Honors 195A
Civil War
Fall 2009
Professor Rodgers
TR 1:00-2:15
481 Main, Room 301 (office)
Angell B203


Thucydides On Justice, Power, and Human Nature (tr. Woodruff)
Appian The Civil Wars (tr. Carter)
Julius Caesar The Civil War (tr. Carter)
Horace The Complete Odes and Epodes (tr. West)
Lucan Civil War (tr. Braund)
Seneca Dialogues and Essays (tr. Davie)
Josephus The Jewish War (tr. Williamson)
Tacitus The Histories (tr. Fyfe)

Online Texts

Livy Periochae (books 58-134 cover the period of the first-century BCE Roman civil wars; the Periochae are epitomes of the books of Livy's history)
Suetonius' Lives of the Twelve Caesars
Another site for Suetonius
Plutarch's Lives
Another site for Plutarch


Map of Most of the Ancient Greek World
Map with narrower boundaries
Areas of Colonization (Greek and Phoenician)
Map of the Macedonian Empire
Hellenistic kingdoms
Rome in Italy 500-100 BCE
Map of Western Provinces
Provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire
Expansion of Rome 264 BCE - 180 CE

Information on bibliographical references:

Journal abbreviations: On this syllabus, journals are abbreviated according to the conventions of L'Année philologique (henceforth APh), a bibliographical database. There are many online lists of these abbreviations; here is the one from UC Berkeley
If the UVM library does not have a subscription to the periodical in question, on this syllabus there will always be a reference number of seven digits.

UVM library has an online subscription to APh. To find it, choose the link Articles & More on the main library page, then the letter L in the alphabet.

There is also a print edition of APh through 2004, shelved in Reference Z7016 .A56. Here are instructions for using the print edition, which for some things (e.g., personal names) is better than the electronic version.


1  Civil war: stasis
Moshe Berent, "Stasis, or the Greek Invention of Politics," HPTh 19 (1998) 331-362.
See also M. I. Finley, Democracy Ancient and Modern (New Brunswick NJ 1985) JC79 .A8 F5 1985
Hans-Joachim Gehrke. Stasis. Untersuchungen zu den inneren Kriegen in den griechischen Staaten des 5. und 4. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. (Munich 1985). DF82 .G44 1985
Nicole Loraux, "Oikeios polemos. La guerra nella famiglia," StudStor 28 (1987) 5-35 [59-13045
Antonio López Eire, "La revolución en el pensamiento politico de Tucídides, I," Gerión 8 (1990) 89-114 [62-05832
Laura Sancho-Rocher, "El demos y la stasis en la obra de Tucídides," Ktèma 15 (1990) 195-215 [70-06136
Mauro Moggi, "'Stasis', 'prodosia' e 'polemos' in Tucidide," in Fazioni e congiure nel mondo antico ed. Marta Sordi (Milan: Vita e Pensiero 1999) 41-72. [71-06450

3  Environment and action: circumscribed by circumstances

Thucydides 1-3: archaeology, conference at Sparta, funeral oration and plague
Anders Holm Rasmussen, "Thucydides' Conception of the Peloponnesian War 2, Hellas," C&M 53 (2002) 81-100
See also Jonathan J. Price, Thucydides and Internal War (Cambridge 2001). DF229.T55 P75 2001
Mariella Cagnetta, "La peste e la 'stasis', QS 27 (2001) 5-37 [72-07353
Simonetta Grandolini, "Colpa, peste e contestazione politica: dal mito alla storia," GIF 54 (2002) 177-195 [73-07758
Emily Greenwood, Thucydides and the Shaping of History (London 2006). DF229 .T6 G67 2006
Darien Shanske, Thucydides and the Philosophical Origins of History (Cambridge 2007). DF229 .T6 S47 2007
John G. Zumbrunnen, Silence and Democracy. Athenian Politics in Thucydides' History (University Park PA 2008). JC75 .D36 Z86 2008

8  The rhetoric of inclusion, liberation, and oppression

Thucydides 4-6 Plataea, Mitylene, Corcyra, Acanthus, Melos
Lowell Edmunds, "Thucydides' Ethics as Reflected in the Description of Stasis (3.82-83)," HSPh 79 (1975) 73-92
C. W. MacLeod, "Thucydides on Faction (3.82-83)," PCPhS 25 (1979) 52-68 [50-04623

