic
quod: conjunction.
deliciis: why ablative?
omnia dura ac difficilia: double accusative with iudicamus.
excitandus...vellicandus...admonendus: passive periphrastics.
minimum: notice that it is neuter.
contituisse: indirect statement: remember the tense when translating.
dives: predicate nominative.

Vocabulary

ac (=atque), and
accedo, accedere, accessi, accessus, come near, approach, go to
actio, actionis, f., action, deed
adicio, adicere, adjeci, adjectus, add
admoneo, admonere, admonui, admonitus, remind
aedifico (1), build
aestimo (1), value, assess
alioquin (adv), otherwise
aliquando (adv), finally
aliter (adv), otherwise
alius, alia, aliud (adj), different, other, another
an, whether (introduces indirect question)
appareo, apparere, apparui, apparitus, appear; be clear, be evident
argumentum, -i, n., indication, evidence
assensio, assensionis, f., agreement, approval
atque (=ac), and
auris, auris, f., ear
beneficium, benefici(i), n., benefit, privilege
cado, cadere, cecidi, casus, fall
capio, capere, cepi, captum, grasp, take, seize
capto (1), desire, aim for, grasp after
ceno (1), dine
certe (adv), at least, certainly
ceterum (adv), moreover
coepi, coepisse, have begun
cogitatio, -onis, f., thought
color, -is, m., tenor, quality
complector, complecti, complexus sum, embrace, include
concordo (1), harmonize, agree
confero, conferre, contuli, collatus, supply, contribute
consilium, consilii, n., intention
constituo, constituere, constitui, constitutus, decide, set up
contemno, contemnere, contempsi, contemptus, think little of
contentus, -a, -um, satisfied, content
contraho, contrahere, contraxi, contractus, draw together, contract; constrain, restrict
contrarius, contraria, contrarium (adj), opposite
contubernium, contuberni(i), n., companionship
corona, coronae, f., crowd (circle of men)
corrumpo, corrumpere, corrupi, corruptus, spoil
cotidie, daily
cupiditas, -atis, f., desire
curo (1), arrange
damno (1), find fault with, condemn
decerno, decernere, decrevi, decretus, decide
declamo (1), make speeches
decretum, see decerno
definitio, -onis, f., precise description, definition
delicia, -ae, f., (usually plural), luxury, toy, ornament, delicacy
deminutio, deminutionis, f., decrease, reduction
demitto, demittere, demisi, demissum, send deep down
dependo, dependere, dependi, depensus, pay over, pay down (a debt)
desero, deserere, deserui, desertus, leave, desert
desierit, alternate form of desiverit (desino)
desino, desinere, desivi/desii, desitus, stop
detineo, detinere, detinui, detentus, detain, retain, occupy
dignus, ,a, ,um (adj), worthy, deserving
dilato (1), enlarge, extend
discedo, discedere, discessi, discessus, scatter, withdraw, depart
disputatio, disputationis, f., argument, discussion
dissensio, dissensionis, f., disagreement
dissentio, dissentire, dissensi, dissensus, disagree
dissimilitudo, dissimilitudinis, f., inconsistency; unlikeness
diu, for a long time
diversitas, -atis, f., inconsistency, contradictory state
dives, divitis, wealthy, rich
divitiae, -arum, f., riches (pl.), wealth
doceo, docere, docui, doctum, teach
durus, ,a, ,um (adj), hard
eo, there, to that place
eo, ire, ivi(ii), itus, go, advance
exaequo (1), equalize, make equal
exceptiuncula, exceptiunculae, f., little proviso, small exception
excito (1), wake up
exeo, exire, exivi(ii), exitus, come out, emerge
exerceo, exercere, exercui, exercitus, exercise, practice
exigo, exigere, exegi, exactus, require, demand
experimentum, experimenti, n., proof
extendo, extendere, extendi, extensus, stretch
extraho, extrahere, extraxi, extractus, drag out
familiaris, -e, familiar, acquaintance, friend
fio, fieri, factus sum, become
firmitas, firmitatis, f., firmness
fluctuo (1), be tossed on waves, float
foris (adv.), outside, outdoors; out of one's house
fortasse, perhaps
forum, fori, n., forum
frugaliter (adv), simply, cheaply
gaudeo, gaudere, gavisus sum, rejoice
grabattus, grabatti, m., cot
gradus, gradus, m., step; position
honos, honoris, m., esteem, honor
hortor (1), encourage
huc (adv), to this point, here
imus, -a, -um, inmost, deepest
imaginarius, imaginaria, imaginarium, imaginary
incido, incidere, incidi, incasum, fall into, chance into
inconstantia, inconstantiae, f., fickleness, inconsistency
incubo (1), lie in (+ dative)
indicium, indici(i), n., evidence, indication
indoles, indolis, f., inborn character
indulgeo, indulgere, indulsi, indultus, give way to, indulge; take pleasure in; give free play to; look favorably upon
inest, see insum
ingens, ingentis, vast
initium, initi(i), n., beginning
inquam, I say (inquis, you say; inquit, he/she says; inquimus, we say; inquiunt, they say)
inspiciendumque
insum, inesse, infui, infuturus, belong to (+dat. or abl.)
