University of Vermont

wkeeton publications

Publications (listed chronologically)


1 Peer-reviewed journal article
2 Peer-reviewed USDA Forest Service general technical report
3 Peer-reviewed book chapter
4 Book, peer-reviewed
5 Conference proceedings, not peer-reviewed
6 Published reports: a) peer-reviewed; b) not peer-reviewed
7 Journal letter, commentary, or book review: a) peer reviewed; b) editor review only

In Review

Egan, A., W.S. Keeton, C. Danks, and I. Soloviy. Exploring community impacts and benefits in forest carbon projects in the Carpathian Mountain region of Europe. Society and Natural Resources.1


In Revision

Keeton, W.S., E. M. Copeland, and M.C. Watzin. Towards flood resilience: exploring linkages between riparian forest structure and geomorphic condition in northeastern U.S. streams. Forest Ecology and Management. 1

Warren, D.R., M.J. Kaylor, W.S. Keeton, P. M. Kiffney, H.A. Bechtold, and J. Magee. Changing forests – changing streams: anticipating future interactions among riparian forest stand development, light dynamics, and stream ecosystem functions. Freshwater Science. 1



Keeton, W.S. 2015. Forests and forestry in a changing world (Book Review). Ecology 96: 2570-2571. 7b pdf

Mika, A. and W.S. Keeton. 2015. Net carbon fluxes at stand and landscape scales from wood bioenergy harvests in the U.S. Northeast. Global Change Biology: Bioenergy. 7: 438–454. 1 pdf

Dove, N.C and W.S. Keeton. 2015. Structural complexity enhancement increases fungi diversity in northern hardwood forests. Fungal Ecology 13: 181-192.1 pdf

Kerchner, C. and W.S. Keeton. 2015. California’s regulatory forest carbon market: panacea or Pandora’s box for northeastern landowners? Forest Policy and Economics 50:70–81.1 pdf

Leonard, M. and 47 contributors. 2015. Voluntary Harvesting Guidelines for Landowners in Vermont. Vermont Department of Forests, Parks, and Recreation. Montpelier, Vermont. 65 pp. 6b pdf



Mikoláš, M. M. Svoboda, V. Pouska, R. C. Morrissey, D. C. Donato, W. S. Keeton, T. Nagel, V. D. Popescu, J. Müller, C. Bässler, J. Knorn, L. Rozylowicz, M. C. Enescu, V. Trotsiuk, P. Janda, H. Mrhalová, Z. Michalová, F. Krumm, and D. Kraus. 2014. Comment on the "Opinion paper: Forest management and biodiversity": The role of protected areas is greater than the sum of its number of species. Web Ecology 14:61–64.7a pdf

Malek, S., J. Kazimierz, W.S. Keeton, J. Barszcz, M. Kroczek, E. Blonska, and T. Wanic. 2014. Effects of fertilization on ecochemical soil conditions in mature spruce stands experiencing dieback in the Beskid Slaski and Zywiecki Mountains, Poland. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 225:1971-1988.1 pdf

Russell-Roy, E.T, W.S. Keeton, J.A. Pontius, and C.D. Kerchner. 2014. Rehabilitation forestry and carbon market access on high-graded northern hardwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research: 44: 614–627.1 pdf

Buchholz, T., A.J. Friedland, C.E. Hornig, W.S. Keeton, G. Zanchi, and J. Nunery. 2014. Mineral soil carbon fluxes in forests and implications for carbon balance assessments. Global Change Biology: Bioenergy 6: 305–311.1 pdf

Saligman, L., E. Russell-Roy, W.S. Keeton, C. Danks, J. Gunn, and B. Machin. 2014. Rehabilitation forestry & carbon markets: A case study from northeastern Vermont. Final Report Prepared for Vermont Natural Resources Conservation Service, Conservation Innovation Grant# 69-1644-09-02. Conservation Collaboratives, Victory, VT. 62 pp. 6a pdf



Mika, A. and W.S. Keeton. 2013. Factors contributing to carbon fluxes from bioenergy harvests in the U.S. Northeast: an analysis using field data. GCB Bioenergy 5: 290–305. 1 pdf

