An overview of the history of preservation in Burlington would not be complete without a look at work by the University of Vermont over the past few decades. Historic preservation efforts have occurred on three of UVM’s most important historic structures—the Old Mill, Pomeroy Hall, and Wheeler House. All three are centrally located on campus, around the University Green, and their preservation stories are examined individually below.
Figure 1. Map of sites
The Old Mill
The site of the current building known as the Old Mill is the location of the first University of Vermont structure, erected in 1802 by master-builders John and Dan Johnson of Burlington. This building burned in 1824, resulting in the development of a replacement by John Johnson to include fire safety measures. The result was three Federal-style brick buildings separated by open, eight-foot firebreaks. North and South College, designed as dormitories, were built in 1825. 1 Governor Cornelius P. Van Ness, who graduated from the university in 1804, laid the cornerstone for North College in April 1825. 2 The construction of South College coincided with General Lafayette’s tour of the United States in 1824–25, resulting in his laying of the cornerstone of that building in late June 1825. 3 Middle College, in between the two slightly older structures, was built in 1829 and housed the chapel, lecture rooms, museum, and library, among other facilities. It was both wider and deeper than the flanking buildings, and featured a wood-framed gold dome that became a city landmark. 4
Figure 2. John Johnson's drawing for Middle College. Courtesy of UVM Special Collections
The three structures were joined together in 1846 with parapetted masonry firewalls replacing the original open firebreaks. This exterior unification project was not accompanied by one on the interior to facilitate access between the three structures. The union of the three buildings into one long brick structure resulted in a resemblance to contemporary mill buildings, hence its nickname, which endures to this day. 5
Figure 3. Stereoview of the Old Mill before 1880s Renovation. Courtesy of UVM Special Collections
Relatively minor alterations to the buildings occurred around 1860, 6 but a major donation in 1881 of about $50,000 7 for “modernization” by John Purple Howard, a Burlington native who made a fortune in business in New York, resulted in substantial changes to the Old Mill. 8 The transformation of the building from the plain Federal style into the ornate Victorian Gothic was the subject of much local comment as evidenced by many pieces in the Burlington Free Press around this time. In mid-December 1881, the Free Press lauded the proposed changes, noting that they “will give the building a much finer front, and make it, beyond question, a very imposing and handsome structure… more ornamental than the present building.” 9 Work began on May 8, 1882, 10 and the Burlington Free Press documented the construction work with regularity over the course of the year. When the old dome was removed, the newspaper lamented, “Verily, the glory of the hill has departed.” 11In August of that year, the newspaper reported “numerous and sometimes pathetic” requests had come from university alumni to preserve the dome, but these entreaties were not successful. 12
The modernization, to designs by architect Jean Jacques Rousseau Randall of Rutland, Vermont, resulted in substantial structural alterations in addition to clear stylistic changes. Each floor was raised in height, a fourth story with dormers was added for more classrooms and dormitories, 13 and the front and side façades were rebuilt, with projections on either end adding a greater depth to the building while the length remained the same. 14 Dark-red Winooski bricks were used for the new walls, while keystones and corner blocks of limestone from Isle La Motte on Lake Champlain were used for the windows. 15 The rear of the building, facing away from the university green, retained much of its original Federal-period appearance. 16 The center gable facing the green reached a height of 93 feet, with the finial on the top of the new tower reaching 150 feet. The chapel was also substantially remodeled and enlarged, though it occupied the same space, in the front and center building, that it had in its earlier iteration. A pipe organ was put in 1884, and the following year the first of several memorial stained glass windows was installed. 17
A lightning strike in 1918 caused substantial damage to the roof and fourth floor of the South College portion of the building. A decision was made to seal off the fourth floor of the entire building after repairs were made. The old dormitories on the fourth floor, as well as those on the third floor could be sacrificed since the opening of Converse Hall provided new student housing. All but two dormers were removed at this time. The third floor was converted for use as classrooms, offices, and a laboratory. 18
By the early 1950s, the University of Vermont planned another renovation of the building to address cramped conditions, fire safety issues, and the growing student population. A new three-story building, Lafayette Hall, was constructed behind the Old Mill, while the Old Mill itself underwent a substantial interior overhaul. Corridors running the length of the building were installed to provide greater access, two large lecture rooms were created by blocking the entrances on the north and south ends and removing interior partitions, and other portions of the building were divided up to create more offices. The attic was sealed off and new fireproof restrooms and stairs were installed for increased fire protection. An entrance was also created on the second floor of the building to connect it to Lafayette Hall. In 1974, the sashes and stops on the windows of the first three floors were swapped out for aluminum replacements for greater energy efficiency, although the wooden frames were retained. The following year, the Old Mill was among the buildings added to the National Register of Historic Places as part of the University Green Historic District. 19
