PowerShell documentation error – loop labels

I’ve been banging my head on a problem with a script I’m writing. I want to stop executing an inner loop and resume with the next iteration of an outer loop. In Perl, I’d use a next statement with a loop label. In PowerShell, the analogous statement is continue, and loop labels are supported, as described in the about_Break help document.

I finally wrote simplified test code, following the documentation carefully. However, the documentation is wrong. It indicates that the break or continue statement should include the colon in the loop label. This doesn’t throw an error, but it executes as though the label isn’t present at all. The code below includes the colon.

$VerbosePreference = 'Continue'

write-warning 'There should be no output; the outer loop should be exited during first iteration'
:outer foreach ($a in ('red','green') ) {
    write-verbose "Outer loop"

    :inner foreach ($b in ('red','blue','green') ) {
        write-verbose "Inner loop"
 
        write-verbose "`$a is $a ; `$b is $b"
        if ( $a -eq $b ) {
            break :outer
        }
        "$a $b"
    }
}

Then cracked my copy of PowerShell in Action and saw that the loop label does not include the colon, just like Perl. Remove the colon and everything is good. Wish it hadn’t taken me hours to work it out.

 

Get-PrintJobs.ps1 PowerShell script

After a recent upgrade of our print servers, I discovered that the Print Spooler service event logging had been enhanced, and changed enough that some PowerShell reporting scripts that worked just fine on Windows Server 2008 (32-bit) no longer worked on Server 2012 R2.

To get the reports working again, I had to enable the Microsoft-Windows-PrintService/Operational log. I also had to increase the log size from the default in order to retain more than one day’s events. The trickiest part was figuring out the XPath query syntax for retrieving events from a particular printer. The newer syntax makes more sense to me, but it took me a long time to arrive at it.

Following Don Jones‘ entreaty to build tools and controllers, I offer this tool script, which retrieves (simplified) print job events, and cares not a whit about formatting or saving.


<#
.SYNOPSIS
Gets successful print job events and returns simplified objects with relevant
details.

.DESCRIPTION
Collects the successful print jobs from the PrintService Operational log, with
optional query parameters including Printer name and start and end times.

.PARAMETER PrinterName
The share name of the printer for which events will be retrieved.

.PARAMETER StartTime
The beginning of the interval during which events will be retrieved.

.PARAMETER EndTime
The end of the interval during which events will be retrieved.

.EXAMPLE
C:\> Get-PrintJobs.ps1
Returns objects representing all the successful print jobs (events with id 307).

.EXAMPLE
C:\> Get-PrintJobs.ps1 -PrinterName 'Accounting HP LaserJet'
Returns objects for all the jobs on the Accounting printer.

.EXAMPLE
C:\> Get-PrintJobs.ps1 -PrinterName 'Accounting HP LaserJet' -StartTime (Get-Date).AddHours(-12)
Returns objects for all the jobs on the Accounting printer generated in the last twelve hours.
.NOTES
Script Name: Get-PrintJobs.ps1
Author : Geoff Duke <Geoffrey.Duke@uvm.edu>

Edit 2014-10-08: Generalizing from dept printer report script, fixing XPath
query syntax.

Edit 2012-11-29: Job is run as SYSTEM, and computer object has been granted
Modify rights to the destination directory.
#>

Param(
[string] $PrinterName,

[datetime] $StartTime,

[datetime] $EndTime
)
Set-StrictMode -version latest
# Building XPath query to select the right events
$filter_start = @'
<QueryList>
  <Query Id="0" Path="Microsoft-Windows-PrintService/Operational">
    <Select Path="Microsoft-Windows-PrintService/Operational">
'@

$filter_end = @'
    </Select>
  </Query>
</QueryList>
'@

$filter_match = '*[System[(EventID=307)' #need to add ']]' to close

if ( $StartTime -or $EndTime) {
    $filter_match += ' and TimeCreated[' #need to add ']' to close
    $time_conds = @()

    if ( $StartTime ) {
        $time_conds += ( '@SystemTime&gt;=' +
            "'{0:yyyy-MM-ddTHH:mm:ss.000Z}'" -f $StartTime.ToUniversalTime()
        )
    }
    if ( $EndTime ) {
        $time_conds += ( '@SystemTime&lt;=' +
            "'{0:yyyy-MM-ddTHH:mm:ss.000Z}'" -f $EndTime.ToUniversalTime()
        )
    }