Warren, D.R., W.S. Keeton, H. A. Bechtold, and E.J. Rosi-Marshall. 2013. Comparing streambed light availability and canopy cover in streams with old-growth versus early-mature riparian forests in western Oregon. Aquatic Sciences 75:547–558. 1 pdf

Keeton, W.S., P. Angelstam, M. Baumflek, Y. Bihun, M. Chernyavskyy, S. M. Crow, A, Deyneka, M. Elbakidze, J. Farley, V. Kovalyshyn, B. Mahura, S Myklush, J. R. Nunery, I. Solovity, and L. Zahvoyska. 2013. Sustainable forest management alternatives for the Carpathian Mountain region, with a focus on Ukraine. Pages 331-352 in J. Kozak, K. Ostapowicz, A. Bytnerowicz, and B. Wyzga (eds.) The Carpathians: Integrating Nature and Society Towards Sustainability. Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany. 3 pdf

Burrascano, S., W.S. Keeton, F.M. Sabatini, and C. Blasi. 2013. Commonality and variability in the structural attributes of moist temperate old-growth forests: A global review. Forest Ecology and Management 291:458–479. 1 pdf



Littlefield, C. and W.S. Keeton. 2012. Effects of wood bioenergy harvesting on stand structural complexity and habitat characteristics in northern hardwood forests. Ecological Applications 22: 1892-1909. 1 (pdf)

Schwenk, W.S., T.M. Donovan, W. S. Keeton, and J. S. Nunery. Carbon storage, timber production, and biodiversity: comparing ecosystem services with multi-criteria decision analysis. Ecological Applications 22:1612–1627. 1 (pdf)

Knorn, J., T. Kuemmerle, A. Szabo, M. Mindrescu, W. S. Keeton, V. C. Radeloff, I. Abrudan, P. Griffiths, V. Gancz, and P. Hostert. 2012. Forest restitution and protected area effectiveness in post-socialist Romania. Biological Conservation 146: 204–212. 1 pdf

Knorn, J., T. Kuemmerle, V.C. Radeloff, W.S. Keeton, V. Gancz, I.A. Biris, M. Svoboda, P. Griffiths, A. Hagatis, and P. Hostert. 2012. Continued loss of temperate old-growth forests in the Romanian Carpathians despite an increasing protected area network. Environmental Conservation 40: 182–193. 1 pdf

Gunn, J. A., D. J. Ganz, and W. S. Keeton. 2012. Biogenic vs. geologic carbon emissions and forest biomass energy production. Global Change Biology: Bioenergy 4:239-242. 7a (pdf)

Biomass Energy Working Group. 2012. Biomass Energy Development Working Group Final Report. Legislative Council, Vermont State Legislature, Montpelier, VT. 196 pp. 6b (pdf)

Egan, A. R., W. S. Keeton, C. M. Danks, and I. Soloviy. 2012. Assessing capacity for community-based carbon project in the Carpathian region, Ukraine. Pages 7-10 in M. Boltiziar (ed.). Forum Carpaticum 2012: From Data to Knowledge, from Knowledge to Action (Proceedings). Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava. 5



Keeton, W.S., A. A. Whitman, G.G. McGee, and C.L. Goodale. 2011. Late-successional biomass development in northern hardwood-conifer forests of the northeastern United States. Forest Science 57:489-505. 1 (pdf)

Kraft, C., D. Warren, W.S. Keeton. 2011. Identifying the spatial pattern of wood distribution in northeastern North American streams. Geomorphology 135: 1-7. 1 (pdf)

Main-knorn, M., G. G. Moisen, S. P. Healey, W. S. Keeton, E. A. Freeman, and P. Hostert. 2011. Evaluating the remote sensing and inventory-based estimation of biomass in the western Carpathians. Remote Sensing 3: 1427-1446. 1 (pdf)

Pucko, C., B. Beckage, T. Perkins, and W. Keeton. 2011. Species shifts in response to climate change: individual or shared response? Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 138:154-174. 1 (pdf)