In the fall of 1984, the stained glass windows in the Dewey Lounge were restored by Ribbecke Studios of Burlington, 20 and by the late 1980s, the University recognized that another renovation of the building was needed. This time, at the same time that an architecture firm submitted a feasibility study for work, a historic structure report was compiled as well by the University’s Architectural Conservation and Education Service, a branch of the Historic Preservation Program. Both the feasibility study and the historic structure report examined many of the same issues, such as documenting the amount of historic fabric that survived from various periods, summarizing alterations over time, and providing recommendations for the restoration/renovation project. The historic structure report noted that despite major changes to the building following the 1958 renovation, some historic features survived, including window casings, baseboards, and portions of the 1824–9 firewalls. 21
In 1989, architect Diane Gayer of UVM’s Architectural and Engineering Services helped to plan renovations of the Old Mill. An aim of the project, and the renovation of the adjoining Lafayette Hall, was to bring back all undergraduate classes to the main campus. 22 In a February 1989 issue of UVM Record, Gayer noted that it would be “very expensive” to renovate the Old Mill “to a level of historical significance.” 23 Despite this concern, in 1991, well before work began, a group composed of faculty and students from the University’s Historic Preservation Program undertook research projects on historic exterior and interior finishes to document the history of the finishes in the building and to help guide the restoration. This included analysis of paint samples and documentation of 1880s wallpaper fragments from several rooms on the sealed-off fourth floor. There was a thorough investigation into the finishes of the John Dewey Memorial Lounge in the former chapel space, which no longer held services following the completion of the Ira Allen Chapel in 1926. The recommendations of the report called for restoring the exterior of the building to its 1883 appearance based on the historic finishes discovered during investigation. It also called for the restoration of the 1883 finishes found in the Dewey Lounge. 24
The program for the groundbreaking ceremony for the Old Mill project, held on June 20, 1995, notes that the “renovation of gothic revival style Old Mill is more than just the restoration of a historically and architecturally significant building. It also marks the strengthening of a commitment by the University of Vermont to the liberal arts.” 25
The restoration project incorporated the findings and recommendations of the historic structures report and historic finishes report. However, there was a conscious decision to modernize the building interior. As a result, the exterior was returned to its 1883 color scheme and the slate-roofed dormers that had been removed after the 1918 lightning strike were restored, but the interior historic finishes were not restored except for those of three interior spaces: the John Dewey Lounge, the top-floor gallery, and top-floor conference room. 26 There was not universal agreement on this decision, but many, including UVM president Thomas Salmon, argued that modernizing the interior was necessary to address long-term campus problems such as a shortage of classrooms and offices. The renovated interior created 115 office spaces, two meeting rooms, a large conference room, four student lounges, and a gallery. This included renovating and reopening the fourth floor, which had been closed and sealed off for decades. 27
Einhorn Yaffee Prescott of Albany, NY, served as architects and engineers for the project. 28 The total cost of the project, which included the renovation of Lafayette Hall, was $17.5 million. As might be expected for a major project at the oldest and one of the most significant buildings of the University, the completion of the project attracted much attention. It featured on the Fall 1997 cover of Vermont Quarterly, the magazine of the university. 29 In its first issue of the 1997-8 academic year, The Vermont Cynic reported on the completion of the renovation and restoration of the Old Mill. The building had been closed for two years for work, and its reopening provided a sense of optimism for members of the UVM community, who felt that the reopening of one of the university’s largest and most central buildings would foster a greater sense of connectedness among students and faculty. A member of the Economics Department, which was moved to the Old Mill after the project completion, told the Cynic that “it’s really nice (being in Old Mill), a feeling of being connected.” The location of numerous departments and classrooms in the building also received praise, with one undergraduate noting, of the convenience and restoration, “I think it’s beautiful. I think it makes the whole learning environment more enjoyable.” 30
Figure 4. The Old Mill in 2015
As of 2015, some of the exterior historic brickwork is in need of repair, particularly on sections of the surviving 1820s exterior on the east side of the building, and is especially evident in a few places south of the corridor connecting the building to Lafayette Hall. In some places bricks have been removed or fallen out, and in other areas mortar between bricks is missing to a depth of almost two inches. On the west elevation there is also some deteriorating mortar and brickwork, including in places where repairs seem to have been undertaken in the past.