    $filter_match += ( $time_conds -join ' and ' ) + ' ]' # Closing TimeCreated[
}

$filter_match += "]]`n" # Closing [System[

if ( $PrinterName ) {
    $filter_match += @"
  and
*[UserData[DocumentPrinted[(Param5='$PrinterName')]]]
"@
}

write-debug "Using Filter:`n $filter_match"

# The $filter variable below is cast as XML, that's getting munged
# by WordPress or the SyntaxHighlighter as '1'
 $filter = ($filter_start + $filter_match + $filter_end)

get-winevent -filterXML $filter | foreach {
    $Properties = @{
        'Time' = $_.TimeCreated;
        'Printer' = $_.Properties[4].value;
        'ClientIP' = $_.properties[3].value.SubString(2);
        'User' = $_.properties[2].value;
        'Pages' = [int] $_.properties[7].value;
        'Size' = [int] $_.properties[6].value
    }

    New-Object PsObject -Property $Properties
}

If you find this script useful, please let me know. If you find any bugs, definitely let me know!

Set default printer with PowerShell

Closely related to my previous post, this simple script uses a WScript.Network COM object to set the default printer. The comment block is longer than the script, but I think it’s a useful little tool.

<#
.SYNOPSIS
Sets a Network Printer connection as the default printer.

.DESCRIPTION
Uses a COM object to sets the specified, installed printer as the default. If
an error is encountered, e.g., the specified printer isn't installed, the
exception is written to a file called Set-DefaultPrinter.err in the current
$env:temp directory, and then the script terminates, throwing the exception.

Based on my colleague's VBScript solution:
http://blog.uvm.edu/jgm/2014/06/11/parting-scripts-add-a-new-network-printer-and-set-it-as-default/

.PARAMETER PrinterShare
The UNC path to the shared printer.
e.g. \\printers1.campus.ad.uvm.edu\ETS-SAA-SamsungML-3560

.EXAMPLE
Set-DefaultPrinter.ps1 -PrinterShare '\\printers1.campus.ad.uvm.edu\ETS-SAA-SamsungML-3560'

.NOTES
    Script Name: Set-DefaultPrinter.ps1
    Author     : Geoff Duke <Geoffrey.Duke@uvm.edu>
#>

[cmdletbinding()]

Param(
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage="Enter the UNC path to the network printer")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $PrinterShare
)

Set-PSDebug -Strict

$PSDefaultParameterValues = @{"out-file:Encoding"="ASCII"}

$ws_net = New-Object -COM WScript.Network

try {
    $ws_net.SetDefaultPrinter($PrinterShare)
}
catch {
    $error[0].exception | out-file (join-path $env:temp 'Set-DefaultPrinter.err') 
    throw $error[0]
}
write-verbose "Default printer now $PrinterShare"

Add network printer with PowerShell

This is my PowerShwell translation of my colleague’s VBScript solution for mapping network printers with a script.

<#
.SYNOPSIS
Add a Network Printer connection, optionally making it the default printer.

.DESCRIPTION
Uses a COM object to add a Network Printer, and optionally sets that printer
as the default. If an error is encountered, the exception is written to a
file called Add-NetworkPrinter.err in the current $env:temp directory, and then
the script terminates.

This is my PowerShell translation of my colleague's VBScript solution:
http://blog.uvm.edu/jgm/2014/06/11/parting-scripts-add-a-new-network-printer-and-set-it-as-default/

.PARAMETER PrinterShare
The UNC path to the shared printer.
e.g. \\printers1.campus.ad.uvm.edu\ETS-SAA-SamsungML-3560

.PARAMETER Default
Specifies that the printer will also be set as the default printer for the current user.

.EXAMPLE
Add-NetworkPrinter.ps1 -PrinterShare '\\printers1.campus.ad.uvm.edu\ETS-SAA-SamsungML-3560' -Default

.NOTES
    Script Name: Add-NetworkPrinter.ps1
    Author     : Geoff Duke <Geoffrey.Duke@uvm.edu>
#>

[cmdletbinding()]

Param(
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage="Enter the UNC path to the network printer")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $PrinterShare,

    [parameter(Mandatory=$false)]
    [switch] $Default
)

Set-PSDebug -Strict

$PSDefaultParameterValues = @{"out-file:Encoding"="ASCII"}

$ws_net = New-Object -COM WScript.Network

write-verbose "Adding connection to $PrinterShare"
try {
    $ws_net.AddWindowsPrinterConnection($PrinterShare)
}
catch {
    $error[0].exception | out-file (join-path $env:temp 'Add-NetworkPrinter.err')
    throw $error[0]
}

write-verbose "Setting the printer as the default"
if ( $Default ) {
    try {
        $ws_net.SetDefaultPrinter($PrinterShare)
    }
    catch {
        $error[0].exception | out-file (join-path $env:temp 'Add-NetworkPrinter.err')
        throw $error[0]
    }
}

# the end

For use with Group Policy, it will probably be helpful to create a simple Set-DefaultPrinter.ps1 script. But that’s just the second stanza from the script above.