Kuemmerle, T., P. Olofsson, O. Chaskovskyy, M. Baumann, K. Ostapowicz, C.E. Woodcok, R. Houghton, P. Hostert, W.S. Keeton, and V.C. Radeloff. 2011. Post-Soviet farmland abandonment, forest recovery, and carbon sequestration in western Ukraine. Global Change Biology 17:1335–1349. 1 (pdf)

Hayes, J.P., A. T. Herlihy, R. B. Jackson, G. P. Juday, W. S. Keeton, J. E. Leahy, B. R. Noon. 2011. Science Review of the US Forest Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for National Forest System Land Management. Resolve, Washington, DC. 112 pp. 6b (pdf)

Biomass Energy Working Group. 2011. Biomass Energy Development Working Group 2011 Interim Report. Leglislative Council, Vermont State Legislature, Montpelier, VT. 54 pp. 6b (pdf)



Keeton, W. S., M. Chernyavskyy, G. Gratzer, M. Main-Knorn, M. Shpylchak, and Y. Bihun. 2010. Structural characteristics and aboveground biomass of old-growth spruce-fir stands in the eastern Carpathian mountains, Ukraine. Plant Biosystems 144: 1-12.1(pdf)

Nunery, J.S. and W.S. Keeton. 2010. Forest carbon storage in the northeastern United States: net effects of harvesting frequency, post-harvest retention, and wood products. Forest Ecology and Management 259:1363-1375. 1 (pdf)

Curzon, M.T. and W.S. Keeton. 2010. Spatial characteristics of canopy disturbances in riparian old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forests, Adirondack Mountains, New York, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40:67-80. 1 (pdf)

Foster, B.C., D. Wang, W.S. Keeton, and M.S. Ashton. 2010. Implementing sustainable forest management using six concepts in an adaptive management framework. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 29:79-108. 1 (pdf)

Foster, D.R., B.M. Donahue, D.B. Kittredge, K.F. Lambert, M.L. Hunter, B.R. Hall, L.C. Irland, R.J. Lilieholm, D.A. Orwig, A.W. D'Amato, E.A. Colburn, J.R. Thompson, J.N. Levitt, A.M. Ellison, W.S. Keeton, J. D. Aber, C.V. Cogbill, C.T. Driscoll, T.J. Fahey, C.M. Hart. 2010. Wildland and woodlands: a vision for the New England landscape. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 36 pp. 6a (For more information)

Keeton, W.S., S. Burrascano, C. Pucko, C. Blasi, Y. Bihun, J. Chen, M. Chernyavskyy, B. Commarmot, J.F. Franklin, G. Gratzer, J.S. Nunery, Y. Shparyk, T.A. Spies, and M.E. Swanson. 2010. A global analysis of temperate old-growth forests: commonality in carbon storage and co-varying ecosystem functions (abstract). International Forestry Review 12(5):3. 5

Foster, B.C., T.A. Robards, and W.S. Keeton. 2010 Carbon dynamics associated with even-aged forest management (CAR White Paper). Climate Action Reserve, Los Angeles, CA. 62 pp. 6b (pdf)



Stovall, J., W.S. Keeton, and C.E. Kraft. 2009. Late-successional riparian forest structure results in heterogeneous periphyton distributions in low-order streams. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29: 2343-2354. 1 (pdf)

Warren, D.R., C.E. Kraft, W.S. Keeton, J.S. Nunery, and G.E. Likens. 2009. Dynamics of wood recruitment in streams of the northeastern U.S. Forest Ecology and Management 258:804-813. 1 (pdf)

Soloviy, I. and W.S. Keeton (eds.). 2009. Ecological Economics and Sustainable Forest Management: Developing a Trans-disciplinary Approach for the Carpathian Mountains. Ukrainian National Forestry University Press, Lviv, Ukraine. 416 pp. 4
(pdf) (pdf of color illustrations)

Keeton, W.S. and S.M. Crow. 2009. Sustainable forest management alternatives for the Carpathian Mountain region: providing a broad array of ecosystem service. Pages 109-126 in: I. Soloviy and W.S. Keeton (eds.). Ecological Economics and Sustainable Forest Management: Developing a Trans-disciplinary Approach for the Carpathian Mountains. Ukrainian National Forestry University Press, Lviv, Ukraine. 3 (pdf)