The fire that destroyed the University of Vermont’s original building in 1824, leading to the construction of the Old Mill, was the same catalyst for the construction of Pomeroy Hall, the first medical building at the institution. Medical lectures took place in the College Building up until the fire of 1824. Following the fire, contributions from the community, faculty, and through a series of medical lectures for the general public raised enough money to erect a new building specifically for the medical school. 31
The new building, designed by John Johnson of Burlington, partially finished and open for lectures by the fall of 1828, was a two-story brick structure with a gable roof, which can be seen in Johnson’s 1843 drawing of the buildings around University Green. 32 Unlike the Old Mill, for which survive a number of drawings of elevations and architectural features, Johnson’s papers at UVM Special Collections contain only one drawing of Pomeroy Hall, a depiction of the second-floor timber frame. However, material lists in Johnson’s papers dated August 3, 1828 give a sense of the building as completed, noting the entrances, type of roof, and number of doors. Many of the seventeen original windows survive on the first two floors of the building (including, it appears, the sashes and muntins), as does the part of the structure of the two entry doors, which before 1990s renovations could be seen behind the 1858 tower on the inside. 33
Figure 5. Pomeroy Hall after 1858 renovation. Courtesy of UVM Special Collections
Within a decade of the building’s completion, the Medical College’s future was in jeopardy due to competition from other medical colleges in Vermont. In 1836, only one medical degree was awarded, and after that it closed. The building, its specimen collection, and library were bought by the dean of the Medical College, George Benedict, who continued to use the building for chemistry lectures after the medical school closed. Benedict had purchased the building and its contents from the heirs of the last faculty member, Benjamin Lincoln, to prevent the library and medical specimen collection from being dispersed. The college purchased the building from Benedict in 1839, but the Medical College did not reopen until 1854. 34 The increasing enrollment in the following years convinced the medical faculty that improved facilities were needed. 35 Fundraising efforts commenced, and the Burlington Free Press reported: “Another lecture room is much needed, and enlarged accommodations for its growing museum. According to the plan briefly detailed to us, the improvement will be useful and ornamental in a high degree. Everything shows that here is the natural place for an important medical school…” 36
The project to repair and enlarge the building more than doubled the size of the original structure, adding a third floor and a square stair tower in the front topped by a cupola. The main block of the building today (after restoration) looks much as it did following the 1858 expansion. A rear ell built at the same time also provided more space. 37
By 1868, the Medical College was profitable, but only seven years later the building was deemed in need of repair once again. Renovations were carried out between 1879 and 1880, including the addition of a two-and-a-half story gable-roofed clapboard addition, but the continued increase in enrollment in subsequent years led to the decision to move to a new building, a house on the northern end of the University Green donated by John Purple Howard in 1884. 38
In 1887, the University’s Agricultural Experiment Station took over the building. It was during the period of occupancy by the experiment station that the barn (1888) was built, as was a greenhouse, around 1900. 39 For a period of time between about 1910 and 1925 the building passed out of use by the Agricultural Experiment Station after Morrill Hall was completed and was home to a janitor. A 1910 city directory indicates the experiment station still occupied the building in that year, 40 but in 1915 the occupants were listed as Sedgwick Rand, a janitor, and his wife. 41 Two untitled, typed loose manuscript pages in the Pomeroy Hall building file at UVM Special Collections give different dates, indicating that the janitor lived in the building from 1907 to 1925, at which point it was returned to the Agricultural Experiment Station. 42 This assertion is supported by Robert O. Sinclair’s The University of Vermont: The First Two Hundred Years, who makes the same claim and cites unpublished memoirs by Joseph Hills, who worked at the Agricultural Experiment Station. 43 This would also be in sync with the completion of Morrill Hall in 1907, which is where the Agricultural Experiment Station moved.