Note, in connection with the discussion of stasis at Corcyra, one of Solon's laws regarding civil strife: "Amongst his other laws, one is very peculiar and surprising, which disfranchises all who stand neuter in a sedition; for it seems he would not have any one remain insensible and regardless of the public good, and, securing his private affairs, glory that he has no feeling of the distempers of his country; but at once join with the good party and those that have the right upon their side, assist and venture with them, rather than keep out of harm's way and watch who would get the better." (Plutarch Life of Solon 20)

Outline of Thucydides Book 3

Two other translations of Thuc. 3.82-83

See also I. A. F. Bruce, "The Corcyraean Civil War," Phoenix 25 (1971) 108-117
J. J. Sayas, "La revolución de Corcira," HAnt 1 (1971) 179-195 [44-04240
C. W. MacLeod, "Thucydides' Plataean Debate," GRBS 18 (1977) 227-246 and "Reason and Necessity. Thucydides III,9,14, 37-48," JHS 98 (1978) 64-78
Nicole Loraux, "Thucydide et la sédition dans les mots," QS 12 (1986) 95-134 [57-04809
Emilia Sergi and Giuseppe Sergi, "Thuc. III 82.4: l'axiosis delle parole in tempo di stasis," AAPel 68 (1992) 331-350 [72-06776
Luigi Spina, "Chiamare le cose col loro nome: a proposito di Tucicide III 82.4," QS 25 (1999) 247-260 [70-06141

10  What happens when you attack what is most like yourself

Thucydides 7-8 Sicily, the end
M. Cary, "Notes on the Revolution of the Four Hundred at Athens," JHS 72 (1952) 56-61
L. A. Losada, "Megara and Athens. Thucydides and the Motivation for Treason," C&M 30 (1969) 145-157
See also Andrew Wolpert, Remembering Defeat: Civil War and Civic Memory in Ancient Athens (Baltimore 2002). DF231.3 .W65 2002
Marshall Sahlins, Apologies to Thucydides. Understanding History as Culture and Vice Versa (Chicago 2004) DF229 .T6 S24 2004
Deborah Steiner, "For Want of a Horse: Thucydides 6.30-2 and Reversals in the Athenian Civic Ideal," CQ 55 (2005) 407-422
Elizabeth A. Meyer, "Thucydides on Harmodius and Aristogeiton, Tyranny, and History," CQ 58 (2008) 13-34

15  Polybius in general and in particular

Polybius on forms of government and on civil war in Cynaitha (it is not necessary, although it is entertaining, to read the passages about the Black Sea and Byzantium)
D. Mendels, "Polybius and the Socio-Economic Revolution in Greece (227-146 B.C.)," AC 51 (1982) 86-110
James Davidson, "The Gaze in Polybius' Histories," JRS 81 (1991) 10-24
Mary Frances Williams, "Polybius on Wealth, Bribery, and the Downfall of Constitutions," AHB 14 (2000) 131-148 [71-04601

17  One civil war within another

Appian book 1.1-54      Notes on Appian
Ronald T. Ridley, "The Contradictory Revolution: the Italian War (91-89 BC)," AH 33 (2003) 31-57 [76-11759

Roman and Italian minted propaganda (the links for the relevant coins minted during the Social War are at the very bottom of the page)
Prosopography of magistrates, with brief notices of events, for the years 134-31 BCE

21  Essay on manifestation(s) or representation(s) of civil strife in or among Greek city-states

22  Sulla's legacy

Appian book 1.55-121
See also François Hinard, Les proscriptions de la Rome républicaine (Paris 1985). KJA3620.P74 H56 1985
Frederic Hurlet, La dictature de Sylla: monarchie ou magistrature republicaine?: essai d'histoire constitutionnelle (Brussels 1993) DG256.7 .H8 1993
Michael Lovano, The Age of Cinna: Crucible of Late Republican Rome (Stuttgart 2002). DG257.6 .L68 2002
Arthur Keaveney, Sulla, the Last Republican (London 2005). DG256.7 .K42 2005
François Hinard, Sullana varia: aux sources de la première guerre civile romaine (Paris 2008). DG257.5 .H553 2008

24  Caesar's dignitas and Caesar's war

Caesar BC books 1 and 2.17-44; Appian book 2.1-58      Notes to Caesar
Frank A. Sirianni, "Caesar's peace overtures to Pompey," AC 62 (1993) 219-237
Christopher T. H. R. Ehrhardt, "Crossing the Rubicon," Antichthon 29 (1996) 30-41
Robert Stanton, "Why did Caesar cross the Rubicon?," Historia 52 (2003) 67-94
See also R. T. Ridley, "The Economics of Civil War," Helikon 20-21 (1980-1981) 27-41 [54-11362
John Henderson, "XPDNC/Writing Caesar (Bellum civile)," ClAnt 15 (1996) 261-288

