Giangreco, M. F., Broer S. M., & Edelman, S. W. (1999). The tip of the iceberg: Determining whether paraprofessional support is needed for students with disabilities in general education settings. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24(4), 280-290.
This article addresses selected issues associated with the utilization of paraprofessionals and presents guidelines to assist teams in making decisions about paraprofessional supports. These guidelines include:
The article discusses both considerations for the appropriate use of paraprofessionals when assigned, as well as alternative support solutions. The discussion of these guidelines is intended to advance dialogue on this important topic and to support the appropriate involvement of paraprofessionals in the education of students with disabilities as valued participants on collaborative teams whose roles are clearly defined and supported.
Summarized by: Michael F. Giangreco - January 2000