Commentary by Dan Houston,
revised by J. Bailly
Pliny complains about the poor quality of young lawyers. They pay
for their applause, and the centumviral court has deteriorated as a
result. The addressee is "Maximus," a common cognomen, and more is
not known about this addressee. Eight other letters of Pliny are
also addressed to a simple "Maximus" (III.2, VI.11, VI.34, VII.26,
VII.19, VIII.24, IX.1, and IX.23) and others are addressed to
Messius Maximus (III.20 and IV.25) and Novius Maximus (IV.20 and
V.5), but it is not clear whether this Maximus is identical to any
C. PLINIUS MAXIMO SUO S.
1 Verum opinaris: distringor centumviralibus causis, quae me
exercent magis quam delectant. Sunt enim pleraeque parvae et exiles;
raro incidit vel personarum claritate vel negotii magnitudine
insignis. 2 Ad hoc pauci cum quibus iuvet dicere; ceteri audaces
atque etiam magna ex parte adulescentuli obscuri ad declamandum huc
transierunt, tam irreverenter et temere, ut mihi Atilius noster
expresse dixisse videatur, sic in foro pueros a centumviralibus
causis auspicari, ut ab Homero in scholis. Nam hic quoque ut illic
primum coepit esse quod maximum est. 3 At hercule ante memoriam meam
- ita maiores natu solent dicere -, ne nobilissimis quidem
adulescentibus locus erat nisi aliquo consulari producente: tanta
veneratione pulcherrimum opus colebatur. 4 Nunc refractis pudoris et
reverentiae claustris, omnia patent omnibus, nec inducuntur sed
irrumpunt. Sequuntur auditores actoribus similes, conducti et
redempti. Manceps convenitur; in media basilica tam palam sportulae
quam in triclinio dantur; ex iudicio in iudicium pari mercede
transitur. 5 Inde iam non inurbane 'Σοφοκλεῖς' vocantur 'ἀπὸ τοῦ
σοφῶς καὶ καλεῖσθαι', isdem Latinum nomen impositum est Laudiceni; 6
et tamen crescit in dies foeditas utraque lingua notata. Here duo
nomenclatores mei - habent sane aetatem eorum qui nuper togas
sumpserint - ternis denariis ad laudandum trahebantur. Tanti constat
ut sis disertissimus. Hoc pretio quamlibet numerosa subsellia
implentur, hoc ingens corona colligitur, hoc infiniti clamores
commoventur, cum mesochorus dedit signum. 7 Opus est enim signo apud
non intellegentes, ne audientes quidem; 8 nam plerique non audiunt,
nec ulli magis laudant. Si quando transibis per basilicam et voles
scire, quo modo quisque dicat, nihil est quod tribunal ascendas,
nihil quod praebeas aurem; facilis divinatio: scito eum pessime
dicere, qui laudabitur maxime.
9 Primus hunc audiendi morem induxit Larcius Licinus, hactenus tamen
ut auditores corrogaret. Ita certe ex Quintiliano praeceptore meo
audisse me memini. 10 Narrabat ille: 'Assectabar Domitium Afrum. Cum
apud centumviros diceret graviter et lente - hoc enim illi actionis
genus erat -, audit ex proximo immodicum insolitumque clamorem.
Admiratus reticuit; ubi silentium factum est, repetit quod
abruperat. 11 Iterum clamor, iterum reticuit, et post silentium
coepit. Idem tertio. Novissime quis diceret quaesiit. Responsum est:
"Licinus." Tum intermissa causa "Centumviri," inquit, "hoc
artificium periit."' 12 Quod alioqui perire incipiebat cum perisse
Afro videretur, nunc vero prope funditus exstinctum et eversum est.
Pudet referre quae quam fracta pronuntiatione dicantur, quibus quam
teneris clamoribus excipiantur. 13 Plausus tantum ac potius sola
cymbala et tympana illis canticis desunt: ululatus quidem - neque
enim alio vocabulo potest exprimi theatris quoque indecora laudatio
- large supersunt. 14 Nos tamen adhuc et utilitas amicorum et ratio
aetatis moratur ac retinet; veremur enim ne forte non has
indignitates reliquisse, sed laborem fugisse videamur. Sumus tamen
solito rariores, quod initium est gradatim desinendi. Vale.