The passage of the Purnell Act of 1925 by Congress increased funding for the experiment station, which resulted in a need for more space. This led to the surveying of the old experiment station building, and a decision was made to renovate. 44 The funding allowed for the renovation of the building, but not to repair the 1858 cupola, which was in an advanced state of deterioration. It was taken down around 1930. 45
Figure 6. Pomeroy (left) in 1930s after removal of cupola. Louis L. McAllister Photographs, courtesy of UVM Special Collections
In 1951, Pomeroy ceased to be used by the Agricultural Experiment Station and was converted into office, class, and clinical rooms for the speech department. An area was also converted into studio space for WCAX and WJOY radio stations, while other rooms were set aside for theater rehearsals and the debate society. UVM Notes reported at this time that the barn behind Pomeroy “eventually” would be repurposed for theater performances and that in order to accommodate this the inside would be “torn out and redone” and semi-sound-proofed. 46 In 1952, it was renamed Pomeroy Hall. 47
A substantial renovation in 1971 effectively gutted large parts of the building. Many interior partitions were removed, the building was reinforced with steel beams, and was brought up to fire code by inserting fire doors on each floor and through the addition of a new stairway to the rear of the 1858 ell. The interior of the stair tower facing Main Street had all of its architectural finishes removed, leaving just the bare brick walls exposed, which were then painted. 48 An article in the Burlington Free Press at the time suggested the important financial benefit of the adaptive reuse of the building: that renovating the building for $84,000 was $216,000 less than the cost of building the equivalent amount of space. In 1981, more updates were made to the building to make it accessible for the disabled, including a four-story elevator tower and a covered ramp. 49 The building was included on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975 as part of the University Green Historic District. 50
The historic structure report undertaken before the most recent restoration project in the mid-1990s provides a comprehensive look at the state of the building before the major project was undertaken that led to the building seen today. It identified a number of issues, such as areas of water infiltration, poor brick conditions, historic window deterioration, and ways to improve energy efficiency that would help guide the subsequent restoration project. It also pointed out elements to preserve if possible during the work, such as late-19th-century painted ceilings on the fourth floor.
Figure 7. Pomeroy Hall in 2015
The 1990s renovation returned the exterior of the main block to its 1858 appearance and removed the later additions that extended south of the original building. In place of the ells a four-story brick-veneered addition was built. In between the old and new buildings is now a narrow four-story glass-walled space, the ground floor of which contains the current main entrance to the building. A stairwell in the new addition is the primary stairwell for the building, as the staircase was removed from the 1858 stair tower, which now functions on the ground floor as a secondary entrance and on the other floors as offices. In addition, the original window layout was restored on the historic portion of the building, which was returned to a three-story configuration. Historic wooden window sashes were kept where appropriate, but have exterior storm windows over them for added insulation. A copy of the 1858 cupola was added to the old stair tower. The interior was thoroughly modernized, with little visible historic fabric to indicate the age of the building. The building restoration project received the Burlington Business Association’s Nate Harris & Hertzel Pasackow Award for Architectural Excellence in 2001. 51
Wheeler House was built to the designs of architect Ammi Burnham Young for the Reverend John Wheeler, sixth president of the University of Vermont. Young was a rising architectural star at the time, having previously designed several buildings for Dartmouth College, as well as the Vermont State Capitol in Montpelier, and later became the Supervising Architect of the U.S. Treasury Department. 52
