| Export Controls
- Definitions and Regulations -
"Export" means to send or take controlled tangible items, software or information out of the United States in any manner, to transfer ownership or control of controlled tangible items, software or information to a foreign person, or to disclose information about controlled items, software or information to a foreign government or foreign person. The controlled tangible item, software or information being sent or taken out of the United States is also referred to as an "export."
"Reexport" means an actual shipment or transmission of controlled tangible items, software or information from one foreign country to another foreign country. The export or reexport of controlled tangible items, software or information that will transit through a country or countries, or will be unloaded in a country or countries for reloading and shipment to a new country, or are intended for reexport to the new country, are deemed to be exports to the new country.
C. Deemed Export
"Deemed Export" is a term used by the Commerce Department to describe the situation where a foreign national on US soil may be exposed to, or have access in any manner to, an export-controlled item or export-controlled software or information. Although the State Department does not use this term, but rather includes this concept in its definition of export, the University of Vermont (UVM) will use the term "deemed export" when discussing access by foreign nationals to controlled information on our soil, without regard to which agency may have cognizance over the transaction.
D. US Person/Foreign Person
A "US person" is a citizen of United States, a lawful permanent resident alien of the US, (a "Green Card" holder), a refugee or someone here as a protected political asylee or under amnesty. US persons also include organizations and entities, such as universities, incorporated in the US. The general rule is that only US persons are eligible to receive controlled items, software or information without first obtaining an export license from the appropriate agency unless a license exception or exclusion is available.
A "foreign person" is anyone who is not a US person. A foreign person also means any foreign corporation, business association, partnership or any other entity or group that is not incorporated to do business in the US. Foreign persons may include international organizations, foreign governments and any agency or subdivision of foreign governments such as consulates.
E. Fundamental Research
The concept of "fundamental research" was established by National Security Decision Directive 189 (NSDD 189), which establishes a national policy with regard to how such research shall be treated for purposes of the various export control regimes.
NSDD 189 defines fundamental research as:basic and applied research in science and engineering where the resulting information is to be shared broadly within the scientific community.
NSDD 189 provides that the conduct, products, and results of fundamental research are to proceed largely unfettered by deemed export restrictions. It also states that the government must determine - before releasing a research opportunity - whether the research should be classified or otherwise kept secret. Research that carries access, participation, or dissemination restrictions will not qualify as fundamental research for purposes of the export control regulations.
Because export regulations expressly recognize that fundamental research is excluded from deemed export controls, no export license or other authorization is needed to involve foreign nationals in fundamental research activity at UVM. However, such research may give rise to export issues if the primary research is to be conducted outside of the US or if it requires exposure of foreign nationals to proprietary or confidential export controlled information provided by third parties such as corporations, commercial vendors or government collaborators.
A. State Department - International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR)
22 CFR 120-130
The US Department of State, Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC), is responsible for items and information inherently military in design, purpose, or use. Referred to as "defense articles," such items are found on the US Munitions List, 22 CFR 121. Spacecraft and satellites, even if not for military use, are on the Munitions List, along with their associated systems and related equipment. Information related to Defense Articles is referred to as "technical data."
B. Commerce Department - Export Administration Regulations (EAR)
15 CFR 700-799
The US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS), has export jurisdiction over every thing in the United States, although BIS does not require a license for every export. BIS controls goods and information having both civilian and military uses by including them on the Commerce Control List, 15 CFR 774, also known as the "Dual Use List." BIS uses the term "technology" when referring to information about the goods on the Commerce Control List.
C. Treasury Department - Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)
The US Department of the Treasury oversees US economic sanctions and embargoes through its Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). Empowered by the Trading with the Enemy Act and the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, OFAC enforces trade, anti-terrorism, narcotics, human rights and other national security and foreign policy based sanctions prohibiting the provision of anything of value, either tangible or intangible, to sanctioned countries, organizations or individuals. The pertinent regulations provide OFAC with broad authority to block or interdict vaguely defined "prohibited transactions" involving restricted destinations or parties.
The export control regulations summarized here each impose severe monetary and criminal penalties for failure to comply with their requirements.