Kuemmerle, T., O. Chaskovskyy, J. Knorn, V.C. Radeloff, I. Kruhlov, W.S. Keeton, and P. Hostert. 2009. Forest cover change and illegal logging in the Ukrainian Carpathians in the transition period from 1988 to 2007. Remote Sensing of Environment 113:1194-1207. 1 (pdf)

Ray, D.G., R.S. Seymour, N.S. Scott, and W.S. Keeton. 2009. Mitigating climate change with managed forests: balancing expectations, opportunity, and risk. Journal of Forestry, January/February Issue: 50-51. 7 (pdf)

Sleeper, D. (ed.), J. Andrews, L.A. Dupigny-Giroux, S. Faccio, J. Jenkins, W.S. Keeton, R. Kelley, J. Kellogg, T. Hanson, K. McFarland, E. Miller, H. Pembrook, R. Poirot, C. Rimmer, D. Ross, J. Shanley, T. Simmons, C. Still, T. Villars, B. Wemple, and S. Wilmot. 2009. Vermont's changing forests: key findings on the health of forested ecosystems from the Vermont Monitoring Cooperative. Vermont Monitoring Cooperative, South Burlington, VT. 40 pp. 6b (pdf)



Keeton, W.S. 2008. Evaluation of seedling mortality and protective strategies in riparian forest restoration. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 25:117-123.1 (pdf)

Foster, B. C., D. Wang, and W.S. Keeton. 2008. An exploratory, post-harvest comparison of ecological and economic characteristics of forest stewardship council certified and uncertified northern hardwood stands. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 26:171-191. 1 (pdf)

Manaras-Smith, K., W.S. Keeton, T.M. Donovan, and B. Mitchell. 2008. Stand-level forest structure and avian habitat: Scale dependencies in predicting occurrence in a heterogeneous forest. Forest Science 54:36-46.1 (pdf)

Smith, K.J., W.S. Keeton, M. Twery, and D. Tobi. 2008. Understory plant response to alternative forestry practices in northern hardwood-conifer forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38:1303-1318. 1 (pdf)

Warren, D.R., W.S. Keeton, C.E. Kraft. 2008. Application of the line-intercept method for estimating wood volume in forested headwater streams. Hydrobiologia 598:123-130. 1 (pdf)

North, M.P. and W.S. Keeton. 2008. Emulating natural disturbance regimes: an emerging approach for sustainable forest management. Pages 341-372 in: R. Lafortezza, J. Chen, G. Sanesi, and T. R. Crow (eds.). Patterns and Processes in Forest Landscapes - Multiple Use and Sustainable Management. Springer, The Netherlands. 3 (pdf)

Bihun, Y.M., W.S. Keeton, O. Stankiewicz, and M. Ceroni. 2008. Transboundary protected areas cooperation in the East Carpathian and Carpathian Biosphere Reserves. World Wide Fund for Nature, Vienna, Austria. 44 pp.6b (pdf)



Keeton, W.S., C.E. Kraft, and D.R. Warren. 2007. Mature and old-growth riparian forests: structure, dynamics, and effects on Adirondack stream habitats. Ecological Applications 17: 852-868.1 (pdf)

Keeton, W.S. 2007. Role of managed forestlands and models for sustainable forest management: perspectives from North America. George Wright Forum 24(3):38-53.1 (pdf)

Sullivan, M.P., M.C. Watzin, and W.S. Keeton. 2007. A riverscape perspective on habitat associations among riverine bird assemblages: implications for conservation. Landscape Ecology 22:1169-1186.1 (pdf)

Keeton, W.S, J.F. Franklin, and P.W. Mote. 2007. Climate variability, climate change, and western wildfire with implications for the suburban-wildland interface. Pages 223-255 in: A. Troy and R. Kennedy (eds.). Living on the Edge: Economic, Institutional and Management Perspectives on Wildfire Hazard in the Urban Interface. Advances in the Economics of Environmental Resources, Vol 6. Elsevier Sciences, New York, NY. 3 (pdf)

