2011: Ed.D in Educational Leadership and Policy Studies, University of Vermont.
Dissertation Title: State Behavior in the Universal Periodic Review Mechanism of the United Nations Human Rights Council: Herding Cats and Sheep
1985-1986: M.A. in Political Science, Boston University (African Affairs).
1985: Mid-Level Training Course for Foreign Service Officers, Department of State. Graduated with Distinction.
1979-1981: M.A. in International Relations, Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, Bologna Italy and Washington, D.C. (European Studies and International Economics).
1976-1978: B.S. in Foreign Service, Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, Washington, D.C. (U.S. Foreign Policy).
1974-1976: American College in Paris, France (Liberal Arts).