Quick tip – Human readable folder sizes in Excel

From the school of There’s Probably a Better Way, But…

I was taking the output of SysInternals’ du.exe utility and wanted to email it to a colleague, but the folder sizes were in KB. Since most of them were many Gigabytes in size, I wanted a quick way to convert them to the appropriate size in GB, MB, or KB.

I copied the du.exe size column and pasted it into Excel. Then I created the following formula:

=IF(E6>(2^20),TEXT(E6/(2^20),"0.0") & " GB","smaller")

…where E6 is the cell reference. Also note that du.exe’s output was in KB, so my test is one order of magnitude smaller than it would need to be if I was formatting a size in bytes. (i.e., 2^20 is 1 MB).

I then nested another similar if() function with a final formatting option to get my final formula:

=IF(E6>(2^20),TEXT(E6/(2^20),"0.0") & " GB",IF(E6>(2^10),TEXT(E6/(2^10),"0.0") & " MB",TEXT(E6,"0.0") & " KB"))

Updating firewall rules with netsh

I needed to adjust the scope of a built-in firewall rule in a couple of servers, restricting the remote IPs to a list of UVM subnets in CIDR notation. The netsh documentation describes the syntax for a list as comma-separated values (no spaces). But I kept getting errors with the command:

netsh advfirewall firewall set rule name="Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) (NB-Name-UDP-In)" remoteip="10.10.0.0/16,10.11.0.0/16,10.12.0.0/16"

Finally, I actually read the error message:

For ‘set’ commands, the ‘new’ keyword must be present and must not be the last argument provided.

And the related part of the usage text:

Values after the new keyword are updated in the rule.  If there are no values, or keyword new is missing, no changes are made.

One little three-letter keyword was all I needed:

netsh advfirewall firewall set rule name="Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) (NB-Name-UDP-In)" new remoteip="10.100.0.0/16,10.101.0.0/16,10.102.0.0/16"

/sigh

Remote Desktop Gateway

In order to connect to the Remote Desktop service on centrally managed servers from off campus, as well as some more sensitive servers from on campus, you need to use the Remote Desktop Gateway feature.

For the current Remote Desktop Client on Windows, you can configure this option by going to the Advanced Options tab, and then click the Settings button.

Remote Desktop Gateway settings

On the RD Gateway Server Settings window that open, select the second option, Use these RD Gateway server settings. The server name is rdgateway.uvm.edu, and chose the Ask for password option.

Click OK, and you should be able to connect using the RD Gateway service. For more information about RD Gateway, see What is a Remote Desktop Gateway server?

 

 

Outlook 2013 at UVM

UPDATE! All UVM email accounts have been migrated to Microsoft Exchange, and so this guide is no longer necessary. Outlook 2013 and 2016 setup is very easy, and all functionality is available.

These instructions describe a configuration for connecting to our old email system via IMAP. For connecting Outlook to UVM’s current mail service, see http://www.uvm.edu/techteam/outlook-2016-for-exchange/.

Changes in Outlook 2013

The most significant change in the new version of Outlook is the support of touch-based interfaces. In Outlook 2010, using your finger to scroll a message resulted in selecting a swath of text, as though clicking and dragging with a mouse. Outlook 2013 addresses this, and adds specific support for touch interaction with adjusted menu spacing and a thumb-based button bar that works really well on Windows tablets.

Outlook 2013 - tablet mode

Outlook 2013 – special features available on touch devices include touch scrolling, and a button bar for the right thumb.

You’ll also notice a much cleaner design, where the faux 3D buttons and look have been simplified and flattened. I find myself selecting the dark gray color scheme to restore some visual variety and separation, though.

One change that’s a little irritating is that you can no longer specify the folder into which copies of your sent messages are received; they go into a folder called Sent Items. Instead, I’ve configured Pine, Webmail, and Thunderbird to use Sent Items, too.

I continue to find Outlook a user-friendly, feature-rich email client, and I’m glad to share these instructions with you. Let’s get started. Continue reading