University of Vermont

The Center on Disability and Community Inclusion (CDCI)

Paraeducator Support:



Erwin, E. (1996). Meaningful participation in early childhood general education: Exploring the use of natural supports and adaptive strategies. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 90, 400-411.

Subjects or Participants:

Three year old with visual impairment, his parents, teacher, one full-time and one part-time assistant

Design and, if present, Intervention:

Descriptive: Participant observation & semi-structured interviews

Major Findings and Limitations:

Findings: Provision of context cues, use of spontaneous events for teaching, verbal directions and feedback by staff, cues and feedback by peers as modeled by staff, and individual student-generated strategies such as use of familiar landmarks & signals served as successful natural support strategies for an inclusive preschool. "Hands-off" approach was emphasized meaning support was provided in nonintrusive ways and only when needed.

Limitations noted by author: generalizability

Summarized by: Susan Edelman - May 1999

Last modified February 14 2008 11:22 AM

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