Text is from www.thelatinlibrary.com, as submitted by Hansulrich
Guhl (Frauenfeld, Switzerland) from an unidentified edition. Obvious
typographical errors have been corrected. Other changes may have
been made by Jacques Bailly. Consult a critical edition for
authoritative information, including manuscript evidence and text
- All numbers refer to Allen and Greenough’s New Latin Grammar
- BA refers to Bradley’s Arnold Latin Prose Composition
- Other commentaries on this letter include:
- Elmer Truesdell Merrill,
Selected Letters of the Younger Pliny, Macmillan,
- Constantine E. Prichard and Edward R. Bernard, Selected Letters of Pliny,
Oxford, 1872 and later.
- J. H. Westcott, Selected
Letters of Pliny, first published 1898, then by the
University of Oklahoma Press in 1965.
opinaris: present indicative in a statement of fact (437).
centumviralibus causis: ablatives of means or instrument,
(408). The centumviral court existed since the early Republic as a
court of about 100 members, but kept its name after being enlarged
to 180 (Pliny letter 6.33). The cases were apparently mostly
inheritance cases of public interest.
quae: feminine nominative plural, subject of both exercent
and delectant. Antecedent is causis.
me: direct object of both exercent and delectant.
magis quam: magis modifies exercent; quam is comparative
pleraeque parvae et exiles: all nominative predicates of sunt
(whose subject is an understood causae). The "-que" here is,
unusally, a permanent part of the word rather than "and."
incidit: insignis is nominative singular (note the
transition from plural - pleraeque parvae et exiles – to
singular); claritate and magnitudine are ablatives
of qualtity with genitive modifiers, (415).
ad hoc: "in addition," "moreover."
pauci: predicate nominative: “(select) few” or “elite.”
Understand an impersonal sunt here.
iuvet: subjunctive in a relative clause of characteristic.
dicere: the infinitive as subject of the impersonal verb
magna ex parte: ablative with the preposition ex. Pars
is found in many idioms, just as English "part" is: this idiomatic
phrase means "for the most part."
adulescentuli obscuri: ironic: Pliny himself was a novus homo, not a highly
ad declamandum: the accusative gerund with ad is one
of several normal constructions for a purpose clause (506).
transierunt: perfect indicative.
tam irreventer et temere: tam is an adverb modifying
irreventer and temere and is correlative with the
following result clause introduced by ut, (537 note 2). What
do irreventer and temere modify?
ut…videatur: a result clause: videatur is the main verb
(present subjunctive) used personally (Atlilius is the subject).
dixisse is a perfect infinitive depending on videatur; it denotes a
prior action. expresse: an adverb used of various artistic
things, here meaning "aptly, vividly" – for more detail about this
word, see Prichard and Bernard ad
sic in foro pueros a centumviralibus causis auspicari, ut ab
Homero in scholis: this is a bon mot uttered by Atilius Crescens, a friend of
Pliny's since childhood and a wit (see letter VI.8). The whole
saying is put into indirect speech dependent on dixisse.
sic: a demonstrative adverb modifying auspicari, correlative
with the following ut, (323g). Translate only the ut: "as."
pueros: subject of auspicari.
auspicari: (deponent) the main verb in indirect speech,
a centumviralibus causis: an ablative of source, (403);
likewise ab Homero. We say "to begin with" or "to begin from" where Pliny says "auspicari ab."
ut: "as," "just as."
Nam hic quoque ut illic primum
coepit esse quod maximum est.
natu: ablative of specification (418).
dicere: infinitive dependent on solent.
ne…quidem: "ne x quidem" would mean "not even
x": ne and quidem surround the thing emphasized
(322f). Do not think of ne and quidem as independent
words with their usual meanings, in other words. When they occur
before and after something, they form a unit meaning "not even . .
nisi: introduces the protasis of an irregular condition
(521), whose protasis is the ablative absolute aliquo consulari
pulcherrimum opus: namely, oratory in the law courts.
opus can mean "profession, occupation."
refractis…claustris: an ablative absolute. The genitives
pudoris and reverentiae go with claustris.
nec: means either "and ... not" (as here) or "neither."
inducuntur: Pliny means that rather than being introduced by
some older, more experienced lawyer, they just burst into court.
similes: nominative plural, it takes a dative, actoribus
manceps: the "agent" of the hired audience.
conducti et redempti: perfect passive participles agreeing
convenitur: present indicative passive ( Note the passives to
follow: dantur, transitur.
in media basilica: the basilica Julia was the location of the
centumviral courts. Pliny emphasizes that this shameful transaction
occurred right out in public.
tam: demonstrative adverb, correlative with quam (323g).
dantur: present indicative passive, the subject is sportulae.
ex iudicio in iudicium: these hired audiences go from one to
the next and get paid each time, Pliny claims.
pari mercede: ablative of price (416).