Young drafted plans for Wheeler House in 1840 showing two different exterior renderings: one a relatively plan façade with an Ionic portico at the main entrance, and another with more elaborate exterior details including Corinthian porticos on the south and east façades; corner pilasters; egg-and-dart molding along the cornice; a lattice-work veranda along the west elevation; and dormers on all four sides of the hipped roof on the main block and both sides of the ell roof. The house as completed, in 1842, was relatively plain compared to these drawings: it featured the Corinthian porticoes shown in some of the exterior renderings but had no corner pilasters, egg-and-dart molding in the cornice, and a dormer only on the north-facing side of the hipped roof. 53
Figure 8. One of Ammi B. Young's Drawings of Wheeler House Showing the West Elevation. Courtesy of Fleming Museum
The building remained the private home of the Wheeler family for a century; as a result, virtually nothing is known of the interior changes made to the building aside from a few interior photographs from the early 20th century that show what appears to be Victorian-era wallpaper in one of the principal rooms on the ground floor. 54 Some elements of the exterior development are also a challenge to chart, particularly the verandas on the west side of the building. The current veranda on the main section of the house is a Gothic Revival-style structure completely different to that shown on Young’s west elevation drawing. On the basis of photographic evidence from the early 20th century and a “bird’s eye” view of Burlington from 1877 showing a stick-like porch off the west elevation, 55 it appears that this veranda dates at latest to the 1870s, although the nature of the “bird’s eye” view of Burlington—a kind of artistic souvenir, not necessarily meant to be an accurate perspective drawing—should not be relied upon completely for minute details. An 1853 map of Burlington similar in layout to the Sanborn fire insurance maps shows a veranda on the main block, which may be the original lattice-style veranda designed by Young. 56 The 1877 “bird’s eye” view also does not show a veranda on the ell, and in early 20th-century photos that portion of the house is obscured or not visible. However, the 1906 Sanborn fire insurance map shows a veranda. 57
The Wheeler family owned the house until 1943, when it was sold to a real estate developer. A group of concerned citizens formed an organization and purchased the option to buy it. They then proceeded to raise funds to acquire the property and give it to the University of Vermont. They published a pamphlet laying out their claim that the facility most required by the university at this time was a health center and infirmary and that Wheeler House, a “highly desirable property… ideally situated and structurally adaptable,” could be “retrofitted” to “fill a serious gap in the University’s service.” The cost to acquire the property, the pamphlet stated, was $40,000, and donating it to the university would result in “preserving from exploitation one of Burlington’s finest old homesteads.” 58 The effort was successful.
Figure 9. Louis N. Newton photograph of Wheeler House in 1945. Courtesy of UVM Special Collections
A photo dated 1945 and attributed to Louis N. Newton shows the main façade of Wheeler House in a state of neglect and thus likely before its conversion into Wasson Infirmary. 59 The façade is covered in ivy and overgrown vegetation surrounds the house and seems to be growing into the veranda. Some of the dark shutters appear to be deteriorating and the portico roof seems to be in a state of disrepair. It appears that the solid balustrade that ran around the portico entrance to match the one running along the edge of the roof (gone in this 1945 photo) was still in place, but badly deteriorated to the point that it was detached and lying on the portico roof.
The floor plans of Wheeler House when it was Wasson Memorial Infirmary show that the entire house had been converted for medical use. The first and second floors were broken up into a waiting room, examination rooms, nursing stations, and separate bedrooms and toilet facilities for men and women. 60 It is not clear how much of the original room layout was altered during the conversion to an infirmary since floor plans of the house before conversion do not appear to exist.