inter se, (idiom) mutually
interpono, interponere, interposui, interpositus, insert
invideo, invidere, invidi, invisus, look askance at, regard with ill will, envy
istinc (adv), thence, from there
itaque (adv), therefore
iturum, see eo
iucundus, ,a, ,um (adj), pleasant
iuvenis, iuvenis, m., youth, young man
lac, lactis, n., milk
laturus, fut. participle of fero
levis, leve, levior ,or –us (adj), light; lightweight; frivolous
lex, legis, f., law
libens, libentis, willing, glad; cheerful, glad
liberalis, liberalis, liberale (adj), honorable, noble; generous, liberal
licet (adv), it is all right, one may, although (with subjunctive)
lusus, lusus, m., game
luxuriosus, luxuriosa, luxuriosum (adj), luxurious
magnificentior , –ius (adj), (comparative of magnificus) splendid
malo, malle, malui, prefer
meditor (1), consider, think about
mentior, mentiri, mentitus sum, lie
modus, -i, m., manner, fashion, way
momentum, -i, n., instant
muto (1), change
nascor, nasci, natus sum, be born
necessarius, necessaria, necessarium (adj), necessary, essential
nescio, nescire, nescivi, nescitum, not know
nolo, nolle, nolui, refuse
nondum (adv), not yet
nudus, -a, -um, nude, naked, bare
numquid (adv), (introduces a question expecting a negative answer), can it be that, is it possible that
observo (1), observe
officium, offici(i), n., duty
opto (1), choose
oratio, -onis, f., speech, words
ostendo, ostendere, ostendi, ostentus, reveal
otiosus, otiosa ,um, idle
pannus, panni, m., rags (sing.)
par, paris, equal
parvus, -a, -um, small
pasco, pascere, pavi, pastus, feed
patior, pati, passus sum, suffer, endure
pauci, paucae, pauca, pl., few
pauper, -is, poor
paupertas, paupertatis, f., poverty
perduco, perducere, perduxi, perductus, lead through, lead
permadesco, permadescere, permadui, become thoroughly wet, be soaked; become soft
persevero (1), persist
pertineo, pertinere, pertinui, pertentus, reach, pertain
placeo, placere, placui, placitus, please, satisfy (+ dative)
plerusque, pleraque, plerumque, (adj), the majority, the greater part, the greater number, most
potius (adv), rather
praeceptor, praeceptoris, m., teacher
praecordium, praecordi(i), n., breast, vitals
praeparo (1), prepare
praesto, praestare, praestiti, praestatum, exhibit, show forth; fulfil, apply
premo, premere, pressi, pressum, exert a steady force, press; press hard in pursuit of
prendo, prendere, prendi, prensus, catch, take hold of
probo (1), prove, certify
profectus, profectus, m., progress
prope, near; nearly
propero (1), hurry
propior (adj), (comparative of prope)
propono, proponere, proposui, propositus, display; propose, suggest
propositum, -i, n., intention, objective; subject, theme, point
quando (adv), when
quanto (adv), how much
qui (adv), whereby, in what way
quidni (adv), why not, why . . . not
quisque, quaeque, quidque (pron), m., each
quisquis, quidquid, anyone, everyone, whoever
quod (conj), as, just as, because
quomodo (adv), how, in what manner
quoque, also, too
rectus, -a, -um, right, correct, upright
redeo, redire, redivi(ii), reditus, return; refer back; concede, grant
redigo, redigere, redegi, redactum, reduce, bring down to; drive back, return
regnum, -i, n., kingdom
regula, regulae, f., standard, norm, ruler
relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictus, leave behind; omit
remitto, remittere, remisi, remisus, return
res, rei, f., deed, act
res familiaris, f., property, fortune
retineo, retinere, retinui, retentum, retain, keep
revolvo, revolvere, revolvi, revolutus, return, throw back
rideo, ridere, risi, risus, laugh at, make fun of, make light ot
saepe (adv), often
securitas, securitatis, f., security, freedom from care
semel (adv), adv. answers ‘how often’
sequor, sequi, secutus sum, follow
sermo, sermonis, m., words, conversation
sinus, sinus, m., lap, fold
somnus, -i, sleep
sordidus, ,a, ,um (adj), mean, unkind, ignoble, base
statim (adv), immediately
stramentum, stramenti, n., litter, trash
summum, summi, n., top, summit
tamquam (conj), as if, just as if
tantum (adv), only; so much
temet, te + -met (-met is intensive)
tendo, tendere, tetendi, tensum/tentum, direct, aim, strive
tenor, tenoris, m., sustained or even course, "even keel"; course, way of proceeding
testis, testis, m. or f., witness
transilio, transilire, transilui, jump across
tributum, -i, n., contribution, offering
turba, -ae, f., crowd
ubi (adv), where, whereby
ubique, everywhere
uterque, utraque, utrumque, each (of two)
vacillo (1), waver, stagger
vale, farewell (from valeo)
valeo, valere, valui, valitus, be healthy, be well
vario (1), change
varius, varia, varium (adj), various, varied
vel (conj), or; even
vellico (1) , pinch
verto, vertere, verti, versus, change
vestis, vestis, f., garment, clothes (sing.)
vetero (1), make old
vitium, viti(i), n., fault
vivo, vivere, vixi, victum, live
volo, velle, volui, wish
volubilis, -e, readily flowing, fluent (of speeches)
voluntas, voluntatis, f., desire, purpose, will
votum, voti, n., vow, pledge