29  Civil war battles

Caesar BC book 3, African War 65-98; Appian book 2.59-105
See also J. P. V. D. Balsdon, Julius Caesar and Rome (London 1967). DG261 .B34 1967b (NB: narrative, no notes, references, or bibliography)


1  Opposition and Memory

Appian book 2.106-154; Sallust Bellum Catilinae 50-54 (the speeches of Caesar and Cato on how to deal with the conspirators in the year 63 (cf. Appian 2.2-7), and Sallust's comparison of the two men)
Alain M. Gowing, "Memory and silence in Cicero's 'Brutus'," Eranos 98 (2000) 39-64
William Batstone. "The Antithesis of Virtue: Sallust's Synkrisis and the Crisis of the Late Republic," ClAnt 19 (1988) 1-29
See also G. B. Harrison, Julius Caesar in Shakespeare, Shaw and the Ancients (New York 1960). [this is a sourcebook] DG262 .H32
Matthias Gelzer, Cicero und Caesar (Wiesbaden 1968). DG260 .C53 G4
Francis Cairns and Elaine Fantham, edd., Caesar against Liberty? Perspectives on his Autocracy (Cambridge 2003)

6  Caesar's heirs

Appian book 3; Plutarch Life of Antony 14-21
See also John G. W. Henderson, Fighting for Rome. Poets and Caesars, History and Civil War (Cambridge 1998). PA6019 .H46 1998
Gabriella Vanotti, "A proposito di Ottaviano Augusto 'vindex libertatis'," Fazioni e congiure nel mondo antico ed. Marta Sordi (Milan: Vita e Pensiero 1999) 161-179
Melissa Barden Dowling, Clemency and Cruelty in the Roman World (Ann Arbor 2006). HV8526 .D69 2006
Josiah Osgood. Caesar's Legacy. Civil War and the Emergence of the Roman Empire (Cambridge 2006). DG279 .O84 2006

8  Second proscription

Laudatio Turiae; Appian book 4
Geoffrey S. Sumi, "Civil War, Women and Spectacle in the Triumviral Period," AncW 35 (2004) 196-206 [76-12880

Augustus' Res gestae; (Res gestae divi Augusti can also be found here)

13  Archilochus redivivus

Horace Epodes 1, 7, 9, 13, 16; Satires I.7; Odes I.2, 14; II.1, 7; III.5, 6, 14, 24
Emily Gowers, "Blind Eyes and Cut Throats: Amnesia and Silence in Horace Satires 1.7," CPh 97 (2002) 145-161
See also R. S. Kilpatrick, "An Interpretation of Horace, Epodes 13," CQ 20 (1970) 135-141
C. L. Babcock, "Omne militabitur bellum. The Language of Commitment in Epode 1," CJ 70 (1974) 14-31
Ernst A. Schmidt, "'Vornehm par excellence': über Noblesse und Takt in Horazens Philippi-Gedichten: (Epode 13 - Ode 2, 7 - Ode 3, 14)," WS 107-108 (1994-1995) 377-396 [65-03340
John L. Moles, "Politics, Philosophy, and Friendship in Horace Odes 2,7," QUCC 54 (1987) 59-72 [58-02349
John Henderson, "On Getting Rid of Kings: Horace, Satire 1.7," CQ 44 (1994) 146-170

15  I can't, Caesar

Horace Odes I.6, 11, 12, 37; II.12; III.1-4; Epistles II.1; IV.2, 4, 5, 14, 15
P. L. Smith, "Poetic Tensions in the Horatian recusatio," AJPh 89 (1968) 56-65
Sjarlene Thom, "Lyric Double Talk in Horace's Roman Odes (Odes 3.1-6)," Akroterion 43 (1998) 52-66 [72-02876
Brian W. Breed, "'Tua, Caesar, aetas': Horace Ode 4.15 and the Augustan Age," AJPh 125 (2004) 245-253
See also Anton Powell, ed., Roman Poetry & Propaganda in the Age of Augustus (London 1992)
R. Alden Smith, "Horace Odes 1.6: mutatis mutandis, a Most Virgilian recusatio," Gymnasium 101 (1994) 502-505 [65-03352
Shannon Nora Byrne, "Horace Carm. 2.12, Maecenas, and Prose History," Antichthon 34 (2000) 18-29
Dominique Voisin, "Horace, Agrippa et les 'recusationes'," Latomus 61 (2002) 352-361
Anton Powell, Virgil the Partisan. A study in the re-integration of the Classics (Swansea 2008). PA6825 .P65 2008
Estimating growth or decline in first century BCE using coin hoards