Wheeler House was one of the contributing structures listed in the University Green Historic District in 1975. That same year, the building was renovated to house the history department. Plans drawn up by architect Colin P. Lindberg show the reorganization of the space, which included removing some walls and installing partitions in some of the larger spaces to accommodate more offices. Notes in the plans suggest a restoration-minded approach, with instructions to match wainscoting in one room and to patch and match existing paint in other spaces. As would be expected in such a project, a great deal was removed from the property to convert it from an infirmary to an academic department. Most of the rooms on the first and second floors were converted to offices, while the plans show the basement with classrooms, a study room with carrels, and some unassigned and unfinished spaces. The ramp providing disabled access to the building by way of the veranda into the southwest corner of the building was maintained. 61 White aluminum shutters placed on the building at this time were removed by the mid-1980s. 62
Figure 10. Wheeler House in 2015
Another major renovation of Wheeler House began in 2011 and was completed in 2012 and carried out by Millbrook Building & Remodeling of Colchester, with coordination from the UVM Physical Plant and Smith Alvarez Sienkiewycz Architects of Burlington. One of the major components of the project was to make the building compliant with new ADA standards for accessibility. This resulted in a new at-grade entrance underneath the veranda on the ell and the removal of the wheelchair ramp on the west veranda, which allowed the space to be restored to its historic appearance. An ADA-compliant interior lift was also installed in the building to provide access to the main floor. An energy-efficient HVAC system was installed and new flooring was laid in the basement computer lab. On the exterior, the original foundation of spatter-coat fashioned to look like coursed ashlar construction was replicated based on surviving evidence of the original finish by Bruno Gubetta of Alpine Restoration. The balustrade running along the top of the hipped roof was also restored, and the front door was repainted. 63
Thomas Visser and Mary Jo Llewellyn, “Historic Structure Report: Old Mill,” University of Vermont (Burlington`: Architectural Conservation and Education Service, 1988), 1–2.
2 Joseph Auld, Picturesque Burlington: A Handbook of Burlington, Vermont and Lake Champlain, Second Edition (Burlington: Free Press Association, 1894), 112.
3 Jay Read Pember, A Day with Lafayette in Vermont (Woodstock, Vermont: Elm Tree Press, 1912), 18. Accessed on Google Books on October 9, 2015.
4 Visser and Llewellyn, “Historic Structure Report: Old Mill,” 2.
6 Picturesque Burlington, 113.
7 This amount, from the 1882-3 Gazeteer and business directory of Chittenden County (see the following footnote) is different from that reported in the Historic Structure Report, which cited a 1983 Cynic article for the figure of $65,000. Another work, “The Old Mill Building: The First One Hundred Years,” by Karen A. Dillenbeck from May 1984 (UVM Special Collections, Old Mill building file) notes that Howard’s donation amounted to $28,000.
8 Hamilton Child, Gazetteer and business directory of Chittenden County, Vermont, for 1882–83 (Syracuse, NY: The Journal Office, 1882), 146–7. Accessed on Google Books on October 9, 2015.
9 Burlington Free Press, December 16, 1881.
12 Ibid., August 15, 1882.
13 The Historic Structure Report notes classrooms in the center section of the fourth floor, but Picturesque Burlington (115) states that the entire fourth floor was used as dormitories.
14 Picturesque Burlington, 114; Visser and Llewellyn, “Historic Structure Report: Old Mill,” 4–6.
15 “Old Mill Interior Finishes Report,” (Architectural Conservation and Education Service, University of Vermont, 1992), 2.
16 Einhorn Yaffee Prescott, “Feasibility Study: Renovation of the Old Mill,” 1988.
17 Picturesque Burlington, 114; “Visser and Llewellyn, Historic Structure Report: Old Mill,” 4–6.
18 Visser and Llewellyn, “Historic Structure Report: Old Mill,” 11.
19 Ibid., 13; Einhorn Yaffee Prescott, “Feasibility Study: Renovation of the Old Mill.”
20 “Colorful work,” The Burlington Free Press, September 23, 1984.
21 Visser and Llewellyn, “Historic Structure Report: Old Mill,” 42.
22 “Lafayette, Old Mill renovations in works,” The Vermont Cynic, September 14, 1989. Old Mill building file, UVM Special Collections.
23 “Old Mill and Lafayette buildings envisioned as new arts/science center,” UVM Record, February 10–23, 1989. Old Mill building file, UVM Special Collections.
24 “Old Mill Interior Finishes Report,” (Architectural Conservation and Education Service, University of Vermont, 1992).
25 “Groundbreaking Ceremonies: Old Mill,” Old Mill building file, UVM Special Collections.
26 “Old Mill: Symbol of UVM’s rich past, bright future,” UVM Record, May 9–22, 1997. Old Mill building file, UVM Special Collections.
27 “Bricks and Mortarboards,” The Burlington Free Press, May 17, 1996. Old Mill building file, UVM Special Collections.
28 Einhorn Yaffee Prescott scope of work document in letter to Diane Gayer, Old Mill building file, UVM Special Collections.
