Insecticides for Sunn Pest Management


Following is historical information on the use of insecticides for management of Sunn Pest. It is listed by country.  The information, which is condensed, comes directly from Miller, R.H. and Morse, J.G. 1996.  Sunn Pests and Their Control in the Near East , FAO Paper 138. 




     Ultra-low volume (ULV) applications are efficient and economical.  In 1991, FAO introduced hand-held battery-operated rotary-disk sprayers in northern Afghanistan.

     There are many useful chemicals (insecticides), however, only a few are used on a large scale.  These include fenitrothion, trichlorfon, fenthion, methyl-parathion, malathion and diazinon.  The quantity of pesticide active ingredient per hectare could be substantially reduced by the addition of small quantities of oil; experiments on fenitrothion in Bulgaria confirm this.  The effect of the chemical on other cereal pests must also be considered.


     Currently, chemical control is the only effective method used to suppress Sunn Pest in Iraq.  Aerial spraying is used to cover vast areas of infested fields.  Sumithion S-100 is recommended and is applied at a rate of 2 liters per hectare.



     Chemical control is the only tactic used to suppress Sunn Pest in Jordan.  Volaton ULV 930, a pesticide containing propoxur and dioxim was the only pesticide used during the last two control programs.  It was applied as both an aerial and ground spray at a rate of 0.5 liters per hectare.  The total cost of sunn pest control in 1992 was US $210,300.



     Chemicals used in the past to control Sunn Pest outbreaks included trichlorfon (1 200g/ha), oxydemeton-methyl (1 400g/ha) and parathion (1 400g/ha) applied aerially or with ground equipment.  Insecticide resistance has been observed with these chemicals.  Trichlorfon generally gave 85% control, oxydemeton-methyl 90% and parathion up to 90%. 



    Abbas and Shabbir (1961) reported that in 1958, malthion 50%,  endrin 19.5%, toxaphene  60% and DDT  75% were sprayed on 12  500 ha in Baluchistan without conclusive results.  In 1959, 500 ha of wheat were sprayed by air with malathion  50%, at the rate of 1-gallon (4.5 liters) per 4 hectares.  This gave satisfactory control.  In 1962, large-scale control operations were carried out in the Lahr Valley using chlorthion and Dipterex (Khan & Durrani, 1963).  Chlorthion gave 79% mortality in 36 hours and Dipterex killed 87-98% of the target population in 24 hours.  At present, no chemical program is used against Sunn Pest in Pakistan because populations remain below economic levels.



Insecticides used to control Sunn Pest in the Syrian Arab Republic, 1996
Trade Name Common Name  Rate
Dipterex 80%       Trichlorfon 1-1.5 kg/ha
Zolon 35% ec Phozolon  1.5-3 liters/ha
Zolon 30% ulv Phozolon        3.5g/ha
Decis 5% ec Deltamethrin   200-250 m/ha
Decis 1% ulv    Deltamethrin     0.75 g./ha
Decis 1% dust   Deltamethrin  12.5 kg./ha
Sumithion 50% ec   Fenitrothion  1 liter/ha
Sumithion 40% ec Fenitrothion     1.25 liters/ha
Sumithion 95% ec  Fenitrothion 0.5 liters/ha
Fastac 5% ec Alpha-cypermethrin  1.5liters/ha
Fastac 1% ulv    Alpha-cypermethrin   330 liters/ha
Dursban 4%   Chlorpyrifos 1-2 liters/ha
Lebaycid 50%   Fenthion    1.5 liters/ha
Actellic 50% ec  Pirimiphos-M    0.5-2 liters/ha



Insecticides used to control Sunn Pest in Turkey, 1996
Name/formulation Dosage Pest Stage
Fenthion 50% ec 125 ml./ha 1-5 instar nymphs
Fenthion 50% ec 180 ml./ha    Overwintered adults
Fenthion 5% p    3 000 g./ha   Overwintered adults
Fenthion 37.5% ULV      165 ml./ha  1-3 instar nymphs
Fenitrothion 50% ec 100 ml./ha  1-5 instar nymphs, new adults          
Fenitrothion 3% p          2 500 g./ha      1-5 instar nymphs, new- adults
Fenitrothion 40% ULV 165 ml./ha   1-5 instar nymphs, new- adults
Cypermethrin 25% ec       20 ml./ha     1-3 instar nymph
Cypermethrin 25% ec  30 ml./ha      4-5 instar nymphs
Cypermethrin 2.5% ULV        180 ml./ha  1-3 instar nymphs
Deltamethrin 2.5% ec   30 ml./ha  1-3 instar nymphs
Deltamethrin 2.5% ec   50 ml./ha  4-5 instar nymphs, new- adults
Deltamethrin 05 % ULV 150 ml./ha 1-5 instar nymphs, new- adults
Cyfluthrin KL 025% ULV 50 ml./ha 1-5 instar nymphs
Cyfluthrin KL 025% ULV 150 ml./ha  1-5 instar nymphs
Cyhalothrin 5% ec   20 ml./ha 1-5 instar nymphs




 Following is information on insecticides used for Sunn Pest control in 2002


Insecticides used to control sunn pest in the Syrian Arab Republic, 2002
Trade Name Common Name     Rate  
Decis 12.5% ULV   Deltamethrine      0.75 liters/ha
1 liter/ha
Sumithion ULV   Fenithrothion  0.5 liters/ha
0.4-0.5 liters/ha
Karate 2% lampda Cyhalothrin 0.75 liters/ha
Insecticides used to control Sunn Pest in Turkey, 2002
Trade Name Common Name     Rate  
Alfa cypermethrine 100 EC      Agromethrine   150g/ha
Delta methrine 12 EC   Patriot   50g/ha
Insecticides used to control Sunn Pest in Iran, 2002
Trade Name Common Name     Rate  
Fenitrothion     1 liter/ha