How to speak openly: Frederick Ahl, "The Art of Safe Criticism in Greece and Rome," AJPh 105 (1984) 174-208

20  Looking back I

Lucan books 1-2, 3.1-297, 4-5
D. C. Feeney, "'Stat magni nominis umbra.' Lucan on the Greatness of Pompeius Magnus," CQ 36 (1986) 239-243
Matthew Roller, "Ethical Contradiction and the Fractured Community in Lucan's Bellum civile," ClAnt 15 (1996) 319-347
Juan María Núñez González, "On the Meaning of 'bella plus quam ciuilia' (Lucan 1, 1): a Relevant Hyperbole," Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History 13 (2006) 380-389 PA6011 .S86
See also Andrew Erskine, "Cato, Caesar and the name of the Republic in Lucan, Pharsalia 2.297-303," Scholia 7 (1998) 118-120 [69-02762
Elaine Fantham, "The Angry Poet and the Angry Gods: Problems of Theodicy in Lucan's Epic of Defeat," YClS 32 (2003) 229-249. PA25 .Y3 v. 32
Adeline Alloncle-Pery, "Rhétorique et guerres civiles dans la 'Pharsale' de Lucain," BAGB 2004 (1): 188-203
L. V. Pitcher, "A Perfect Storm? Caesar and His Audiences at Lucan 5.504-702," CQ 58 (2008) 243-249

22  Looking back II

Lucan books 6-8, 9.1-50
Nigel Holmes, "Nero and Caesar: Lucan 1.33-66," CPh 1999 94 (1): 75-81
Martha A. Malamud, "Pompey's Head and Cato's Snakes," CPh 98 (2003): 31-44
Diana Spencer, "Lucan's Follies: Memory and Ruin in a Civil-War Landscape," G&R 52 (2005) 46-69
See also René Pichon, Les sources de Lucain (Paris 1912). PA6480 .P4
Jamie Masters, Poetry and Civil War in Lucan's Bellum Civile (Cambridge 1992). PA6480 .M35 1992
Shadi Bartsch, Ideology in Cold Blood. A Reading of Lucan's Civil War (Cambridge, MA 1997). PA6480 .B374 1997
Anne-Marie Lewis, "What dreadful purpose do you have?: A New Explanation for the Astrological Prophecy of Nigidius Figulus in Lucan's 'Pharsalia' I, 658-63," Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History 9 (1998) 379-400 PA6011 .S86
Robert John Sklenár, "Nihilistic Cosmology and Catonian Ethics in Lucan's 'Bellum ciuile'," AJPh 120 (1999) 281-296
Elaine Fantham, "Lucan and the Republican Senate: Ideology, Historical Record and Prosopography," in Interpretare Lucano: miscellanea di studi, ed. Paolo Esposito and Luciano Nicastri (Napoli: Arte Tipografica, 1999): 109-125 [71-03033
Emanuele Narducci, "Catone in Lucano: (e alcune interpretazioni recenti)," Athenaeum 89 (2001) 171-186 [72-03225
Alfredo Casamento, "Mario, la sorte ed il 'bellum civile': lettura di Luc. Phars. 2, 67-93," BStudLat 33 (2003) 61-83 [74-03526
Tim Stover, "Cato and the Intended Scope of Lucan's Bellum Civile," CQ 58 (2008) 571-580

27  Looking forward

Seneca On Providence, On Anger, On Mercy
See also J. P. Sullivan, Literature and Politics in the Age of Nero (Ithaca NY 1985). PA6029.P64 S85 1985
Vasily Rudich, Dissidence and Literature under Nero: the Price of Rhetoricization (London 1997). PA6029.P64 R84 1997
List of Roman Emperors from Augustus to Heraclius

