Center for Sustainable Agriculture
Understanding Good Agricultural Practices & Practical Food Safety
Farmers who are seeking to become GAPs certified in order to satisfy the requirements of potential or existing buyers have an easy decision (though a lot of work) ahead of them. But for other growers, the decision between GAPs certification and a well-documented Practical Food Safety plan may not be quite so obvious. We've gathered answers to frequently asked questions to assist you in your decision process, and are available to answer questions and assist you along the way.
Frequently Asked Questions
- What are Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs)?
- Do I need a GAPs Audit?
- What is involved with creating a GAPs plan?
- Can I develop a Practical Food Safety Plan instead?
- Do all Vermont produce growers need some sort of food safety plan?
- (Contact us or visit our extensive GAPs & Produce Safety Resources Page for more information.)
What are Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs)?
Good Agricultural Practices, or GAPs, were developed in 1998 as voluntary guidelines for produce farmers to reduce the risk of microbial contamination related to food borne illnesses on their farms. They were based on the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s Guide to Minimizing Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Produce. However, after a dramatic increase in the number of food borne illness outbreaks associated with fresh produce beginning in the mid-2000's, some larger buyers, especially supermarkets, began requiring their vendors to be audited by a third party to certify that they were following Good Agricultural Practices.
Today there are private third party GAPs Audits offered by private companies, as well as a USDA GAPs Audit. Buyers will tell farmers which type of Audit they require.
The USDA GAPs Audit consists of seven sections. Each section is composed of questions pertaining to food safety practices which are scored. A grower must get a score of 80% to pass each section. If you are seeking GAPs certification to meet a buyer's requirement, the buyer will tell you which sections of the Audit you must pass.
Do I need a GAPs Audit?
Currently, only a few buyers in Vermont are requiring GAPs Certification. You need to have a GAPs Audit if you intend to sell to one of these buyers:
Hannafords and Price Chopper currently require all growers to be certified in the the first three sections of a USDA GAPs Audit for at least one crop.
J.P. Sullivan and Red Tomato - These buyers have their own third party food safety audit. You should contact them for more information.
Black River Produce is asking vendors to have a traceability system and to fill out a checklist of food safety practices that is based on GAPs principles, but they have not yet required their growers to undergo a third party food safety inspection.
What is involved with creating a GAPs plan?
Creating a GAPs plan for your farm consists of three stages:
- Assessment: Identifying the food safety risks on your farm
- Planning: Writing a plan that consists of policies and standard operating procedures (SOPs)for addressing those risks
- Implementation and record-keeping: Documenting that you are following your policies and SOPs
The Center is available to help you with each of these stages. Email Ginger Nickerson to ask questions or to set up a time to meet.
Can I develop a Practical Food Safety Plan instead?
UVM Extension has developed materials to help growers who are not intending on becoming GAP certified develop a an on-farm food safety plan. Such a plan will still give growers the benefits of a document explaining their practices to share with customers without having to go through a GAPs Audit. You should use these materials if you direct market your produce and none of your buyers are currently requiring GAPs certification.
Do all Vermont produce growers need some sort of food safety plan?
With the increased national attention on food safety, and buyers' insurers' concerns about liability, we expect that more and more buyers will be asking growers about their food safety plans. For example, although currently there are no Federal rules that require farms that direct market to schools to be GAP certified, some school districts and hospitals are considering asking growers for either a GAPs Audit or a food safety plan. For this reason, we are encouraging all Vermont produce growers to develop some type of food safety plan, even if you do not sell to a buyer who is requiring GAPs certification. Even if you only direct market your produce, having a food safety plan and following good hygiene and sanitation practices can benefit your operation in a number of ways:
- Improve quality and shelf-life of your product
- Increase organization and efficiency of your operation
- Reduce pests and spoilage
- Provide consumers with information about your commitment to food safety
- Increase access to markets requiring food safety plans
Last modified April 30 2013 12:53 PM