Σοφοκλεῖς: "σοφῶς" was the equivalent of "bravo." Thus while
this Greek word is the plural of the name Sophocles (the
playwright), it also means "bravo-callers," as ἀπὸ τοῦ σοφῶς καὶ
καλεῖσθαι indicates (it means "from the words σοφῶς [bravo] and καλεῖσθαι [to call
isdem: dat. pl. of idem.
Laudiceni: from laus and cena (praise and
dinner), because they praise for their dinner. Laudiceni is
also supposedly another name for the Laodiceans. Pliny may be trying
to make a pun in Latin. It is a bit lame and "too clever," because
Sophocles has as little to do with paying an audience as the
Laodiceans do. Laudiceni should perhaps be put into
quotation marks: it stands in apposition to nomen.
foeditas utraque lingua notata: notata modifies foeditas,
while utraque lingua is ablative of means: both the Greek
and Latin name for the hired audience members reveal their baseness.
nomenclatores: slaves who reminded one of names and positions
of anyone one met. They had to be intelligent.
sumpserint: subjunctive in relative clause of characteristic
– the nomenclatores were slaves, not citizens, and so would
not wear togas.
ternis denariis: ablative of price (416).
ad laudandum: another gerund in a purpose clause (506).
tanti: genitive of value (417).
sis: subjunctive in a purpose clause.
hoc pretio: abl. of price. Hoc is repeated three
times in anaphora, each time as an ablative of price, but in the
second and third instance, pretio is omitted.
quamlibet: modifies numerosa.
subsellia: nominative (neuter plural).
implentur and colligitur and commoventur:
present indicative passive.
cum: temporal "once." Note the perfect indicative dedit
referring to a present state, "has given."
opus est: takes the ablative (411).
intellegentes and audientes: participles used as
substantives. The next sentence explains audientes.
ne…quidem: if you don't know how this works, see above.
audiunt: audio can mean either "listen" (as here) or
si quando…aurem: the structure follows:
facilis divinatio: est is omitted (319b).
- si quando transibis per basilicam et voles scire - the
protasis of a future more vivid condition; scire is
a complementary infinitive.
- quo modo quisque dicat - an indirect question
(573); dicat is present subjunctive in primary
sequence after voles.
- nihil est: the apodosis of the condition (the present
indicative for a general truth, (518).
- quod tribunal ascendas - est quod + subj. =
"there is reason to/why ..."; ascendas is present
subjunctive in primary sequence after est.
- nihil (est) - second apodosis: rhetorical repetition.
- quod praebeas aurem: another est quod +
subj. clause (praebeas).
scito: future imperative (449). No discernible difference in
meaning from the present imperative.
eum pessime dicere: indirect discourse after
laudabitur: future indicative, contemporary with scito.
audiendi: a gerundive in the genitive that depends on morem.
Larcius Licinus: mentions of him are as follows: this mention
of him, one in III.V.17 (the Elder Pliny is said to have claimed
that he could have sold his notebooks to Larcius Licinus, who was
Procurator in Spain, for 400,000 sesterces), two mentions in Pliny
the Elder's Natural History (19.35 and 31.24), and
Aulus Gellius 17.1 (Larcius Licinus wrote a Ciceromastix
which criticised Cicero's oratory).
hactenus tamen ut . . . : hactenus ut means "only
up to the point that . . .."
ut…corrogaret: a purpose clause – corrogaret is
imperfect subjunctive in secondary sequence after induxit.
ex Quintiliano praeceptore meo: Marcus Fabius Quintilianus,
aka "Quintilian," (40-90's CE) was a famous lawyer and teacher of
rhetoric who wrote the de Institutione Oratoria
Libri XII. From this section, Scholars infer that
Quintilian was not alive at the time of the writing of this letter.
Because this is the earliest reference to him as dead, this letter
is the terminus ante quem for Quintilian's
memini: introduces indirect discourse.