Keeton, W.S. 2007. Role of managed forestlands and models for sustainable forest management: perspectives from North America. Pages 73-87 in: Y. Tunytsya and I. Soloviy (eds.). Proceedings of the international conference on a Global Environmental Convention. Ukrainian National Forestry University, Sept. 28-29, 2006, L'viv, Ukraine. 5 (pdf)



Keeton, W.S. 2006. Managing for late-successional/old-growth characteristics in northern hardwood-conifer forests. Forest Ecology and Management 235: 129-142. 1 (pdf)

McKenny, H.C., W.S. Keeton, and T.M. Donovan. 2006. Effects of structural complexity enhancement on eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) populations in northern hardwood forests. Forest Ecology and Management 230: 186-196. 1 (pdf)

Keeton, W.S. and A. R. Troy. 2006. Balancing ecological and economic objectives while managing for late-successional forest structure. Pages 21-33 in: L. Zahoyska, editor. Ecologisation of economy as a key prerequisite for sustainable development. Proceedings of the international conference, Sept. 22 -23, 2005, Ukrainian National Forestry University, L'viv, Ukraine. 5 (pdf)



Keeton, W.S. and J.F. Franklin. 2005. Do remnant old-growth trees accelerate rates of succession in mature Douglas-fir forests? Ecological Monographs 75:103-118. 1 (pdf)

Keeton, W.S. 2005. Managing for old-growth structure in northern hardwood forests. Pages 107-117 in: C.E. Peterson and D.A. Maguire (eds.). Balancing ecosystem values: innovative experiments for sustainable forestry. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-635. 2 (pdf)

Keeton, W.S. 2005. Managing for old-growth structure in northern hardwood forests. Pages 6-11 in: K.P. Bennet (tech. ed.). Moving toward sustainable forestry: lessons from old-growth forests. Proceedings of the 6th eastern old-growth conference, Moultonborough, NH. University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension Natural Resource Network Report. 5 (pdf)

Keeton, W.S., C.E. Kraft, D.R. Warren, and A.A. Millward. 2005. Effects of old-growth riparian forests on Adirondack stream systems. Pages 39-43 in: K.P. Bennet (tech. ed.). Moving toward sustainable forestry: lessons from old-growth forests. Proceedings of the 6th eastern old-growth conference, Moultonborough, NH. University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension Natural Resource Network Report. 5 (pdf)

Keeton, W.S. 2005. Forest monitoring at the Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, Research Report. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, Woodstock, VT. 77 pp. 6b (pdf)



Keeton, W.S. and J.F. Franklin. 2004. Fire-related landform associations of remnant old-growth trees in mature Douglas-fir forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 2371-2381. 1 (pdf)



Mote, P.W., E.A. Parson, A.F. Hamlet, K.G. Ideker, W.S. Keeton, D. Lettenmaier, N. Mantua, E.L. Miles, D.W. Peterson, D.L. Peterson, R. Slaughter, and A.K. Snover. 2003. Preparing for climate change: the water, salmon, and forests of the Pacific Northwest. Climatic Change 61:45-88. 1 (pdf)



Franklin, J.F., T.A. Spies, R. Van Pelt, A. Carey, D. Thornburgh, D.R. Berg, D. Lindenmayer, M. Harmon, W.S. Keeton, D.C. Shaw, K. Bible, and J. Chen. 2002. Disturbances and the structural development of natural forest ecosystems with some implications for silviculture. Forest Ecology and Management 155:399-423. 1 (pdf)



Parson, E.A., P.W. Mote, A. Hamlet, N. Mantua, A. Snover, W.S. Keeton, E. Miles, D. Canning, and K. Gray Ideker. 2001. Potential impacts of climate variability and change on the Pacific Northwest. Chapter 9 in: National Assessment Synthesis Team (eds.). Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. 3 (pdf)

Keeton, W.S., A.M. Strong, D.R. Tobi, and S. Wilmot. 2001. Experimental test of structural complexity enhancement in northern hardwood-hemlock forests. Pages 33-40 in: J.M. Hagan (ed.). Forest Structure: A Multi-Layered Conversation. Proceedings of the Forest Information Exchange, Orono, Maine. Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences, Brunswick, ME. 5



