Additional Resources Re:
a Shared Understanding..."
(Giangreco, et al., 1999).
The Additional Resources Listed Below Relate Directly to Statement #1
Paraeducators should be considered members of the educational teams for the students with whom they work. These teams typically consist of the student (when appropriate), the student's parents, teachers, special educators, and others as needed on an ongoing or situational basis (e.g., related services providers, school nurse, bus driver, mentors with similar disabilities as the student).
Black, S. (2002, May). Not just helping hands. American School Board Journal, 189(5), 42-44. Summary Available
Clayton, T. (1993). From domestic helper to "assistant teacher": the changing role of the British classroom assistant. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 8(1), 32-44. Summary Available
Daniels, V.I. & McBride, A. (2001). Paraeducators as critical team members: Redefining roles and responsibilities. NASSP Bulletin (85) 623, 66-74. Summary Available
Doyle, M. B. (2002). The paraprofessionals guide to the inclusive classroom: Working as a team. (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks. Publisher's Summary and Order Form Available
French, N., & Pickett, A. L. (1997). Paraprofessionals in special education: Issues for teacher educators. Teacher Education and SpecialEducation, 20(1), 61-73. Summary Available
French, N. K. (1999). Topic #2 Paraeducators and teachers: Shifting roles. Teaching Exceptional Children, 32(2), 69-73. Summary Available
Jerwood, L. (1999). Using special needs assistants effectively. British Journal of Special Education, 26(3), 127-129. Summary Available
Lasater, M. W., Johnson, M. M., and Fitzgerald, M. (2000). Completing
the education mosaic: Paraeducator professional development options.
Teaching Exceptional Children, 33(1), 46-51.
Macvean, M.L., & Hall, L.J. (1997). The integration assistant: Benefits, challenges and recommendations. Australian Disability Review, 2/97, 3-9. Summary Available
Miramontes, O. B. (1990). Organizing for effective paraprofessional services in special education: A multilingual/multiethnic instructional service team model. Remedial and Special Education, 12, 29-36. Summary Available
Morgan, J., & Ashbaker, B.Y. (2001). 20 ways to work more effectively with your paraeducator. Intervention in School and Clinic, 36(4), 230-231. Summary Available
Mueller, P.H. (2002). The paraeducator paradox. Exceptional Parent Magazine, 32(9), 64-67. Summary Available
Railsback, J., Reed, B., & Schmidt, K. (2002). Working together for successful paraeducator services: A guide for paraeducators, teachers, and principals. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Portland, OR. Summary Available
Riggs, Cathryn G. (2002). Providing administrative support for classroom paraeducators: Whats a building administrator to do? Rural Special Education Quarterly 21(3), 10-14. Summary Available
Palma, G. M. (1994). Toward a positive and effective teacher and paraprofessional relationship. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 13(4), 46-48. Summary Available
Parsons, M.B., & Reid, D.H. (March/April 1999). Training basic teaching skills to paraeducators of students with severe disabilities: A one day program. Teaching Exceptional Children, 31(4), 48- 54. Summary Available
Radaszewski-Byrne, M. (1997). Issues in the development of guidelines for the preparation and use of speech-language paraprofessionals and their SL supervisors working in education settings. Journal of Children's Communication Development, 18(1), 5-22. Summary Available
Erwin, E. (1996). Meaningful participation in early childhood general education: Exploring the use of natural supports and adaptive strategies. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 90, 400-411. Summary Available
Giangreco, M.F., Edelman, S.W., & Broer, S.M. (2001). Respect, appreciation, and acknowledgement of paraprofessionals who support students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 67, 485-498. Summary Available
Hall, L. J., McClannahan, L. E. & Kranz P. J. (1995). Promoting independence in integrated classrooms by teaching aides to use activity schedule and decreased prompts. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 30, 208-217. Summary Available
Lacey, P. (2001). The role of learning support assistants in the inclusive learning of pupils with severe and profound learning difficulties. Educational Review, 53(2), 157-167. Summary Available
Marks, S.U., Schrader, C., & Levine, M. (1999). Paraeducator Experiences: Helping, Hovering, or Holding Their Own? Exceptional Children, 65(3), 315-319. Summary Available
Werts, M G., Wolery. M., Snyder, E., & Caldwell, N. (1996). Teachers'
perceptions of the supports critical to the success of inclusion programs. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 21(1),
None Available at This Time
Ideas From the Field
Ideas from the field were generated and put into practice by school teams who used the the tool,
"A Guide to Schoolwide Planning for Paraeducator Supports"
- Include paraeducators on school committees
- Include paraeducators on IEP teams
Teamwork: Establish Norms and Schedules; Source: Essex Elementary School, Essex Junction, VT, 2000.
A complete list of Selected Paraeducator References 1990 - 2001 with summaries is also available.
Last modified February 14 2008 11:20 AM