29 “Old Mill Renewed,” Vermont Quarterly, fall 1997. Old Mill building file, UVM Special Collections.
30 “Old Mill New Again,” The Vermont Cynic, September 11, 1997. Old Mill building file, UVM Special Collections.
31 Martin Kaufman, The University of Vermont College of Medicine (Hanover: University Press of New England, 1979, 23.
32 John Johnson, (John Johnson Papers, Special Collections, University of Vermont), Carton 5 Folder 52.
33 Ibid.; Architectural Conservation & Education Service, Historic Preservation Program, Department of History, University of Vermont, “Pomeroy Hall: Historic Structures Report,” 1993.
34 Martin Kaufman, The University of Vermont College of Medicine (Hanover: University Press of New England, 1979), 38–40.
35 “Pomeroy Hall: Historic Structures Report.”
36 Burlington Free Press, July 22, 1856.
37 “Pomeroy Hall: Historic Structures Report”; Kaufman, University of Vermont College of Medicine, 54–55.
38 National Park Service, “National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet” for Pomeroy Hall, p. 2; Kaufman, University of Vermont College of Medicine, 60, 86–7.
39 Charles E. Allen, About Burlington, Vermont (Burlington: Hobart J. Shanley & Co., 1905), 46.
40 The Free Press Association, Burlington City Directory including Directory of Winooski (Burlington: The Free Press Association, 1910).
42 Pomeroy Hall building file, UVM Special Collections.
43 Robert O. Sinclair, The University of Vermont: The First Two Hundred Years (Hanover: University Press of New England, 1991), 188.
44 Joseph L. Hills, "The University Buildings 1800–1947" (manuscript, 1947), 29, UVM Special Collections.
45 “New cupola once again tops off Pomeroy Hall on UVM campus,” The Burlington Free Press, May 21, 1997. Pomeroy Hall building file, UVM Special Collections. Note that the National Register nomination form for the University Green Historic District notes that the cupola was removed in 1925, but cites no source for this information. The newspaper story does not cite a source for its date of 1930.
46 “Second Oldest Campus Building Becomes Speech Center,” UVM Notes, November 1951. Pomeroy Hall building file, UVM Special Collections.
47 Katie Briscoe, “University Green Area Heritage Study: Pomeroy Hall,” 2009. Accessed October 16, 2015. http://www.uvm.edu/~hp206/2011/sites/15.html.
48 “Pomeroy Hall: Historic Structures Report.”
49 Ibid.; Burlington Free Press, June 6, 1977.
50 “University Green Historic District, Burlington,” National Register of Historic Places nomination form. https://www.burlingtonvt.gov/sites/default/files/PZ/Historic/National-Register-PDFs/UniversityGreenHD.pdf. Accessed on October 16, 2015.
51 Pomeroy Hall building file, UVM Special Collections.
52 Osmund R. Overby, “Ammi B. Young in the Connecticut Valley,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 19, No. 3 (Oct., 1960), 119–20.
53 Drawings of Wheeler House by Ammi B. Young, courtesy of Fleming Museum, UVM.
54 Wheeler House/Wasson Infirmary building file, UVM Special Collections.
55 Birds eye view of Burlington and Winooski Vt., 1877, Special Collections Map Cases, University of Vermont Library.
56 Map of Burlington, Vermont, 1853, Special Collections, University of Vermont Library, http://cdi.uvm.edu/collections/item/Burlington_Presdee_1853 (accessed October 1, 2015).
57 UVM Special Collections.
58 “A Proposal To Acquire a Site for the Wasson Memorial Infirmary at the University of Vermont,” Wheeler House/Wasson Infirmary building file, UVM Special Collections.
59 Wheeler House/Wasson Infirmary building file, UVM Special Collections.
60 Floor plans for Wasson Infirmary, UVM Historic Preservation Program, History Department files.
61 1975 floor plans for Wheeler House, UVM Historic Preservation Program files.
62 Interview with Thomas Visser, October 13, 2015.
63 Jenna Lapachinski, “Wheeler House Renovated,” UVM Historic Preservation Newsletter, Vol. 19, Fall 2012.