Keeton, W.S. 2000. Occurrence and reproductive role of remnant old-growth trees in mature Douglas-fir forests, southern Washington Cascade Range. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Washington, Seattle, WA. 142 pp. (pdf)



Aplet, G.H. and W.S. Keeton. 1999. Application of historical range of variability concepts to biodiversity conservation. Pages 71-86 in: R. Baydack, H. Campa, and J. Haufler (eds.). Practical Approaches to the Conservation of Biological Diversity. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 313 pp. 3 (pdf)

Mote, P.W., W.S. Keeton, J.F. Franklin. 1999. Decadal variations in forest fire activity in the Pacific Northwest. Pages 155-156 in: Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Applied Climatology, American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA. 5 (pdf)

Mote, P., D. Canning, D. Fluharty, R. Francis, J. Franklin, A. Hamlet, M. Hersman, M. Holmberg, K. Gray-Ideker, W.S. Keeton, D. Lettenmaier, R. Leung, N Mantua, E. Miles, B. Noble, H. Parandvash, D.W. Peterson, A Snover, and S. Willard. 1999. Impacts of climate variability and change, Pacific Northwest. National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration, Office of Global Programs, and JISAO/SMA Climate Impacts Group, Seattle, WA. 109 pp. 6b (pdf)


Vogt, K.A., J.C. Gordon, J.P. Wargo, D.J. Vogt, H. Asbjornsen, P.A. Palmiotto, H. J. Clark, J.L. O'Hara, W.S. Keeton, T. Patel-Weynand, and E. Witten. 1997. Ecosystems: Balancing Science with Management. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y. 470 pp. (Also available in Mandarin Chinese). 3 (pdf)

Keeton, W.S. and G.H. Aplet. 1997. Ecosystem management in the Interior Columbia River Basin. The Wilderness Society, Seattle, WA. 45 pp. 6a (pdf)



H. Synge, Keeton, W.S., IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas (CNPPA), IUCN CNPPA Steering Committee, and IUCN Secretariat. 1996. A Regional Action Plan for Protected Areas in East Asia. IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas, East Asia. Gland, Switzerland. 78 pp. 6a (pdf)



McNeely, J.A. and W.S. Keeton. 1995. The interaction between biological and cultural diversity. Pages 25-37 in: B. Von Droste, H. Plachter, and M Rossley (eds.). Cultural Landscapes of Universal Value. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart and New York. 464 pp. 3 (pdf)

Nelson, C., J. Belsky, R. Brown, E. Frost, W.S. Keeton, P. Morrison, M. Scurlock, and G. Wooten. 1995. Key elements for ecological planning: management principles, recommendations, and guidelines for federal lands east of the Cascade Crest in Oregon and Washington, a report to the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. Columbia River Bioregion Campaign, Walla Walla, Washington. 113 pp. 6b (pdf)



Pimentel, D., L. McLaughlin, A. Zepp, B. Lakitan, T. Kraus, P. Kleinman, F. Vancini, W.J. Roach, E. Graap, W.S. Keeton, and G. Selig. 1993. Environmental and economic effects of reducing pesticide use (reprinted from BioScience). Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 46: 273-288. 1 (pdf)

Keeton, W.S. and W. Xianpu. 1993. An action plan for protected areas in East Asia. Pages 5-31 in: Proceedings of the 1st Conference on National Parks and Protected Areas of East Asia and 41th Working Session of the IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas, Beijing, China. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. 5



Pimentel, D., L. McLaughlin, A. Zepp, B. Lakitan, T. Kraus, P. Kleinman, F. Vancini, W.J. Roach, E. Graap, W.S. Keeton, and G. Selig. 1991. Environmental and economic effects of reducing pesticide use. BioScience 41: 402-409. 1 (pdf)

Pimentel, D., L. McLaughlin, A. Zepp, B. Lakitan, T. Kraus, P. Kleinman, F. Vancini, W.J. Roach, E. Graap, W.S. Keeton, and G. Selig. 1991. Environmental and economic effects of reducing pesticide use. Pages 679-718 in: D. Pimentel (ed.). Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, F.L. 3 (pdf)

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