Domitium Afrum: Gnaeus Domitius Afer, who died in 59 CE, was
a renowned orater in his day.
diceret: subjunctive in a cum temporal clause
denoting past time.
illi: a dative of possession (373).
proximo: perhaps supply a noun such as "iudicio,"
"court," or simply "from nearby" (OLD proximus 2 lists ex proximo as "from nearby").
admiratus: "admire" is not what this means, as the context
makes clear later. It is rather a negative holding of Domitius
silentium: nominative neuter.
abruperat: pluperfect indicative. Normally transitive, this
verb is used intransitively here: it is easy enough to supply "his
speech" as the object, however.
iterum clamor, iterum reticuit, et post silentium coepit: a
tricolon. Supply an appropriate verb with clamor.
idem: refers to the shouting then silence. Supply an
tertio: "a third time."
novissime: temporal adverb, "eventually," "in the end."
diceret: subjunctive in an indirect question; imperfect in
secondary sequence after quaesiit.
intermissa causa: ablative absolute.
centumviri: vocative, (340).
periit: a perfect definite (473).
perire: complimentary infinitive with incipiebat.
incipiebat: perhaps an inceptive imperfect "was just
cum: cum temporal "when," referring to the past, can
take the subjunctive.
perisse: perfect infinitive depending on, and denoting a time
prior to, videretur.
Afro: Domitius Afer, referred to above
prope: modifies funditus.
pudet referre: the infinitive referre is really the subject
of the "impersonal" pudet (454).
quam: introduces an indirect question, (573).
fracta pronuntiatione: ablatives of quality (415). Refers to
a style of oratory which evidently used vocal techniques (perhaps
falsetto, accent, and other histrionic or "over-the-top"
quae quam and quibus quam: rhetorically contrived. quam
is adverbial "how" in each case, modifying fracta and teneris.
Quam is also probably interrogative, which makes this a
doubly determined subjunctive clause (quae and quibus
already determine it : see next comment).
dicantur and excipiantur: present passive
subjunctives in clauses that are either relative clauses of
characteristic or indirect questions (depending on whether one takes
quae and quibus as interrogatives or relatives): the
translation is much the same in either case.
plausus…desunt: plausus and sola cymbala are
nom. pl., the main verb is desunt, and desunt takes
dative illis canticis (373b). These are the trappings of the
cult of Cybele, whose eunuch worshippers were notorious revelers.
tantum: adverbial "only."
ac potius: a phrase used to correct or emend a statement: "or
ululatus quidem large supersunt: the main sentence.
neque…laudatio: the subject is laudatio, whose verb
is potest, which takes the complementary infinitive (passive
in this case) exprimi. alio vocabulo is an ablative
of instrument (408); and theatris is ablative of place where
(426) and should be taken closely with indecora. indecora
is a predicate adjective, feminine nominative singular, modifying laudatio.
quoque 'even' is an adverb modifying theatris.
nos…retinet: utilitas and ratio are the
subjects; amicorum and aetatis are genitives
limiting the subjects; nos (referring to Pliny) is the
direct object, and moratur (deponent) and retinet
are the main verbs. Why singular? Sometimes the verb of a
compound subject is singular (BA 26).
veremur…videamur: veremur (plural for singular)
introduces an affirmative fear clause with ne + subjunctive
(564). The main verb of the fear clause is videamur (primary
sequence after veremur); has indignitates is the
direct object of reliquisse (note the placement of non:
it negates this part only), and laborem is the direct object
of fugisse. The perfect infinitives denote time prior to videamur.
sumus: plural for singular
solito: an ablative of comparison, (406).
desinendi: genitive of the gerund, used objectively (504)
dependent on initium.