29  Almost a new regime

Seneca On the Happy Life; Tacitus Annales 15.48-74, 16.16-19
E. Keitel, "Principate and Civil War in the Annals of Tacitus," AJPh 105 (1984) 306-325
David B. George, "Lucan's Cato and Stoic attitudes to the Republic," ClAnt 10 (1991) 237-258
Spyridon Chr. Tzounakas, "Echoes of Lucan in Tacitus: the 'cohortationes' of Pompey and Calgacus," Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History 12 (2005) 395-413 PA6011 .S86


2  Essay on Roman civil strife: elimination, or assimilation, or accommodation, or on poetry or philosophy

3  Family strife and accommodating the Romans

Josephus BJ chapters 1-6

5  Or not

Josephus BJ chapters 7-12
Pontius Pilatus dedicated a Tiberieum to his emperor

10  Joppa to Jerusalem: Vespasian

Josephus BJ chapters 13-18

12  Enemies without and within

Josephus BJ chapters 19-23 is no longer required; please read Suetonius Life of Nero (links at top of syllabus to two translations of Suetonius)

17  The year of four emperors I: Galba

Tacitus Histories 1.1-90; Notes on Tacitus (scroll down for the Histories)
H. W. Benario, "Priam and Galba," CW 65 (1972) 146-147
B. Walker, "A Study in Incoherence. The First Book of Tacitus' Histories," CPh 71 (1976) 113-118
Victoria E. Pagán, "Shadows and Assassinations: Forms of Time in Tacitus and Appian," Arethusa 39 (2006) 193-218
Elizabeth Keitel, "Sententia and Structure in Tacitus Histories 1.12-49," Arethusa 39 (2006) 219-244
See also Suetonius Life of Galba; Plutarch Life of Galba
F. Paschoud, "Tacite, Histoires i,50. Art de la composition et vérité historique," in Lemmata. Donum natalicium W. Ehlers sexagenario a sodalibus Thesauri linguae Latinae oblatum (Munich 1968) 232-245. [39-03409 and see also same author and same title in Argos 3 (1979) 7-19 [50-04186
Thomas Cole, "'Initium mihi operis Servius Galba iterum T. Vinius consules... '," YClS 29 (1992) 231-245 [63-05341
M. Gwyn Morgan, "Dispositions for Disaster: Tacitus, Histories 1. 31," Eranos 90 (1992) 55-62. [63-05359
Bruno Poulle, "La mort de Galba et le lacus Curtius," BAGB 1998 310-317
Rhiannon Ash, Ordering Anarchy. Armies and Leaders in Tacitus' Histories (Ann Arbor 1999). DG286 .A84 1999
M. Gwyn Morgan, "Clodius Macer and Calvia Crispinilla," Historia 49 (2000) 467-487
Kenneth Wellesley, The Year of the Four Emperors third edition (London 2000) DG286 .W44 2000
Gwyn Morgan, 69 A.D. The Year of Four Emperors (Oxford 2006). DG286 .M64 2006

19  The year of four emperors II: Otho

Tacitus Histories 2.1-101
W. J. Switala, "A Portrait of the Effects of Political Corruption. Tacitus Hist. 2.62-64, 70, 87-90," CB 55 (1979) 45-46
M. Gwyn Morgan, "The Smell of Victory: Vitellius at Bedriacum: (Tac. Hist. 2. 70)," CPh 87 (1992) 14-29
Rhiannon Ash, "Warped Intertextualities: Naevius and Sallust at Tacitus Histories 2.12.2," Histos 1 (1997) no page numbers; online journal: http://www.dur.ac.uk/Classics/histos/1997/index.html
See also Suetonius Life of Otho; Plutarch Life of Otho
C. A. Powell, "Deum ira, hominum rabies," Latomus 31 (1972) 833-848
Eleni Manolaraki, "A Picture Worth a Thousand Words: Revisiting Bedriacum (Tacitus Histories 2.70)," CPh 100 (2005) 243-267
Gwyn Morgan, "Martius Macer's Raid and its Consequences: Tacitus, Histories 2.23," CQ 55 (2005) 572-581

23  Essay on external pressures is no longer due on this date. There will be only one more paper, which must involve research, and can either be on the topic previously described for the research paper, or on the topic of civil war in the Roman empire (as opposed to Roman republic). Please ask in class about this, send an e-mail, or come to the office.

