University of Vermont

Paraeducator Support

Paraeducator Support:

Additional Resources Re:

"Developing a Shared Understanding..."
(Giangreco, et al., 1999).

The Additional Resources Listed Below Relate Directly to Statement #1 

Paraeducators should be considered members of the educational teams for the students with whom they work. These teams typically consist of the student (when appropriate), the student's parents, teachers, special educators, and others as needed on an ongoing or situational basis (e.g., related services providers, school nurse, bus driver, mentors with similar disabilities as the student).

Non Data-Based Literature

Data-Based Literature

Training Materials

Ideas From the Field

Non Data-Based Literature

Black, S. (2002, May). Not just helping hands. American School Board Journal, 189(5), 42-44. Summary Available

Clayton, T. (1993). From domestic helper to "assistant teacher": the changing role of the British classroom assistant. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 8(1), 32-44. Summary Available

Daniels, V.I. & McBride, A. (2001). Paraeducators as critical team members: Redefining roles and responsibilities. NASSP Bulletin (85) 623, 66-74. Summary Available

Doyle, M. B. (2002). The paraprofessionals guide to the inclusive classroom: Working as a team. (2nd ed.).  Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks.  Publisher's Summary and Order Form Available

French, N., & Pickett, A. L. (1997). Paraprofessionals in special education: Issues for teacher educators. Teacher Education and SpecialEducation, 20(1), 61-73. Summary Available

French, N. K. (1999). Topic #2 Paraeducators and teachers: Shifting roles. Teaching Exceptional Children, 32(2), 69-73. Summary Available

Jerwood, L. (1999). Using special needs assistants effectively. British Journal of Special Education, 26(3), 127-129. Summary Available

Lasater, M. W., Johnson, M. M., and Fitzgerald, M. (2000). Completing the education mosaic: Paraeducator professional development options. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33(1), 46-51.
Summary Available

Macvean, M.L., & Hall, L.J. (1997). The integration assistant: Benefits, challenges and recommendations. Australian Disability Review, 2/97, 3-9. Summary Available

Miramontes, O. B. (1990). Organizing for effective paraprofessional services in special education: A multilingual/multiethnic instructional service team model. Remedial and Special Education, 12, 29-36. Summary Available

Morgan, J., & Ashbaker, B.Y. (2001). 20 ways to work more effectively with your paraeducator. Intervention in School and Clinic, 36(4), 230-231. Summary Available

Mueller, P.H. (2002). The paraeducator paradox. Exceptional Parent Magazine, 32(9), 64-67. Summary Available

Railsback, J., Reed, B., & Schmidt, K. (2002). Working together for successful paraeducator services: A guide for paraeducators, teachers, and principals. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Portland, OR. Summary Available

Riggs, Cathryn G. (2002). Providing administrative support for classroom paraeducators: What’s a building administrator to do? Rural Special Education Quarterly 21(3), 10-14. Summary Available

Palma, G. M. (1994). Toward a positive and effective teacher and paraprofessional relationship. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 13(4), 46-48. Summary Available

Parsons, M.B., & Reid, D.H. (March/April 1999). Training basic teaching skills to paraeducators of students with severe disabilities: A one day program. Teaching Exceptional Children, 31(4), 48- 54. Summary Available

Radaszewski-Byrne, M. (1997). Issues in the development of guidelines for the preparation and use of speech-language paraprofessionals and their SL supervisors working in education settings. Journal of Children's Communication Development, 18(1), 5-22. Summary Available

Data-Based Research

Erwin, E. (1996). Meaningful participation in early childhood general education: Exploring the use of natural supports and adaptive strategies. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 90, 400-411. Summary Available

Giangreco, M.F., Edelman, S.W., & Broer, S.M. (2001). Respect, appreciation, and acknowledgement of paraprofessionals who support students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 67, 485-498. Summary Available

Hall, L. J., McClannahan, L. E. & Kranz P. J. (1995). Promoting independence in integrated classrooms by teaching aides to use activity schedule and decreased prompts. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 30, 208-217. Summary Available

Lacey, P. (2001). The role of learning support assistants in the inclusive learning of pupils with severe and profound learning difficulties. Educational Review, 53(2), 157-167. Summary Available

Marks, S.U., Schrader, C., & Levine, M. (1999). Paraeducator Experiences: Helping, Hovering, or Holding Their Own? Exceptional Children, 65(3), 315-319. Summary Available

Werts, M G., Wolery. M., Snyder, E., & Caldwell, N. (1996). Teachers' perceptions of the supports critical to the success of inclusion programs. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 21(1), 9-21. Summary Available

Training Materials

None Available at This Time

Ideas From the Field

Ideas from the field were generated and put into practice by school teams who used the the tool,
"A Guide to Schoolwide Planning for Paraeducator Supports"

  • Include paraeducators on school committees
  • Include paraeducators on IEP teams

Teamwork: Establish Norms and Schedules; Source: Essex Elementary School, Essex Junction, VT, 2000.

A complete list of Selected Paraeducator References 1990 - 2001 with summaries is also available. 

Last modified February 14 2008 11:20 AM

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