abrumpo, -ere, -rupi, -ruptum, break off, interrupt
actio, onis, f., pleading (in court)
actor, actoris, m., one who fulfills a role in court (advocate,
admiror, -ari, -atus sum, to wonder at
adulescentulus, i, m., a small boy
aetas, atis, f., age
ante, prep., before, in front of
apud, prep., among
alioqui, adv., on the contrary, from another point of view
artificium, -i, n., profession, trade, craft
ascendo, -ere, -scensi, -scensum, to climb, rise
assector, -ari, -atus sum, be an adherent of, to be in attendance
audax, cis, adj., bold, daring
audio, -ire, -ii (-ive) –itum, to hear
auditor, is, m., a hearer, student
auris, is, f., ear
auspicor, -ari, -atus sum, to enter upon, begin
basilica, ea, f., courthouse
canticum, i, n., song (in Roman comedy)
cause, ae, f., cause, grounds, motion, reason
centumviralis, e, adj., of the centumvirs (jury of 100)
certe, adv., certain
ceterus, a, um, the rest, remaining
clamor, oris, m., shout
claritas, atis, f., clarity, brightness, renown
claustra, orum, n., lock, bar, bolt
coepi, -isse, coeptum, to begin
colligo, -ere, -legi, -lectum, to gather, collect
colo, -ere, -ui, cultum, to cultivate, esteem
commoveo, -ere, -i, -motum, to stir up, cause a commotion
conduco, -ere, -duxi, -ductum, collect; hire
consto, -are, stiti, stand together, agree, correspond, cost
consularis, e, adj., of consular rank (used of a person)
convenio, -ire, veni, ventum, to meet, interview, gather
corona, ae, f., crown, garland, crowd
corrogo, -are, -avi, -atum, summon
cresco, -ere, crevi, cretum, to arise, grow, come into being
cymbalum, i, n., cymbal (fig. a tedius speaker)
declamaro, -are, -avi, -atum, to recite, practice public speaking
delecto, -are, -avi, -atum, to delight, attract, amuse
denarius, i, m., money
desino, -ere, -ii, -itum, to leave off
dico, -ere, -xi, dictum, to speak
dies, ei, m., day
disertus, a, um, flowing, eloquent, clear
desino, desinere, desivi, desitum, cease, stop
distringo, -ere, -nxi, -ictum, to draw apart, distract
divinatio, onis, f., clairvoyance, forecasting, predicting
do, -are, dedi, datum, give
enim, conj., in fact, namely, for
etiam, conj. and adv., also, yet, besides, even, still
everto, -ere, -i, -sum, to overthrow, ruin, destroy
excipio, excipere, excepi, exceptum, receive (as a performance is
exerceo, -ere, -ui, -itum, to train, cultivate, employ, bother
exilis, e, adj., thin, small, feeble
exprimo, -ere, -essi, -essum, express, put into words
exstinguo, -ere, -xi, -ctum, to put out, kill, destroy
facilis, e, adj., easy
foeditas, atis, f., hideousness
forum, i, n., forum
fractus, a, um, interrupted, feeble, weak
funditus, adv., from the bottom, entirely
genus, eris, n., race, breed, descent, kind
gradatim, adv., gradually
graviter, adv., heavily, violently, sadly
habeo, -ere, -ui, habitum, to have, hold
hactenus, adv., to this place, thus far. hitherto
hercule, interjection, by Hercules
here (heri), adv., yesterday
huc, adv., here, to this, point, to such a degree
immodicus, a, um, huge, enormous
impleo, -ere, -evi, -etum –to fill up, satisfy, enrich
impono, -ere, posui, positum, to place on, lay on, impose
incido, -ere, -idi, -casum, to happen, occur
induco, -ere, duxi, ductum, to lead in(to)
infinitus, a, um, limitless
ingens, ntis, adj., huge, vast
insigne, is, n., signal, mark, distinction
insolitus, a, um, unaccustomed, strange
intellegens, ntis, adj., intelligent
intermitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, to interrupt, break off
inurbanus, a, um, rude, unsophisticated
irreverenter, adv., disrespectfully
irrumpo, -ere, rupi, ruptum, to rush into, break down
ita, adv., so, thus
iudicium, i, n., trial, opinion, decision
iuvo, -are, iuvi, iutum, to help (impers., it pleases)
laudo, -are, -avi, -atum, to praise
lenet, adv., lightly, gladly
lingua, ae, f., tongue, speech, language
locus, i, m., place, location
magis, adv., more, to a greater extent
magnitudo, inis, f., large, importance, power, quantity
magnus, a, um, big, large, important, great
maiores, um, m., ancestors
manceps, ipis, m., a contractor, dealer