24  The year of four emperors III: Vitellius

Tacitus Histories 3.1-86
R. T. S. Baxter, "Virgil's Influence on Tacitus in Book 3 of the Histories," CPh 66 (1971) 93-107
N. P. Miller and P. V. Jones, "Critical appreciations: III: Tacitus, Histories 3.38-39," G&R 25 (1978) 70-80
Arthur J. Pomeroy, "Theatricality in Tacitus's Histories," Arethusa 39 (2006) 171-191
See also Suetonius Life of Vitellius
R. T. Scott, "A Note on the City and the Camp in Tacitus, Histories 3.71," AJAH 9 (1984) 109-111 [61-04103
Caroline A. Perkins, "Vitellius the spectaculum: a Note on Histories 3.84.5," CB 66 (1990) 47-49
Elizabeth Keitel, "Foedum spectaculum and Related Motifs in Tacitus Histories II-III," RhM 135 (1992) 342-351
David S. Levene, "Pity, Fear and the Historical Audience: Tacitus on the Fall of Vitellius. in The passions in Roman thought and literature, ed. Susanna Morton Braund and Christopher Gill (Cambridge 1997) 128-149 PA6029.E56 P37 1997
Fabrice Galtier, "La mort de Junius Blaesus ou L'illusion tragique: (Tacite, Histoires III, 38-39)," Latomus 60 (2001) 637-646
Elizabeth Keitel, "The Virgilian Reminiscences at Tacitus Histories 3.84.4," CQ 58 (2008) 705-708


1  New dynasty, new problems

Tacitus Histories 4.1-86
R. S. Rogers, "A Criminal Trial of A.D. 70," TAPhA 80 (1949) 347-350.
See also John Nicols, Vespasian and the partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden 1978) DG289 .N53

3  Loose ends

Tacitus Histories 5.1-26; Agricola 1-9
Ellen O'Gorman, "Shifting Ground: Lucan, Tacitus and the Landscape of Civil War," Hermathena 158 (1995) 117-131 [66-04117
Cynthia Damon, "Potior utroque Vespasianus: Vespasian and His Predecessors in Tacitus's Histories," Arethusa 39 (2006) 245-279
Holly Haynes, The History of Make-Believe. Tacitus on Imperial Rome (Berkeley 2003). DG286 .H39 2003

8  And so it goes

Tacitus Agricola 40-46; Pliny Epistles 1.5, 2.1, 2.11-12, 3.7, 3.9, 3.16
Holly Haynes, "Survival and Memory in the Agricola," Arethusa 39 (2006) 149-170.
Ellen O'Gorman, "Alternative Empires: Tacitus's Virtual History of the Pisonian Principate," Arethusa 39 (2006) 281-301
See also M. Fuhrmann, "Das Vierkaiserjahr bei Tacitus. Über den Aufbau der Historien Buch I-III," Philologus 104 (1960) 250-278
R. Carré, "L'utilisation du nom de Néron dans les Histoires de Tacite," ALMArv 15 (1988) 15-22 [63-05340
Rhiannon Ash, "Severed Heads: Individual Portraits and Irrational Forces in Plutarch's Galba and Otho, in Plutarch and His Intellectual World: Essays on Plutarch, ed. Judith M. Mossman (London: Duckworth 1997) 189-214 PA4382 .P58 1997
Rhiannon Evans, "Containment and Corruption: the Discourse of Flavian Empire" in Flavian Rome. Culture, Image, Text edd. A. J. Boyle and W. J. Dominik (Leiden 2003) 255-276
John L. Penwill, "Expelling the Mind: Politics and Philosophy in Flavian Rome," in Flavian Rome. Culture, Image, Text edd. A. J. Boyle and W. J. Dominik (Leiden 2003) 345-368
Joseph A. Smith, "Flavian Drama: Looking Back with Octavia," in in Flavian Rome. Culture, Image, Text edd. A. J. Boyle and W. J. Dominik (Leiden 2003) 391-430.
Marcus Wilson, "After the Silence: Tacitus, Suetonius, Juvenal," in in Flavian Rome. Culture, Image, Text edd. A. J. Boyle and W. J. Dominik (Leiden 2003) 523-542.

14  Research paper due (note change of day)

Final grade will be based upon: Three essays based upon ancient sources and modern scholarship (20% for the first, 25% each for the other two); research paper on a particular civil conflict, ancient or modern (30%)

Due dates: 21 September (essay 1), 26 October (essay 2), 14 December (research paper)

Office hours:  3:00-4:00 Tuesday and Thursday and by appointment
Telephone 656-4607

Last updated: 14 November 2009
Send Comments to: Barbara Rodgers, bsaylor@uvm.edu
Copyright © 2009 Barbara Saylor Rodgers
All Rights Reserved.