medius, a, um, middle central
memini, -isse, to remember
memoria, ae, f., memory, time, lifetime
merces, edis, f., pay, bribe, reward
mesochorus, i, m., chorus-leader (stood in the middle meso-
of the -chorus chorus)
moror, -ari, -atus sum, to delay
mesochorus, i, m., one who stands in the middle of a chorus
mos, moris, m., custom, usage
nam, conj., for
narro, -are, -avi, narratum, to tell
negotium, i, n., business, matter, affair, thing
nisi, conj., unless, except
nobilis, e, adj., known, familiar
nomen, inis, n., name
nomenclator, oris, m., name-caller (a servant employed to tell his
master the names of guests)
noster, nostra, nostrum, our
noto, -are, -avi, -atum, to mark, designate
novissime, on the last occasion, in the end, eventually
numerosus, a, um, numerous
nunc, adv., now
nunc, adv., now
nuper, adv., recently, lately
obscurus, a, um, dark shady, dim, secret, vague
omnis, e, adj., all, every
opinor, -ari, -atus sum, to suppose, imagine, conjecture
opus, operis, n., occupation, profession, work
palam, adv., openly, plainly
pareo, -ere, peperi, partum, to bear, bring forth
pars, partis, f., part
parvus, a, um, small, little, short, brief
pateo, -ere, patui, to stand open, be open
pauci, ae, a, adj., few (masc. plur. pronoun, the select, elite)
pareo, -ire, -ui -itum, be visible, at hand
pereo, -ire, -ii (-ivi), -itum, to die, perish
persona, ae, f., mask, character, part
pessime (superl. of male), adv., worst
plausus, us, m. - clapping
plerusque, pleraque, plerumque, a great part of, most
potius, adv., rather
praebeo, -ere, -ui, -itum, hold out, offer, supply
praeceptor, oris, m., teacher. tutor
pretium, i, n., price, value, worth
primus, a, um, first, foremost
produco, -ere, -xi, -ctum, to bring out, produce, promote
pronuntiatio, onis, f., a proclamation
prope, adv., near, nearby, at hand
proximus, a, um, nearest, next, adjoining
pudeo, -ere, -ui or puditum est, to make ashamed
pudor, oris, m., shame
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, beautiful, fair
quaero, -ere, -ii (-ivi), -itum, to seek, ask
quam, adv., as, than; how!, how?
quamlibet, adv., as much as you please
quando, adv., when
qui, quae, quod, relative pronoun, who, which
quidem, adv., indeed, in fact
quod, conj., because
quoque, adv., too
raro, adv., rarely, seldom
rarus, a, um, rare
ratio, onis, f., reason
redimo, -ere, -emi, -emptum, to buy
refero, referre, retuli, relatum, to give back, return, restore
(impers., it matters, is of consequence)
refringo, -ere, fregi, fractum, to break open, break down
repeto, -ere, -ii (-ivi) –itum, repeat
respondeo, -ere, -di, -nsum, to answer, respond
reticeo, -ere, ui, to keep silent, keep secret
retineo, -ere, -ui, -entum, to hold back, keep back, retain
sane, adv., sanely, reasonably
schola, ae, f., school
scio, -ire, scivi, scitum, to know, discern, realize
sequor, -i, secutus sum, to follow
sic, adv., thus
signum, i, n., sign, signal
silentium, i, n. - silence
similis, e, adj, - like
soleo, -ere, -ui, -itum, accustomed
solitus, a, um, accustomed
sportula, ae, f., a dole, food and money
subsellium, i, n., seat, bench, stool
sumo, -ere, sumpsi, sumptum, to take up, put on
supersum, superesse, superfui, superfuturus, exist in plenty, be
tam, adv., to such an extent, so
tamen, adv., yet, just the same
tantum (adv.), only
tantus, a, um, of such size, so big
temere, adv., blindly, random, chance
tener, tenera, tenerum, soft, delicate
terni, ae, a, - three apiece, three each
theatrum, i, n. - theatre
toga, ea, f., toga
traho, -ere, traxi, tractum, to draw, drag
transeo, -ire, -ii (or -ivi), -itum –to cross, desert. pass over
triclinium, i,, n., dining couch
tum, adv., then, at that time
tympanum, i, n., drum, cylinder
ullus, a, um, any
ululatus, us, m. - howling
uter, utra, utrum, which (of two)
vel…vel, adv., either, or
veneratio, onis, f., reverence, respect
vero, adv., truly
verum, adv., truly, (in responses), but in fact, but yet
video, -ere, visi, visum, to see
vocabulum, i, n., word, name, term
voco, -are, -avi, -atum- call, name, summon, invoke
volo, velle, volui, to wish, want